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Book1 Notes:

Unit 1
Client - highest level in SAP ERP hierarchy system; at
this lvl all specifications and data valid for all
organizations are entered to avoid duplication of data
entry; technically an independent unit with separate
master records and complete set of tables and data;
logging in requires (2)
- user master record
- client key
Company Code - minimum structure in FI; represents
an independent balancing/ legal accounting entity; 4
digit alpha numeric key; definition: (7) 4CCCCLA
- 4 char numeric code
- company name
- city
- country (now called Home)
- currency (now called Local Currency
- language
- address
Edit co. code (4) ACLC
- address
- country
- language key
- currency
Global Parameters: (3) CCF
- chart of accounts
- fiscal year
- company code defaults
Customizing tables: (2) GA
- GL Accounts (optional)
- account determination
Characters allowed for defining:
- business area: 4-digit alphanumeric
- segments: 10 characters
- companies - 6 characters (numberic or alphanumeric)
Important organizational units in finAct:
1. required CoPCo
- cost center - cost actg
- plant - asset actg
- company codes - required
2. optional
- profit center
- functional area
- business area
- segment
- company
Business area - represent separate areas of operation
within an organization and can be used across company
codes; balancing entities that can create their own set
of FS for external or internal purposes; NOT directly
assignable to company codes to enable evaluation of
transaction figures for each business area beyond the
boundaries of the company codes
Profit Center - evaluate results of operation; aim is to
provide an internal analysis of profits
Segment - IFRS 8, SFAS 31 requires reports on the
financial results of business/operating segments; info
here is used to make decisions on allocation of
resources and evaluation of performance
Company - used as basis for consolidation; may
contain one or more company codes
Functional area - cost of sales actg; expenes are
sorted acdg fxn (admin, sales, etc)

Controlling area - most important organizational

element; identifies self-contained organization structure
for which costs and revenues can be managed and
allocated; represents separate unit of cost accounting
(Segment - bigger, as in business segment, sa
controling area parang ipunan lang or cost pool so bale
more than one company code can be assigned to one
or more controlling areas, maraming pwedeng
panggalingan ung costs na naiipon don cross-company
code cost accounting yung tawag however only
possible lang if Same Operating Chart of Accounts and
Fiscal Year Variant
Unit 2
Standard system of SAP:
- leading ledger 0L (exactly 1 leading ledger ONLY)
- total tables FAGLFLEXT
- non-leading ledgers (parallel accounting) can be
defined using the ledger approach; here we have the
option of defininga different fiscal year
Components of chart of accounts: (7)
- Choa - KN
- ML
- Length of GL number (1 to 10)
- block indicator
- group choa (conso)
- controlling integration
Information for an account/ Choa segment contains:
(applies to all company codes)
- Account number
- Account name
- control fields
- conso fields
Text : Tid-Lang
Chnage layout of tab pages:
- number of tab pages
- title
- field groups required and their position
Can select layouts for:
- layouts for central processing
- processing in the chart of accounts
- company code specific area
Co. Code segment must be created to use one of the
accounts from the assigned chart of accounts in our
company code; Co. Code Segment: CTRL-FISH
- Currency
- Taxes
- Reconciliation accounts
- Line item display
- Field status group
- Interest calculation information
- Sort key
- House bank
Alternative account assignments: (4) PB-COPA-UD
- Profit center
- Business area
- Profitability segment of CO-PA
- User-defined field
Complete customer/ vendor account (3) CCS
- general data at the client level
- company code segment
- sales area segment/ purchasing organization segment
(client lvl, co code lvl, segment)
layout of master data screens same for (3) ATC

- account group specific control

- transaction dependent control
- company code dependent
Fields always required and cannot be changed:
- account currency
- field status group
Reconciliation accounts - GL accounts assigned to
business partner master records to record all
transactions in the subledger automatically
Accounts without LID - user can only view the
Accouns with LID - can view both the balance and
individual line items (LID - line item display)
LID should NOT be activated for: RRMT
- reconcilation accounts (SL na bahala dito)
- revenue accounts (may Sales Order Mngt. App na)
- material stock accounts (Purchasing mngt app na)
- tax accounts (docs are alrdy checked na when posted)
Alternative account assngments:
- Profit center
- business area
- profitability segment of CO-PA
- user-defined field
Customer/Vendor accounts segments: (3)
- client level : general data, accessible throughout the
whole org:
- company code level : contains company-specific data
+sales area segment/ purchasing org. segment
Master data records - can be maintained centrally for
all areas or separately for FinAct, Sales and
Distribution/Material Master
Account group in cust/vendor controls:
- number ranges of account
- status field in the master record
- one time vendor/cust
Special cust/ vendor: rarely business
transactions;one-time accounts
Factors affecting data screens:
- account-specific
- transaction-dependent
- company code-dependent
GL account number: (AZR/ NZL) ("newzealand")
- numeric: zeros to the left
- alphanumeric: zeros to the right
Options to control cost elements:
- no maintenance
- manual
- automatic
In defining COA you can:
- define CoaKey and its description
- assign a group account number for each GL account
w/c can then be used for cross-company code reporting
if the company codes use different CoaA
- choose language in which account descriptions are
maintained and set the length of the GL account
- blocked chard of accounts that is not yet complete
Group COA - used for company codes with different
operational COA
Country COA - used for company codes with the same
operational COA
Options for document splitting:
- manual entry
- programming (BAdl implem, FAGL_DERIVE_SEGMENT)

- defining substitution rules

- standard account assignment
External/ Internal number ranges - upto 16
Restrictions of Dual Control Principle:
- accounts not yet confirmed
- accounts to be confirmed by me
- accounts rejected
- customer/vendor
- company code
Forming an account - it is a combination of CoCd
segment and COA segment
Defined/Assigned at Client level:
- chart of accounts
- cust/vendor account number
- document type, posting key
Cust/Vendor number ranges CAN OVERLAP
Document numbers MUST NOT OVERLAP
Unit 3
In every document: (3)
- document number
- company code
- fiscal year
Control keys: (2)
- document type - doc header (4) Nr-Fs-At-Np [NFAN]
> number ranges of doc no (most impt)
> field status of doc header text and ref no
> account types permitted for postings (most
> whether invoices are posted with net
- posting key - line items
Elements of Document types (5):
- number ranges
- reverse document type
- account types permitted for postings
- required entry fields
- control data
Important Standard Document Types:
- DAR/KAP: D for AR, K for AP
- D-RZG : customer invoices, payments, credit memos
- K-RZGN : vendor invoices, payments, credit memos,
net invoices
- AB : general docs, allows postings to all account types
- SA : G/L account postings ("SAGL")
- RV : default doc - Sales order management ("Vsom")
- RE : default doc - Materials mngt ("REM")
- ZP : automatic postings - ("Z-auto")
Exchange rate purposes: EX:Pc-D-V
- posting and clearing
- exchange rate differences
- foreign currency valuation
RFDKAG00 - customer; RFKKAG00 - vendor (used to
run reports to check duplication or incompleteness)
Default values: (debit-credit)
- GL: 40-50
- Customer invoices: 01-11
- Vendor : 21-31
"+" - account type checked when periods are assigned
in the document header; this must be open; this is the
first check
tolerance group - maximum amt defined per
company code; upper limits for:

- total amt per doc

- amt per cust/ vendor
- cash disc. a user is able to grant
Special settings in Customizing necessary when:
- doc. no. ranges are not assigned to doc types for
entry view (entry - not assigned)
- doc. no. ranges are stored for GL view (GL-stored)
Gen rule - field status (FS):
- account-dependent FS for GL accts [A-GL]
- posting key-dependent FS for cust/vendor accts [PKCV]
ENJOY transactions:
- at the top of the screen, you can select from Park,
Post or Hold to complete the doc entry only if the
balance is zero
- you can still use standard transaction for entering
- you can select different fields or columns, change the
size and sequence of the columns and fields and even
copy line items in the Enjoy posting screen
2 views in financial accounting:
Entry view (total na); how it appears at SL
GL view (pwede maulit ung account); at GL
Splitting characteristics aka balancing char,
inherited in non-account-assigned posting line
Document splitting aka online split; ensures that
companies can create BS for desired objects
Splitting method 0000000012 default procedure
provided by SAP, usually copied to a client entry;
activated at client level, deactivated at company code
Inheritance Concept if an account assignment
object is unique in a document, it is inherited online in
all missing positions
Default Assignment Concept if no info is provided,
default value can be set automatically
Passive split docs being cleared are copied to the
clearing document without being changed
Active split individual distribution rules can be
created in customizing
Doc splitting char determines which objects doc
splitting is used for
Mandatory field extension of the field status for
accounts in which char cannot be entered during
document entry and for accounts uncontrolled by field
status; a check as to whether a business processequivalent business transaction variant
Splitting procedure total of all splitting rules of all
business transactions; defines how and under which
circumstances doc splits will be performed
Business transaction gen. breakdown of the actual
business processes that SAP provides and is assigned a
wide variety of item categories
Bus. Trans. Variant specific version of the
predefined business transaction provided by SAP and
the (technical) modelling of a real business process for
doc splitting
Item category technical map of the posted items;
describes items that appear within a doc/bus.trans.;
derived from GL account categories

Individual splitting rule defines which item

categories can/should be split and at the same time
defines which foundation can be used
Parameter ID allows users to set default values for
files whose value does not change very often
(minsan/rare magbago)
>>Areas to configure screens when using editing
Receipt entry hide na mga hindi kailangan!
Document display using the list viewer, can select
diff. display options
Open items line layout displays and posting options
for processing open items
>>Doc change rules criteria:
Account type cust/vendor accounts, GL accounts
Transaction class only used for special GL
transactions bill of exchange and down payment
Company code if blank, rule applies to every
company code
>>Conditions for changing field are predefined:
Posting period still open
Line item not yet cleared
Line item debit in cust.account, credit in
vendor (may laman pa)
Doc is not a credit memo for an invoice
Doc is not a credit memo from a down payment
Reversal of doc:
1. Normal reversal posting maglalagay lng ng
amt na opposite ng normal balance
2. Negative posting total muna tas sa baba
magma-minus; pre-req: co.code permits
negative posting and reversal reason must be
defined for negative reversal; used to perform
transfer postings of incorrect line items
-cannot reverse docs that contain cleared items, needs
to reset the doc first
Reversal reason explains the reversal, controls
whether reversal date is allowed to be different to the
original posting date
Terms of payment conditions agreed between bus.
partners for the payment of invoices; defines due date,
cash discount offered
Data needed by the system:
Baseline date: date from which due date is
Cash discount terms: walang kwenta ung
Cash disc percentage rate: percentage rate
used to calculate cash disc
>>Cash disc. Account used in gross procedure:
1. Cash discount expense account
2. Cash discount revenue account
>>Cash disc. Account used in net procedure:
1. Cash discount loss account
2. Cash discount clearing account
Default terms of payment depends on where invoice is
Financials company code
Sales order mngt sales area segment
Purch mngt purch organization segment
Invoice reference used to link credit memos to the
original invoice; enter V in this field the payment
terms if non-invoice related credit memos naman

Day limit calendar date which the terms of payment

are valid
Account type defines the SL in which terms of
payment can be used
Tax systems supported by SAP:
US Sales tax
Additional taxes (country specific)
Withholding tax
Two types of taxation can SAP can process
Taxes levied at national level uniformly
defined rates
Taxes levied at state/jurisdictional level
National regulations determine whether tax base is net
or gross
Output tax levied on net value of goods billed to the
cust; liability
Input tax levied on net invoice amt billed by the
vendor; receivable
Tax calculation procedure:
1. Sequence of steps
2. Tax types (condition types)
3. Account key/ transaction key covers
additional specifications and is used for the
automatic account determination for taxes
concerned, may predefined and standard
Jurisdiction code - combination of the codes of tax
authorities that tax movements of goods and use their
own tax rates (ex: TAXUSJ- standard tax calculation that
includes use of jurisdictional codes; TAXUSX used
when employing an external tax package
Tax code linked to (2) country key; combi of country
key and tax jurisdiction code
Tax postings tax calculated by the system are
usually posted via a separate line item to a special tax
account; this is the standard scenario
Tax type definition determines if the base amount is
percentage include or separate
Tax category <I ; O>
Properties of tax code define whether or not the
tax posted is an input or output tax
Post automatically only if not manually
Post without tax allowed without specifying a tax
Tax category:

Non-tax relevant postings

Cross-company code transaction involves two or
more company codes in one transaction; ccc-trans
number links these co. codes together
Central procurement purchases for other
Central payment pays for others
One co. sells goods to other co. codes
Use this functionality ONLY IN ONE of the ff:
Transaction is NOT tax relevant
Co. codes from a single taxable entity
Key date activation defines when CO-FI reconciliation
is possible with real-time integration
Unit 5

Open items incomplete transactions such as invoices

not yet paid; must be cleared before being considered
as completed then the resulting balance is zero;
clearing transactions ALWAYS create a clearing
>>Fields that program group together
- reconciliation account number
- currency
- special g/l indicator
- 5 freely defined criteria from doc. Header or line item
(ex: assignment field, reference number, etc)
>> Fields of accounts with same entries in automatic
clearing program groups:
- company code
- account type
- account number
- reconciliation account number
- currency
- special g/l indicator
>> Automatic clearing program does NOT clear:
- noted items
- statistical postings and certain special g/l transactions
relating to bills of exchange
- down payments can only be cleared if DP clearing
items of the same amount have already been posted
- items with withholding tax entries
Sort field - the system automatically fills the
assignment field for a line item when you post items
according to the sort field entry in the master record;
assignment field can be a combination of up to 4 fields
with a maximum of 18 characters
Line item sorting in the line item display and
clearing functions which is based on the assignment
field, parang nililist nya lang ung mga reference
number ng transaction na nangyari so kunwari sa fin
actg eto ref number niya, tapos sa sales order naman
eto ref number nya You can define which numbers
(P.O, order, delivery or billing docu number) yung
gagamitin na ref
Text field optional description item, starts with * to
enable the text to be printed on external
Distribute age/auto search functions
speed up the selection process
Post Incoming Payments process open items,
screen lists all of the unassigned open items
Manual payment transaction that clears an open
item, typically an invoice; processed in 3 steps:
1. Data is entered in the doc. Header
2. Open items are selected to be cleared
3. Transaction is saved
enter >> select >> save
Incoming payment typically used in A/R, clears an
open debit amount
Outgoing payment typically used in A/P, clears an
open credit amount
*Bank charges entered in the bank data are
automatically posted to the GL account
* Users can reset clearing for individual doc, when you
reset clearing, the clearing data is removed from the
>>3 types of tolerances:
1. Employee

2. GL account
3. Customer/vendor
Tolerance Group defined by a group key, company
code, and a currency code
Group key four char alphanumeric key
(blank) standard tolerance group, required
minimum tolerance group
Specifications for permitted payment differences
can be found in both customer/vendor and employee
group; controls the automatic posting of cash discount
adjustment and unauthorized customer deductions
Payment differences normally occurs in clearing
items; if within tolerances posted either as cash
discount adjustment or unauthorized deduction; outside
tolerances process manually
Reason code entered if the reason for a payment
difference is known; can be assigned to (3):
- difference postings
- partial payments
- residual item
>>Additional optional functions (reason codes can be
used to analyze and post process payment differences)
- control of the type of payment notice which is sent to
the customer
- control of the account where a residual item is posted
- automatic posting of a residual item to a specified GL
- exclusion of residual items from credit limit checks
because they are disputed
Exchange rate differences fluctuations; automatically
posted as realized gains or losses; realized difference is
stored in the cleared line item
*All reconciliation accounts and all GL accounts with
open item transactions in foreign currency must be
assigned revenue/expense accounts for realized losses
and gains; one GL account can be assigned:
- to all currencies and currency types
- per currencies and currency type
- per currency
- per currency type
Cash journal tool for managing cash that supports
posting cash receipts and payment; one of the ENJOY
business transactions that you can process on a single
Cash journal document can contain several items with
different tax codes and/or account assignments
relevant to cost accounting; when the CJD is forwarded
to FinAct, only ONE accounting document is created
No doc. No. assignment;
discretion ni user kung
document no. via doc.
ano name or number na
Type (external
issave as
assignment allowable
Saves temporary data to
Saves incomplete data
be continued later on
without running
extensive input checks
Cannot be viewed in
Can be viewed in
account display
account display
Cannot be
Can be viewed/change
viewed/change by other
by other users

Does not require

For the sake of saving
lang talaga and for the
user himself lang; not
taken into account for
evaluations/ reports

Has to be approved (not

sure if required talaga
pero may inaapprove eh)
Recognized by the
system as parang
potential document tho
you have to convert it pa
so reports can use
parked data

Parked data available to the system for real-time

evaluations; allowed for AR, AP, GL accounts and assets
(however, receipts lang pwede sa assets); not allowed
for down payments; cannot update transaction figures
except cash management; does not allow substitution
you have to turn them into accounting docs first; tax
amounts calculated in parked docs can be used to
assert claims with regard to tax in due time at the tax
>> Usage of document parking:
Temporary storage of input values when
parking documents
Helpful for displaying multilevel models when
parking docs (for ex: dual-control and approval
Work assignment using work lists (streamlining/
acceleration of workflows)
>>Ways of using doc parking:
Customer accounts (invoices and credit memo)
Vendor accounts (invoices and credit memo)
GL accounts (GL account postings)
*Parang naconvert si parked doc to official doc upon
posting so nawawala si Parked doc eventually tapos
mauupdate na ung transaction figure. The doc number
of the parked doc becomes the number of the posted
*You can delete parked documents that you do not
want to post. Note that the document number of the
deleted document cannot be reused in such cases. The
document has status Z: Parked document that was
*Document parking is linked to the account display and
reporting functions in Financial Accounting. Numerous
reports can evaluate parked documents.
*You can park cross-company code transactions, pag
magppark 1 parking doc lang pero upon posting dun na
2 or depende basta tig-iisang company code
Y: update in trans figure
(account balance)
N: deletion; reversal lang
entry lang
Y: GAAP related changes

Not relevant

SAP Process dimensions (4)

Who process owners responsible for
al structure
the work to be performed
When? In what order? Circumstances
What work to be performed
implemented to perform the work

Graphic definition tool saves the process to be

modelled as a workflow saved in the system as
Workflow manager system that performs all the
tasks that were conceived in when the process was
Workflow right work at the right time for the right
>> SAP Bus. Workflow 3-tier architecture
-provides the foundation for a high degree of flexibility;
based on an object-oriented structure
Business object repository sequence of individual
steps (right time) of the right work for the right
Workflow builder tool used to maintain process
Workflow definition business process; its essential
elements are single-step tasks
Event-driven process chain (EPC) used to display
the process
Single-step tasks represent the SAP functions from a
business point of view; uses precisely one method
(single precise)
Objects defined in object repository provided by SAP;
object methods:
Represent SAP functions from the view of the
business object (technical view for example,
create, delete, change)
Provide uniform, transparent interface for SAP
functions (transactions, function modules,
Are used to encapsulate functions (means
*The processors responsible for a specific activity in the
workflow are defined either by their assignment to an
object of the organizational structure or by means of a
Rules determines the responsible processors
dynamically, that is independently of information that is
only available at runtime
Triggering event usually initiates workflows; used to
display the changes in status of objects within the
system; like methods they are defined in the object
repository for each object type; events are triggered in
the respective applications
>>Workflow-related tasks: (7)
1. Posting invoices
2. Releasing purchase requisitions
3. Changing material masters
4. Approving leave
5. Creating customer accounts
6. Deleting purchase orders
7. Creating requirement coverage requests via
the internet
Tasks represent steps of the business process;
process you want to model must be broken down into
individual tasks during the definition; definition of the
workflow determines the tasks and the order in which
they are to be carried in the process; each task must be

assigned possible processors or a group of employees

at your company who come into question for carrying
out the respective task
Workflow builder main toll of the web flow engine;
allows workflow definitions to be created, changed,
tested and displayed
Put back pushbutton can disable the reserved status
of the work item which sets the work item status to
Ready and makes it accessible to all selected
Three screen areas:
Select work items to
tree/ list
(left side workflow started and
(top right)

Work item

from the system are
folders can be used
for finding overdue
work items or missed
selected from the
work list

lang ng items
na gagawin/

Display lang

Web flow engine determines the recipients of the

work item; all selected recipients can view the work
item and perform it at their business workplace; 1 user
can perform the work and kapag kinuha na niya di na
pwede sa iba.
Workflow variants can be created for document
parking in Customizing in FI, whether the document
release is supposed to be active is specified here
together with the minimum amount for which this is
*Company codes can be assigned workflow variants;
walang mre-release na doc if hindi naka-assign sa
workflow variant ung isang company code
*Workflow variant and corresponding company code
must have the same currency
Release group determines the release approval
path, if non may initial release group na parang default.
Sinasabi non kung 1) sub workflows initiated by
releasing the amount and 2) who is to release based
naman sa release approval path and particular amount
Sub workflows initiated by releasing the amount and
who is to release determined by the release approval
path and the particular amount; if no release group is
defined the initial release group is then used for access;
by default subworkflows are supplies as workflow
templates for reference
First subworkflow (1 lvl
Second (2 lvl)
Third (3 lvl)

User can release the doc

Principle of dual-control
Triple control