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Appendix

Data Set 1
Sample

Weight

5.363

5.352

5.345

5.359

5.347

6
(outlier)

5.328

Uncertainty

e w = 6(0.001)2=0.00244949 0.002
Mean
n

Xi Xi

x = i=1 = i=1 =5.349 5.349 0.002


n
6
Standard deviation

s=

( X i X )2
i=1

n1

(X i5.349)2
i=1

61

=0.0123774

Grubbs Test

Gtab =G95 ,n=6 =1.822

|X outlier X | |5.3285.349|
=
=1.69664082

Gcalc =

0.0123774

Gcalc <Gtab ; outlier accepted


Relative Standard Deviation

s
0.0123774
x 100 ppt=
x 1000 ppt=2.31396499 ppt
5.349
| X |

RSD=
Range

R= XX =5.3635.328=0.035 0.035 0.002


Relative Range

RR=

R
0.035
x 1000 ppt=
x 1000 ppt=6.54327912 ppt 6.543 0.002 ppt
5.349
X

Confidence Interval

v =n1=61=5 ; t 95 ,v=5=2.57
ts =5.349 (2.57)(0.0123774) =5.349 0.01298634
Confidence limit= X
n
6
Data Set 2
Sample

Weight

5.363

5.352

5.345

5.359

5.347

5.328

7(outlie
r)

5.418

5.334

5.361

10

5.316

Uncertainty

e w = 10(0.001)2=0.00316228 0.003
Mean
n

Xi
x =

i=1

10

Xi

= i=1 =5.3523 5.352 0.003


10

Standard deviation

s=

( X i X )2
i=1

n1

10

(X i5.3523)2
i=1

101

=0.02764075

Grubbs Test

Gtab =G 95 ,n=10=2.176

|X outlier X | |5.4185.3523|
=
=2.37692529

Gcalc =

0.02764075

Gcalc >Gtab ; outlier rejected

Post-Grubbs Test
Uncertainty

e w = 9( 0.001)2=0.003 0.003
Mean
n

Xi Xi

x = i=1
n

= i=1
9

=5.345 5.345 0.003

Standard deviation

s=

( X i X )2
i=1

n1

(X i5.345)2
i=1

91

=0.01612452

Relative Standard Deviation

s
0.01612452
x 100 ppt=
x 1000 ppt=3.01674752 ppt
5.345
| X |

RSD=
Range

R= XX =5.3635.316=0.047 0.047 0.003


Relative Range

RR=

R
0.047
x 1000 ppt=
x 1000 ppt=8.79326473 ppt 6.543 0.002 ppt
X
5.345

Confidence Interval

v =n1=91=8 ; t 95 , v=8 =2.31


ts =5.349 (2.31)(0.01612452) =5.345 0.01241588
Confidence limit= X
n
9