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Original Title: FUZZY LOGIC BASED MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKER FOR PHOTO VOLTAIC SYSTEM

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PHOTO VOLTAIC SYSTEM

K Padmavathi*, K R Sudha**

*Research Scholar, JNTU, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India

** Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Photovoltaic system exhibits nonlinear characteristics Open Circuit Voltage method (OCV), Short Circuit

and maximum power (MP) points that changes with Current method (SCC), Perturb and Observe method

solar insolation and cell’s temperature. The Photo (P&O), Incremental Conductance method (INC) [4].

Voltaic System can supply the maximum power to the Compared with conventional methods, Artificial

load at a particular operating point which is generally Intelligence (AI) techniques gives fast response under

called as maximum power point (MPP), at which the any operating conditions with accurate results [5]. This

entire system operates with maximum efficiency and paper presents the AI technique using Fuzzy Logic

produces its maximum power. The Maximum Power Controller (FLC) to implement MPPT in order to

Point Tracker control technique based on fuzzy improve energy conversion efficiency and also

controller is implemented to generate the optimal compared with P&O method.

voltage from the photovoltaic system by modulating the

duty cycle applied to the boost dc-dc converter. The II. PHOTO VOLTAIC SYSTEM

efficacy of fuzzy controller is compared with perturb and

observe method. 2.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Keywords – Photo Voltaic System, Maximum Power The dispersion of Photo Voltaic (PV) is very fast

Point Tracking, Perturb & Observe method, Fuzzy because it generates electricity in a clean, quiet and

Controller, Boost Converter reliable manner. PV system is a static electricity

generator as it produces electricity when the photon of

I. INTRODUCTION the sunlight strikes the semiconductor materials in the

PV cell. Individual PV cells are interconnected in a

Renewable energy resources play a vital role in the sealed, weatherproof package which is known as a

generation of electricity. The sources of renewable module [6]. To increase the voltage modules are

energy are Solar, Wind, Hydro power, Biomass, connected in series and to increase the current they are

Geothermal, Hydrogen and Ocean. Solar energy is connected in parallel. The PV modules are connected in

directly converted into electrical energy by using series and parallel which is known as PV array to

Photovoltaic (PV) cells[1]. Because of no fuel cost, achieve the desired output. Fig. 1 shows the cells,

pollution free, little maintenance and emitting no noise, modules and array of photovoltaic System. PV systems

Photovoltaic (PV) is a good source of energy [2]. The can be easily expanded by adding more modules and

PV system exhibits a nonlinear V-I characteristics and manufactured to withstand the most rugged conditions.

its maximum power (MP) point fluctuate with the The benefits of using photovoltaic system are (i) operate

change in temperature and solar insolation. Most of the with little maintenance, (b) pollution free, (c) reduced

research work is going on in this area to track the production end wastes and emissions. The installation of

maximum power point. The Maximum Power Point photovoltaic system requires high initial capital cost, but

Tracking (MPPT) is applied to PV systems to extract the operating cost is low compared with obtainable

maximum available power from sun at all solar power technologies. The installation of photovoltaic

insolations. Many MPPT techniques have been system requires high initial capital cost, but the

proposed by implementing different control strategies operating cost is low compared with obtainable power

[3]. A DC to DC converter serves the purpose of technologies.

transferring maximum power from the PV system to the

load. Different types of conventional methods to obtain

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 287

Volume 4 Issue 9, September 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 – 8190

as given in equations (1) - (4)

(1)

Where Iscr is short circuit current of PV module; Ki is

the short circuit temperature coefficient; T is the

operating temperature of module in Kelvin; Tr is the

reference temperature in Kelvin; G is the solar radiation

in watt/mt2.

The reverse saturation current of the module is

(2)

Figure 1 Cells, Modules and array of PV system voltage; Ns is number of series cells; k is Boltzmann’s

constant, A is fitting factor

The module saturation current depends on the cell

2.2 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AND temperature, which is given by Equation 3.

MATHEMATICAL MODELLING (3)

Photovoltaic cells consist of a silicon P-N junction Where Eg is the band gap energy of semiconductor.

that when exposed to light releases electrons around a

closed electrical circuit. From this premise the circuit The output current of PV module is given by

equivalent of a PV cell can be modeled through the

circuit shown in Fig. 2. Electrons from the cell are

excited to higher energy levels when a collision with a

photon occurs. These electrons are free to move across

the junction and create a current. This is modeled by the

light generated current source. The intrinsic P-N

junction characteristic is introduced as a diode in the

circuit equivalent. (4)

series and shunt resistances of the module respectively.

The output power of the photo voltaic array is given

Equation 5

(5)

Fill Factor(FF) is defined as the ratio of the maximum

obtainable power of the photo voltaic cell to the product

of open circuit voltage(Voc)and short circuit current (Isc)

[7]. Voc and Isc are the maximum values of the pv cell.

Figure 2 Equivalent circuit of PV cell Graphically, the FF is a measure of the "squareness" of

the solar cell and is also the area of the largest rectangle

The current source Iph represents the cell photocurrent. which will fit in the IV curve.

Rp and Rs are the intrinsic shunt and series resistances

of the cell, respectively. Rp is inversely related with (6)

shunt leakage current to the ground .The PV efficiency is

insensitive to variation in Rp but a small variation in Rs Where Vmp and Imp are the voltage and current at

will affect the PV output power . maximum power point. Voc is the open circuit voltage

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 288

Volume 4 Issue 9, September 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 – 8190

parameters of photovoltaic system.

PV array parameters Symbol Values

Reference Temperature Tr 298K

Solar irradiance G 1000 watt/mt2

Temperature Ki 0.00023 A/K

coefficient

Cell short-circuit Iscr 3.75A

current at Tr

Saturation current at Ior 0.000021A

reference temperature

Boltzmann’s constant K 1.38065e-23J/°K

Charge of an electron q 1.6022e-19C

Figure 3 I-V and P-V curves of Photo Voltaic System

Fitting factor A 1.3

No. of parallel cells Np 6

No. of series cells Ns 10

3.1 PERTURB & OBSERVE METHOD

III. MAXIMUM POWER POINT

Possible Power (MPP) from a varying source. Perturb

TRACKING and Observe (P&O) method is implemented. In this

algorithm a small perturbation is introduced in the

PV system’s efficiency depends on Maximum system. Due to this perturbation, the power of the

Power Point Tracking (MPPT). Because of the module alters then the perturbation is carried in that

nonlinear characteristics of output voltage and direction. When the maximum power is achieved, the

current with change in solar radiation, operating power instant reduces and the perturbation reverses. Fig.

temperature and load current, the efficiency of PV 5 represents the flowchart of MPPT technique. The

system is less [8]. To overcome these problems, the drawback of P&O method is it oscillates around the

maximum power point is tracked. Fig. 3 shows the MPP in steady state operation and for rapidly

typical I-V and P-V curves of photovoltaic system. increasing or decreasing irradiance levels, it can

A PV Module produces its maximum current when there track in the wrong direction [9].

is no resistance in the circuit, i.e. a short circuit between

its Positive and Negative terminals. This maximum

current is known as the Short Circuit current (Isc).

The voltage in the circuit is zero when the PV

Module is shorted. The maximum voltage occurs

when there is a break in the circuit and is known as

Open Circuit voltage (Voc). Under this condition,

the resistance is infinitely high and there is no

current. The point on the knee of the I-V Curve

where the maximum power output is located is

called the Maximum Power Point (MPP). The

voltage and current at this Maximum Power Point

are designated as Vmp and Imp. In this paper MPPT

using perturb & observe method is compared with

MPPT using fuzzy logic controller. Figure 4 Perturb & Observe Algorithm

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 289

Volume 4 Issue 9, September 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 – 8190

PS NS NS NS ZE ZE

Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) can be implemented PB NB NB NB ZE ZE

as a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller

to achieve the maximum power from the photo voltaic IV. BOOST CONVERTER

system [10]. The input variables are PV current and Boost Converters are DC to DC converters used for

voltage and the output variable is duty cycle. Error (e) converting low voltage to high voltage. It consists of

and change of error (ce) are calculated using the inductor, capacitor and switches. DC-DC converters

following equations. play a role of charge controller, MPP trackers and PV

(7) interface with load. The converter consists of

(8) semiconductor switch, inductor and a capacitor. The

circuit diagram of a boost converter is shown in Fig. 6.

(9) When SW1 is switched on, input charges the inductor.

When SW1 is switched off, the source voltage and

(10) inductor together charges the capacitor to a higher value

Where Ipv and Vpv are photo voltaic current and voltage, greater than source voltage. Diode avoids the discharge

t and (t-1) are actual and previous states. The linguistic of capacitor when SW1 is in on state.

variables of both input and output membership functions

are NB(negative big), NM(negative medium),

NS(negative small),ZE(zero), PS(positive small),

PM(positive medium), PB(positive big) are represented

in Fig. 5.

converter has been done using MATLAB software using

SIMULINK . The simulink was evaluated for SOLAREX

MSX-60 and the specifications are shown in Table 3.

Figure 5 Membership functions of input and output Voltage @ Pmax 17.1V

variables Current @ Pmax 3.5A

Guaranteed minimum Pmax 58W

The output variable, d is the pulse width modulation Short circuit current(Isc) 3.8A

signal to produce the switching pulses of the DC to DC

Open circuit voltage (Voc) 21.1V

converter. The fuzzy logic controller’s rule base used in

PV system is represented by Table 2

The comparative performance of Perturb & Observe

Table 2 Rule base of Fuzzy logic MPPT

MPPT and Fuzzy MPPT at a solar radiance of

e/ce NB NS ZE PS PB 1000watts/mt2 and at an operating temperature of 25°C

NB ZE ZE PB PB PB is presented in this paper. Fig. 7 shows results

NS ZE ZE PS PS PS comparing the output voltage of boost converter using

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 290

Volume 4 Issue 9, September 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 – 8190

Fuzzy controller settles faster than P&O technique.

temperatures

Figure 7 Comparison of DC voltage using P&O and

The system considered is also simulated for various

fuzzy MPPT controllers

solar irradiances with a constant temperature. The

observations are also undertaken for solar irradiance

The current-voltage (I-V) and power-voltage(P-V)

of 200W/mt2, 400W/mt2, 600W/mt2, 800W/mt2 and

characteristics depend on the variation of solar irradiance

200W/mt2 at a constant temperature. Fig. 10 & Fig.

and operating temperature. The observations are

11 shows the I-V and P-V characteristics for various

undertaken for an operating temperature of 25°C, 40°C,

solar irradiances.

50°C, 60°C and 80°C at a constant solar irradiance of

1000watts/mt2. Fig.8 and Fig. 9 represents the I-V and

P-V characteristics of the PV system at various

temperatures. It is observed that the current is maximum

and also having almost constant value at the lower

voltage range. From P-V characteristics it is observed

that voltage and power of the PV system reduces with

increase in operating temperature.

solar irradiances

temperatures

solar irradiances

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 291

Volume 4 Issue 9, September 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 – 8190

The Fill Factor (FF) evaluates the performance of PV [5] Aurobinda Panda, M. K. Pathak, S. P. Srivastava,

system. In Table 4 resultant data for various solar Fuzzy Intelligent Controller for The Maximum Power

irradiance by implementing Fuzzy logic MPPT Point Tracking of a Photovoltaic Module at Varying

controller for the photo voltaic system are tabulated. Atmospheric Conditions, Journal of Energy

Technologies and Policy, 1(2), 2011,18-27.

Table 4 The resultant data of proposed PV module at [6] M. G. Villalva, J. R. Gazoli, and E. R. Filho,

various solar irradinces. Comprehensive approach to modeling and simulation of

photovoltaic arrays, IEEE Transactions on Power

Solar W/ 1000 800 600 400 200 Electronics, 24(5), 2009, 1198–1208.

Irradiance mt2 [7] Pradhan Arjyadhara, Ali S.M, Jena Chitralekha,

Maximum W 58.99 45.46 32.46 20.11 8.64 Analysis of solar PV cell performance with changing

Power Irradiance and Temperature, International Journal of

Open V 20.79 20.37 19.84 19.21 17.85 Engineering and Computer Science , 2(1), 2013 , 214-

Circuit 220.

Voltage [8] Ali Reza Reisi a,n, Mohammad Hassan Moradi b,

Short A 3.8 3.1 2.28 1.52 0.76 Shahriar Jamasb b, Classification and comparison of

Circuit maximum power point tracking techniques for

Current photovoltaic system: A review, Renewable and

Fill Factor 0.748 0.735 0.718 0.69 0.638 Sustainable Energy Reviews, 19, 2013, 433–443.

[9] D. P. Hohm, M. E. Ropp, Comparative Study of

Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms Using an

Experimental, Programmable, Maximum Power Point

VI. CONCLUSION

Tracking Test Bed, 0-7803-5772-8/00,IEEE, 2000,

1699-1702.

MPPT controllers are implemented to ensure that PV

[10] M. M. Algazar, H. Al-Monier, H. A. El-Halim, and

system operates at its maximum power point. These

M. E. E. K. Salem, Maximum power point tracking

controllers minimize the error between the operating

using fuzzy logic control, International Journal of

power and the reference maximum power which is

Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 39(1), 2012, 21–

variable according to the load and of the weather

28 .

conditions. In this paper, MPPT controller using Fuzzy

is compared with Perturb & Observe method. The fuzzy

MPPT is better than the P&O method.

REFERENCES

Comprehensive approach to modeling and simulation of

photovoltaic arrays, IEEE Transactions on Power

Electronics, 25(5),2009, 1198—1208.

[2] Masato Oshiro, Kenichi Tanaka, Tomonobu Seniyu,

Shohei Toma, Atsushi Yona, Ashmed Yousuf Saber, et

al. ,Optimal voltage control in distribution systems using

PV generators, International Journal of Electrical

Power and Energy System ,33(3),2011,485–92.

[3] Ali Reza Reisi a,n, Mohammad Hassan Moradi b,

Shahriar Jamasb b, Classification and comparison of

maximum power point tracking techniques for

photovoltaic system: A review, Renewable and

Sustainable Energy Reviews ,19 ,2013, 433–443.

[4] P. Hohm and M. E. Ropp, Comparative Study of

Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms, Prog.

Photovolt: Res. Appl., 11, 2003, 47– 62.

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