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The following is an appendix to Cases and Strategies for Preventive Action, edited by Barnett R. Rubin, The Century Foundation Press (1998). The book was sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations and The Twentieth Century Fund.

Appendix C Selected Bibliography
This is only a sample of the available literature on the topics specified below. CONFLICT PREVENTION Adelman, Howard, and Astri Suhrke. "Early Warning and Conflict Management: Genocide in Rwanda." Study II of the Evaluation of Emergency Assistance to Rwanda. Bergen, Norway: Christian Michelson Institute, 1995. Bauwens, Werner, and Luc Reychler, eds. The Art of Conflict Prevention. London: Brassey's, 1994. Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peace-Keeping. New York: United Nations Doc. S/24111, June 17, 1992. Brown, Sheryl J., and Kimber M. Schraub, eds. Resolving Third World Conflict: Challenges for a New Era. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 1992. Cahill, Kevin M., ed. Preventive Diplomacy: Stopping Wars before They Start. New York: Basic Books, 1996. Chayes, Abram, and Antonia Handler Chayes, eds. Preventing Conflict in the PostCommunist World: Mobilizing International and Regional Organizations. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1996. Conflict Prevention: Strategies to Sustain Peace in the Post-Cold War World. Report of the Aspen Institute Conference, July 30-August 3, 1996. Aspen, CO: The Aspen Institute, 1997. Crocker, Chester A., Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall, eds. Managing Global Chaos: Sources of and Responses to International Conflict. Washington: United States Institute of Peace, l996. DeMars, William. Precarious Partnership: Government-NGO Collaboration for Conflict Prevention. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame, 1995.

Diamond, Louise, and John McDonald. Multi-Track Diplomacy: A Systems Approach to Peace. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 1996. Gelb, Leslie H. "Quelling the Teacup Wars: The New World's Constant Challenge." Foreign Affairs 73, no. 6 (November/December 1994), pp. 2-6. Gurr, Ted Robert. Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflicts. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 1993. Haass, Richard N. The Reluctant Sheriff: The United States after the Cold War. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1997. Kuroda, Michiko, and Kumar Rupesinghe, eds. Early Warning and Conflict Resolution. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. Lederach, John Paul. Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 1997. Lund, Michael S. Preventing Violent Conflicts: A Strategy for Preventive Diplomacy. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 1996. Lund, Michael S., et al. Preventing and Mitigating Violent Conflicts: A Revised Guide for Practitioners. Prepared for the Greater Horn of Africa Initiative, the U.S. Department of State, and U.S AID. Washington, D.C.: Creative Associates International, April 1997. Mitchell, Christopher and Michael Banks. Handbook of Conflict Resolution: The Analytical Problem-Solving Approach. London: Pinter, 1996. Montville, Joseph V., ed. Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies. New York: Lexington Books, 1991. Preventing Violent Conflict: A Study. Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1997. Rothberg, Robert I., ed. Vigilance and Vengeance: NGOs Preventing Ethnic Conflict in Divided Societies. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1996. Rupesinghe, Kumar, ed. Conflict Transformation. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. Sisk, Timothy D. Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 1996. Stedman, Stephen John. "Alchemy for a New World Order-Overselling 'Preventive Diplomacy'." Foreign Affairs 74, no. 3 (May/June 1995), pp. 14-20. Zartman, William I. Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1995.

Zartman, William I., and J. Lewis Rasmussen, eds. Peacemaking in International Conflict: Methods and Techniques. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 1997. THE SOUTH BALKANS Burg, Steven L. War or Peace? Nationalism, Democracy and American Foreign Policy in Post-Communist Europe. New York: New York University Press, 1996. Burg, Steven L., and Michael L. Berbaum. "Community, Integration, and Stability in MultiNational Yugoslavia." American Political Science Review 83 (June 1989), pp. 535-54. Duijzings, Ger, Dusan Janjic, and Shkelzen Maliqi, eds. Kosovo-Kosova: Confrontation or Coexistence? Nijmegen: Peace Research Center, University of Nijmegen, 1997. Janjic, Dusan and Shkelzen Maliqi, eds. Conflict or Dialogue? Subotica: Open University, 1994. Rubin, Barnett R., ed. Toward Comprehensive Peace in Southeast Europe: Conflict Prevention in the South Balkans. New York: Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1996. The executive summary may also be found at www.foreignrelations.org/studies/transcripts/recommend.html Rychlik, Jan. "National Consciousness and the Common State: A Historical-Ethnological Analysis." In Jiri Musil, ed. The End of Czechoslovakia. Budapest: Central European University Press, 1995; pp. 95-105. Sekulic, Dusko, et al. "Who Were the Yugoslavs? Failed Sources of a Common Identity in the Former Yugoslavia." American Sociological Review 59 (February 1994), pp. 83-97. BURUNDI Chrétien, Jean Pierre. Burundi: L'Histoire Retrouvée. Paris: éditions Karthala, 1993. Guichaoua, André, ed. Les Crises Politiques au Burundi et au Rwanda: 1993-1994, 2e Edition. Paris: Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 1995. Lemarchand, René. Burundi: Ethnocide as Discourse and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. "Les politiques de la haine: Rwanda, Burundi, 1994-1995." Les Temps Modernes no. 583 (Juillet/Ao*t). Ould Abdallah, Ahmedou. La Diplomatie Pyromane: Burundi, Rwanda, Somalie, Bosnie . . . Paris: Calmann-LEvy, 1996. Prunier, Gérard. "Burundi: Descent into Chaos or a Manageable Crisis." WRITENET Country Papers (March 1995) at

http://www.unhcr.ch/refworld/country/writenet/wribdi01.htm. Prunier, GErard. "Burundi: Update to Early August 1995." WRITENET Country Papers (August 1995) at http:// www.unhcr.ch/refworld/country/writenet/wribdi02.htm. Prunier, Gérard. "Burundi: Update to Early February 1996." WRITENET Country Papers (February 1996) at http:// www.unhcr.ch/refworld/country/writenet/wribdi03.htm. Prunier, Gérard. "The Geopolitical Situation in the Great Lakes Area in Light of the Kivu Crisis." WRITENET Country Papers (February 1997) at http://www.unhcr.ch/refworld/country/writenet/wrilakes.htm. NIGERIA Annual Report on Human Rights in Nigeria, 1995. Lagos: Civil Liberties Organization, 1996. Diamond, Larry. "Nigeria: The Uncivic Society and the Descent into Praetorianism." In Larry Diamond, Juan Linz, and Seymour Martin Lipset, eds., Politics in Developing Countries: Comparing Experiences with Democracy, 2d ed. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1995; pp. 417-91. Dudley, Billy. An Introduction to Nigerian Government and Politics. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1982. Forrest, Tom. Politics and Economic Development in Nigeria, 2d ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995. Joseph, Richard. Democracy and Prebendal Politics in Nigeria. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Joseph, Richard. "Nigeria: Inside the Dismal Tunnel." Current History (May 1996), pp. 193200. Lewis, Peter M. "Endgame in Nigeria? The Politics of a Failed Democratic Transition." African Affairs 93 (July 1994), pp. 323-40. Lewis, Peter M. "Nigeria: Domestic Crisis Challenges International Influence." SAIS Review (Summer/Fall 1995), pp. 17-38. Suberu, Rotimi. "The Travails of Federalism in Nigeria." Journal of Democracy 4, no. 4 (October 1993), pp. 39-53. SANCTIONS AND INCENTIVES Baldwin, David. Economic Statecraft. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985. Bergeijk, Peter van. Economic Diplomacy, Trade and Commercial Policy: Positive and

Negative Sanctions in a New World Order. Aldershot, England: Edward Elgar, 1994. Cortright, David, ed. The Price of Peace: Inducement Strategies and International Conflict Prevention. Landover, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997. Cortright, David, and George Lopez eds. Economic Sanctions: Panacea or Peacebuilding in a Post-Cold War World? Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995. Crumm, Eileen. "The Value of Economic Incentives in International Politics." Journal of Peace Research 32, no. 3 (1995), pp. 313-30. Damrosch, Lori Fisler, ed. Enforcing Restraint: Collective Intervention in Internal Conflicts. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1993. Doxey, Margaret P. International Sanctions in Contemporary Perspective. New York: Macmillan Press, 1996. George, Alexander L. Forceful Persuasion: Coercive Diplomacy as an Alternative to War. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 1991. Hufbauer, Gary C., Jeffrey J. Schott, and Kimberly Ann Elliott. Economic Sanctions Reconsidered: History and Current Policy, 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 1990. Long, William J. Economic Incentives and Bilateral Cooperation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. Nincic, Miroslav, and Peter Wallensteen, eds. Dilemmas of Economic Coercion: Sanctions and World Politics. New York: Praeger, 1983. Osgood, Charles E. An Alternative to War or Surrender. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1962. Weiss, Thomas G., David Cortright, George A. Lopez, and Larry Minear, eds. Political Gain and Civilian Pain: Humanitarian Impacts of Economic Sanctions. Landover, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997. SMALL WEAPONS DISARMAMENT Bonn International Center for Conversion. "Small Arms and Light Weapons: The Perpetuation of Conflicts." Conversion Survey 1997. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997; pp. 141-74. Boutwell, Jeffrey, Michael T. Klare, and Laura Reed, eds. Lethal Commerce: The Global Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons. Cambridge, MA: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1995.

Disarmament: A Periodic Review by the United Nations 14, no. 2 (1996). Goose, Stephen D., and Frank Smyth. "Arming Genocide in Rwanda." Foreign Affairs 73, no. 5 (September/October 1994), pp. 86-96. Latham, Andrew. "The Light Weapons Problem: Causes, Consequences and Policy Options." In Andrew Latham, ed., Multilateral Approaches to Non-Proliferation: Proceedings of the 4th Canadian Non-Proliferation Workshop. Toronto: York University, 1996; pp. 33-54. Laurance, Edward J. The New Field of Micro-Disarmament: Addressing the Proliferation and Buildup of Small Arms and Light Weapons. Bonn: Bonn International Center for Conversion, Brief 7, September 1996. Managing Arms in Peace Processes: Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Geneva: United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), 1996. Rana, Swadesh. Small Arms and Intra-State Conflicts. Geneva: United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 1995. Singh, Jasjit, ed. Light Weapons and International Security. Delhi: Indian Pugwash Society and British American Security Information Council, 1995. RELIGION AND CONFLICT PREVENTION Bailie, Gil. Violence Unveiled: Humanity at the Crossroads. New York: Crossroad, 1995. Girard, René. Violence and the Sacred, tr. Patrick Gregory. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977. Henderson, Michael. The Forgiveness Factor: Stories of Hope in a World of Conflict. London: Grosvenor Books, l996. Johnston, Douglas, and Cynthia Sampson, eds. Religion, the Missing Dimension of Statecraft. New York: Oxford University Press, l994. Scheff, Thomas J. Bloody Revenge-Emotions, Nationalism, and War. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, l994. Shriver, Donald W., Jr. An Ethic for Enemies: Forgiveness in Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, l995. Tavuchis, Nicholas. Mea Culpa: A Sociology of Apology and Reconciliation. Stanford University Press, l991. Wink, Walter. Engaging the Powers: Discernment and Resistance in a World of Domination. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, l992.

Witte, John, Jr., and Johan D. van der Vyver, eds. Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Religious Perspectives. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, l996.

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