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Conics Sections

(Parabola and Ellipses)

Mathematics 54Elementary Analysis 2

Institute of Mathematics

University of the Philippines-Diliman

1 / 28

Introduction

by a plane. Below are samples of conic sections.

2 / 28

Exercises

Parabola

The set of all points in the plane whose distance from a fixed point (focus)

is equal to its distance from a fixed line (directrix).

3 / 28

Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

distance of P to F

p

(x p)2 + (y 0)2

p

(x p)2 + y 2

(x p)2 + y 2

2

x 2px + p2 + y 2

y2

= distance of P to D

= x (p)

= x + p

= (x + p)2

= x2 + 2px + p2

= 4px

4 / 28

Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

y2 = 4px

focus: (p, 0)

directrix: x = p

called axis of symmetry or simply, axis.

The intersection of the axis and the parabola is the vertex. Its

distance from the focus is p, which is its distance from the directrix.

The line segment with endpoints on the parabola and parallel to the

directrix that contains the focus is called latus rectum.

5 / 28

Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

y 2 = 4px

F : (p, 0)

p>0

x2 = 4py

p>0

D : x = p

p<0

F : (0, p)

D : y = p

p<0

6 / 28

Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Example

Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 .

Solution:

The equation can be written as

4(3)y = x2 .

Here, p = 3, thus the parabola

opens upwards.

The vertex is at the origin.

The focus is at (0, 3).

The endpoints of the latus rectum

are at (6, 3) and (6, 3).

Additionally, the directrix is the line

y = 3.

7 / 28

Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Example

Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0.

Solution:

The equation can

be

written as

4x = 3y 2 , or 4 13 x = y 2 .

Here, p = 13 , and the parabola

opens to the left.

The vertex is at the origin.

The focus is at 13 , 0 .

The endpoints

of the

latus rectum

are at 13 , 23 and 13 , 32 .

Additionally, the directrix is the line

x = 13 .

8 / 28

Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

In general, if the vertex of a parabola is at the point (h, k), then it has either

of the form

(y k)2 = 4p(x h)

(x h)2 = 4p(y k)

9 / 28

Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

(y k)2 = 4p(x h)

(p > 0)

vertex : (h, k)

focus : (h + p, k)

latus rectum :

(h + p, k 2p)

directrix : x = h p

10 / 28

Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the left

(y k)2 = 4p(x h)

(p > 0)

vertex : (h, k)

focus : (h p, k)

latus rectum :

(h p, k 2p)

directrix : x = h + p

11 / 28

Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening upward

(x h)2 = 4p(y k)

(p > 0)

vertex : (h, k)

focus : (h, k + p)

latus rectum :

(h 2p, k + p)

directrix : y = k p

12 / 28

Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening downward

(x h)2 = 4p(y k)

(p > 0)

vertex : (h, k)

focus : (h, k p)

latus rectum :

(h 2p, k p)

directrix : y = k + p

13 / 28

Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Example

Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of

latus rectum, and the directrix.

Solution:

The equation can be written as

y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or

2

y (4) = 4(1)(x 4).

Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens

to the left.

The vertex is at (4, 4).

The focus is at (3, 4).

The endpoints of the latus rectum

are at (3, 2) and (3, 6).

Also, the directrix is the line x = 5.

14 / 28

Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Example

Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the

directrix is the line y = 4.

Solution:

directrix.

Thus, the vertex is at (3, 3), and the

parabola opens downwards.

Hence, p = 1 = 4p = 4.

Thus, the equation is

(x 3)2 = 4(y 3).

15 / 28

Exercises

Exercises

1

4y 2 + 4y + x = 2.

x2 6x 2y = 7.

2y 2 6y 9x = 0.

1

3y 2 = 8x.

x2 8x + 4y = 10

16 / 28

Exercises

Ellipse

An ellipse is a set of points in the plane whose distances from two fixed

points (foci) sum up to a constant.

17 / 28

Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Vertices : V1 = (a, 0) and V2 = (a, 0)

Endpoints of minor axis: (0, b) and (0, b)

Point P = (x, y) is on the ellipse if

distance of P to F1 + distance of P to F2 = constant2a

q

q

(x + c)2 + y 2 + (x c)2 + y 2 = 2a

18 / 28

Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

q

(x + c)2 + y 2

x2 + 2cx + c2 + y 2

q

4a (x c)2 + y 2

a2 x2 2cx + c2 + y 2

(x c)2 + y 2

q

4a2 4a (x c)2 + y 2 + x2 2cx + c2 + y 2

4a2 4cx

a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2

a2 x2 2a2 cx + a2 c2 + a2 y 2

2

a c 2 x 2 + a2 y 2

=

=

a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2

a2 a2 c 2

x2

y2

+

a2 a2 c 2

2a

19 / 28

Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

y2

x2

+ 2

=1

2

a a c2

Notice that b2 = a2 c2 .

Thus, we have

x2 y 2

+

= 1.

a2 b2

20 / 28

Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Ellipse with horizontal major axis

An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form

x2 y 2

+

=1

a2 b2

where (a > b)

vertices : (a, 0)

length of major axis = 2a

minor axis: (0, b)

length of minor axis = 2b

foci : (c, 0)

where a2 b2 = c2

21 / 28

Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis

An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form

y 2 x2

+

=1

a2 b2

where (a > b)

vertices : (0, a)

length of major axis = 2a

minor axis: (b, 0)

length of minor axis = 2b

foci : (0, c)

where a2 b2 = c2

22 / 28

Exercises

Ellipse

Example

Sketch the graph of

x2 y 2

+

= 1.

25 9

x2 y 2

+

= 1.

52 32

minor axis : B1 (0, 3), B2 (0, 3)

c2 = a2 b2 = 52 32 = 16= 42

foci : F1 (4, 0), F2 (4, 0)

23 / 28

Exercises

Ellipse

Example

Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36.

Solution. The equation can be written as

x2 y 2

+

= 1.

22 32

minor axis : B1 (2, 0), B2 (2, 0)

p

c2 = a2 b2 = 32 22 = 5= ( 5)2

p

p

foci : F1 (0, 5), F2 (0, 5)

24 / 28

Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

In general, suppose the graph of an ellipse is translated so that the center

is at (h, k). The equation of the ellipse has either of the form

(A)

(x h)2 (y k)2

+

=1

a2

b2

or

(B)

(y k)2 (x h)2

+

= 1.

a2

b2

Major Axis

Vertices

Minor Axis

horizontal

(h a, k)

(h, k b)

vertical

(h, k a)

(h b, k)

25 / 28

Exercises

Ellipse

Example

Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0.

Solution. The equation can be written as

25x2 +y 2 4y+4 = 21+4

= 25x2 +(y2)2 = 25

(x 0)2 (y 2)2

+

=1

12

52

minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2)

p 2

c2 = a2 b2 = 52 12 = 24= 24

p

p

foci : F1 (0, 2+ 24), F2 (0, 2 24)

26 / 28

Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Example

Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis

has one endpoint at (1, 1)

Solution:

Center : (1, 2)

a=4

b=3

The major axis is

horizontal.

Thus, the equation is

(x + 1)2 (y 2)2

+

= 1.

16

9

27 / 28

Exercises

Exercises

1

1

x2 (y 1)2

+

= 1.

4

9

(x 3)2 y 2 + 4y + 4

= 1.

25

9

Do as indicated.

1

Determine the equation of the parabola whose focus and vertex are the

vertex and focus, respectively of the parabola x + 4y 2 y = 0.

vertex and focus are the vertices of the ellipse

4(x 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 1.

28 / 28

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