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GLOBAL WARMING

INTRODUCTION
Global warming is a gradual process of heating of earth’s surface and whole
environment including oceans, ice caps, etc. The global rise in atmospheric temperature
has been clearly noticed in the recent years. According to the Environmental Protection
Agency, in the past century there is increase in the earth’s surface average temperature
by around 1.4 degree Fahrenheit (means 0.8 degrees Celsius). It has also been estimated
that global temperature may increase by another 2 to 11.5 degrees F in the next century.
GLOBAL WARMING AND ITS IMPACTS ON CLIMATE OF INDIA
Global warming is for real. Every scientist knows that now, and we are on our way to the
destruction of every species on earth, if we don't pay attention and reverse our course.
-

Theodore C. Sorensen

Global warming is the ‘talk of the town’ in this century, with its detrimental effects
already being brought to limelight by the recurring events of massive floods, annihilating
droughts and ravaging cyclones throughout the globe. The average global temperatures are
higher than they have ever been during the past millennium, and the levels of CO2 in the
atmosphere have crossed all previous records. A scrutiny of the past records of 100 years
indicates that India figures in the first 10 in the world in terms of fatalities and economic losses
in a variety of climatic disasters.
Before embarking on a detailed analysis of Global warming and its impacts on Indian
climate, we should first know what climate, green house effect and global warming actually
mean.

CLIMATE
The climate is defined as’ the general or average weather conditions of a certain region,
including temperature, rainfall, and wind’. The earth’s climate is most affected by latitude, the
tilt of the Earth's axis, the movements of the Earth's wind belts, and the difference in
temperatures of land and sea, and topography. Human activity, especially relating to actions
relating to the depletion of the ozone layer, is also an important factor. The climate system is a
complex, interactive system consisting of the atmosphere, land surface, snow and ice, oceans and
other bodies of water, and living things.

CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING
There are many causes of the global warming, some are natural causes and some
are human made causes. The most important cause of global warming is greenhouse
gases which are generated by some natural processes as well as human activities. The
increase in the level of green house gases has been seen in the 20 th century because of
the

increasing

population,

economy

and

use

of

energy.

Increasing

demand

of

industrialization in the modern world to fulfill almost each need is causing the release of
variety of green house gases through many industrial processes in the atmosphere.
The release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas has been
increased in the recent years by 10-fold. The release of carbon dioxide gas varies
according to the natural and industrial processes including photosynthesis and oxidation
cycles. Methane is another green house gas release in the atmosphere by the anaerobic
decomposition of organic materials. Other greenhouse gases are like oxides of nitrogen
(nitrous

oxide),

halocarbons,

chlorofluorocarbons

(CFCs),

chlorine

and

bromine

compounds, etc. Such green house gases get collected to the atmosphere and disturb the
radiative balance of atmosphere. They have capability to absorb heat radiations and cause
warming of the earth surface.

They are also capable to change the microphysical and chemical properties of the clouds and possibly their lifetime and extent. Ozone layer is declining day by day by increasing release of chlorofluorocarbon gas. According to the statistics. Dust is produced by agriculture. There is no any clear trend of ozone layer declination in the winter or summer seasons.S. Harmful ultraviolet sun rays are entering to the biosphere and get absorbed by the green houses gases which ultimately increase the global warming. The increasing amount of aerosols in the atmosphere is because of human contribution. Presence of various aerosols in the atmosphere is also causing earth’s surface temperature to increase. Ozone layer causes protection to the earth surface by inhibiting the harmful sun rays to coming to the earth. EFFECT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON THE EARTH’S CLIMATE The effects of global warming have been very clear in the recent years because of increasing sources of global warming. the gradual release of which causes declination to the ozone layer in the atmosphere. Atmospheric aerosols are fully capable to scatter (causes cooling to the planet) and absorb (makes air warm) the solar and infrared radiations. Geological Survey. However.Another cause of global warming is ozone depletion means declination of ozone layer over Antarctica. organic droplets and soot particles are produced by biomass burning. Chlorofluorocarbon gas is used at many places as aerosol propellants in the industrial cleaning fluids and in the refrigerators. it has been recorded that there were 150 glaciers located in the Montana’s Glacier National . and aerosols are produced by the industrial processes through the burning of wide variety of products in the manufacturing process. Various emissions by means of transport generate different pollutants which get converted to the aerosols through many chemical reactions in the atmosphere. it has been estimated that the size of ozone hole has been twice the size of Antarctica (more than 25 million km2) by 2000. According to the U. gradually declining ozone layer is the big indication of increasing global warming of the earth surface. It is a human generated cause of global warming.

and methane that allow incoming sunlight to pass through. melting ice caps.35°C. The first phase was from 1919 to 1940. changes in air circulation patterns. with the warming occurring in two phases. water vapor. and this blanketing effect is being enhanced because of the human activities like burning of fossil fuels etc. increasing temperature. drought. declining ozone layer. cyclones. Thus the Green house gases (GHGs) provide a blanketing effect in the lower strata of the earth’s atmosphere. Detailed researches of climatic events of the past 150 years have revealed that the temperatures have risen all over the globe. Global warming causes lot of climate changes in the atmosphere such as increasing summer season. and is mediated by the presence in the atmosphere of gases such as carbon dioxide. melting of glaciers.55°C. rising of the sea levels. Year 2012 has been recorded as hottest year since 1895 and year 2013 together with 2003 as the warmest year since 1880. The global warming has resulted in the warming of the oceans. rain without season. Records show that the past 25 years have been the warmest time of the past 5 centuries. decreasing winter season. Natural storms are getting so strong by taking energy from temperature difference (of cold upper atmosphere and warm Tropical Ocean). flood. . with an average temperature gain of 0. but absorb the heat radiated back from the earth's surface. GREEN HOUSE EFFECT Green House effect is the phenomenon whereby the earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation. and the second phase was from 1970 to the present. exhibiting temperature gains of 0. only 25 glaciers are left.Park however because of increasing effect of global warming. and diminished snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere. jet stream. Huge level climate changes are making hurricanes more dangerous and powerful. and so many effects. occurrence of heavy storms.

is a large country in South Asia. This is because neither has more than two atoms per molecule (i. CO 2 tends to remain fairly constant and therefore behave as a controlling factor.GREENHOUSE GASES The most significant greenhouse gas is actually water vapor. respectively). not something produced directly by humankind in significant amounts. can easily condense or evaporate. their molecular forms are O2 and N2. Water vapor. Water vapor levels therefore tend to adjust quickly to the prevailing conditions. which causes the greenhouse effect. More CO 2 means that the balance occurs at higher temperatures and water vapor levels. India lies to the north of the equator between 6° 44' and 35° 30' north latitude and 68° 7' and 97° 25' east longitude. for example. and so they lack the internal vibrational modes that molecules with more than two atoms have. have these "internal vibrational modes". Secondly.e. However. rather than a reacting factor. on the other hand. It shares a coast line of 7517 km with the . CO2 tends to remain in the atmosphere for a very long time (time scales in the hundreds of years).2 billion. such that the energy flows from the Sun and reradiation from the Earth achieve a balance. There are two reasons: First. even slight increases in atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) can cause a substantial increase in temperature. Both water and CO2. and these vibrational modes can absorb and reradiate infrared radiation. neither oxygen or nitrogen are greenhouse gases. IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON THE CLIMATE OF INDIA AN INTRODUCTION TO THE PROFILE OF INDIA India. depending on local conditions. the second most populous country of the world with a population over 1. although the concentrations of these gases are not nearly as large as that of oxygen and nitrogen (the main constituents of the atmosphere).

the majority of the people of India continue to live in poverty. Bhutan. from the freezing cold winters in the Himalayas to the scorching heat of the Thar Desert. The season extends from June to September with an average annual rainfall between 750–1. However. and the Thar desert attracts the summer monsoon winds. India exhibits a wide diversity of temperatures. However. the majority of the regions can be considered climatically tropical. the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The Himalayas participate in this warming by preventing the cold winds from blowing in. etc. which is the most important season of India. Burma and Bangladesh. The above two regions play a very significant role in controlling the weather of India.500 mm across the region. As a result. Some of the damages through global warming cannot be returned by the solution . which are responsible for making the majority of the monsoon season of India. business leaders. in spite of the leaping economical progress. with malnutrition and diseases corroding the society. private sectors. making it warmer than to be expected with its latitude. The monsoon of India is regarded as the most productive wet season on the earth. providing 80% of the annual rainfall. It has land boundaries with Pakistan. the country is plagued by the climatic disasters that continue to wreak havoc on its economy.Indian Ocean. China. SOLUTIONS OF GLOBAL WARMING Many awareness programmes and programmes to reduce global warming have been run and implemented by the government agencies. CLIMATE OF INDIA Being such a huge country. MONSOON SEASON IN INDIA The climate of India is dominated by the monsoon season. Nepal. NGOs. The Indian economy is considered as one of the fastest growing major economies.

. for electricity generation. with units indicated on the right hand side of the graph). INCREASED THE ATMOSPHERE'S CO2 CONCENTRATION Human beings have increased the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere by about thirty percent. and heating. About a third of this comes from electricity generation. we should not get back and try everyone’s best to reduce the effects of global warming by reducing the human causes of global warming. Combustion of Fossil Fuels. The projected increase in CO 2 is very startling and disturbing. We should try to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and adopt some climate changes which are already happening for years. and another third from transportation. use of electrical devices. use of transportation means. and also the manufacture of cement. transportation. Instead of using electrical energy we should try using clean energy or energy produced by solar system. and projected increase over the next hundred years if we do not curb emissions. wind and geothermal. is the projected CO2 rise).(like melting of ice caps). and a third from all other sources. etc may reduce the global warming to a great level. which is an extremely significant increase. even on inter-glacial timescales. to the right of the current level. The current level. Reducing the level of coal and oil burning. This enormous input of CO 2 is causing the atmospheric levels of CO 2 to rise dramatically. are also shown (the part of the curve which goes way up high. we'll soon reach carbon dioxide concentrations that haven't been seen on Earth in the last 50 million years. and also due other evidence. It is believed that human beings are responsible for this because the increase is almost perfectly correlated with increases in fossil fuel combustion. such as changes in the ratios of different carbon isotopes in atmospheric CO 2 that are consistent with "anthropogenic" (human caused) emissions. all result in the total worldwide emission of about 22 billion tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere each year. The simple fact is. However. that under "business as usual" conditions. The following graph shows the CO 2 levels over the past 160 thousand years (the upper curve.

But that might be a temporary fluctuation. the next graph shows the average temperature in the Northern Hemisphere as determined from many sources. such as tree rings.Temperature Changing As everyone has heard from the media. . right? To see that it probably isn't. recent years have consistently been the warmest in hundreds and possibly thousands of years. carefully combined. human records. corals. etc.

then the large warming in the 20th century is not reproduced. The following graphs show that 1) If only natural fluctuations are included in the models (such as the slight increase in solar output that occurred in the first half of the 20th century). The sharp upswing in emissions during the industrial revolution further added to this. then the large warming is reproduced. but some of the variations. Thus.in fact it predates almost every living human being today.These graphs show a very discernable warming trend. leading to a significantly increased carbon dioxide level even by 1900. such as the . following the deforestation of much of Northeastern American and other forested parts of the world. It might seem a bit surprising that warming started as early as 1900. Temperature increase is caused by anthropogenic emissions Computer models strongly suggest that this is the case. How is this possible? The reason is that the increase in carbon dioxide actually began in 1800. we see that Global Warming is not something far off in the future . 2) If only anthropogenic carbon emissions are included. starting in about 1900.

The role of the IPCC is to assess the scientific. is not reproduced (this cooling trend was thought to be caused by sulfur dioxide emissions from dirty power plants). The IPCC is open to all members of the UNEP and WMO and consists of several thousand of the most authoritative scientists in the world on climate change.cooling period in the 1950s. in recognition of the threat that global warming presents to the world. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) In 1998. then the temperature evolution of the 20th century is well reproduced. technical and socio-economic information . the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 3) When both natural and anthropogenic emissions of all types are included.

that the climate might warm by as much as 10 degrees Fahrenheit over the next 100 years. instead. Results of the first assessment (1990--1994): confirmed scientific basis for global warming but concluded that ``nothing to be said for certain yet''. The next report. It does not carry out new research nor does it monitor climate related data. GLOBAL WARMING IMPACTS Many of the following "harbingers" and "fingerprints" are now well under way: Rising Seas--. The most recent report.5 Celsius by the year 2100. Due to these assessments.inundation of fresh water marshlands (the everglades).such as flooding. global temperature will likely rise by about 1-3. in 2001. and concluded that. developed methodology guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories.the balance suggests a discernable human influence on global climate''.. The second assessment (1995). See the section above on the recent droughts. debate has now shifted away from whether or not global warming is going to occur to. special reports and technical papers. low-lying cities. The IPCC has completed two assessment reports. Changes in rainfall patterns --. in 2000. It bases its assessment mainly on published and peer reviewed scientific technical literature. concluded that "There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities". how much. hurricanes. etc. . and with what impacts. which would bring us back to a climate not seen since the age of the dinosaurs. and islands with seawater. how soon. flooding in other areas. suggested. as predicted by climate models. for example! Increased likelihood of extreme events--.relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change.droughts and fires in some areas. concluded that `` ..

In reality.migration of diseases such as malaria to new. such as hydrogen technology.One third of coral reefs now appear to have been severely damaged by warming seas. leading to loss of sea lions. the US would have to reduce its presently projected 2010 annual emissions by 400 million tons of CO2 .The enormous (900 mile long) Aleution island ecosystems of orcas (killer whales). etc. and fish populations. that even Kyoto would only go a little ways towards solving the problem. One should keep in mind though. regions. sea otters. as quickly as possible. Melting glaciers . and work to phase in new technologies. leading to urchin explosions. . Bleaching of Coral Reefs due to warming seas and acidification due to carbonic acid formation --. sea urchins. kelp beds. developed countries would be required to cut back their emissions by a total of 5. Specifically. 5% here. Widespread vanishing of animal populations --.Melting of the ice caps --.following widespread habitat loss. Spread of disease --. leading orcas to eat too many sea otters. REDUCE EMISSIONS In reality. Polar bears are now thought to be greatly endangered by the shortening of their feeding season due to dwindling ice packs. much more needs to be done. leading to loss of kelp beds and their associated fish populations. we will need to work on all fronts .2 % between 2008 and 2012 from 1990 levels. now warmer. To satisfy the Kyoto protocol.loss of habitat near the poles.10% here. appears to have collapsed due to loss of plankton. Loss of Plankton due to warming seas --. sea lions.significant melting of old glaciers is already observed.

Lastly. conducting a very dangerous experiment with Earth's climate. It is a fact that they are very statistically unlikely to be a fluctuation (and now we can point to specific side effects from those warm temperatures that appear to have induced recent worldwide drought).S. Wind power. some of . Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. could reduce current emissions by 50 percent at zero cost to the economy as a result of full use of cost-effective efficiency improvements. record-breaking warm years are unprecedented and statistically significant. and also the increased use of high efficiency natural gas generation.there is no debate about this. The recent. very negative effects. at very least. then the amount of carbon we will release will soon exceed the amount of carbon in the living biosphere. DISCUSSING GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE Here is a useful list of facts and ideas: Given the strong scientific consensus. for example. found that the U. but perhaps most importantly.S. If we continue to use fossil fuels in the way we presently do. whether or not you believe in global warming per se.The most promising sector for near term reductions is widely thought to be coalfired electricity. can make substantial cuts in these emissions in the near term. the fact remains that the carbon dioxide levels are rising dramatically --. National Academy of Sciences. Ask a skeptical person to look at the data above. The potential impact of efficiency should not be underestimated: A 1991 report to Congress by the U. This is bound to have very serious. Its time to acknowledge that we are. the onus should now be on the producers of CO 2 emissions to show that there is not a problem. if they still even attempt to make that claim. as can energy efficiency. A direct look at the data itself is very convincing and hard to argue with. The implications are obvious.

It should be noted that US energy use. This will cause an increased uptake of carbon by the plankton. we are not going to run out of coal in the near term (oil may begin to run low sometime after 2010). Another scheme under investigation is the idea of stimulating phytoplankton growth on the ocean surface by dusting the surface with iron (the limiting nutrient). Possible Problems with Carbon "Sequestration" One of the Carbon sequestration approaches under investigation is the possibility of depositing CO2 extracted from emission streams in large pools on the Ocean bottom. or by having plants and soil organisms absorb more of it from the air. Fishing companies are considering using this to increase fish harvests while simultaneously getting credit for carbon sequestration. there is simply not enough money being spent yet to achieve this goal in a timely manner. While there are some US government programs aimed in this direction. is increasing. and may either erupt to the surface.which. It is possible that such pools will not be stable. especially if this approach is conducted on a sufficiently large scale. is to find ways to capture the extra CO2 from electricity generation plants and "sequester" it in the ground. . especially coal. however. We believe that a major increase in renewable energy use should be achieved to help offset global warming. not decreasing. are already well known. such as lowering the pH of the ocean such that coral cannot grow. but rather. Response of Government: Develop "Carbon Sequestration" Technology Many government agencies around the world are very interested in maintaining fossil fuel use. the ocean. or diffuse into the ocean and alter the oceans pH. part of which will find its way to the ocean bottom. which is enormous. Methods for reducing carbon emission levels while still burning coal are now investigation by government and industry. Furthermore. Serious ecological disruptions could occur. A primary goal of many new programs is not to increase renewables. as we now discuss.

i. While seemingly attractive.e. an important point to note is that these systems are not thought to be able to completely absorb all the extra CO2 . At best.Another idea is to stimulate Earth's terrestrial ecosystems to take up more carbon dioxide. injected into old wells. While the impacts here are more difficult to ascertain. and that there would be adequate capacity or assurance that CO2 would not leak out in massive quantities. . All of this CO 2 would need to be captured. rotting permafrost. Another major approach under consideration is to pump CO 2 into old oil and gas wells. carbon sequestration efforts may simply fail. including many sources which are presently small and widely distributed (such as car emissions. but also end up being a political tool that is used to seriously delay a transition to renewable energy sources. and not just coal plant emissions). it must be kept in mind that for this to be truly effective. In the worst case scenario. drying soils. some sequestration approaches may serve as a useful bridge to curbing emissions while the transition to renewables is being made. they may be sufficient to help the US stabilize carbon emission rates for a few decades. transported. etc. it would have to be done on a world wide scale. include many sources of CO2 . such as forest fires. stabilization of rates are not likely to return the Earth to pre-industrial carbon levels. we may experience massive carbon de-sequestration. may actually greatly accelerate carbon emissions. given the truly enormous amount of CO 2 we are presently emitting. In the best case scenario. and then the wells would need to be sealed and monitored. It is not clear that this would be affordable at all. biological feedbacks to global warming. but even if this is achieved. Worse. and also possibly create many new environmental problems problems while prolonging old ones.

The rate of sea-level rise has continued to increase in recent decades: Exactly how high sea levels will rise in the future depends on how greenhouse gas emissions rise and how the world warms.000 years of relatively little change. Global average sea levels have risen roughly 19 centimeters (7. And as glaciers and ice caps in places like Greenland and Antarctica melt.5 inches) since the 19th century. they add water to the ocean.SEA-LEVEL RISE Global warming has a few major effects on the oceans. after 2. This IPCC chart shows future projections under a low-emissions scenario (in blue) and a high-emissions scenario (in red): . As water gets warmer. it expands. That all causes sea levels to go up.

and continuing thereafter.€” but at a cost of tens of billions of dollars per year. So even if we do reduce emissions. One 2013 study inNature Climate Change estimated that average annual losses from flooding in the world's biggest coastal cities could rise from $6 billion per year today to $1 trillion per year by 2050. strong .6 feet) by the end of the century. sea-level rise gets even more drastic. Effects: Rising sea levels are expected to increase the risk of flooding. And the oceans would continue to rise for centuries thereafter. we can still expect some additional sea-level rise in the decades ahead — possibly half a meter (1. High emissions: If greenhouse gas emissions keep growing. due to sediment erosion or freshwater pumping. and property damage in coastal cities and regions. In some regions the land is actually sinking. storm surges. however. pumps. Cities could build flood defenses such as levees. Uneven rise: Sea levels also won't rise evenly everywhere. The IPCC is currently predicting up to 1 meter of sea-level rise (3. In other regions.Low emissions: We've already warmed the planet enough to heat and expand the oceans and lock in some melting of land ice.3 feet) by century's end if emissions keep growing unchecked. and movable barriers.

the oceans absorb roughly one-third of that additional carbon dioxide. That's ocean acidification. the pH of ocean surface water has dropped from roughly 8. . One study in the journal Climatic Change estimated that the loss of mollusks alone could cost the world as much as $100 billion per year by the end of the century.18 to 8. The melting of the giant ice caps will also have odd gravitational effects.07). Acidification can also interfere with the food supply for key species like Alaska's salmon. Since the Industrial Revolution. This process staves off (some) global warming. as the carbon dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. More acidic seawater can chew away at coral reefs and kill oysters by making it harder for them to form protective shells.wind and ocean currents can warp the waters and affect local sea levels. but it also makes the seas more acidic. the oceans have become 30 percent more acidic (that is. OCEAN ACIDIFICATION When humans burn fossil fuels. with the rate of change expected to be the fastest in 300 million years. And that process is expected to continue if humans continue emitting greenhouse gases.

. Move your thermostat down 2° in winter and up 2° in summer Almost half of the energy we use in our homes goes to heating and cooling. This simple switch will save about 300 pounds of carbon dioxide a year. They can save you $100 a year on your energy bill. A TV set that’s switched on for 3 hours a day (the average time Europeans spend watching TV) and in standby mode during the remaining 21 hours uses about 40% of its energy in standby mode. About 55 million years ago. both through lab experiments and by looking at past acidification events. coral reefs became scarcer and the food chain had difficulty supporting larger predators.com. As a result. PREVENTION OF GLOBAL WARMING Replace a regular incandescent light bulb with a compact fluorescent light bulb (cfl) CFLs use 60% less energy than a regular bulb.Scientists are still trying to understand exactly how acidification will affect different species and the marine food chain. Do not leave appliances on standby Use the “on/off” function on the machine itself.000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year with this simple adjustment.We recommend you purchase your CFL bulbs at 1000bulbs. Choose energy efficient appliances when making new purchases Look for the Energy Star label on new appliances to choose the most energy efficient products available. during thePaleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. You could save about 2. they have great deals on both screw-in and plug-in light bulbs. Install a programmable thermostat Programmable thermostats will automatically lower the heat or air conditioning at night and raise them again in the morning. Clean or replace filters on your furnace and air conditioner Cleaning a dirty air filter can save 350 pounds of carbon dioxide a year. the oceans became warmer and more acidic.

The temperature has not rapidly increased as claimed by global warming proponents. You can save another 550 pounds per year by setting the thermostat no higher than 50°C. as many glaciers are expanding and others receding due to other natural causes. the UN's IPCC has repeatedly downgraded its projected temperature increases to as little as 1· F while satellite data show a cooling of . making the upcoming conference in Buenos Aires quite unnecessary. Clearly. This conference was meant to follow up on the 1997 Kyoto Conference where the United States and numerous other nations agreed to make major reductions in their CO2 emissions to counter unnatural warming. put Not forth as one of the key evidence has been proven true. But one has to ask: If the predictions offered by global warming proponents have been proved so consistently wrong. but has either decreased or remained unchanged. CONCLUSION Human-induced barometers of global warming that warming theory is a proponents myth. .02· F since 1979.000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year with this simple action. the preponderance of evidence keeps building against the global warming theory. the arctic isn't warming as all the global warming climate models predicted. The claim that the world's glaciers are melting has also been proven to be untrue. Since predicting a temperature rise of 6· F over the next century. Dire predictions that warming would cause a precipitous rise in the ocean by as much as 7 to 10 feet have also been proven incorrect. why should we start believing them now? The answer is that we shouldn't.Wrap your water heater in an insulation blanket You’ll save 1. The Clinton Administration hopes to use Buenos Aires as a forum to continue that momentum in an attempt to resuscitate the Kyoto treaty in an unreceptive Congress. Likewise. forcing scientists to downgrade their predictions of sea level rising just 15 inches. Evidence offered by leading scientists indicate that the modest sea level increase is more like 7 inches per century and demonstrates that the increase is due to nonclimatic forces that Man has no power to influence. but is instead cooling.