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in TLE Home Economics G-7, 1ST Quarter


At the end of the lesson, the students must be able to:
a. Identify the seven (7) major ingredients in baking;
b. Classify its purpose and function, and
c. Describe the importance of different ingredients and their

Subject Matter:
1. Topic: Baking Ingredients and its Functions
2. Reference: Textbook on Technology and Livelihood Education G-7,
BEC Guide in TVL- HE (Bread and Pastry Production, p.3
3. Materials: Projector, Laptop, Printed Pictures, Cut-out letters, Baked
Products, Manila Paper, Pentel pen, Adhesive tape
III. Learning Activities:
A. Preliminary Activities
- Opening Prayer
- Checking of Attendance
- Recap of previous lesson
B. Priming: - Singing of song
The teacher will divide the class into three groups and in a domino
way, the student will sing the nursery rhymes Mary Had A Little
Lamb substituting it with words related to the topics.
Original lyrics:
Mary had a little lamb little lamb little lamb
Mary had a little lamb its fleece was white as snow.
Substituted lyrics:
Group 1
Mary had a pack of breads pack of breads pack of breads
Mary had a pack of breads, with fillings inside it.
Group 2
Mary had a sweet cupcake sweet cupcake sweet cupcake
Mary had a sweet cupcake, with icing on the top.
Group 3
Mary had an ice cream cone ice cream cone ice cream cone
Mary had an ice cream cone with ice cream on the top.

C. Activity:
Activity Sheets:
III. Procedure:
1. Observe all materials/ingredients that you have.
2. Fill-out the table to show the similarities and difference.


3. Present your output in 5 minutes.
D. Analysis:
Write guide questions leading to generalization.
E. Abstraction:
Baking Ingredients and Its Functions
1. FLOUR - a powdery substance produced by finely grinding grain
through a process called milling.
- basically the main ingredients of baked products.
Kinds of Flour
- Bread Flour - has the highest amount of protein
thus, has high gluten content, so it is used for
breads. Bread flour is creamy in color and is rather
rough and granular.
- Cake Flour sometimes called soft flour as it
is milled from soft white wheat. It is described
as weak because the products made from it are
tender with delicate texture.

- All Purpose Flour - made from a combination of

bread and cake flour sources and has medium
gluten strength. It is suitable for almost any baking
- Self-rising Flour - kind of flour is already
contains leavening agent and salt

- Rye Flour - has a distinctive flavor many

people like and it contains no gluten

2. SHORTENINGS Is another word for fat used in baking

- Vegetable oil

- Butter - is a product of an
animal that has been churned
until the fat separates from the

- Lard - a soft white substance

that is made from the fat of
pigs and used in cooking
- Margarine - a kind of shortening
that was made by a process using
margaric acid

3. SUGARS Is responsible for the attractive golden brown color of

baked products. It contributes to the development of good flavor
and aroma.
- Ultrafined sugar - used for cakes and
cookies. Sometimes this sugar is called
bakers special

- Granulated sugar - a kind of sugar that is

commonly used at home
- Powdered sugar - also called confectioners
sugar or icing sugar. It is used in making
frostings and icings.
- Brown sugar - often called soft sugar
because of its moisture content. Its color may
vary from the light to dark brown.

4. LEAVENER OR LEAVENING AGENT - a substance that is used in

baking to make the product rise.
- Yeast - a single-celled plant that
feeds on starch and sugar and
helps the dough to make it rise.
- Chemical Leavening agents - a
leavening agent that help the baked
products become light and fluffy.

- Steam - considered as a powerful leavener because

water change steam when heated causing the mixture to
-Air - works as a leavener because it expands when

5. LIQUIDSExamples:
- Water - a kind of liquid that gives
texture to the different baked products.
It gives different texture to baked items.

- Milk - gives finer, more velvety grain and it adds

flavor. It helps the product stay longer.

6. EGGS - are one of the important ingredients in baking because eggs

hold the shape and other ingredients of the
baked products.
- are essential because they
maintain the structure of the cake
or baked products
- Salt - gives finer texture to bread and
adds flavor that enhance the sweet taste of
baked products.
- Chocolate and cocoa - used to give
flavor and color to the bread and

- Fruit flavors and spices - extracts from

the base of fruits. They add a pleasant
odor to baked products.

F. Application:
Relate the concept to daily experience.
1. Have you taste several varieties of cupcakes?
2. Would you like to try making some products?
IV. Evaluation:
Direction: Answer the following questions briefly.
1. Why baker used leavener in making bread?
2. What will happen to a baked products if you add less sugar? Add
more sugar? Why?

1. Bring the following ingredients:
- Cake flour
- Baking powder
- Butter
- Cocoa
- Eggs
- Confectioners sugar
2. Look for a recipe of cake.

Prepared by: