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Hebrew and Yiddish Travel Writing

Mikhail Kizilov

Due to their active involvement in trading activity and their frequent changes
of place of residence, European Jewish travellers left a number of highly important travel accounts from the Middle Ages onwards, e.g. the famous twelfthcentury Jewish travellers Petahyah of Ratisbon, Travels of Rabbi Petachia of
Ratisbon, who, in the latter end of the twelfth century, visited Poland, Russia, Little
Tartary, the Crimea, Armenia, Assyria, Syria, the Holy Land, and Greece, trans.
Dr A. Benisch (London: Longman, 1861) [Hebrew original with English translation]; The itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela, ed. Elkan Adler (London, 1907).
Unfortunately, east European Jews started composing travelogues comparatively late, perhaps only from the sixteenth or seventeenth centuries. Travel accounts of European Jews of the early modern period usually represented itineraries of pilgrimages to the land of Israel (erets Yisrael). (For a bibliography of
accounts of Christian travellers to the Holy Land, see Nathan Schur, Jerusalem
in pilgrims and travellers accounts: a thematic bibliography of Western Christian
itineraries 13001917 (Jerusalem: Ariel, 1980).) Nevertheless, travellers often
left important data on the east European countries which they had to cross on
their way to Palestine. Unfortunately for our topic, most early modern Jewish
travellers were from central and western Europe. From the nineteen Jewish
travel accounts selected by Elkan Adler, only one (!) traveller was of east European origin (Jewish travellers, ed. Elkan Adler (London: George Routledge,
1930); repr. as Jewish travellers in the Middle Ages: 19 rsthand accounts, ed.
Elkan Adler (New York: Dover, 1987)). The quantity of travels to Palestine
grew signicantly in the eighteenth century due to the rise of the Hasidic movement in Polish lands. However, only a few Hasidic travellers and immigrants to
erets Yisrael described their travel experiences in writing.
Most of the Jewish travelogues were composed in Hebrew, called in the
Jewish tradition leshon ha-qodesh (Heb. sacred language). However, the language employed by Jewish travellers in modern times differed considerably

1 A word of thanks goes to Dr Dan Shapira (Jerusalem), Barry Walsh (Toronto), and Brad
Sabin Hill (New York) for their help in the work on this article. The author is grateful to
Szonja Rahel Komoroczy (Budapest) for her help in the work on the travel literature related
to Hungarian Jewry.


East European Travel Writing in Europe: A Bibliography

from traditional Biblical Hebrew while including a number of loan words and
expressions from vernacular languages. Moreover, from this period, the travels of Jewish voyagers were directed not only to the Holy Land, but also to
the Muslim Orient, America, Africa, Russia, and Europe, and even to travellers own countries. Travels to Europe nevertheless remained rather on the
margin of Jewish travel writings, being outnumbered by travel descriptions of
Palestine and the Muslim Orient. Many famous Jewish men of letters and
public gures composed colourful descriptions of their travels in Europe and
in the East (e.g. Nahman of Bratslav, Ahad ha-Am, Jacob Bachrach, Abraham
Gottlober et al.). It was only from the nineteenth century, the time of Jewish
Enlightenment (Haskalah), that Jewish travellers started actively using Yiddish
for their accounts (nevertheless, a few important accounts had already been
composed in Yiddish in the seventeenth century). Yiddish, however, remained
more a language of literary travelogues rather than of trips actually taken. The
importance of Yiddish as a literary language grew considerably in the twentieth century, and a number of travel accounts were composed in this language
before the beginning of the Second World War. Reports written in Yiddish by
travellers to Birobidzhan (Siberia), the capital of the Soviet Jewish Autonomy,
which had been seen by many as an embodiment of Jewish longing for independence and equality, became especially signicant in the interwar period.
(In addition to Russian, Yiddish was another widely spoken language of the
area. Unfortunately, the Birobidhzan project lost its signicance after the war
and Stalins anti-Jewish campaign; equally futile were attempts to organize a
Jewish autonomy in the Crimea in the 1930s and after the warthe so-called
Agro-Joint project.)
After the annihilation of European Jewry in the ames of the Holocaust,
travel writing in Hebrew and Yiddish in eastern Europe became almost extinct.
Nevertheless, those East European Holocaust survivors who became citizens of
Israel and America, often describe in writing their nostalgic post-war visits to
the once-ourishing Jewish Europe of their forefathers.
In terms of content, travel writings in Hebrew are usually full of eloquent
Biblical quotations and lofty allusions combined with descriptions of everyday
life, people, events, architectural monuments, towns, food, and customs. Travelogues in Yiddish seem to be more materialistic, written in a manner closely
resembling travel accounts in other European languages. A very specic feature
of Jewish travel accounts is their concentration mainly on internal Jewish life.
Nevertheless, Jewish travellers also left much important data on the history of
their Gentile surroundings. As an interesting phenomenon, one should distinguish the travel accounts of east European Karaite (i.e. non-Talmudic) Jews,
who from the seventeenth century onwards employed for literary purposes not
only Hebrew, but also their Umgangssprachen, Turkic Karaimo-Qipchak and
Crimean Tatar languages. (The Karaite Jews (Karaites) in PolandLithuania
and the Crimea did not know Yiddish at all and used Hebrew and Turkic languages for literary purposes.)
Because of the ever-migrating lifestyle of most Jewish authors on the one
hand, and the frequently-changing east European borders on the other, it is

Hebrew and Yiddish Travel Writing


sometimes quite difcult to dene precisely the geographic afliation of each

particular traveller (e.g. Ephraim Deinard (18461930), who was born in Russian Latvia, lived in the Crimea, Russia, Southern Ukraine, Poland, and Palestine, travelled throughout the world, published his Hebrew books in many of
the aforementioned countries, and died in America). Therefore, their linguistic
identication as east European Jewish travellers who wrote in Hebrew and
Yiddish would perhaps be more relevant than any attempt to categorise travellers citizenship and nationality.
Any research into travel writing in Hebrew should start from a few collections of Jewish travelogues in English translations and Hebrew originals (note,
however, that only some of the accounts published there were penned by the
Jews from eastern Europe and about Europe): Otsar masaot: a collection of itineraries by Jewish travellers, sel. and ed. J.D. Eisenstein (New York: [n.p.], 1926;
repr. Tel-Aviv: [n.p.], 1969; Hebrew); Masaot Erets Yisrael, ed. Avraham
Yaari (Tel-Aviv: Ahdut, 1946; Hebrew; repr. Tel Aviv: [n.p.], 1996); Jewish travellers, ed. Elkan Adler (London: George Routledge, 1930), and repr.
as Jewish travellers in the Middle Ages: 19 rsthand accounts (New York: Dover,
1987; English). Three accounts by Karaite travellers were published by Jonas
Hayyim Gurland in the rst volume of his Ginzei Yisrael be-Sankt-Peterburg
(Lyck: Rudolph Siebert, 1865; Hebrew). Sheluhei Erets Yisrael by Abraham
Yaari (Jerusalem: Yehuda, 1951) contains an extensive analysis of writings of
Jewish travellers to Palestine from the earliest days until the end of the eighteenth century; unfortunately, the author concentrated mostly on the Palestinian sections of the travel accounts. An extensive bibliography on Jewish travel
writings, with excerpts from many original documents, may be found in Jacob
Manns indispensable Texts and studies in Jewish history and literature, 2 vols
(Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1935; Hebrew with English intr. and extensive commentaries). Philip Millers study Karaite separatism
in nineteenth-century Russia: Joseph Solomon Lutskis epistle of Israels deliverance
(Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1993) analyzes a few nineteenth-century
travelogues written by east European Karaite Jews. Literary travelogues in Yiddish were analyzed by Leah Garrett in Journeys beyond the Pale: Yiddish travel
writing in the modern world (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, 2003).
However, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no comprehensive study of the travel accounts of east European Jewish travellers.

The best reference tool for any research in the eld of Jewish Studies (including Jewish travel writing) is the Encyclopedia Judaica (Jerusalem: Keter, 1971;
10 vols with later supplements; English). Also very helpful are Ha-Entsiqlopediyah ha-ivrit (Jerusalem: [n.p.], 19491981; 32 vols; Hebrew), the German
Encyclopedia Judaica (Berlin: [n.p.], 19281934; 10 vols until the letter M;
the series was stopped because of Hitlers ascension to power), and the Russian
Evreyskaya entsiklopediya (Russian; St Petersburg: Obshchestvo dlia nauchnykh
evreiskikh izdanii izdatelstva Brokhaus-Efron, 19061913). Polski sownik bio-


East European Travel Writing in Europe: A Bibliography

graczny (Krakw, Warsaw, and Wrocaw: Polska Akademija Umiejtnoci;

Polish; started in 1935; pub. before the Second World War by Gebetner and
Wolff; completed until the letter S) would be useful for its bibliography of
Jewish travellers born in Poland. Bolshaia sovetskaia entsiklopediia (Russian;
35 vols; 2nd ed., Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe nauchnoe izdatelstvo BSE,
19491965) might be useful for travellers who lived in the Russian/Soviet territory. Important references concerning books by Jewish travellers published
before the mid-nineteenth century might be found in Moritz Steinschneiders
classic Catalogus Librorum Hebraeorum in Bibliotheca Bodleiana (Berlin: [n.p.],
18521860); and, for books published before 1929, in A.E. Cowleys A concise
catalogue of the Hebrew printed books in the Bodleian Library (Oxford: Clarendon,
1929). An exhaustive bibliography of travelogues by Karaite Jewish travellers
might be found in the forthcoming book, The Karaites and Karaism: an annotated bibliography, ed. Barry Walsh with the assistance of Mikhail Kizilov (Jerusalem: Ben Zvi Institute, 2006). Biographical data on Karaite travellers may
also be found in The Karaite encyclopedia by Natan Schur (Vienna: P. Lang,
The most useful online catalogues may be found on the website of the
Hebrew University of Jerusalem (including the catalogues of the University
Library on Mount Scopus at and the Jewish National
Library on Givat Ram at, which may be browsed with
the ALEPH and RAMBI search systems and catalogues (however, one may encounter a number of technical difculties while downloading entries in Hebrew
characters). Also highly useful would be the online catalogue of the YIVO Institute for Jewish History (here the titles in Hebrew
characters are given in English transliteration) and the online edition of the
Jewish Encyclopedia at

Von Podolien nach Offenbach. Die jdische Heilsarmee des Jakob Frank. Zur Geschichte der frankistischen Bewegung. Offenbach: [n.p.], 1965. [on the travels of
Jacob Frank, a founder of Frankist movement]
Travels among Jews and Gentiles: Abraham Levies travelogue: Amsterdam 1764.
Ed. with intr. and commentary by Shlomo Berger. Leiden: Brill/Styx, 2002.
[analysis of the travel account by Abraham Levie of Amsterdam; intr. (pp.
156) contains information on Early Modern Jewish travelogues in Yiddish]
Ephraim Deinard (18461930): a transitional gure. M.A. dissertation. Columbia University, 1964. [biography of the Jewish collector and traveller Ephraim
Deinard with extensive bibliography of his publications]
Ephraim Deinard: bibliophile and bookman. Studies in bibliography and booklore 94 (2002): 137152.

Hebrew and Yiddish Travel Writing


Itinraires de la Terre Sainte de XIII., XIV., XV., XVI. et XVII sicles et traduits de lHbreu. Brussels: [n.p.], 1857. [collection of French translations of
c13c17 Hebrew travel accounts to the Holy Land, also incl. East European
A concise catalogue of the Hebrew printed books in the Bodleian Library. Oxford:
Clarendon, 1929. [catalogue of Hebrew printed books published pre-1929;
contains references to many Hebrew travelogues]
Trains and train travel in Modern Yiddish literature. Jewish social studies 7:2
(2001): 6788.
Journeys beyond the Pale: Yiddish travel writing in the modern world. Madison,
WI: University of Wisconsin, 2003. [c19 and c20 literary travelogues in Yiddish from Mendele Sforim to Shalom Aleichem]
Ginzei Yisrael be-Sankt-Peterburg [Jewish documents from St.Petersburg].
Vol. 1. Lyck: Rudolph Siebert, 1865. [Hebrew originals of Karaite travel accounts kept in St Petersburg archival collections, with commentaries and intr.
by editor]
Ephraim Deinard on the Shapira affair. In The book collector: special number for the 150th anniversary of Bernard Quaritch (1997), 167179. [discusses
historical value of writings of the famous Jewish collectors and travellers
Ephraim Deinard and Moses Shapira]
Karaites through the Travelers Eyes: ethnic history, traditional culture and everyday life of the Crimean Karaites according to descriptions of the travelers. New
York: al-Qirqisani, 2003. [analysis of accounts of European (incl. Jewish)
travellers to and from the Crimea]
Die Palstinasiedlung der polnishen Hasidim und die Wiener Kreise im Jahre
1700. In Abhandlungen zur Erinnerung an Hirsch Perez Chajes, Vienna: [n.p.],
1933, 5194. [travels of Polish Hassidic Jews to Jerusalem]
Masaot Erets Yisrael [Travels to the Land of Israel]. Ed. Avraham Yaari.
Tel-Aviv: [n.p.], 1946 [Hebrew; selection of travel writings by Jewish pilgrims
to the Holy Land with commentaries and biographic notes by editor]
Masa le-Polin [Journey to Poland: in search of a vanished Jewish world]. Ed.
Ruth Porter and Nili Kadari. Historical consultant Shlomo Netzer. Tel Aviv:
Nahum Goldmann Museum, 1990. [travel survey of the remains of Jewish
historical monuments and Jewish life in Poland]
Karaite separatism in nineteenth-century Russia: Joseph Solomon Lutskis epistle of


East European Travel Writing in Europe: A Bibliography

Israels deliverance. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1993. [Hebrew orig.

and Eng. trans. of a diary by a Karaite traveller Joseph Solomon Lutski to
Russia in 1827 (pp. 70204); Eng. trans. of travel diary of Isaac ben Solomon
(Russia, 1795) (pp. 215219); Crimean Tatar original in Hebrew characters,
Turkic transliteration, and English translation of MS diary of the journey to
Russia in 1827 (pp. 225244); extensive English commentaries, trans. and
intr. by Philip Miller]
Otsar Masaot. Kovets tiyurim shel nosim Yehudim be-Erets Yisrael, Surya,
Mitsrayim ve-artsot aherot. [Treasure-house of travels: a collection of itineraries by Jewish travellers to the Land of Israel, Syria, Egypt and other countries]. Sel. and ed. Judah David Eisenstein (18551956). New York: [n.p.],
1926; repr. Tel Aviv: [n.p.], 1969. [Hebrew; c12-c19 travel writings of Jewish
pilgrims to the Holy Land, commentaries and biographic notes by editor]
The literary genre of the travelogue in Hebrew Haskalah literature. Modern
Judaism 11:2 (1991): 241260. [on travel writing in Haskalah period]
Avraham Firkowicz in Istanbul (18301832): paving the way for Turkic nationalism. Ankara: KaraM, 2003. [biography of famous Karaite collector and
traveller Avraham Firkowicz, his life and travels in Poland, Lithuania, Russia,
the Caucasus, Palestine, and Turkey]
Hber ktforrsok Magyarorszg s a magyarorszgi zsidsg trtnethez a kezdetektl 1686-ig [Hebrew sources relating to the history of Hungary and Hungarian Jewry in the Middle Ages (from the beginnings until 1686)] (Hungaria
Judaica). Budapest: MTA Judaisztikai Kutatcsoport, 2003. [original texts in
Hebrew, Yiddish and Ladino relating to Hungary pre-1696; incl. a few travel
Catalogus librorum hebraeorum in bibliotheca Bodleiana jussu curatorum digessit et
notis instruxit M. Steinschneider. Berlin: [n.p.], 18521860; Berlin: Welt-Verlag, 1931. [catalogue of Hebrew printed books published before mid-nineteenth century; incl. references to many Hebrew travelogues]
Agli inizi della letteratura Ebraica contemporanea: Me-Hayye ha-Qeraim di
R. Fahn, tra folclore e letteratura. Annali di CaFoscari 26:3 (1987): 525
[discusses the travel account of the important Jewish historian and man of
letters, Reuven Fahn]
Le Sefer Massa Qrim de Deinard: but parodique ou polemique?. Revue des
tudies juives 157:12 (1998): 5767. [discusses historical value of writings of
the famous Jewish collector and traveller, Ephraim Deinard]
Wege nach Zion: Reiseberichte und Briefe aus Erez Jissrael in drei Jahrhunderten.
Berlin: Schocken Verlag, 1935 [travel account of European Jews to Israel]

Hebrew and Yiddish Travel Writing



Bibliotheca Hebraea. Hamburg: [n.p.], 17151733. [incl. Hebrew originals
and translations of some travel accounts]
Shelukhei Erets Yisrael [Messengers to the land of Israel]. Jerusalem: Yehuda,
1951. [extensive analysis of writings by Jewish travellers to Palestine from the
earliest days up until end c18; incl. data on east European Jewish travellers]
Geographische Literatur der Juden von den ltesten Zeiten bis zum Jahre
1841. In his Gesammelte Schriften. Vol. 1. Berlin: L. Gerschel, 1875, pp.
146216. [survey of Jewish travel and geographic literature until 1841; incl.
references to east European travel accounts]

TO 1850
HY 1

HY 2

HY 3


Masaot [Travels], in: Ginzei Yisrael be-Sankt-Peterburg [Jewish
documents from St Petersburg]. Vol. 1. Ed. Jonas Gurland. Lyck: Rudolph Siebert, 1865, pp. 4454. [Hebrew; Ukraine/Crimea/Eupatoria,
Chufut-Kale, Balaklava; Cyprus; Turkey/Istanbul; Israel/Jerusalem,
Hebron; Crimean and Lithuanian Karaite pilgrimage to Palestine,
Masaot ha-qaraim le-erets Yisrael: Binyamin ben Eliyahu [Travels of the Karaites to the land of Israel: Benjamin ben Elijah], in Otsar
Masaot: a collection of itineraries by Jewish travellers. Sel. and ed. J.D.
Eisenstein. Tel Aviv: [n.p.], 1969, pp. 212218.
Also in: Masaot Erets Yisrael. Ed. Abraham Yaari Tel Aviv: [n.p.].
1946, pp. 459477.
Modern Polish and 19th-century Karaimo-Qipchak translations: Opis
podry do Ziemi witej. Trans. Ananiasz Zajczkowski. Mysl Karaimska 2: 34 (1931): 2642.
Shaalu shalom Yerushalayim [Remember Jerusalem]. Berlin: [n.p.],
1716 [Hebrew; Hungary; Poland; Germany; Palestine; 170006,
travel of a group of Judah Hasids followers from Poland to Jerusalem]
Also in: Masaot Erets Yisrael. Ed. Abraham Yaari Tel Aviv: [n.p.],
1946, pp. 323367.
Galilot erets-Yisrael [Regions of the land of Israel]. Lublin: [n.p.],
163435; also pub. Frth: [n.p.], 1691; Amsterdam: [n.p.], 1705
[Hebrew; Ukraine/Southern Ukraine, Crimea; Armenia; Turkey/Istanbul; Israel; 162431]
Iggeret ha-qodesh: galilot erets-Yisrael [A sacred epistle: regions of the
land of Israel]. Grodno: [n.p.], 1796.


East European Travel Writing in Europe: A Bibliography

Also in Otsar Masaot: a collection of itineraries by Jewish travellers. Sel.
and ed. J.D. Eisenstein. Tel Aviv: [n.p.], 1969, pp. 176187.

HY 4

HY 5

HY 6

HY 7

HY 8


Hibat Tsiyyon [Love of Zion]. Jerusalem: [n.p.], 1844; Knigsberg:
[n.p.], 1858; Vilnius: [n.p.], 1875. [Hebrew; Ukraine/Kremenets;
Moldova; Turkey/Istanbul; Palestine; travelled 1817]
LUCKI (pron. utski), JOSEPH SOLOMON (1770?1844; Polish-born
Karaite Jew from uck).
Iggeret teshuat Yisrael [Epistle of Israels deliverance]. Gezleve/Eupatoria: [n.p.], [1840s]. [Hebrew; Ukraine/Crimea/Eupatoria, Simferopol, Perekop; Ukraine/Kherson, Odessa, Kharkiv, Poltava, Zhitomir;
Russia/St Petersburg (Hermitage, Kunstkammer, visit to Tsar Nicholas I), Novgorod, Moscow, Kursk, Orel; incl. Crimean Tatar trans. in
Hebrew characters; travels of Crimean Karaites to St Petersburg in
1827 seeking exemption from military service for Karaite youth]
English translation: Karaite separatism in nineteenth-century Russia: Joseph Solomon Lutskis epistle of Israels deliverance. Trans. Philip Miller.
Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1993, pp. 70204. [incl. original]
Qorot ha-ittim li-yishurun be-erets Yisrael [History of the people of
Israel in the Land of Israel]. Vilnius: [n.p.], 1840 [Hebrew; Ukraine/
Podolia, Odessa; Turkey/Istanbul; Palestine; travelled 18334]
Also in: Masaot Erets Yisrael. Ed. Abraham Yaari Tel Aviv: [n.p.].
1946, pp. 532544.
Masaot [Travels], in: Ginzei Yisrael be-Sankt-Peterburg [Jewish
documents from St Petersburg]. Vol. 1. Ed. Jonas Gurland. Lyck: Rudolph Siebert, 1865, pp. 3143 [Hebrew; Ukraine/Crimea/Theodosia;
Turkey/Istanbul; Israel/Jerusalem; Egypt/Cairo, Alexandria; Syria/Damascus; Crimean Karaite pilgrimage to Palestine, 165455]
Masaot ha-qaraim le-erets Yisrael: Mosheh Yerushalmi ben Eliyahu Halevi [Travels of the Karaites to the land of Israel: Moses ben
Elijah Halevi, pilgrim to Jerusalem], in Otsar Masaot: a collection of
itineraries by Jewish travellers. Sel. and ed. J.D. Eisenstein. Tel Aviv:
[n.p.], 1969, pp. 206211.
Also in: Masaot Erets Yisrael. Ed. Abraham Yaari Tel Aviv: [n.p.],
1946, pp. 305322.
Foriat] of Prague (c. 1610?).
Darkhei Tzion [The roads of Zion]. Amsterdam: [n.p.], 1650. [Yiddish; Hungary/Budapest; Turkey/Istanbul; Ukraine/Kamieniec Podolski; Israel/Jerusalem]
German translation/adaptation in: Wege nach Zion. Reiseberichte und

Hebrew and Yiddish Travel Writing


Briefe aus Erez Jissrael in drei Jahrhunderten. Trans. Kurt Wilhelm.

Berlin: Schocken Verlag, 1935.
Hebrew translation in: Masaot Erets Yisrael. Ed. Abraham Yaari Tel
Aviv: [n.p.]. 1946, pp. 267304
Hungarian translation in: Hber ktforrsok Magyarorszg s a magyarorszgi zsidsg trtnethez a kezdetektl 1686-ig (Hungaria Judaica
135). Ed. Shlomo J. Spitzer and Gza Komorczy. Budapest: MTA
Judaisztikai Kutatcsoport, 2003, pp. 579584 [incl. excerpts from
HY 9

NAHMAN OF BRATSLAV (17721810; Jewish Hasidic leader).

Nesiot ha-yam [Travels by the sea]. Warsaw: [n.p.], 1846, 1850,
1879. [Hebrew; Ukraine/Nikolaev, Odessa; Turkey/Istanbul; Croatia/
Dubrovnik; Greece/Rhodes; Rumania/Iai; travelled 179899]
Also in: Masaot Erets Yisrael. Ed. Abraham Yaari Tel Aviv: [n.p.].
1946, pp. 478499; and in some other collections of writings of Rabbi


HY 10 Masaot [Travels], in: Ginzei Yisrael be-Sankt-Peterburg [Jewish
documents from St Petersburg]. Vol. 1. Ed. Jonas Gurland. Lyck: Rudolph Siebert, 1865, pp. 130 [Hebrew; Ukraine/Crimea/Eupatoria;
Turkey/Istanbul, zmir; Israel/Jerusalem; Egypt/Cairo; Syria/Aleppo,
Damascus; group of Crimean and Polish Karaite pilgrims travel diary
to Palestine, 16412]
Masaot ha-qaraim le-erets Yisrael: Shemuel ben David [Travels of the Karaites to the land of Israel: Samuel ben David], in Otsar
Masaot: a collection of itineraries by Jewish travellers. Sel. and ed. J. D.
Eisenstein. Tel Aviv: [n.p.], 1969, pp. 188205.
Also in: Masaot Erets Yisrael. Ed. Abraham Yaari Tel Aviv: [n.p.].
1946, pp. 221266.
English translation: Jemsel the Karaite. In: Jewish travellers in the Middle Ages: 19 rsthand accounts. New York: Dover, 1987, pp. 329244.
Latin translation: by G. Peringer in Wolf, Bibliotheca Hebraea.
HY 11 Doresh Tsiyon [Lover of Zion]. Ed. H.E. Hausdorff. Jerusalem:
[n.p.], 1887 [Hebrew; Ukraine/Brody, Sniatyn; Poland/Gdask;
Greece/Rhodes; Turkey/Istanbul, Hasky; Italy/Livorno; Israel/Jerusalem; travel diary by group of Hasidic Jews from Poland and Lithuania
to Palestine, 176465]
Ahavat Tsiyon [Love of Zion]. Grodno: [n.p.], 1790.
Also in: Otsar Masaot: a collection of itineraries by Jewish travellers.
Sel. and ed. J.D. Eisenstein. Tel Aviv: [n.p.], 1969, pp. 237251.
Also in: Masaot Erets Yisrael. Ed. Abraham Yaari Tel Aviv: [n.p.].
1946, pp. 382423.


East European Travel Writing in Europe: A Bibliography


HY 12 Sibuv qivrei ha-tsaddiqim [A tour round the graves of the righteous],
Amsterdam: [n.p.], n.d. [Yiddish; Israel; 17th century]
HY 13 Edut be-Yosef [Testimony of Joseph]. Frankfurt/Oder: [n.p.], 1765.
[Hebrew; Ukraine/Brody; Israel/Safed; travel diary from Brody to Palestine, 1758]
Yiddish version: Iggeret Yosef [An epistle of Joseph]. Frankfurt/Oder:
[n.p.], 1767.

ASHER BEN JOSHUA GINZBURG [Ahad ha-Am] (18561927; man of
letters, public gure).
HY 14 Emet me-erets Yisrael [Truth from the land of Israel]. In: HaMelits 31:125134. St Petersburg: [n.p.], 1891 [Hebrew; Israel; travel
memoir written on boat from Jaffa to Odessa, 1891]
Also in: Masaot Erets Yisrael. Ed. Abraham Yaari Tel Aviv: [n.p.],
1946, pp. 708732.
HY 15 Sefer ha-masa la-arets ha-qedoshah [A travel to the Holy Land]. Warsaw: [n.p.], 1883; 2nd ed., Kiev: [n.p.], 1884 [Hebrew; Palestine;
noted apologist of rabbinical Judaism]
BERMAN, SIMON (1818?; Jewish author and traveller from Krakw).
HY 16 Masaot Shimon [Travels of Simon]. Krakw: Fischer und Weindling, 1879. [Judeo-German; Poland/Galicia; Palestine; travelled
Abridged Hebrew translation in: Masaot Erets Yisrael. Ed. Abraham
Yaari Tel Aviv: [n.p.]. 1946, pp. 593610.
CHERNYI, JOSEPH JUDAH (18351880; Russian Jewish traveller, ethnographer).
HY 17 Sefer ha-masaot ba-arets Kavkaz [Book of travels to the Caucasus].
Ed. A. Harkavy. St Petersburg: ha-Hevrah Li-tarbut Haskhalah etsel
Yehudei Rusia, 1884. [Hebrew; Caucasus; Central Asia; Forschungsreise to Jewish communities there]
C OHEN , M ORDECAI BEN H ILLEL (b.Mohilev, 1856d.Jerusalem,
HY 18 Al adamat Yisrael [About the land of Israel]. St Petersburg: W. Ettinger, 1890.
Also in: Masaot Erets Yisrael. Ed. Abraham Yaari Tel Aviv: [n.p.].
1946, pp. 651707 [Hebrew; Ukraine/Odessa; Turkey/Istanbul;
Egypt/Port Said; Israel; travelled 1889]
DEINARD, EPHRAIM [Adir] (18461930; traveller, man of letters, collector of Hebrew MSS and rare prints).

Hebrew and Yiddish Travel Writing


HY 19 Masa Qerim [Description of the Crimea]. Warsaw: I. Goldmann,

1878. [Hebrew; Ukraine/Crimea/Simferopol, Bakhchisaray, ChufutKale, Sevastopol, Bilohirsk; historical treatise in form of travel account late 1860searly 1870s]
HY 20 Masa ba-hatsi ha-i Qerim [Travel to the Crimean peninsula]. 2 vols.
Warsaw: Alexander Gins, 1879. [Hebrew; Ukraine/Southern Ukraine;
Ukraine/Crimea/incl. Perekop, Armiansk, Eupatoria, Alushta, Simferopol, Bakhchisaray, Sevastopol, Bilohirsk; caves towns: Chufut-Kale,
Mangup, Tepe-Kermen, Eski-Kermen; caves in vicinity of ChatyrDag]
HY 21 Masa be-erets ha-qedem [Travel to the East]. Pressburg [Bratislava]:
Lwy and Alkalay, 1883. [Hebrew; Russia/St Petersburg; Ukraine/
Crimea/Kerch, Theodosia, Sevastopol; Turkey/Istanbul, zmir;
Greece/Crete, Rhodes; Egypt/Alexandria, Cairo; Israel/Jerusalem;
HY 22 Masa be-Eiropa [Travel to Europe]. Pressburg [Bratislava]: Lwy
and Alkalay, 1885. [Hebrew; Ukraine/Southern Ukraine, Podolia,
Galicia; Poland/d; Russia/St Petersburg; Lithuania/Vilnius; Estonia; Finland; Germany; France; United Kingdom; Austria; Hungary;
Romania; Turkey; travelled 1880]
FAHN, REUVEN (1878d.a. 1939; Zionist, historian, ethnographer,
man of letters from Galicia).
HY 23 Me-Hayye ha-Qeraim [From the life of the Karaites]. HaliczDrohobycz: A.H. Zupnik, 1908. Berlin: B.Harz, c.1912. [Hebrew;
Ukraine/Galicia, Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk; life of local Jewish communities]
Abridged German translation: Aus dem Leben der Karaiten, Ost und
West 1 (1912): 6670; Ost und West 2 (1912): 135144.
HY 24 Me-Hayye ha-Qeraim [From the life of the Karaites]. Kitve Ruben
Fahn. Part.1. Sefer ha-Qera'im. Part 2: Me-Hayye ha-Qeraim. Bigoraj:
[n.p.], 1929, 145240. [Hebrew; considerably enlarged/revised variant of above; repub. a few times in Israel after 1945]
FIRKOVICH, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL (17871874; collector of Hebrew
MSS, traveller). [see also LIC 19452000]
HY 25 Avnei Zikkaron [Memorial Stones]. 2 parts. Vilnius: S. Finn and A.
Rosenkranz, 1872. [Ukraine/Crimea/Chufut-Kale, Bilohirsk, Theodosia, Bakhchisaray; Lithuania/Vilnius, Trakai; Caucasus/Derbent,
Madjeliss; Turkey/Istanbul, Israel; Syria; Iraq; Egypt]
MANDELSTAMM, BENJAMIN (end c181886; Russian Hebraist and author).
HY 26 Hazon la-moed [A prophecy]. Vienna: [n.p.], 1877. [Hebrew; Lithuania/agar; Russia/Moscow; Ukraine/Crimea; description of Crimea
and position of Russian Jews, travelled 1835]


East European Travel Writing in Europe: A Bibliography

SLOUSCHZ, NAHUM (18721966; Russian Hebrew litterateur from

HY 27 Masa be-Mitsrayim [A travel to Egypt]. Krakw: Tushiyah, 1907.
[Hebrew; Egypt]
HY 28 Masaey bney Yisroel / Masaei benei Yisrael [Travels of the sons of
Israel]. Paks: Rosenbaum, 1910. [Judeo-German/Yiddish; Hungary/
Budapest; Israel; trip made by Orthodox community from Budapest
to Palestine, by participant]
Hebrew translation: In Sinai, 30. Trans. Naftali Ben-Menahem. [contains three other parts: Tle le-oyley Tsiyon; Gebete; Di konigskrone. 8,
pp. 24 (the four parts together p. 64)].

ASCH, SHOLEM (18801957).
HY 29 Mayn rayze iber Shpanyen [My journey to Spain]. Warsaw: Kulturlige, 1926. [Yiddish; Spain]
HY 30 Mayn rayze in Erets Yisroel [My travel to the land of Israel]. New
York: Tageblat, 1921. [Yiddish; Israel]
HOFFMAN, BENZION (18741954).
HY 31 Mayn rayze in Erets Yisroel [My travel to the land of Israel]. Warsaw:
Di Velt, 1923. [Yiddish; Israel]
HY 32 Der veg keyn Birobidzshan: rayze-bilder [The road to Birobidzhan:
travel impressions]. Moscow: Emes, 1940. [Yiddish; USSR/Russia/
incl. Siberia/Birobidzhan]
HY 33 A rayze keyn Birebidzshan: fun mayn togbukh [A journey to Birobidzhan: from my diary]. Kiev: Melukhe-farlag far di natsionale minderhaytn in USSR, 1937. [Yiddish; USSR/Russia/incl. Siberia/Birobidzhan]
MEKLER, D. L. (b.1891).
HY 34 Mentsh un mashin in Sovyetn-land: faktn, bilder, eyndrukn fun a rayze
iber Sovyet-Rusland [A man and machine in the Soviet Union: facts,
sketches, impressions from a travel to Soviet Russia]. Warsaw: Y.
Ziman, 1936. [Yiddish; USSR/Russia]
PERELMAN, OSHER (b. 1895).
HY 35 Biro Bidzshan: shilderungen fun a rayze in Yuli-Oygust 1934 [Yiddish; Birobidzhan: notes on a journey in JulyAugust 1934]. Warsaw:

Hebrew and Yiddish Travel Writing


Groshn-bibliotek, 1934; Buenos Aires: Farlag Folks-bibliotek, 1934.

[USSR/Russia/incl. Siberia/Birobidzhan]
HY 36 Min ha-moledet: rishmei masa be-Erets Yisrael veha-aratsot ha-semukhot [From the homeland: travel to the land of Israel and adjacent
countries]. Warsaw: Levin-Epshtayn, 1921. [Hebrew]

HY 37 Akhzar mi-kol ha-mifgash (masa le-Polin, 1983) [A harsh encounter:
travel to Poland, 1983]. Tel Aviv: Hotsaat Gazit, 1983. [Hebrew; Poland; journey to Poland by Holocaust survivor, 1983]
CASPI (Srebrenik), MENACHEM (b.1920).
HY 38 Ke-aleh nidaf ba-ruah: masa le-tokh Varshah ha-Yehudit she-hayetah ve-enenah od [As a leaf in the wind: a journey to Jewish Warsaw
which was and is no more]. Tel Aviv: Yaron Golan, 1995. [Hebrew;
Poland/Warsaw; travel memoir by Holocaust survivor, pupil at Jewish
yeshivah in Warsaw before the war]
GORDON, SHMUEL (b.1909).
HY 39 Birebidzshaner toyshvim: rayze-bilder [Inhabitants of Birobidzhan:
travel sketches]. Moscow: Emes, 1947. [Yiddish; USSR/Russia/incl.
HY 40 Bene ha-ayarah mesaprim: sipurim historiyim mi-Milhemet ha-olam
ha-sheniyah [Inhabitants of a small town recount: historical tales
from the Second World War]. Bene-Berak: Yotse Horodlah be-Erets
Yisrael, 2000. [Hebrew; Poland/Horoda, Lublin; travels of Holocaust survivor in Poland during Second World War]
GOTTLOBER, ABRAHAM BAER (181099; Jewish enlightener-maskil,
man of letters).
HY 41 Zikhronot u-masaot [Memoirs and travels]. Sel. and ed. with intr.
and notes by Reuven Goldberg. 2 vols. Jerusalem: Bialik Institute,
1976. [Russia/St. Petersburg, Moscow; Ukraine/Kamieniets Podolski,
Kiev, Kharkiv, Zhytomir, Lviv; Belarus/Minsk, Hrodno; Poland/Warsaw, Krakw, Biaystok; Lithuania/Vilnius, Kaunas; Romania; travelled 1820s70s]
HY 42 Masa shel Yanko [Yankos travel]. Konstanz: Hartung-Gorre, 2001.
[Ukraine/Chernivtsi; Moldova; Israel; travels 194156]