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## SPM 2009 (question 5)

(a) Weight = mass x gravitational acceleration
(b) (i) (8.0-6.0) N = 2.0 N
(ii) Buoyant force @ upthrust on the metal block
(c) (i) 3 N
(ii) Weight of water displaced by metal block + weight of beaker
(d) (i) buoyant force = weight of water displaced
(ii) Archimedes principle
(e) The spring balance reading is unchanged
SPM 2005 (question 9)
(a) (i) density is defined as mass per unit volume of a substance
(ii) the boat submerges more in the river than in the sea
- The volume of river water displaced is more than the volume of sea water
displaced
- The mass of river water displaced is the same as the mass of sea water
displaced
- The buoyant force acting on the boat in figure 9.1 is the same as that acting
on the boat in figure 9.2.
- As the density of the water increases, the volume of water displaced
decreases and vice versa.
(iii) Archimedes principle
(b) When a submarine is floating partially above water, its ballast tanks are
only partially filled
with water and the weight of the submarine is equal to the buoyant force.
- When the ballast tanks are filled with sea water, the weight of the
submarine increases.
- This causes the submarine to sink into the sea water as its weight is greater
than the buoyant force.
(c)
Small
Big diameter

Air

(i)
The lead shot at the base lowers the centre of gravity of the hydrometer
Cylinder with a bigger diameter at the lower section
To enable the hydrometer to float upright in a liquid and not overturn
(ii)
The cylinder must have a small diameter on the upper section
A small reading scale can be incorporated
(iii)

## The cylinder must be long

The scale can be made bigger and cover a wide range of densities
(iv)
- The hydrometer is floated in a liquid with a known density, the level of the
liquid on the hydrometer stem is marked
- The difference in the liquid levels can be used to calibrate the stem of the
hydrometer
SPM 2010 (question 9)
(a) The weight of a body is the gravitational force acting on the body
(b) (i)
- The weight of father is bigger than the weight of the boy.
- The volume of water displaced by the father is bigger than the volume of
water displaced by the boy.
- The buoyant force that acts on the father is greater than that on the boy.
(ii)
(a) When the volume of water displaced increases, the buoyant force increases.
(b) When the weight of water displaced increases, the buoyant force increases.
(iii) Archimedes principle
(c)
- When the wooden block is submerged in water, the buoyant force is greater
than its weight.
- Hence, the buoyant force pushes the block upwards.
- This occurs until the block reaches the surface when the weight of water
displaced, i.e. the buoyant force decreases and becomes equal to the weight
of the block causing it to float.
(d) (i)
Streamline line shape to reduce water friction
(ii)
Use light material like bamboo to make raft float
(iii)
Larger size raft easier to accommodate participants
(iv)
Tie the bamboo in layers. Put a motor at the end of the raft to increase
the speed of the raft.