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CBSE UGC-NET

Political Science

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CBSE UGC-NET Political Science Solved Papers


Content
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Contribution
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UGC-NET/JRF
Political Science
Solved Papers

Contents
1.

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
December 2015 Paper - II

2.

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
December 2015 Paper - III

3.

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
June 2015 Paper - II

4.

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
June 2015 Paper - III

36

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
December 2014 Paper - II

69

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
December 2014 Paper - III

82

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Science Solved Paper


December 2013 Paper - III

(i)-(xxxiii)

11.

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
June 2013 (Re-conducted on
8 September 2013) Paper - II

171

12.

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
June 2013 (Re-conducted on
8 September 2013) Paper - III

184

13.

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
June 2013 Paper - II

209

14.

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
June 2013 Paper - III

228

15.

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
December 2012 Paper - II

257

16.

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
December 2012 Paper - III

278

17.

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
June 2012 Paper - II

302

18.

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
June 2012 Paper - III

320

(xxxiv-lxxx)

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
June 2014 Paper - II

103

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
June 2014 Paper - III

118

UGC-NET/JRF Political
Science Solved Paper
December 2013 Paper - II

139

UGC-NET/JRF Political

151
3

Syllabus

UGC NET/JRF Political Science


Paper II
1. Political
Theory
and
Thought
n Ancient Indian Political
Thought: Kautilya and Shanti
Parva.
Greek Political Thought:
Plato and Aristotle.
n European Thought I:
Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke,
Rousseau.
n European Thought II:
Bentham, J. S. Mill, Hegel,
Marx and Green.
n Contemporary
Political
Thought I: Lenin, Mao,
Gramsci.
n Contemporary
Political
Thought II: Rawls, Nozic
and Communitarians.
n Modern Indian Thought:
Gandhi, M. N. Roy, Aurobindo
Ghosh,
Joy
Prakash
Ambedkar, Savarkar.
n Concepts and Issue I:
Medieval Political Thought:
Church State Relationship and
Theory of Two Swords.
n Concepts and Issue II:
Behaviouralism and PostBehaviouralism, Decline and
Resurgence of Political Theory.
Democracy,
Liberty
and
Equality.
2. Comparative Politics and
Political Analysis
Evolution of Comparative
Politics as a discipline; nature
and scope.
n Approaches to the study of
comparative
politics:
Traditional,
Structural

Functional,
Systems
and
Marxist.
n Constitutionalism:
Concepts,
Problems
and
Limitations.
n Forms of Government:
Unitary

Federal,
Parliamentary Presidential.

n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n

Organs of Government:
Executive,
Legislature,
Judiciary their interrelationship in comparative perspective.
Party Systems and Pressure
Groups; Electoral Systems.
Bureaucracy types and
roles.
Political Development and
Political Modernization.
Political
Culture,
Political
Socialization and Political
Communication.
Political Elite; Elitist theory of
Democracy.
Power,
Authority
and
Legitimacy.
Revolution: Theories and
Types.
Dependency: Development
and Under Development.

3. Indian Government and


Politics
n National
Movement,
Constitutional Developments
and the Making of Indian
Constitution.
n Ideological Bases of the
Indian Constitution, Preamble,
Fundamental
Rights
and
Duties
and
Directive
Principles.
n Constitution as Instrument of
Socio Economic Change,
Constitutional Amendments
and Review.
Structure and Process I:
President, Prime Minister,
Council of Ministers, Working
of the Parliamentary System.
Structure and Process II:
Governor,
Chief
Minister,
Council of Ministers, State
Legislature.
Panchayati Raj Institutions:
Rural and Urban, their working.
Federalism:
Theory
and
Practice in India; Demands of
Autonomy and Separatist
Movements; Emerging trends
4

in Centre State Relations.


Judiciary: Supreme Court, High
Courts,
Judicial
Review,
Judicial Activism including
Public
Interest
Litigation
cases, Judicial Reforms.
Political Parties, Pressure
Groups,
Public
Opinion,
Media; Subaltern and Peasant
Movements.
Elections, Electoral Behaviour,
Election Commission and
Electoral Reforms.
4. Public Administration
Development
of
Public
Administration as a discipline;
Approaches to the study of
Public
Administration:
Decision making, Ecological
and Systems; Development
Administration.
Theories of Organization
Principles of Organization:
Line and staff, unity of command, hierarchy, span of control, centralization and decentralization, Types of organization formal and informal;
Forms
of
organization;
department, public corporation and board.
Chief Executive: Types, functions and roles.
Personnel
Administration:
Recruitment,
Training,
Promotion, Discipline, Morale;
Employee

Employer
Relations.
Bureaucracy: Theories, Types
and Roles; Max Weber and his
critics. Civil servant Minister
relationship.
Leadership, its role in decision
making; Communication.
Financial
Administration:
Budget, Audit, Control over
Finance with special reference
to India and UK.
Good Governance; Problems
of Administrative Corruption;
Transparency
and
Accountability;
Right
to
Information.

Grievance
Redressal
Institutions:
Ombudsman,
Lokpal and Lokayukta.
5. International Relations
Contending Theories and
Approaches to the study of
International
Relations;
Idealist, Realist, Systems,
Game, Communication and
Decision making.
Power, Interest and Ideology
in International Relations;
Elements
of
Power:
Acquisition, use and limitations of power, Perception,
Formulation and Promotion of
National Interest, Meaning,
Role
and
Relevance
of
Ideology
in
International
Relations.
Arms and Wars: Nature, causes
and types of wars / conflicts
including ethnic disputes;
conventional, Nuclear / bio
chemical wars; deterrence,
Arms Race, Arms Control and
Disarmament.
n Peaceful Settlement of
Disputes, Conflict Resolution,
Diplomacy, World order and
Peace studies.
n Cold War, Alliances, Non
Alignment, End of Cold war,
Globalisation.
n Rights and Duties of states in
international law, intervention, Treaty law, prevention
and abolition of war.
n Political
Economy
of
International Relations; New
International Economic Order,
North South Dialogue,
South South Cooperation,
WTO, Neo colonialism and
Dependency.
n Regional and sub regional
organisations
especially
SAARC, ASEAN, OPEC, OAS.
United
Nations:
Aims,
Objectives, Structure and
Evaluation of the working of
UN; Peace and Development
perspectives;
Charter
Revision; Power struggle
and Diplomacy within UN,
Financing and Peace keeping operations.
Indias Role in International
affairs: Indias relations with
its neighbours, Wars, Security
Concerns
and
Pacts,
Mediatory Role, distinguishing
features of Indian Foreign
Policy and Diplomacy.

Unit - VI
n Dynamics of State Politics.
n Local Governments: Rural and

Paper III
Unit - I
n Political Theory
n Nature of Political
n
n
n
n

Theory, its
main concerns; decline and
resurgence since 1970s.
Liberalism and Marxism
Individual and Social Justice
Role of Ideology
Theories of change: Lenin,
Mao, Gandhi.

n
n
n

Unit - VII
n Growth

Unit - II
n Political Thought.
n Plato and Aristotle.
n
n Machiavelli
n Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau and
n
J. S. Mill.
n
n Karl Marx
n Gandhi, M. N. Roy, Aurobindo n
Ghosh.

Unit - III
n Comparative
n
n
n
n

Politics
and
Political Analysis.
Approaches to the study of
comparative
Politics
Constitutionalism in theory
and practice.
Executive, Legislature and
Judiciary with special reference to India, USA, UK and
Switzerland.
Party system and role of
opposition.
Electoral Process Separation
of Powers, Rule of Law and
Judicial Review.

Unit - IV
n Political Development.
n Political Modernization.
n Political Socialisation
n
n

Unit - V
n Making
n
n
n
n

n
n
n
n

Planning and
Administration in India.
Bureaucracy and Challenges
of Development.
Administrative
Culture;
Administrative
Corruption,
and Administrative Reforms.
Panchayati Raj.
Impact of Liberalization on
Public Administration.

Unit - IX
n Theories
n
n
n

of
the
Indian
Constitution.
Fundamental
Rights
and
Duties,
and
Directive
Principles.
Union Executive, Parliament.
Supreme
Court,
Judicial
Activism.
Indian Federalism: Theory,
Practice and Problems.

of
Public
Administration as a discipline;
and
New
Public
Administration.
Theories
of
Organisation
(Classical, Scientific, Human
Relations).
Principles of Organisation.
Chief Executive.
Control over Administration
Judicial
and
Legislative
Bureaucracy.

Unit - VIII
n Development

and

Political Culture.
Power and Authority.
Political Elite.

Urban.
Political Parties, Pressure
Groups, and Public Opinion.
Elections, Electoral Reforms.
Class, Caste, Gender, Dalit
and Regional Issues, Problems
of Nation Building and
Integration.

of
International
Relations.
Ideology, Power and Interest.
Conflicts and Conflict
Resolution.
Changing concept of National
Security and Challenges to the
Nation State System Arms
and Arms Control.

Unit - X
n End of Cold War, Globalisation
n
n
n
n

and Political Economy of


International Relations in the
Contemporary World.
Determinants
and
Compulsions of Indias Foreign
Policy; Indias Nuclear Policy.
Indias
Relations
with
Neighbours and USA.
Indias Role in the UN.
India
and
Regional
Organizations
(SAARC,
ASEAN), Indian Ocean.

Solved Paper
UGC-NET/JRF
POLITICAL SCIENCE
z December 2015

1.

z PAPER-II

Which of the following is not


an organ of Kautilyas state?
(1) Swami
(2) Amatya
(3) Varna system
(4) Danda
Answers: (3) [Kautilya enumerated seven prakritis or essential
organs of the state. They are as
follow
1. Swami (The Ruler): He
should be a native of the soil and
born in a noble family. He should
be brave and well learned. He
makes all the important appointments and supervises the government. He has to be virtuous and
should treat his subjects like his
own children. Kautilya has given
extensive powers to the monarch
but those powers are meant for

the welfare of them subjects. In


the welfare and happiness of his
subjects, lies his own happiness.
2. Amatya (The Minister): It
refers to the council of ministers
as well as the supporting officials
and subordinate staffs. They are
meant for assisting the monarch
in day to day affairs of the state.
Amatya gives suggestions to king,
collects taxes, develops new villages and cities, ensures defense
of the state and all other tasks as
assigned by the king.
3. Janpada (The Population):
It refers to territory and people of
the state. The territory of the
state should be fertile and should
have abundance of forest, rivers,
mountains, minerals, wild life etc.
It should have have good climate.
People should be loyal to their
(i)

UGC-NET/JRF Political Science Solved Papers

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king, hard working, disciplined,


religious, ready to fight for their
motherland, should pay taxes
regularly and happily.
4.
Durga
(The
Fortified
Capital): It refers to forts. The
state should have sufficient number of forts across its territory at
strategic locations for ensuring
defense against foreign invasions.
Forts should be built near
hills/mountains, deserts, dense
forests and big water bodies. They
garrison soldiers, store food
grains for emergency and also
serve as a hideout for the king
when his life in danger.
5. Kosha (The Treasury):
Money is needed for paying
salaries, building new infrastructure, etc. The treasury should be
full of money and valuable metals
and gems. It can be increased
through taxation and plundering
enemy states in war.
6. Danda (The Army): The
state should have a regular, large,
disciplined and well trained military. It is crucial for the security
of the state. The soldiers should
be recruited from those families
which are traditionally associated
with military. The soldiers should
paid well and their families should
be taken care of in most suitable
way. Proper training and equipment should be made available.
Well fed and well trained soldiers
can win any battle. The king
should take care of the soldiers
and the soldiers will be ready to
sacrifice even their life for him.
7. Mitra (Ally and Friend): The
monarch should maintain friendly
relationship
with
traditional
friends of his forefathers. He

2.

(ii)

should also make new friendships.


He should send gifts and other
pleasantries for his friends. They
should be helped in times of
emergency. They should be loyal.
Friends add to the power of the
state. They are also important
from foreign trade view point.]
Platos communism of family
and property was largely
derived from the experience
of:
(a) Stagira
(b) Sparta
(c) Athens
(d) Venice
Choose the correct answer:
(1) (a) and (b)
(2) (a) and (c)
(3) (c) only
(4) (b) only
Answers: (4) [Platos theory of
communism was certainly a corollary of his conception of justice.
He believed that without communism there would be clash of ideas
and interests between reason and
appetite. Platos communism is
based on the premise that property, family instincts and private
interests would distract mans
attention from his obligations to
the community.
He strongly opined that family and
property are always impediments
not only to philosopher king, but
also to a commoner in his discharge of duties. As property and
family relationships seemed to be
the main source of dissension in
the society, Plato stated that neither of them must be given any
recognition in an ideal state.
Therefore, a sort of communism
of family and property was essential to offset the consequences of
Platos design of ideal state.

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Plato strongly believed that an


economic division between the
citizens of a state is the most dangerous political condition. This
belief was mainly due to the widespread
and
frank
opinions
expressed by the Greeks that economic motives are very influential
in determining political action and
political affiliations.
Long before The Republic was
written, Euripides had divided citizens into three classes, viz., the
useless richwho are always
greedy for more, the poorwho
have nothing and are devoured by
envy, and finally the middle
classa strong body of men who
saves the state.
An oligarchical state to a Greek
meant a state governed by, and in
the interest of the well-born
whose pos-session of property
was hereditary, while a democratic state was governed by and for
the many who had neither hereditary birth nor property.
These economic differences were
the key to the political institutions
and it was no new idea, which the
Greeks were following since ages.
The cause for unrest that Plato
was experiencing in Athens was
mainly due to the troubles present
since the days of Solon a statesman reforms in Athens.
This situation convinced Plato that
wealth has a very pernicious
effect on the government, but was
dismayed at the fact that there
was no way to abolish the evil
except by abolishing the wealth
itself To cure greed among the
rulers, there is only one way and
that was to deny them any right
to call anything their own.

Devotion to their civic duties


admits no private rival.
The example of Sparta, wherein
the citizens were denied the use
of money and the privilege of
engaging in trade, undoubtedly
influenced Plato in reach-ing this
conclusion. The main reason for
Plato to emphasize on communism of property was to bring
about greater degree of unity in
the state.
Plato was equally vehement about
the institution of marriage and
opined that family affections
directed towards a particular persons, as another potent rival to
the state in competing for the loyalty of rulers.
He stated that anxiety for ones
children is a form of self-seeking
more dangerous than the desire
for property, and the training of
children at homes as a poor
preparation for the whole and sole
devotion, which the state has the
right to demand. Plato was, in
fact, appalled by the casualness of
human mating which according to
him would not be tolerated in the
breeding of any domestic animal.
The improvement of the race
demands a more controlled and a
more selective type of union.
Finally, the abolition of marriage
was probably an implied criticism
of the position of women in
Athens, where her activities were
summed up in keeping the house
and rearing children. To this, Plato
denied that the state serve half of
its potential guardians.
Moreover, he was unable to see
that there is anything in the natural capacity of women that corresponds to the Athenian practice,
(iii)

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since many women were as well


qualified as men to take part in
political or even military duties.
The women of the guardian class
will consequently share the work
of the men, which makes it necessary that both shall receive the
same education and strictly be
free from domestic duties. Platos
argument about breeding of
domestic animals refers to the
sexual relations between men and
women.

tured the society in this manner,


he never made any attempt to
work out his plan that ensured
such a system to function.
The following is a brief description
of each form of communism:
1. Communism of Property:
Platos communism of property is
in no way related to the modern
communism or socialism because
there was no mention of socialization of the means of production.
Platos approach was mainly concerned with one factor of produc-tion, that is, property that
has to be socialized.
The land and its products were in
the hands of the farmers. So, only
the guardians were deprived of
property. Plato deprived them of
all valuables such as gold and silver, and were told that the diviner metal is within them, and
therefore there is no need for any
ornaments as it might pollute the
divine thoughts.
The guardians were paid salaries
just right enough for their maintenance. They were expected to
dine at common tables and live in
common barracks, which were
always open. Thus, Platos communism was ascetic in character.
Platos communism existed only
for
the
governing
class.
Therefore, it was political communism and not economic communism.
2. Communism of Wives:
Platos scheme of communism
deprived the guardian class not
only of property, but also a private life or a family because family introduced an element of thine
and mine. He believed that family
would destroy a sense of coopera-

It is not that he regarded sex


casually, but he demanded an
amount of self-control that has
never been realized among any
large populations. According to
him, if the unity of the state has
to be secured, property and family stand in the way, therefore,
they both must be abolished.
Forms of Communism:
Platos communism is of two
forms, viz., the abolition of private property, which included
house, land, money, etc., and the
second, the abolition of family,
through the abolition of these
two, Plato attempted to create a
new social order wherein the ruling class surrendered both family
and
private
property
and
embraced a system of communism. This practice of communism
is only meant for the ruling class
and the guardian class.
However, Plato did not bind this
principle on the third class, namely, the artisans. In other words,
they were allowed to maintain
property and family, but were
under strict supervision so that
they do not become either too rich
or too poor. Though Plato struc(iv)

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tion that forms the basis for a


state. To destroy family, it is
important to destroy selfishness.
Plato wanted the rulers of an ideal
state not to get distracted from
their work and get tempted
towards self-interests.
Plato opined that family was the
great stronghold of selfishness,
and for this reason it has to be
banned for the governing class.
This situation brings about a
question of Did Plato deny his
guardians class a normal sex life?
For this, Plato stated that mating
was encouraged between those
who can in the best possible manner produce children of the
desired quality.
Another question that was raised
was related to those children who
were born out of this union.
According to Plato, they would be
the property of the state.
Immediately after their birth, they
would be taken to a nursery and
nursed and nurtured there. This
method would make sure that no
parent would have any affection
upon one child, and thus love all
the children as their own.
Further, the guardians, instead of
caring for the welfare of their
progeny, would thrive for the welfare of all. Thus, guardians of the
state would constitute one great
family wherein all children would
be treated equal and common.
Bound by common joys and sorrow, there is personal or exclusive
relation to one family and in the
process the entire state.
Plato further stipulated the age for
both men and women for begetting children. He stated that the
proper age for begetting children

3.

(v)

women should be between the


age of 20 and 40 and men
between 25 and 55 because at
this time, the physical and intellectual vigor is more. If anybody
flouted the rules, they were treated as unholy and unrighteous
beings.
Thus, Platos communism of wives
provided social, political and psychological bases for the ideal
state. Plato believed that such a
communism of family would
remove the conflict between the
personal interests and the objectives of the state.]
Scholasticism of middle ages
sought to establish:
(a) Supremacy of political domain
over the spiritual.
(b) The autonomy of intellectual
freedom
over
the
political
regimes.
(c) The ascendency of theology
over the philosophy.
(d) The subordination of rational
element to the theological element of the church.
Select the correct answer from
the codes given below:
(1) (c) and (d)
(2) (a) and (d)
(3) (a) and (c)
(4) (b) and (d)
Answers: (1) [Scholasticism is a
method of critical thought which
dominated teaching by the academics of medieval universities in
Europe from about 1100 to 1700,
and a program of employing that
method in articulating and
defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context. It originated as an outgrowth of, and a
departure from, Christian monas-