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" (Essential Husserl, 248) "If we have become attentive to the point of view of 'operation' (with laws of operation in which, mathematically speaking, 'existential propositions' are implicit), we shall naturally chooses the concept of operation as a guide in our investigation of forms; we shall have to conduct this research in such a way that it leads to an exhibition of the fundamental operations and their laws, and to the ideal construction of the infinity of possible forms according to these laws" (Essential Husserl, 248). A note on syntax: For the purposes of this paper, Ø is synonymous with =.
The Geometric Pattern of Perception Theorems
Visualization, Surfaces, and Geometry I. Math for Transforming a Circle into a Cone
by Parker Emmerson
2
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
When a sector of a circle is collapsed (removed), we may "fold up" the resulting shape into a cone. The parameters are related by the following theorem : Theorem 1 When a sector of angle q is removed from a circle of radius r and the resulting shape is folded into a cone, then the base of the cone has
Hr q L 2p
radius r1 given by r1 = r 
; and height h, given by h =
r2  r1 2 = r Sin[b]
Proof. The circumference of the initial circle is 2 p r and the wedge removed has an arc length r q. Therefore, the remaining circumference is of length r (2 p  q), and after the fold, this is the circumference of the base of the cone. Establishing the circumference of the base of the cone, from the equation, q r = 2 p r  2 p r1 , we calculate that its radius r1 is to r rq 2p 2 p rr q 2p
, which simplifies
. Thus, we have proved the first part of the theorem.
To find the height of the cone, h, we apply the Pythagorean theorem to a right triangle formed between the apex of the cone, the center of the base, and a point on the circumference of the base. This gives h = r2  r1 2 = r Sin[b], where b is the angle formed by the slant of the cone and the base of the cone. The initial radius is always equal to the slant of the cone, and the height of the cone is always orthogonal to the center of the base of the cone. Lemma 1 The height of the cone can be caluclated in terms of r and q. Proof. q r = 2 p r  2 p r1 h= r 2  r1 2 Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L
qr=2pr2p
Solving this equation we find that, 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
::h Ø 
>, :h Ø
>>
Lemma 2 The angle q can be calculated in terms of r and h. Proof
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
3
SolveBh ==
2p r 2
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p r r h r2
4 2 2
, qF
2 p r2 + r4 r2 h2 r2
::q Ø
>, :q Ø
>>
Lemma 3 The initial radius is a function of q and h. 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p 2ph 4pqq Lemma 4
2
SolveB
ã h, rF 2ph 4pqq
2
::r Ø 
>, :r Ø
>>
The height of the cone can be calculated in terms of only r and q, thus b is a function of q alone.
Proof. Since we have shown that q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 and r1 Ø r2  h2 , we can substitute the expression for r1 , calculated from the Pythagorean theorem in terms of the height of the cone and the initial radius of the circle, into the expression for q r in terms of the change in circumference of the initial circle to the circle that is the base of the cone into which the circle was transformed. qr=2pr2p equation, Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L , thus, h =
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p
= (r Sin[b]). From
2ph 4 p qq
2
= r, we note that: r =
2 p r Sin@bD 4 p qq2
. So we solve the
SolveBr ==
2 p r Sin@bD 4pqq
2
, bF
::b Ø ArcSinB
Lemma 5
H4 p  qL q 2p
F>>
The height of the cone can be calculated in terms of only r and q, thus q is a function of b alone.
Proof. Since we have shown that q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 and r1 Ø r2  h2 , we can substitute the expression for r1 , calculated from the Pythagorean theorem in terms of the height of the cone and the initial radius of the circle, into the expression for q r in terms of the change in circumference of the initial circle to the circle that is the base of the cone into which the circle was transformed. qr=2pr2p equation, Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L , thus, h =
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p
= (r Sin[b]). From
2ph 4 p qq2
= r, we note that: r =
2 p r Sin@bD 4 p qq2
. So we solve the
SolveBr ==
2 p r Sin@bD 4pqq
2
, qF
::q Ø 2 p 
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
>, :q Ø 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
>>
Lemma 6 The initial radius can be calculated purely in terms of the angle q. Proof. From Lemma 1, the height of the cone has been solved in terms of the transformation. That expression for the height divided by the initial radius is set equal to the sine of b. Solving that equation yields an expression for b that includes r. This expression for b is then set equal to the expression found from Lemma 5. Sin@bD = h r = 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 r2p = 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 4 p2 r H4 p  qL q F = ArcSinB 2p F = r H4 p  qL q 4 p2
b Ø ArcSinB
4 p r q  r q2 4 p2
SolveBArcSinB
4 p r q  r q2 4 p2
H4 p  qL q F == ArcSinB 2p F, rF
4
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
::r Ø
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
>> A note about time passing like a clock.
The elapse of one unit of time, t, can be expressed by a constant function of the angle q. The simplest expression is t (seconds) = because one unit of time is equal to one revolution of q through a circle. Proof. q r = 2 p r  2 p (r  r t) yields t =
q 2p
q
2p
; q = k t , where k is 2p,
.
Theorem 2 When we designate that a single unit of time passes per revolution of the angle through the total number of radians in a circle, instantaneous velocity through the distance of the height of the cone can be found by taking the first derivative of the expression for that distance, which is in terms of r and q, with respect to t =
h
J
q
H2 p L
q
2p
. There is also a velocity through the height of the cone, which is equal to wavelength times frequency = l ƒ =
considered the average velocity through the height of the cone. Under the condition that one unit of time passes with one revolution of the circle,
N
these two velocities are equal to each other at the position where a 306090 triangle is formed between the apex, center of the base of the cone, and point on the circumference of the circle of the base of the cone. Proof. To prove this, we can substitute r Sin@bD for the height of the cone in the expression of velocity = ((2 p h)/q ) and find a real and two complex solutions for theta in terms of b , thus from Lemma 4, we can solve for b exactly. Instantaneous Velocity = „h „t = „ „h
q H2 pL
= DB
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, tF = DBk
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, qF = DB2 p
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, qF = 2
4 p r2  2 r2 q 4 p r2 q  r2 q2
Average Velocity = Hh ê Hq ê 2 pLL Instantaneous Velocity = 2
SolveB
2 4 p r2 2 r2 q 4 p r2 qr2 q2 2ph q
4 p r2  2 r2 q 4 p r2 q  r2 q2
= Average Velocity =
2ph q
==
, qF
2 p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
1ê3
::q Ø
4p 3
+
4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 6 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
3
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6 3 r2
1ê3

>,
1ê3
:q Ø
4p 3

J1+Â
3 N I4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 M 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
1ê3
J1Â
3 N p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
3 3 r2
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
+
>,
1ê3
12 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3
:q Ø
4p 3

J1Â
3 N I4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 M 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
1ê3
J1+Â
3 N p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
3 3 r2
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
+
>>
12 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3
k I4 p r2  2 r2 qM SolveB 4p 4pr qr q
2 2 2
==
k r Sin@bD q
, qF
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
5
::q Ø
4p 3 2 3
6 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3
3 3 2
4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
1ê3 6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6 3 N I4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M 3
>,
:q Ø
4p 3
J1 + Â + 12 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3
3 3 2
p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
6
2
6
4
6
6
1ê3

1 3 :q Ø
1Â
3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 J1  Â
3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3
>,
4p 3
3 N I4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+ 12 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3
3 3 2

1 3
1+Â
3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3
>>
The real solution for q, solved from equating the instantaneous velocity to the average velocity, can be equated with the real solution for the expression for q from Lemma 4 to yield an exact solution for b that tells us that when these solutions for theta are equal, a 306090 triangle is formed between the azimuth of the cone, the point on the base of the cone and the center of the base of the cone. SolveB 4p 3 6 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3 3
3 3 2
4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
1ê3 6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+
2 3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
== 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
, bF
p p ::b Ø  >, :b Ø >> 3 3 We know that the height of the cone is perpendicular to the center of the base of the cone, so this proves a 306090 triangle, because the sum of the angles of the triangle must be 180 degrees or p radians. Lemma 7 We can show that b = Proof. H4 p  qL q ArcSinB 2p F=b
H4 pqL q 2p
p
3
, thus we can show that there are two solutions to q at which this occurs.
SolveBArcSinB
F ==
p 3
, qF
88q Ø p<, 8q Ø 3 p<< Lemma 8 We can show can show that the position at which instantaneous rate of change of the height of the cone with respect to theta equals average rate of change of the height of the cone, 'per theta measure,' at ::b Ø ArcSinB Proof.
4 p2 q+4 p q2 q3 2p 4 p+q
F>, :b Ø ArcSinB
4 p2 q+4 p q2 q3 2p 4 p+q
F>>.
6
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
SolveBq ==
4p 3
6 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3 3
3 3 2
4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
1ê3 6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+
2 3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6 4 p2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
, bF
::b Ø ArcSinB
4 p2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
F>, :b Ø ArcSinB
F>>
Theorem 3 The "innate velocity," v, within the Lorentz transformation can be solved for in terms of the system of the circle transforming into a cone. If
J
q
H2 p L
N
r is multiplied by the Lorenz transformation, then it measures the distance in the prime system, denoted by r '. If t ' equals
, then the quantity r q
1
v2 c2
= q ' r '. We are only dealing with algebraic forms and the solutions necessitated by them. Logical, algebraic, reasoning will be given why, when using the exact speed of light, 2.99792458 (108 ) meters per second, the units of the speed of light can be ignored for the purposes of calculation and computation. This theorem states that, although, normal algebra would require the speed of light as a quantity to cancel out, valid expressions for the solutions for the intrinsic velocity, v, can be found in terms of h, r, and q, or q and b, depending on the expression used for the height of the cone. Proof. c = 2.99792458 I108 M meters per second
r' = r J t' =
1q H2 pL
v2 c2 N
1q' 2p
v2 c2
t' =
2 p t' = q ' q' = q
1Therefore,
v2 c2
r'*q' =
q
r
v
2
1
v2 c2
1
c2
q
r
v2 c2
1
v2 c2
=rq
1
r ' * q ' = r q = 2 p r  2 p r1 = 2 p r  2 p
r^2  h^2
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
7
SolveBr q == 2 p r  2 p 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
r ^ 2  h ^ 2 , hF 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
::h Ø 
>, :h Ø
>>
SolveBr ' q ' == 2 p r  2 p r£ q£
r ^ 2  h ^ 2 , hF r£ q£ 4 p r  r£ q£ 2p
r£ q£
::h Ø 
4 p r  r£ q£ 2p
>, :h Ø
>>
The argument follows modus ponens, saying that, through commutation, r ' q ' = q r, therefore h =
4 p rr£ q£ 2p
=
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p
r h= r£ q£ 4 p r  r£ q£ 2p =
1
v2 c2
q 1v2 c2
4pr r
1
v2 c2
q 1v2 c2
2p
=
rq
4prrq 2p
where c is its numeric value of the speed of light, its units being shown to cancel out. 1v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL
2
1ã 1
1ã 1
v2 HcL2 v2 HcL2
1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2
1SolveB 188<<
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2
1ã 1
v2 HcL2 v2 HcL2
, metersF
1SolveB 188<<
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2
1ã 1
v2 HcL2 v2 HcL2
, secondF
1SolveB 188<<
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2
1ã 1
v2 HcL2 v2 HcL2
, vF
8
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
1SolveB 1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2
2
1ã 1
v2 HcL2 v2 HcL2
, cF
SolveATrue, 2.99792 µ 108 E
r
1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 1
q
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2
4prrq
r
1
v2 HcL2
q 1v2 HcL2
4prrq
2p
= H1L
2p
Logically, the units of the speed of light will cancel out, therefore, their relationship will be set equal to one and taken out of the equation for the purposes of computational calculation.
r SolveB metersF 8<
Meters cancel out.
1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 1
q
v2 Ic ImetersësecondMM
2
4p rrq ã h,
2p
r SolveB secondF 8<
Seconds cancel out.
1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 1
q
v2 Ic ImetersësecondMM2
4p rrq ã h,
2p
r SolveB 8<
The numeric c cancels out.
1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 1
q
v2 Ic ImetersësecondMM2
4p rrq ã h, cF
2p
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
9
r SolveB
1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 1
q
v2 Ic ImetersësecondMM2
4p rrq ã h, rF
2p 2ph 4pqq
2
::r Ø 
>, :r Ø
2ph 4pqq
2
>>
Radius yields the result from Lemma 3.
r SolveB 8<
Velocity cancels out.
1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 1
q
v2 Ic ImetersësecondMM2
4p rrq ã h, vF
2p
r SolveB 8<
1
v2 HcL2
q 1v2 HcL2
4p rrq ã h, vF
2p
Velocity cancels out. Everything cancels out. Only when using the exact speed of light, in scientific notation, can solutions to the innate velocity be found. We set the speed of light equal to its numeric value for the purpose of making computations, dropping the units, because in the expression for the height of the cone, they would cancel out anyway. It should be noted that this is necessary for computing the function of the velocity and that the exact speed of light is to be used as well as that the numeric value of the speed of light has to be in the form of scientific notation in order to find results to this equation. Theorem 3 Continued From the expression of the height of the cone of Lemma 1, with the Lorentz transformations implicitly expressed, we can solve for the velocity within the Lorenz coefficient in terms of the height of the cone, the initial radius, and the angle, q when using the exact speed of light in scientific notation and only when it is its exact (or extremely closely approximated) value expressed in scientific notation. Proof.
c := 2.99792458 * H10 ^ 8L
HvL2 c2 1q
HvL2 c2
r SolveB 1.
1
4prrq ã h, vF
2p
::v Ø 
3.54814 µ 1018 h2  1.12941 µ 1018 r2 q + 8.98755 µ 1016 r2 q2 39.4784 h2  12.5664 r2 q + r2 q2
>,
:v Ø
3.54814 µ 1018 h2  1.12941 µ 1018 r2 q + 8.98755 µ 1016 r2 q2 39.4784 h2  12.5664 r2 q + r2 q2
>>
Theorem 3 Continued From the expression of the height of the cone, from Lemma 1 with the Lorentz transformations implicitly expressed, we can solve for the velocity within the Lorenz coefficient in terms of q and b.
10
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
Theorem 3 Continued From the expression of the height of the cone, from Lemma 1 with the Lorentz transformations implicitly expressed, we can solve for the velocity within the Lorenz coefficient in terms of q and b.
r SolveB 1.
1
HvL2 c2
q 1HvL2 c2
4p rrq ã r Sin@bD, vF
2p
::v Ø 
 1.12941 µ 1018 q + 8.98755 µ 1016 q2 + 3.54814 µ 1018 Sin@bD2  12.5664 q + q + 39.4784 Sin@bD
2 2
>,
:v Ø
 1.12941 µ 1018 q + 8.98755 µ 1016 q2 + 3.54814 µ 1018 Sin@bD2  12.5664 q + q + 39.4784 Sin@bD
2 2
>>
II. The Visualizations of Math for Transforming a Circle into a Cone
by Parker Emmerson
When a sector of a circle is removed, we may "fold up" the resulting shape into a cone. The parameters are related by the following theorem : Theorem 1 When a sector of angle q is removed from a circle of radius r and the resulting shape is folded into a cone, then the base of the cone has
Hr q L 2p
radius r1 given by r1 = r 
; and height h, given by h =
r2  r1 2 =r Sin[b]
Proof. The circumference of the initial circle is 2 p r and the wedge removed has an arc length r q. Therefore, the remaining circumference is of length r (2 p  q), and after the fold, this is the circumference of the base of the cone. Establishing the circumference of the base of the cone, from the equation, q r = 2 p r  2 p r1 , we calculate that its radius r1 is to r rq 2p 2 p rr q 2p
, which simplifies
. Thus, we have proved the first part of the theorem.
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
11
Establishing the circumference of the base of the cone, from the equation, q r = 2 p r  2 p r1 , we calculate that its radius r1 is to r rq 2p
2 p rr q 2p
, which simplifies
. Thus, we have proved the first part of the theorem.
To find the height of the cone, h, we apply the Pythagorean theorem to a right triangle formed between the apex of the cone, the center of the base, and a point on the circumference of the base. This gives h = r2  r1 2 = r Sin[b], where b is the angle formed by the slant of the cone and the base of the cone. The initial radius is always equal to the slant of the cone, and the height of the cone is always orthogonal to the center of the base of the cone.
r1 = r 
rq 2p rq 2p , 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
(1)
RevolutionPlot3DBr 
q r = 2 p r  2 p r1
(2)
12
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
Plot3D@2 p r  2 p r1 , 8r,  1, 1<, 8r1 ,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticD
r=
2p
H4 p q L q H4 p q L q
RevolutionPlot3DB2 p
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
 2 p r1 , 8r1 ,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
13
RevolutionPlot3DB2 p 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
 2p r
rq 2p
, 8r,  1, 1<,
PlotB q
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
30 25 20 15 10 5
, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
10
5
5
10
h = r Sin@bD =
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
Sin@bD
(3)
14
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
RevolutionPlot3D@r Sin@bD, 8r,  1, 1<, 8b,  p, p<D
SphericalPlot3DB
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
Sin@bD , 8q,  4 p, 4 p<, 8b,  p, p<F
h=
r2  r1 2
(4)
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
15
Plot3DB
r2  r1 2 , 8r,  1, 1<, 8r1 ,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
RevolutionPlot3DB
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
2
 r1 2 , 8r1 ,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
Lemma 1 The height of the cone can be caluclated in terms of r and q. Proof. qr=2pr2pr h= r 2  r1 2 Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L
1
qr=2pr2p
h=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
16
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
qr = 2pr2p
Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L , 8r,  1, 1<, 8h,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
(5)
Plot3DB2 p r  2 p
h=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
(6)
Plot3DB
, 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
17
ExportB"height.3Ds", Plot3DB AxesLabel Ø AutomaticFF height.3Ds 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
h=
(7)
RevolutionPlot3DB
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
Lemma 2 The angle q can be calculated in terms of r and h. Proof SolveBh ==
2p r 2
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p r r h r2
4 2 2
, qF
2 p r2 + r4 r2 h2 r2
::q Ø
>, :q Ø
>>
2 p r2 + q=
r4  r2 h2 r
2
(8)
18
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
2 p r2 + Plot3DB
r4  r2 h2 r2 , 8r,  2, 2<, 8h,  2, 2<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
2 p r2 ! q=
r4  r2 h2 r
2
(9)
2 p r2 Plot3DB:
r4  r2 h2 r2 ,
2 p r2 +
r4  r2 h2 r2 >, 8r,  2, 2<,
8h,  2, 2<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
Lemma 3 The initial radius is a function of q and h. 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
SolveB
ã h, rF
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
19
::r Ø 
2ph 4 p q  q2
>, :r Ø
2ph 4 p q  q2
>>
r=
2ph 4 p q  q2 (10)
RevolutionPlot3DB
2ph 4p qq
2
, 8h,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
Lemma 4
The height of the cone can be calculated in terms of only r and q, thus b is a function of q alone.
Proof. Since we have shown that q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 and r1 Ø r2  h2 , we can substitute the expression for r1 , calculated from the Pythagorean theorem in terms of the height of the cone and the initial radius of the circle, into the expression for q r in terms of the change in circumference of the initial circle to the circle that is the base of the cone into which the circle was transformed. qr=2pr2p equation, Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L , thus, h =
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p
= (r Sin[b]). From
2ph 4 p qq2
= r, we note that: r =
2 p r Sin@bD 4 p qq2
. So we solve the
SolveBr ==
2 p r Sin@bD 4pqq
2
, bF
::b Ø ArcSinB
H4 p  qL q 2p F
F>>
b = ArcSinB
H4 p  qL q 2p
(11)
20
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
RevolutionPlot3DBArcSinB
H4 p  qL q 2p
F, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
r=
2 p r Sin@bD 4 p q  q2 (12)
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
21
ContourPlot3DB
2 p Hr Sin@bDL 4 p q  q2
, 8b,  2 p, 2 p<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<, 8r,  10, 10<,
AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
Lemma 5 yields,
The height of the cone can be calculated in terms of only r and q, thus q is a function of b alone.
Proof. Since we have shown that q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 and r1 Ø r2  h2 , we can substitute the expression for r1 , calculated from the Pythagorean theorem in terms of the height of the cone and the initial radius of the circle, into the expression for q r in terms of the change in circumference of the initial circle to the circle that is the base of the cone into which the circle was transformed. qr=2pr2p equation, Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L , thus, h =
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p
= (r Sin[b]). From
2ph 4 p qq2
= r, we note that: r =
2 p r Sin@bD 4 p qq2
. So we solve the
22
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
Proof. Since we have shown that q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 and r1 Ø r2  h2 , we can substitute the expression for r1 , calculated from the Pythagorean theorem in terms of the height of the cone and the initial radius of the circle, into the expression for q r in terms of the change in circumference of the initial circle to the circle that is the base of the cone into which the circle was transformed. qr=2pr2p equation, Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L , thus, h =
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p
= (r Sin[b]). From
2ph 4 p qq2
= r, we note that: r =
2 p r Sin@bD 4 p qq2
. So we solve the
SolveBr ==
2 p r Sin@bD 4pqq
2
, qF
::q Ø 2 p 
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
>, :q Ø 2 p + p2  p2 Sin@bD2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
>>
(13)
RevolutionPlot3DB2 p 
, 8r,  1, 1<, 8b,  p, p<F
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
23
RevolutionPlot3DB2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
, 8b,  p, p<F
RevolutionPlot3DB:2 p + 8b,  p, p<F
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
, 2 p
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
>,
Lemma 6 The initial radius can be calculated purely in terms of the angle q. Proof. From Lemma 1, the height of the cone has been solved in terms of the transformation. That expression for the height divided by the initial radius is set equal to the sine of b. Solving that equation yields an expression for b that includes r. This expression for b is then set equal to the expression found from Lemma 5.
24
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
Proof. From Lemma 1, the height of the cone has been solved in terms of the transformation. That expression for the height divided by the initial radius is set equal to the sine of b. Solving that equation yields an expression for b that includes r. This expression for b is then set equal to the expression found from Lemma 5.
Sin@bD =
4 p r q  r q2 4 p2
h r
=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 r2p
H4 p  qL q F
=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 4 p2 r
=
r H4 p  qL q 4 p2
b Ø ArcSinB
F = ArcSinB
2p
SolveBArcSinB
4 p r q  r q2 4 p2 >>
F == ArcSinB
H4 p  qL q 2p
F, rF
::r Ø
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
r=
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q 2p H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
(14)
RevolutionPlot3DB
, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
25
Sin@bD =
r H4 p  qL q 4 p2 r H4 p  qL q 4 p2 , 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
(15)
RevolutionPlot3DB
2p
PlotB
H4 pqL q H4 pqL q
H4 p  qL q , 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
1.0
4 p2
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
10
5
5
10
b = ArcSinB
4 p r q  r q2 4 p2
F
(16)
26
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
Plot3DBArcSinB
4 p r q  r q2 4 p2
F, 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
r=
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q 2p H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
(17)
RevolutionPlot3DB
, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
27
A note about time passing like a clock.
The elapse of one unit of time, t, can be expressed by a constant function of the angle q. The simplest expression is t (seconds) = because one unit of time is equal to one revolution of q through a circle. Proof. q r = 2 p r  2 p (r  r t) yields t Ø
q 2p
q
2p
; q = k t , where k is 2p,
.
Theorem 2 When we designate that a single unit of time passes per revolution of the angle through the total number of radians in a circle, instantaneous velocity through the distance of the height of the cone can be found by taking the first derivative of the expression for that distance, which is in terms of r and q, with respect to t =
h
J
q
H2 p L
q
2p
. There is also a velocity through the height of the cone, which is equal to wavelength times frequency = l ƒ =
considered the average velocity through the height of the cone. Under the condition that one unit of time passes with one revolution of the circle,
N
these two velocities are equal to each other at the position where a 306090 triangle is formed between the apex, center of the base of the cone, and point on the circumference of the circle of the base of the cone. Proof. To prove this, we can substitute r Sin@bD for the height of the cone in the expression of velocity = ((2 p h)/q ) and find a real and two complex solutions for theta in terms of b , thus from Lemma 4, we can solve for b exactly. Instantaneous Velocity = „h „t = „ „h
q H2 pL
= DB
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, tF = DBk
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, qF = DB2 p
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, qF = 2
4 p r2  2 r2 q 4 p r2 q  r2 q2
Average Velocity = Hh ê Hq ê 2 pLL Instantaneous Velocity = 2
SolveB
2 4 p r2 2 r2 q 4 p r2 qr2 q2 2ph q
4 p r2  2 r2 q 4 p r2 q  r2 q2
= Average Velocity =
2ph q
==
, qF
2 p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
1ê3
::q Ø
4p 3
+
4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 6 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
3
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6 3 r2
1ê3

>,
1ê3
:q Ø
4p 3

J1+Â
3 N I4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 M 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
1ê3
J1Â
3 N p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
3 3 r2
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
+
>,
1ê3
12 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3
:q Ø
4p 3

J1Â
3 N I4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 M 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
1ê3
J1+Â
3 N p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
3 3 r2
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
+
>>
12 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3
28
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
::q Ø
4p 3
+
4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 6 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
1ê3
2 p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
3
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6 3 r2
1ê3

>,
1ê3
:q Ø
4p 3

J1+Â
3 N I4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 M 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
1ê3
J1Â
3 N p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
3 3 r2
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
+
>,
1ê3
12 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3
:q Ø
4p 3

J1Â
3 N I4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 M 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
1ê3
J1+Â
3 N p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
3 3 r2
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
+
>>
12 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3
k I4 p r2  2 r2 qM SolveB 4p ::q Ø 4p 3 2 3 :q Ø 6 p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 3 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 ==
k r Sin@bD q
, qF
4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3 p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3 1ê3
+
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6 3 N I4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M 3
>,
4p 3
J1 + Â + 12 p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3

1 3 :q Ø
1Â
3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 J1  Â
3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3
>,
4p 3
3 N I4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+ 12 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3
3 3 2

1 3
1+Â
3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3
>>
The real solution for q, solved from equating the instantaneous velocity to the average velocity, can be equated with the real solution for the expression for q from Lemma 4 to yield an exact solution for b that tells us that when these solutions for theta are equal, a 306090 triangle is formed between the azimuth of the cone, the point on the base of the cone and the center of the base of the cone. SolveB 4p 3 6 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3 3
3 3 2
4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
1ê3 6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+
2 3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
== 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
, bF
p p ::b Ø  >, :b Ø >> 3 3 We know that the height of the cone is perpendicular to the center of the base of the cone, so this proves a 306090 triangle, because the sum of the angles of the triangle must be 180 degrees or p radians.
D@h, qD = DB
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, qF = 4p
4 p r2  2 r2 q 4pr qr q
2 2 2
(18)
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
29
D@h, qD = DB
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, qF = 4p
4 p r2  2 r2 q 4pr qr q
2 2 2
(18)
RevolutionPlot3DB 2
4 p r2  2 r2 q 4p r qr q
2 2 2
, 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
k r Sin@bD q
= 2 p+
k r Sin@bD p2  p2 Sin@bD2 (19)
30
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
ContourPlot3DB 2 p+ 8k,  2 p, 2 p<F
k r Sin@bD p2  p2 Sin@bD2
, 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<, 8r,  1, 1<,
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
31
ContourPlot3DB
r Sin@bD q
, 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<, 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
q=
4p 3
+ 6pr
2 6 4
 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2
1ê3
(20)
r  18 r h + 3 3
2
3
r
10
h + 11 r h + r h
1ê3
2
8
4
6
6
2 p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6 3 r2
32
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
Plot3DB
4p 3
+ 6pr
2 6 4
 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2
1ê3

r  18 r h + 3
2
3
r
10
h + 11 r h + r h
1ê3
2
8
4
6
6
2 p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6 3 r2 , 8r,  1, 1<,
8h,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
q=
4p 3
J1 + Â 12 p r
2 6 4
3 N I 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2 M
1ê3
+ (21)
r  18 r h + 3
2
3
r
10
h + 11 r h + r h
2
8
4
6
6
1ê3
J1  Â
3 N p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3 3 r2
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
33
Plot3DB
4p 3
J1 + Â 
3 N I 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2 M
1ê3
+
12 p r2 r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6
1ê3
J1  Â
3 N p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3 3 r2
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6 , 8r,  1, 1<,
8h,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
q=
4p 3
J1  Â 12 p r
2 6 4
3 N I 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2 M
1ê3
+ (22)
r  18 r h + 3
2
3
r
10
h + 11 r h + r h
2
8
4
6
6
1ê3
J1 + Â
3 N p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3 3 r2
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6
34
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
Plot3DB
4p 3
J1  Â 
3 N I 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2 M
1ê3
+
12 p r2 r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6
1ê3
J1 + Â
3 N p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3 3 r2
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6 , 8r,  1, 1<,
8h,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
I can also visualize all of these equations at once.
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
35
Plot3DB:
4p 3
+ 6pr
2 6 4
 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2
1ê3

r  18 r h + 3
2
3
r
10
h + 11 r h + r h
1ê3
2
8
4
6
6
2 p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6 3 r2 ,
4p 3
J1 + Â 
3 N I 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2 M
1ê3
+
12 p r2 r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6
1ê3
J1  Â
3 N p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3 3 r2
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6 ,
4p 3
J1  Â 
3 N I 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2 M
1ê3
+
12 p r2 r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6
1ê3
J1 + Â
3 N p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3 3 r2
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6 >,
8r,  1, 1<, 8h,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
36
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
We designate, from the previous lemmas, that b := ArcSinB
H4 pqL q 2p
F in order to formulate a few visualizations of the solutions to the position at
which the instantaneous velocity equals the average velocity. However, please consider that, although there are a vast number of possible substitutions that can be made, I am only selecting a few of the more simple notions.
q= 4p 3 2 3 6  p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3  p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 3
3 3 2
 4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3  p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+ (23)
 p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
37
SphericalPlot3DB 4p 3 6  p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD + 3  p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 3
2
 4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2
1ê3
+
3
 p6 Sin@bD + 11 p6 Sin@bD + p6 Sin@bD
2
4
6
2 3
1ê3
 p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
,
8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
q=
4p 3
+ J1 + Â 3 N I 4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M 3  p6 Sin@bD + 11 p6 Sin@bD + p6 Sin@bD
2 4 6 1ê3
(24)
12  p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD + 3 1 3 K1  Â 3O 3
2
 p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
 p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3
38
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
SphericalPlot3DB 4p 3 1 3 J1 + Â + 12  p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3 J1  Â 3N
1ê3 3 3 2
3 N I 4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M
1ê3

3
 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
6
2
6
4
6
6
 p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 8b,  p, p<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
3
 p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
,
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
39
40
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
SphericalPlot3DB 4p 3 1 3 J1  Â + 12  p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3 J1 + Â 3N
1ê3 3 3 2
3 N I 4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M
1ê3

3
 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
6
2
6
4
6
6
 p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 8b,  p, p<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
3
 p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
,
Lemma 7 We can show that b = H4 p  qL q ArcSinB 2p F=b
H4 pqL q 2p
p
3
, thus we can show that there are two solutions to q at which this occurs.
SolveBArcSinB
F ==
p 3
, qF
88q Ø p<, 8q Ø 3 p<< To place more commentary on the ensuing paradox, Lemma 8 We can show can show that ::b Ø ArcSinB 4p 3
4 p2 q+4 p q2 q3 2p 4 p+q
F>, :b Ø ArcSinB
4 p2 q+4 p q2 q3 2p 4 p+q
F>>.
SolveBq ==
6 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3 3
3 3 2
4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
1ê3 6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+
2 3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6 4 p2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
, bF
::b Ø ArcSinB
4 p2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
F>, :b Ø ArcSinB
F>>
::b Ø  ArcSinB
 4 p2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
F>, :b Ø ArcSinB
 4 p2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
F>>
(25)
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
41
RevolutionPlot3DB:ArcSinB
 4 p 2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
F,
 ArcSinB
 4 p 2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
F>, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
III. Computational Results from the Lorentz Transformation
Theorem 3 The "innate velocity," v, within the Lorentz transformation can be solved for in terms of the system of the circle transforming into a cone. If
J
q
H2 p L
N
r is multiplied by the Lorenz transformation, then it measures the distance in the prime system, denoted by r '. If t ' equals
, then the quantity r q
1
v2 c2
= q ' r '. We are only dealing with algebraic forms and the solutions necessitated by them. Logical, algebraic, reasoning will be given why, when using the exact speed of light, 2.99792458 (108 ) meters per second, the units of the speed of light can be ignored for the purposes of calculation and computation (they canel out  they are equal to one). This theorem states that, although, normal algebra would require the speed of light as a quantity to cancel out, valid expressions for the solutions for the intrinsic velocity, v, can be found in terms of h, r, and q, or q and b, depending on the expression used for the height of the cone. Proof. c = 2.99792458 I108 M meters per second
r' = r
1
v2 c2
42
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
J t' =
q H2 pL
N
1q' 2p
v2 c2
t' =
2 p t' = q ' q' = q
1Therefore,
v2 c2
r'*q' =
q
r
v
2
1
v2 c2
1
c2
q
r
v2 c2
1
v2 c2
=rq
1
r ' * q ' = r q = 2 p r  2 p r1 = 2 p r  2 p SolveBr q == 2 p r  2 p 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
r^2  h^2
r ^ 2  h ^ 2 , hF 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
::h Ø 
>, :h Ø
>>
SolveBr ' q ' == 2 p r  2 p r£ q£
r ^ 2  h ^ 2 , hF r£ q£ 4 p r  r£ q£ 2p
r£ q£
::h Ø 
4 p r  r£ q£ 2p
>, :h Ø
>>
The argument follows modus ponens, saying that, through commutation, r ' q ' = q r, therefore h =
4 p rr£ q£ 2p
=
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p
r h= r£ q£ 4 p r  r£ q£ 2p =
1
v2 c2
q 1v2 c2
4pr r
1
v2 c2
q 1v2 c2
2p
=
rq
4prrq 2p
where c is its numeric value of the speed of light, its units being shown to cancel out. 1v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 v2 HcL2 v2 HcL2
1ã 1
1ã 1
1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
43
1SolveB 188<<
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2
2
1ã 1
v2 HcL2 v2 HcL2
, metersF
1SolveB 188<<
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2
1ã 1
v2 HcL2 v2 HcL2
, secondF
1SolveB 188<<
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2
2
1ã 1
v2 HcL2 v2 HcL2
, vF
1SolveB 1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2
1ã 1
v2 HcL2 v2 HcL2
, cF
SolveATrue, 2.99792 µ 108 E
r
1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 1
q
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2
4prrq
r
1
v2 HcL2
q 1v2 HcL2
4prrq
2p
= H1L
2p
Logically, the units of the speed of light will cancel out, therefore, their relationship will be set equal to one and taken out of the equation for the purposes of computational calculation.
r SolveB metersF 8<
Meters cancel out.
1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 1
q
v2 Ic ImetersësecondMM2
4p rrq ã h,
2p
44
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
r SolveB secondF 8<
Seconds cancel out.
1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 1
q
v2 Ic ImetersësecondMM2
4p rrq ã h,
2p
r SolveB 8<
The numeric c cancels out.
1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 1
q
v2 Ic ImetersësecondMM2
4p rrq ã h, cF
2p
r SolveB
1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 1
q
v2 Ic ImetersësecondMM
2
4p rrq ã h, rF
2p 2ph 4pqq
2
::r Ø 
>, :r Ø
2ph 4pqq
2
>>
Radius yields the result from Lemma 3.
r SolveB 8<
Velocity cancels out.
1
v2 Hc HmetersêsecondLL2 1
q
v2 Ic ImetersësecondMM2
4p rrq ã h, vF
2p
r SolveB 8<
1
v2 HcL2
q 1v2 HcL2
4p rrq ã h, vF
2p
Velocity cancels out. Only when using the exact speed of light (in scientific notation) can solutions be found. We set the speed of light equal to its numeric value for the purpose of making computations, dropping the units, because in the expression for the height of the cone, they would cancel out anyway. It should be noted that this is necessary for computing the function of the velocity and that the exact speed of light is to be used as well as that the numeric value of the speed of light has to be in the form of scientific notation in order to find results to this equation.
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
45
We set the speed of light equal to its numeric value for the purpose of making computations, dropping the units, because in the expression for the height of the cone, they would cancel out anyway. It should be noted that this is necessary for computing the function of the velocity and that the exact speed of light is to be used as well as that the numeric value of the speed of light has to be in the form of scientific notation in order to find results to this equation. c := 2.99792458 H10 ^ 8L Theorem 3 Continued From the expression of the height of the cone of Lemma 1, with the Lorentz transformations implicitly expressed, we can solve for the velocity within the Lorenz coefficient in terms of the height of the cone, the initial radius, and the angle, q. Proof.
r SolveB 1.
1
HvL2 c2
q 1HvL2 c2
4prrq ã h, vF
2p
::v Ø 
3.54814 µ 1018 h2  1.12941 µ 1018 r2 q + 8.98755 µ 1016 r2 q2 39.4784 h2  12.5664 r2 q + r2 q2
>,
:v Ø
3.54814 µ 1018 h2  1.12941 µ 1018 r2 q + 8.98755 µ 1016 r2 q2 39.4784 h2  12.5664 r2 q + r2 q2
>>
46
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
ContourPlot3DB I, I3.5481432270250993`*^18 h2  1.1294090667581471`*^18 r2 q + 8.987551787368176`*^16 r2 q2 MM ì 39.47841760435743` h2  12.566370614359172` r2 q + r2 q2 8q,  2 p, 2 p<, 8h,  1, 1<F , 8r,  1, 1<,
Theorem 3 Continued From the expression of the height of the cone, from Lemma 1 with the Lorentz transformations implicitly expressed, we can solve for the velocity within the Lorenz coefficient in terms of q and b.
r SolveB 1.
1
HvL2 c2
q 1HvL2 c2
4p rrq ã r Sin@bD, vF
2p
::v Ø 
 1.12941 µ 1018 q + 8.98755 µ 1016 q2 + 3.54814 µ 1018 Sin@bD2  12.5664 q + q + 39.4784 Sin@bD
2 2
>,
:v Ø
 1.12941 µ 1018 q + 8.98755 µ 1016 q2 + 3.54814 µ 1018 Sin@bD2  12.5664 q + q + 39.4784 Sin@bD
2 2
>>
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
47
SphericalPlot3DB : I1.` , I 1.1294090667581471`*^18 q + 8.987551787368176`*^16 q2 + 3.5481432270250993`*^18 Sin@bD2 MM ì  12.566370614359172` q + q2 + 39.47841760435743` Sin@bD2 I, I 1.1294090667581471`*^18 q + 8.987551787368176`*^16 q2 + 3.5481432270250993`*^18 Sin@bD2 MM ì  12.566370614359172` q + q2 + 39.47841760435743` Sin@bD2 8q,  2 p, 2 p<, 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F >, ,
48
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
SphericalPlot3DB I, I 1.1294090667581471`*^18 q + 8.987551787368176`*^16 q2 + 3.5481432270250993`*^18 Sin@bD2 MM ì  12.566370614359172` q + q2 + 39.47841760435743` Sin@bD2 8q,  2 p, 2 p<, 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F ,
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
49
SphericalPlot3DB I, I 1.1294090667581471`*^18 q + 8.987551787368176`*^16 q2 + 3.5481432270250993`*^18 Sin@bD2 MM ì  12.566370614359172` q + q2 + 39.47841760435743` Sin@bD2 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F ,
2 p r2 + Substitute : q Ø
r4  r2 h2 r2
50
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
ContourPlot3DB 2 p r2 +  1.1294090667581471`*^18 r4  r2 h2 r2 +
2
2 p r2 + 8.987551787368176`*^16
r4  r2 h2 r2 +
3.5481432270250993`*^18 Sin@bD2
ì
2
2 p r2 +  12.566370614359172`
r4  r2 h2 r2 +
2 p r2 +
r4  r2 h2 r2 +
39.47841760435743` Sin@bD2
, 8b,  p, p<, 8h,  1, 1<, 8r,  1, 1<,
AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
51
52
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
Plot3DB
2 p r2 +  1.1294090667581471`*^18
r4  r2 h2 r2 +
2
2 p r2 + 8.987551787368176`*^16
r4  r2 h2 r2 +
3.5481432270250993`*^18
2 2p r +
2 4 2 2 2 4 2 2
r r h r
2
2p r +
r r h r2
4pSinBArcSinB
2p
FF
ì
2
2 p r2 +  12.566370614359172`
r4  r2 h2 r2 +
2 p r2 +
r4  r2 h2 r2 +
39.47841760435743`
2 2 p r2 + r4 r2 h2 r2 2 p r2 + r4 r2 h2 r2
4pSinBArcSinB
2p
FF
,
8h,  1, 1<, 8r,  1, 1<, ColorFunction Ø "Rainbow", AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
"The Kantian Substitution"
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
53
H4 p  qL q b = ArcSinB 2p F
54
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
RevolutionPlot3DB /  1.1294090667581471`*^18 q + 8.987551787368176`*^16 q2 +
3.5481432270250993`*^18 SinBArcSinB
H4 p  qL q 2p
2
FF
ì
/  12.566370614359172` q + q2 +
39.47841760435743` SinBArcSinB
H4 p  qL q 2p
2
FF
, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
Further Substitutions: qØ2 p+ p2  p2 Sin@bD2
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
55
qØ
4p 3
6 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3
3 3 2
4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
1ê3 6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+
2 3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
SphericalPlot3DB .  1.1294090667581471`*^18 q +
2
8.987551787368176`*^16 2 p + 3.5481432270250993`*^18 Sin@bD2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 ì
+
.  12.566370614359172` q + 4p 3  I 4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M ì 6  p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 3
1ê3
 p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6 2 3  p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
6 2
+
3
1ê3 2 6 4 6 6
 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
+
39.47841760435743` Sin@bD2
, 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
56
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
57
58
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
SphericalPlot3DB   1.1294090667581471`*^18 2 p + p2  p2 Sin@bD2 + ì
8.987551787368176`*^16 q2 + 3.5481432270250993`*^18 Sin@bD2  12.566370614359172` q + q2 + 39.47841760435743` Sin@bD2 8b,  p ê 4, p ê 4<, 8q,  p, p<F ,
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
59
SphericalPlot3DB .  1.1294090667581471`*^18 q + 8.987551787368176`*^16 4p  I 4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M ì 3 6  p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 3
1ê3
 p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6 2 3  p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 3
1ê3 2
+
 p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
+
3.5481432270250993`*^18 Sin@bD2
ì
 12.566370614359172` q + q2 + 39.47841760435743` Sin@bD2 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
,
60
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
61
62
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
63
SphericalPlot3DB .  1.1294090667581471`*^18 q +
2
8.987551787368176`*^16 2 p 3.5481432270250993`*^18 Sin@bD2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 ì
+
 12.566370614359172` q + q2 + 39.47841760435743` Sin@bD2 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
,
64
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
SphericalPlot3DB I, I 1.1294090667581471`*^18 q + 8.987551787368176`*^16 q2 + 3.5481432270250993`*^18 Sin@bD2 MM ì   12.566370614359172` 2 p 39.47841760435743` Sin@bD2 p2  p2 Sin@bD2 + q2 +
, 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
65
66
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
SphericalPlot3DB .  1.1294090667581471`*^18 q +
2
8.987551787368176`*^16 2 p + 3.5481432270250993`*^18 Sin@bD2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 ì
+
.  12.566370614359172` 2 p +
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
+
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
+ 39.47841760435743` Sin@bD2
,
8b,  p, p<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
67
The theory is an expansive one. There are many more posible substitutions, and I urge you to find one for yourself. (Just plug in a logically valid substitution (where you see q, just put a valid q solution)). Lemma 9 The position at which the initial radius equals the height of the cone specifies an angle measure, q to be 2p, however, if we observe the expression for the height of the cone equaling the initial radius, we find that the innate velocity is an indeterminate at 2p. Yet, in the style of phenomenological reduction, if we "bracket" the natural attitude, which takes for granted the existence of the world, or in our system, the existence of the other expressions of the parameters of the cone, which would allow us to show that the initial radius equals 0 when the circle is folded all the way up, or that q has an exact value of 2p when the circle is folded all the way up, setting the natural attitude and that which it takes for granted aside, then we can visualize the expression for the innate velocity just as it is found as a logical result from this equation alone. This is done for the purpose of mathematically linguistic phenomenological reduction, for which there is philosophical precedence in the works of Edmund Husserl, because he laid the groundwork for transcendental philosophy as all embracing ontology and universal science. Geometry is formal ontology, and combination with logical relations algebraically, allows us to discuss the being of just this equation phenomenologically, for we are studying just the experience of this equation upon visualization. Proof.
68
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
r SolveB
1
HvL2 c2
q 1HvL2 c2
4p rrq ã r, vF
2p 1.
::v Ø 
3.54814 µ 1018  1.12941 µ 1018 q + 8.98755 µ 1016 q2 39.4784  12.5664 q + q2
>,
:v Ø
3.54814 µ 1018  1.12941 µ 1018 q + 8.98755 µ 1016 q2 39.4784  12.5664 q + q
2
>>
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
69
RevolutionPlot3DB : I1.` , I3.5481432270250993`*^18  1.1294090667581471`*^18 q + 8.987551787368176`*^16 q2 MM ì 39.47841760435743`  12.566370614359172` q + q2 ,
I, I3.5481432270250993`*^18  1.1294090667581471`*^18 q + 8.987551787368176`*^16 q2 MM ì 39.47841760435743`  12.566370614359172` q + q2 >, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
The item captions are just my personal interpretations of the shape.
70
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
RevolutionPlot3DB I, I3.5481432270250993`*^18  1.1294090667581471`*^18 q + 8.987551787368176`*^16 q2 MM ì 39.47841760435743`  12.566370614359172` q + q2 , 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
There are seven distinct delivered visualizations of this equation when q = 2 p + tion for q within the equation.
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
is used in different combinations as a substitu
SphericalPlot3DB . 3.5481432270250993`*^18  1.1294090667581471`*^18 2 p+ p2  p2 Sin@bD2 +
2
8.987551787368176`*^16 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
ì p2  p2 Sin@bD2 +
 39.47841760435743`  12.566370614359172` 2 p + HqL2
Ë "Intuition"
, 8b,  p, p<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
71
SphericalPlot3DB . 3.5481432270250993`*^18  1.1294090667581471`*^18 q +
2
8.987551787368176`*^16 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
ì , 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<,
39.47841760435743`  12.566370614359172` q + q2 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
Ë "Cosmic Recipe"
72
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
Ë "Wave"
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
73
74
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
SphericalPlot3DB  1.` . 3.5481432270250993`*^18  1.1294090667581471`*^18 q +
2
8.987551787368176`*^16 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
ì
. 39.47841760435743`  12.566370614359172` 2 p +
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
+
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
, 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
Ë "Manifold"
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
75
SphericalPlot3DB  I1.` , I3.5481432270250993`*^18  1.1294090667581471`*^18 q + 8.987551787368176`*^16 HqL2 MM ì . 39.47841760435743`  12.566370614359172` 2 p +
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
+
2 p+
Ë "Genetic"
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
, 8b,  p, p<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
SphericalPlot3DB  I1.` , I3.5481432270250993`*^18  1.1294090667581471`*^18 q + 8.987551787368176`*^16 HqL2 MM ì
2
39.47841760435743`  12.566370614359172` HqL + 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
,
8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
Ë "Noema"
76
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
SphericalPlot3DB  1.`
. 3.5481432270250993`*^18  1.1294090667581471`*^18 2 p+ p2  p2 Sin@bD2 +
2
8.987551787368176`*^16
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
ì
39.47841760435743`  12.566370614359172` q + q2 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
Ë "Stream of Consciousness"
, 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<,
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
77
Simply, I will note that through making substitutions of various sorts within equations found from this method, a large number of objects with curved, contoured, symmetrical, and otherwise notable characteristics are found. Lemma 10 The height can be shown to equal 1 through combination of proven lemmas, therefore, the innate velocity within the Lorentz transformation, implicitly expressed in the height of the cone, can be found in terms of r and q. From Lemma 3, r =
2ph 4 p qq2
, and from Lemma 6, r =
2p
H4 pqL q H4 pqL q
.
SolveB
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
==
2ph 4p qq
2
, hF
88h Ø 1<<
r
1
HvL2 c2
q 1HvL2 c2
4prrq (26) ã1
2p
78
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
SolveB
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
==
2ph 4 p q  q2
, hF
88h Ø 1<<
r
1
HvL2 c2
q 1HvL2 c2
4prrq (26) ã1
2p
r SolveB
1
HvL2 c2
q 1HvL2 c2
4p rrq ã 1, vF
2p 1.
::v Ø 
3.54814 µ 1018  1.12941 µ 1018 r2 q + 8.98755 µ 1016 r2 q2 39.4784  12.5664 r2 q + r2 q2
>,
:v Ø
3.54814 µ 1018  1.12941 µ 1018 r2 q + 8.98755 µ 1016 r2 q2 39.4784  12.5664 r q + r q
2 2 2
>>
r=
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q ;q=2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
79
SphericalPlot3DB / 3.5481432270250993`*^18  1.1294090667581471`*^18 2p H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q 2p H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
2 2
2 p+
p  p Sin@bD
2
2
2
+ 8.987551787368176`*^16
2
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
ì
/ 39.47841760435743`  12.566370614359172`
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
2
2
p+
p  p Sin@bD
2
2
2
+
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
2
2
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
,
8q,  2 p, 2 p<, 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
80
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
RevolutionPlot3DB / 3.5481432270250993`*^18  1.1294090667581471`*^18 2p H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
2
q+
8.987551787368176`*^16
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
2
q2
ì
/ 39.47841760435743`  12.566370614359172`
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
2
q+
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
2
q2
, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
IV. The "Second Level" of Difference
Theorem 4 Theorem 1 showed that the difference in two circumferences equals an arc length and the equation that the Pythagorean Theorem could be applied to that difference to form a cone with the initial radius of the circle being kept as the slant of the cone and the apex of the cone always orthogonal to the center of the base of the cone. This present theorem states that Theorem 1 can be applied to a difference in two circles where the first circle has radius r 1 , and the second circle has radius r2 . When a sector of angle q1 is removed from a circle of radius r1 and the resulting shape is folded into a cone, then the base of the "cone within the cone" has radius r2 given by r2 = r1 Hr1 q1 L 2p
; and height h1 , given by h1 =
r1 2  r2 2 = r1 Sin[ b1 ]
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
81
r2 = r1 
Hr1 q1 L 2p
; and height h1 , given by h1 =
r1 2  r2 2 = r1 Sin[ b1 ]
Proof. The circumference of the initial circle is 2 p r1 and the wedge removed has an arc length r1 q1 . Therefore, the remaining circumference is of length r1 (2 p  q1 ), and after the fold, this is the circumference of the base of the "cone within the cone." Establishing the circumference of the base of the cone within the cone, from the equation, q1 r1 = 2 p r1  2 p r2 , we calculate that its radius r2 is
2 p r1 r1 q 2p
, which simplifies to r1 
r1 q1 2p
. Thus, we have proved the first part of the theorem.
To find the height of the cone, h1 , we apply the Pythagorean theorem to a right triangle formed between the apex of the cone, the center of the base, and a point on the circumference of the base. This gives h1 = r1 2  r2 2 = r Sin[b], where b is the angle formed by the slant of the cone and the base of the cone. The initial radius is always equal to the slant of the cone, and the height of the cone is always orthogonal to the center of the base of the cone. Lemma 11 The height of the cone within the cone can be caluclated in terms of r1 and q1 . Proof.
SolveB h1 == ::r2 Ø 
r1 2  r2 2 , r2 F r2  h2 >> 1 1
r2  h2 >, :r2 Ø 1 1
SolveBr1 q1 ã 2 p r1  2 p r1 4 p  q1 2p
2 p r r q 2p
r2  h2 , h1 F 1 1 >, :h1 Ø r1 4 p  q1 2p
2p
::h1 Ø 
q1
q1
>>
Lemma 12 We can place r1 = Proof. r1 = 2prrq 2p H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q r1 4 p  q1 2p q1
into the equation, as well as substituting r =
H4 p q L q H4 p q L q
.
r=
2p
2 p rr q
h1 =
=
2p
4 p  q1 2p
q1
h1 =
2 p rr q 2p
4 p  q1 2p
q1
(27)
82
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
ContourPlot3DB
2 p rr q 2p
4 p  q1 2p
q1 , 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
8q1 ,  2 p, 2 p<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
2p
2p
I4 pqM q I4 pqM q

2p
I4 pqM q I4 pqM q
q
h1 =
2p
4 p  q1
q1
(28)
2p
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
83
2p
2p
I4 pqM q I4 pqM q

2p
I4 pqM q I4 pqM q
q
SphericalPlot3DB 8q1 ,  2 p, 2 p<F
2p
4 p  q1
q1 , 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
2p
2p
2p
I4 pqM q I4 pqM q

2p
I4 pqM q I4 pqM q
q
SphericalPlot3DB
2p
4 p  q1
q1 , 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
2p
8q1 ,  2 p, 2 p<, PlotStyle Ø Opacity@.15DF
84
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
85
Lemma 13 The point at which b1 = b describes a relationship of similar cones, thus I will visualize what this relationship looks like.
SolveB
2p rrq 2p r1
Sin@b1 D ==
r1
4 p  q1 2p
q1
, b1 F
::b1 Ø ArcSinB
r1 = 2prrq 2p
4 p  q1 2p rrq
q1
F>>
b1 = b
86
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
SolveBArcSinB
2 p rr q 2p
4 p  q1
q1 F == ArcSinB
H4 p  qL q 2p 1 4
2p rrq p2 1 4
F, q1 F
::q1 Ø 2 p 
H4 p  qL q >, :q1 Ø 2 p +
p2 
H4 p  qL q >>
RevolutionPlot3DB:2 p 
p2 
1 4
H4 p  qL q , 2 p +
p2 
1 4
H4 p  qL q >,
8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
V. Mathematics for the Univocal Expression of "Space  Time"
by Parker Emmerson Borrowing the term from Duns Scotus, we can see its meaning in terms of mathematics. In essence, space exists purely in terms of an angle within a univocal system. This angle could be seen to represent time if one unit of time passes per revolution of the system, or time passes constantly with the angle measure's increase. The system is univocal in the sense that any parameter of the system can be placed in solely terms of any other parameter. The meaning of the univocal comes from the fact that the system described is unified, and expresses each of its parameters in terms of other elements of the system in simple terms. The purpose of this section is to visualize all the possible expressions of the equation found in Lemma 6, r Ø
2p H4 pqL q H4 pqL q
within one "level" of substitutions from previous lemmas describing q. By this, I mean that I will not be making further substitutions, e.g. I will make
2p 2p 4 p2 p+ p2 p2 Sin@bD2 q 4 p2 p+ p2 p2 SinBArcSinB
H4 pqL q 2p 2
FF
q
statements such as: r Ø
2p
H4 pqL q H4 pqL q
=
H4 pqL q
, but not like,
H4 pqL q
, however,
one could make visualizations of this equation through a spherical plot. This section is to serve as showing how expansive this theory is, and that the notion of substitution is similar to the multiple adumbrations of the consituents of spatiality of the perception of an object, which are lines, planes and angles. Also, I will add that each of the equations, when plotted spherically, will deliver a different object if the order of the coordinates in the graphing function changes. In addition, changing the scale of the visualization from b =
p 2
to b = p, radically alters the perceivable object delivered. However, only in the
case of especially aesthetically pleasing examples will this method be applied, and it will be done so immediately after graph that follows the original pattern of substitutions being used.
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
87
Borrowing the term from Duns Scotus, we can see its meaning in terms of mathematics. In essence, space exists purely in terms of an angle within a univocal system. This angle could be seen to represent time if one unit of time passes per revolution of the system, or time passes constantly with the angle measure's increase. The system is univocal in the sense that any parameter of the system can be placed in solely terms of any other parameter. The meaning of the univocal comes from the fact that the system described is unified, and expresses each of its parameters in terms of other elements of the system in simple terms. The purpose of this section is to visualize all the possible expressions of the equation found in Lemma 6, r Ø
2p H4 pqL q H4 pqL q
within one "level" of substitutions from previous lemmas describing q. By this, I mean that I will not be making further substitutions, e.g. I will make
2p 2p 4 p2 p+ p p Sin@bD
2 2 2
4 p2 p+
p2 p2 SinBArcSinB
H4 pqL q 2p
2
FF
q
q
statements such as: r Ø
2p
H4 pqL q H4 pqL q
=
H4 pqL q
, but not like,
H4 pqL q
, however,
one could make visualizations of this equation through a spherical plot. This section is to serve as showing how expansive this theory is, and that the notion of substitution is similar to the multiple adumbrations of the consituents of spatiality of the perception of an object, which are lines, planes and angles. Also, I will add that each of the equations, when plotted spherically, will deliver a different object if the order of the coordinates in the graphing function changes. In addition, changing the scale of the visualization from b =
p 2
to b = p, radically alters the perceivable object delivered. However, only in the
case of especially aesthetically pleasing examples will this method be applied, and it will be done so immediately after graph that follows the original pattern of substitutions being used. Lemma 6 The initial radius can be calculated purely in terms of the angle q. Proof. From Lemma 1, the height of the cone has been solved in terms of the transformation. That expression for the height divided by the initial radius is set equal to the sine of b. Solving that equation yields an expression for b that includes r. This expression for b is then set equal to the expression found from Lemma 5.
Sin@bD =
4 p r q  r q2 4 p2
h r
=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 r2p
H4 p  qL q F
=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 4p r
2
=
r H4 p  qL q 4 p2
b Ø ArcSinB
F = ArcSinB
2p
SolveBArcSinB
4 p r q  r q2 4p
2
F == ArcSinB
H4 p  qL q 2p
F, rF
::r Ø
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
>>
We will discuss only the "positive" solutions for q and their substitutions used to form multiple expressions for the initial radius.
q = 2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
(29)
88
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
rØ
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q 4p 2 p+
=
2p
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2 2 2
2 p+ 2 p+
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 =
2 2
4p 2 p+
p  p Sin@bD
p  p Sin@bD
2p
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
q =
H4 p  qL q 2p H4 p  qL 2 p + p2  p2 Sin@bD2
H4 p  qL q 2p 4p2 p+ H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2 q
=
=
2p
H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2
H4 p  qL 2 p +
2p PolarPlotB
4p 2 p+ 4p 2 p+
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 p  p Sin@bD
2 2
2 p+ 2 p+
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , p  p Sin@bD
2 2
8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
1.0 0.5 0.5 1.0 5 10 15 20 25
(29)
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
89
2p SphericalPlot3DB 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
q , 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
H4 p  qL q
90
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
2p SphericalPlot3DB 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
H4 p  qL q
This graph is similar to the one above, except the order of the coordinates has been reversed in the graphing function.
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
91
2p SphericalPlot3DB 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<,
H4 p  qL q
92
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
SphericalPlot3DB
2p 4p2 p+
H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2 q
, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
This graph is similar to the one above, except the order of the coordinates has been reversed in the graphing function and the scaling has been altered.
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
93
SphericalPlot3DB
2p 4p2 p+
H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2 q
, 8b,  p, p<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
94
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
SphericalPlot3DB
2p
H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2
, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
H4 p  qL 2 p + 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
2p rØ
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 H4 p  qL q
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 = (30)
2p
4p2 p+ 4p2 p+
p  p Sin@bD
2
2
2
q = q
2p
4p2 p+ H4 p  qL 2 p +
p  p Sin@bD
2
2
2
q
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
95
2p SphericalPlot3DB
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 H4 p  qL q
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 ,
8q,  2 p, 2 p<, 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
96
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
2p SphericalPlot3DB
4p2 p+ 4p2 p+
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 p  p Sin@bD
2 2
q , 8q,  4 p, 4 p<, q
8b,  p, p<F
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
97
2p SphericalPlot3DB
4p2 p+ H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 p  p Sin@bD
2 2 2
q , 8q,  4 p, 4 p<,
8b,  p, p<F
2p
H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 =
H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2p
H4 p  qL 2 p + 4p2 p+
2
2p =
H4 p  qL 2 p + H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 p2  p2 Sin@bD2
p  p Sin@bD
2
2
q
98
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
2p SphericalPlot3DB
H4 p  qL 2 p + 4p2 p+
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , 8q,  4 p, 4 p<,
2 2
p  p Sin@bD
q
8b,  p, p<F
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson ©20092010 (Plan of Concentration Edition).nb
99
2p SphericalPlot3DB
H4 p  qL 2 p + H4 p  qL 2 p +
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , 8q,  2 p, 2 p<, p  p Sin@bD
2 2
8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
rØ
2p 4p2 p+
H4 p  qL q = p2  p2 Sin@bD2 q 4p2 p+
2p
H4 p  qL q = 2 p+ p2  p2 Sin@bD2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2p
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 q
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
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