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FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE TURNOVER AND ITS IMPACT ON

ETHIOPIAN EVANGELICAL CHURCH MEKANE YESUS

BY
YOHANNES MELAKU

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY


SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES
COLLEGE OF EDUCATIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL STUDIES
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

MAY 2014
ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA

FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE TURNOVER AND ITS IMPACT ON


ETHIOPIAN EVANGELICAL CHURCH MEKANE YESUS

BY
YOHANNES MELAKU

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY


SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES

MAY 2014
ADDIS ABABA

FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE TURNOVER AND ITS IMPACT ON


ETHIOPIAN EVANGELICAL CHURCH MEKANE YESUS

BY
YOHANNES MELAKU

A Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Addis Ababa University


In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for Degree of Masters of Arts in
Human Resource and Organizational Development in Education

MAY, 2014
ADDIS ABABA

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY


SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES

FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE TURNOVER AND ITS IMPACT ON


ETHIOPIAN EVANGELICAL CHURCH MEKANE YESUS

BY
YOHANNES MEALKU

APPROVED BY THE BOARD OF EXAMINERS

Department Head,

signature

Zenebe Baraki (PhD)

Signature

Advisor

Internal Examiner

Signature

External Examiner

Signature

Statement of Declaration
I, Yohannes Mealku declare that this study, Factors Affecting Employee Turnover and its
Impact on Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus is my own work. The study has not
been submitted for award of any degree or diploma.

Name: Yohannes Melaku


Signature: ______________________
Date: __________________________

Confirmed by:
Advisor: Zenebe Baraki (PhD)
Signature: __________________
Date

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting employee turnover and its
impact on the Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus (EECMY). Basic questions ie
main factors for employees to leave their jobs, and effects of turnover on performance were
asked. The study employed quantitative and qualitative research design methods. Random
and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the sample size from the population.
Questionnaire and interview were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics such as
percentage, mean value, cross tabulation were employed for data analysis.
Based on the data analysis the following findings were recorded. The main finding
indicated that
dissatisfaction with pay structure, mismanagement, unfair reward and
promotion systems were some of the factors for employee turnover. The finding also
indicated the following effects of turnover including loss of experienced and skilled
employees, higher recruitment costs, and higher workload due to leavers.
Similarly it was concluded that lack of career advancement, job dissatisfaction, leaders
unwillingness to allow staff participation in decision making, and unfair training system
were core factors for turnover. It was recommended that managers revise salary and
benefit packages, provide fair and equal training and promotion opportunity, and allow
employee to participate in the decision making process.

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Acknowledgement
First and for most, I would like to thank the Almighty God who supported me to complete my
study successfully.
My most sincere and heartfelt thanks go to Dr. Zenebe Baraki, my advisor, for his unreserved
scholarly support. Similarly my sincere gratitude should also go to my friends Gebremedhih
Kassa, Million Terefe as well as my brother Abraham Melaku and my mother Mulunesh
Gemechu for their support throughout my study. Most deeply and with love, I would like to
express my debt to my beloved wife Wro Meseret Getachew for her patience and all support
provided to me. Finally I would like to deeply thank employees of Mekane Yesus Seminary
managements, staffs and EECMY- head office employees for providing me valuable information
and materials.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ii
Acknowledgements ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iii
Table of contents -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iv
List of Tables ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- vi
Acronyms ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION


1.1 Background of the Study------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
1.3.1General Objectives ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5
1.3.2 Specific Objectives ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5
1.4 Significance of the Study ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 6
1.5 Delimitation/Scope of the Study ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
1.6 Limitation of the Study--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
1.7 Definition of Terms ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7
1.8 Organization of the Study------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


2.1 Definitions of Turnover -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8
2.2 Model of Employee Turnover ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8
2.2.1 Image Theory------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9
2.2.2 The Unfolding Theory ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
2.3 Types of Turnover -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
2.3.1 Voluntary and Involuntary ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
2.3.2 Functional and Dysfunctional ------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
2.3.3 Avoidable and Unavoidable --------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
2.4 Conceptual Framework on Turnover----------------------------------------------------------------- 11
2.5 Cause of Turnover -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12
2.5.1 Training and Development Programs ---------------------------------------------------------- 13
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2.5.2 Job Satisfaction ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 14


2.5.3 Organizational Commitments ------------------------------------------------------------------- 16
2.5.4 Pay and Benefits Conditions -------------------------------------------------------------------- 16
2.5.5 Leadership Style and Characteristics of Work Environment ------------------------------- 18
2.5.6 Characteristics of Job ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18
2.5.6 Career Development ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 18
2.6 Effects of Employee Turnover on Job Performance ----------------------------------------------- 20
2.6.1 Loss in Productivity ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 20
2.6.2 Low Level of Commitment ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 20
2.6.3 High Training and Recruitment cost ----------------------------------------------------------- 21
2.6.4 Loss of Experienced and Skilled Personnel --------------------------------------------------- 21
2.6.5 Loss of Confidence ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21
2.6.6 Other Factors -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY


3.1 Research Design ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23
3.2 Study Population ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques -------------------------------------------------------------------- 24
3.4 Data collection Instruments and Methods ---------------------------------------------------------- 24
3.5 Data collection and Analysis -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25
3.6 Ethical Consideration ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION


4.1 Data Presentation: Demographic Background of Respondents ---------------------------------- 27
4.2 Data Analysis and Interpretation --------------------------------------------------------------------- 30
4.2.1 Job Related and Environmental Factors -------------------------------------------------- 30
4.2.2 Satisfaction with Current Workload ------------------------------------------------------ 32
4.2.3 Salary, Benefits and Career Development ----------------------------------------------- 33
4.2.4 Employees Reward, Career Development & Promotion Systems -------------------- 37
4.3 Management Related Factors ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40
4.3.1 Higher Officials Allow to Participate in Decision Making Process ------------------ 40
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4.3.2 Employee, Employer Relations and Organizational Impartiality --------------------- 42


4.3.3 Mismanagement is the Reason for Employee to Leave Their Job -------------------- 43
4.3.4 Management Intent to Address Disqualified Employees ------------------------------ 44
4.4 Effects of Turnover on the Performance of the Organization ------------------------------------ 45

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION


5.1 Summary ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 51
5.2 Conclusion ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54
5.3 Recommendation --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54
Reference ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 56
Appendix A: Questionnaire for existing employee in English .................................................... 59
Appendix B: Questionnaire for existing employee translated to Amharic ................................... 62
Appendix C: Questionnaire of Ex-employee ................................................................................ 65
Appendix D: Questionnaire for Ex-employee translated to Amharic........................................... 66
Appendix E: Interview Guiding Questions for Department Heads .............................................. 69

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List of Tables
Table 1: Demographic Background of Respondents from existing employees ............................ 32
Table 2: Response from Existing Employees on Workload and Work
Environmental Related Factors ..................................................................................... 36
Table 3: Salary and other Benefits Related Factors ...................................................................... 38
Table 4: Ex-employees response on salary, fair treatment by management of the organization
and training successor .................................................................................................... 39
Table 5: Cross tabulation of employees job position by salary satisfaction; .............................. 41
Table 6: Job position of respondent * Do you think that you were paid well? Cross tabulation . 42
Table 7: Response on job and Work environment related factors from
ex- employee and current employee respondents .......................................................... 43
Table 8: Response on job and Work environment related factors from ex- employee and current
employee respondents .................................................................................................... 46
Table 9: Employer, Employee relation, organizational impartiality, team work, and
mismanagement related factors ...................................................................................... 47
Table 10: Respondents intent either managers address dissatisfied and try best employee not
leave ................................................................................................................................ 50
Table 11: Existing employees response on Jobs Affected due to turnover
and cost incurred due to turnover .................................................................................. 52
Table 12: Matters related with intent to leave the job, getting training opportunity ................... 54
Table 13: Cross tabulation leaving current job and getting training opportunity ......................... 55

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Acronyms
AAU

Addis Ababa University

ALM

American Lutheran Mission

EdPM

Educational Planning and Management

EECMY;

Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus

GHM

German Hermannsburg Mission

HO

Head Office

MYS

Mekane Yesus Seminary

SEM

Swedish Evangelical Mission

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I. INTRODUCTION
1.1

BACKGROUND

Labor turnover results in an organizations inability to ensure continuity of knowledge. In the


current knowledge economy, employees in an organization are considered as the key competitive
advantage to the most important asset (Urbancova & Linhartova, 2011 p84)
Leading management thinkers suggest that it is not technology but the art of human and human
management that is the continuing challenges for executives in the 21 century, (Drucker &
Salfo 1997).
Encyclopedia Britannica defines staff turnover/employee turnover as the rate at which employers
gain or loss of human skills Encyclopedia of Britannica (1963)
Organizations at all levels, either governmental or non-government extensively invest a huge
amount of money for training and development programs. Murthy (2003) stated that
organizations send their employees to different training programs like courses, seminars, and
others just to improve the skill of their employees and thereby increase productivity. However,
still employees leave their organizations after improving their skills and knowledge.
There are two types of turnover: voluntary and involuntary turnover. When the organization
initiates the turnover, the result is involuntary turnover. As examples we can mention terminating
an employee for disciplinary case and lying off employees.
When the employees initiate the turnover, it is voluntary turnover. Employees may leave for
retirement or to take a job with a different organization. Noe and Gerher (2003) stated that
Organizations try to avoid the need for involuntary turnover and to minimize voluntary turnover,
especially those efficient and good performers.
Still another classification of employees turnover can be internal and external turnover. It is
internal when employees leave their current position and take up new roles or positions within
the same organization by promotion or transfer (Samuel 2012).

It is believed that investment in employee leads to employee satisfaction and reduced employee
turnover, which in turn allows for the implementation of adequate service standards at levels of
positions which are essential for quality of service.
Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus (EECMY) which is one of the largest Lutheran
churches in Africa was constituted as a national church in 1959 with the merging of Lutheran and
other similar congregations established by missionaries (Fekadu, 2009). With its establishment
the church started the holistic ministry dedicated to providing spiritual and physical services to
the society.
The church has been accomplishing many and diversified humanitarian and social service
activities. Some of the basic activities include social service programs like health, education,
agriculture, and other development sectors which have been carried out by the church with the
Motto of serving the whole person. Under the central office, the church organized in synods
and work area, a gospel ministry department (Christian education, youth, Sunday school,
Theology, Evangelism, Counseling, Christian Muslim Relations, Bible Translation, Music
ministry and university student ministry), department and social service commission, a peace
commission, and communication services
Despite its faith -based service, the church has worked on development activities and made
maximum effort in literacy campaign. Accordingly, Emmanual (1995) stated that in 1960s the
church opened literacy school in all 14 districts around the country (regional administration of
that time) and reached millions of Ethiopian freeing from illiteracy. According to the 2009
statistics, the church had 6644 established congregations, 2818 preaching places in 21 synods,
one area work and one parish. There are 2061 pastors and 2728 evangelists have been working
across the country (World Council of Churches, 2014 http://www.oikoumene.org).
Jonnnes (2004) stated that the church started Evangelical College, Yemisrach Dimts Literature
Program, and Mekane Yesus Theological Seminary when it was established before 50 year.
The MekaneYesus Seminary, Theological College, with a primary objective of training pastors
and evangelists in different capacities was established in 1960 in cooperation with American
Lutheran Mission (ALM), German Hermannsburg Mission (GHM), and the Swedish Evangelical
Mission (SEM). The aim was to train the church pastors, evangelists and church leaders and teach
them for four years and graduate on the bachelor and diploma levels (Emmanuel, 1995).
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At this time, the Seminary is training church leaders in different discipline at a degree level.
Recently it has started a masters program and graduated the first batch in 2013. In addition to
the Theological education, the church has opened the Management and Leadership College which
has been accredited by the Ministry of Education. It receives students from the church and
outside the church from different parts of the country and train in Leadership and Development
Studies, Accounting, IT, Gender and Development, and other streams at Degree, Diploma and
TEVET level; in evening, regular and distance programs.
MekaneYesus seminary Jazz Music department was first opened in 1979 GC and was closed for
decades and reopened in 2003 GC to train musicians. The school gives advanced music training
at degree and diploma levels. It also opened a new program film and media and trains student in
filming and media at degree level. (Megerssa, 2009).
The distance education program which has more than 1500 student is also one of the capacity
building programs of the church. Leaders and evangelist working outside the city or cant get
access to regular or evening programs join seminary through distance learning program.
Based up on the current data and document analysis, there are about 273 employees are working
in both Seminary and the Head office at regular basis.

Under the staff development plan,

currently Seminary has offered in country and internationals scholarship programs for employee
selected from different departments. Accordingly, 6 instructors are studying their PhD

in the

country and abroad (international scholarship) program. Other five staffs also are studying their
masters programs in the country.
To capacitate human resource, and equip its employees, the church has made fundamental
progress on human resource training and development program. To achieve mission and vision of
the church, many have been sent to different training programs. Short and long term training and
development programs are given in the country and some have been sent abroad for masters and
PhD Degrees. However, even though the organization makes an effort on training of employees,
because of multiple reasons educated and skilled employee of the other organization are leaving
their job and join other similar institutions.
Therefore, the basic challenges and chronic problem of the church was its inability to retain
employees those trained either locally or abroad.

Million, (2006) stated that from 96 employees of the church who were abroad on scholarship
program, only 67 of them returned home and 29 did not return, which is a huge capital deficit of
the church. In a year the church was investing four to five million birr for international
scholarship program and the average cost per person in a year is estimated to about $20,000.00.
In addition to this, some employees who trained either locally or return from abroad leave the
church and join other similar institution.
When employees with their skills and knowledge leave the organization, it reduces the quality of
the service of the organization, hamper moral of the remaining employees, force the organization
to huge amount of financial lose, and even increase work load to the remaining workers. Mekane
Yesus Seminary, the oldest theological college of the church has lost nearly 50% of what it has
invested on retained graduate who were sent abroad for further studies and did not return.
(Megerss, 2011, pp 224)
In summary, effective achievement of organizational objectives and the overall competitive
advantage of any institution will depend a lot on the performance of its human resource.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Nowadays turnover is more serious than ever. Rapid technological change and frequent
revolutionized new ideas have created competition among organizations which increases an
employee turnover and separation. Developing countries are one of the major victims where brain
drain intensifies the problems. A research conducted in different government owned college
reveal that pay and poor management system are some of the serious and basic factors for
employee to quit. According to the research conducted in 10 agricultural colleges, 82% of
employees in the colleges have an intention to leave their current job (Getahun, 2005).
Another related research conducted in government owned university revealed that 83% of the
teachers who left their job stated that poor management system, lack of equal opportunities were
one of the basic reason to quit the job. (Admassu, 2003)
Thus, the efficiency and productivity of Non-governmental organization in general and Ethiopian
Evangelical Church MekaneYesus in particular are highly affected by employee turnover.
Through the human training development program, the EECMY trains its employees in long and
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short term programs either in the country or abroad. Currently six instructors are studying their
PhD in the country and abroad (international scholarship) program. Other five staffs also are
studying their masters programs in the country.
However, many employees after being well trained and get rich knowledge and skilled leave the
church with their skills untapped.
Due to this reason, some higher position and middle level management positions are either
occupied by practitioner or remain open until qualified professional persons are obtained.
The purpose of this study is to assess factors affecting employee turnover and its effects and what
effect does on the performance of the EECMY-MYS.
Basic Questions
The following are basic questions of the study:
1. What are the major determinant factors for employees to leave their jobs?
2. How employee of the organization reacts to the employee turnover and what is their
feeling to stay in their current job?
3. What are the effects of employees turnover on the organization are day to day activities?
4. Which areas of responsibilities are more vulnerable to employee turnover?

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


General objectives:
The general objective of this study is to understand what effect does the employee turnover has
made on the productivity or performance of the organization.
Specific objectives;
1. To examine the determinant factors of employee turnover
2. To assess how the employee of the organization react to staff turnover and examine their
feeling either stay or leave the organization.
3. Identify effects of turnover on the performance of the organization.
4. To identify job positions more exposed to turnover and give suggestion and means of
resolving the problem.
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1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


Cost of employee turnover for an organization is high, regardless of the level of wages being paid
to the departing employees. In this regard findings and the recommendations of this study will be
useful to the church leader, human resource training and development officers, department heads
and administrators of EECMY head office and Mekane Yesus Seminary to understand the effect
of employee turnover on the performance of the church and thereby reduce the rate of turnover. It
also enables to ensure stable and well-motivated employees.
The findings of this research project will also help as a source of reference and a steppingstone
for those researchers who want to make further study on the area of employee turnover and
separation. Finally it will gives the researcher the opportunity to gain deep knowledge on the
effects, cost, and case of employee turnover and separation on the performance of an
organization.
1.5 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus works across the country through its 22
synods, and it is difficult to conduct the research at this limited time on all its area of coverage.
Hence, the study was delimited to Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus Head office and
Mekane Yesus Seminary. The head office structurally works with other synods Mekane Yesus
Seminary on human resource development program and hence, represents the units. The Mekane
Yesus Seminary receives students at Masters, Bachelor/degree, and Diploma levels and trains
students in theology, leadership and development, gender, accounting, management, and music
programs. This College also vulnerable to employee turnover and hence, the research was
restricted to the EECMY head office and EECMY-Theological College.

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY


The following limitations were identified by the researcher while conducting the field work

One of the main challenges in data gathering process was getting former employees.
Some employees left abroad and those communicated over the internet were challenged to
get their exact address. Particularly employees who left from the head office were unable

to reach them. Hence, the researcher obliged to make the analysis on employees those left
from Mekane Yesus Seminary.

Few respondents were not able to return a questionnaire in due time and it was a difficult
task to wait until all return as intended. Hence, these limitations have a negative impact on
the quality of the subject study.

Definition of Key Terms:


Employee Turnover:

Rotation of workers around the labor markets, between firms

Image Theory:

A way in which employees process information when making


a decision through different images.

1.7 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY


This study consists of five chapters. The first chapter is introduction and background of the study.
The second chapter provides related literature review. And the third chapter is research design
and methodology where participants of the study, instruments of data collections, procedures of
data gathering and analysis discussed. The fourth chapter consists of the main study of the data
presentation, analysis and interpretation. The last chapter of the study provides summary of
findings, conclusion and recommendations of the study.

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Labor turnover and separation is one of a major case for organizations inability to ensure
continuity of knowledge and hurt competitive advantage of organizations. Drucker (1997) stated
that it is not technology but the art of human and human management is the continuing
challenge for executives in the 21 century.
Labor turnover is a key concern issues faced by organizations regardless of its location, sizes,
natures of business, and business strategy ie profit non-profit making organization. It is believed
that training can lead to an increase in employee commitment and in turn foster employee
retention or reduce staff turnover.

2.1 DEFINITIONS OF TURNOVER


Filipe (2012) defined turnover as the rotation of workers around the labor markets; between
firms, jobs and occupations; and between the states of employment (Filpe F & Luis Borges 2012)
The commonly formula to calculate turnover rate of a given period is
Total number of leavers over period
X 100
Average number of staff employed over period
Turnover is a ratio comparison of the number of employees a company replace in a given time
period to the average number of total employees (Amy, 2009).

2.2 MODELS OF EMPLOYEE TURNOVER


Over the years, a significant amount of research has been done on employee turnover to
investigate aspects of employee turnover like causes and retention strategies. As a result, different
models or designs have been promulgated. The first model was presented by March and Simon in
1958. Different models which include different aspects of turnover followed, such as the
unfolding model which focuses on decisional aspects (Beach, 2010 p35). The following models

of employee turnover, namely the image theory, the unfolding model and theory will be
discussed.
2.2.1. Image Theory
The image theory was created by Beach (2010) and it explains the way in which employees
process information when making a decision through different images .The fundamental principle
of this theory is that individuals leave an organization after having assessed the reason for
quitting. Individuals do not have the cognitive ability to thoroughly analyse all incoming
information. Hence, they simply compare it with more heuristic-type information in other
words, they learn from their own experience.
The image theory suggests that decision-makers use three knowledge arrangements (images) to
arrange their thinking about decisions. According to this theory, some incoming facts (for
example, a job offer) will be compared to these images. The first image is the value image which
refers to the employees set of significant beliefs and values concerning the job. Secondly, the
employee can compare the facts or information with the trajectory image which refers to the
persons particular goals that determine job behavior. Lastly, the employee may compare the
facts or information with the strategic image which refers to the strategies and methods that the
person views as vital in reaching job-related goals. If the incoming information has an alternative
that is attuned with the images, the person will then compare Stellenbosch University
http://scholar.sun.ac.za 14 the alternative with what he or she presently has. If the individual has
more than one compatible alternative, he or she will further analyze the options (Beach 2010).
2.2.2 The Unfolding Model
The unfolding model views incoming information as shocks (pregnancy, alternative job offers,
etc.). This theory suggests that internal or external shocks will lead the individual to leave an
organization because the situation (shock) compels the employee to leave. This model introduces
five paths that will lead to turnover. In Path 1, the shock activates a pre-existing writing or script
with which the individual connects and this causes the individual to leave the organization
without considering an alternative or the individuals connection with the organization. Path 2
has a shock that triggers the person leaving, without thinking of other job alternatives (Thomas,
Lowell, & Steven, 1996).

The incoming information is perceived as a violation of the persons values, objectives and
strategies. Path 3 includes a shock that triggers an assessment of the images of the job he or she
currently has, provided the information in the shock is not in tune with the images. This path
leads to intentional job search. The last two paths do not have shocks. Path 4 explains a situation
where the persons job satisfaction is so low that the person leaves without having an alternative.
With Path 5, the persons job satisfaction is low and this leads to job search, an assessment of
alternatives, the intention to leave and, subsequently, turnovers (Thomas et. al.1996).

2.3 TYPES OF TURNOVER


Employees of different organizations leave their job for all sorts of reason. Some leave to get
better salary, some find conducive work conditions, due to geographical factors and for multiple
reasons.
Employee turnover can be grouped into different categories.
2.3.1. Voluntary and Involuntary: Voluntary is initiated by employee. When employee choice or
intended to leave the organization and initiated by him/her self. Involuntary when employee has
no choice in the termination process. It can result from different situation like; dismissal,
retirement, physical/mental disability, moving/relocation etc. even though both concerned
with separation of employee, it needs different managerial handling techniques (David, 2008).
2.3.2 Functional and Dysfunctional: Dysfunctional turnover is the exit of high performers and
employees with hard to replace skills and which erode the companys work force and leads to
high turnover cost. Functional turnover is the exits of poor performers r employees whose talents
can replaced easily.
2.3.3 Avoidable and unavoidable: avoidable turnover is causes that the organization may able to
influence or handle it. For employees who leave the job because of low job satisfaction, problems
of mismanagement, benefit packages etc can be retained through improving the stated
administration activities. Unavoidable employee turnover stems from cause over which the
organization has little or no control of it. For instance organization may not able to control
employee who is going to leave because of health problem or desire to relocate to other
geographical areas (David, 2008).
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Turnover

Involuntary

Voluntary

Functional

Dysfuctional

Avoidable

Unavoidable

David Loquercio, Mark Hammersley and Ben Emmens Understanding and addressing staff turnover in humanitarian
agencies Number 55 June 2006

International journal of Humanities and social science classified employee turnover as internal or
external. When employees leave their current job and take new role or position within the same
organization called an internal turnover. External turnover will happen when employees quit their
current job and join other organization (Flex, 2012).

2.4 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF EMPLOYEE TURNOVER


The conceptual frameworks for the study taken Job performance as dependant variable and, work
load, employee salary, job satisfaction, and work to family conflict are taken as an independent
variable.
The dependant variable, employee turnover, can be explained by the independent variables;
salary job satisfaction, personal issue, work stress, work load, and organizational performance.
As work stress increase among workers, disagreement occurs and this leads to turnover.

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Salary and compensation practice, training and career development, and job dissatisfaction are
other independent variables which if not managed and implemented properly leads to turnover.
The above mentioned independent variables negatively impact turnover, the dependant variable.
They can be seen as avoidable variables. Addressing these issues could also be considered as
addressing what effects can bring employee turnover on job performance.

Work laoad

Work
stress
Salary

Job
satisfaction

Job satisfatoin
/committment/organizational
perforamcne

Emplyee
Turnover

Family
Matters
Interdisciplinary Journal of contemporary Research in Business Vol. 4, No.9, 2013

2.5. CAUSES OF TURNOVER


Many employees in different industries leave their job because of multiple internal and external
factors. Different writers states that employees quit because of their supervisors, lack of trust,
communication, lack of familiarity, unfair treatment of employee, low wage, hard working

12

environment, and others. Because of this, organizations miss their customers and client face poor
operating system or low productivity (Flex, 2012).

2.5.1 Training and Development Programs


Employee training gained the attention of management during the 1950s. Since then top
management recognized the importance of establishing formalized programs to develop the talent
needed in the organization (Sexton & Adelaid, 1987).
Qualified employees which are the backbone of any organization do not simply emerge hence,
management geared towards systematic plan and organize for their development. Saxton and
Adelaid (1987) stated major objectives of training and development as to improve individual and
organizational performance and prepared selected employees for advancement
Training defined as the teaching and learning activities carried on purpose of helping employee
of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities needed by the organization
(Manoj, 2000). In other word training is an act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an
employees for doing a particular job.
Organizations are injecting a huge sum of capital for training and education. Brum (2007) stated
that the average annual training expenditure per employee reach to $955. Therefore, it is clear
that training has a determinant factor and employers understand the impact that training has on
their organization. Vemic (2007) modern dynamic competition, sophisticated technology,
knowledge economy, globalization, has changed the importance of human resource in the
organization.
As training and development is an organized procedure by which employee of organization gain
knowledge, for new recruited employee training is a transaction or adaptation from theoretical
approaches to practical situation. And for experienced employee it is a process of reorientation to
meet the additional job requirement (Manoj, 2000). It enables employees to coup-up with rapidly
changing technology and the organization gain competitive advantage through its trained or
skilled employees..

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Frank (2011) on his research commented that the quality of employees and their development
through training and education are major factors in determining organizations long term
profitability. Accordingly, Frank (2000) stated that training provided by employee raised
productivity almost by16%.
A survey conducted in Kenya sugar factory Hannah (2012) indicated that lack of training and
poor training handling system was one of the major factors causing employees to leave their
organization. The company conducts or provides limited chance of training for its employees
assigned in different work area.
Different researchers identified that inadequate training and development program that not goes
tot specific needs of employees led to job dissatisfaction. Regardless of their position and title,
employees forced to leave their organization due to the absence of training (Sadra, 2012).
Managers inadequate knowledge about the human resource management is one of the core and
basic reason for employee dissatisfaction and leave.

Davi, Mark, and Ben (2006) on their

research made on humanitarian agency revealed that 70% of employees are decided to leave the
organization because of the management of the organization. The research stated that project
field managers who have technical background like medicine, engineering work on managerial
responsibilities without any further training or knowledge of human resource and this led to
employee dissatisfaction and turnover (David, Mark, & Ben 2006).
In todays global economy, knowledge is becoming basic capital and the trigger of development.
Modern organizations therefore, use their resources (money, time) for training and development
of employees and to retain them. The prioritization of training and development retain the
knowledge and skill of employee within their jobs and boost competitive advantages of the
organization. Different writers agree that training and development can provide a measurable
return on investment are revenue generation, productivity/performance improvement and cost
reduction.
2.5.2 Job Satisfaction
Employee satisfaction has influence on employee turnover in organizations. The implication of
this fact is that the extent to which an organization is able to achieve its objectives depends on the

14

level of job satisfaction that are made available to its workers. It has long been thought to have a
significant effect on job performance.
In its most basic sense, job satisfaction is a positive emotional state resulting from evaluating
ones job experiences. Job dissatisfaction occurs when these expectations are not met. If an
employee expects clean and safe working conditions on the job, then the employee is likely to be
dissatisfied if the workplace is dirty and dangerous. Job satisfaction has many dimensions.
Commonly noted facets are satisfaction with the work itself, wages, and recognition, rapport with
supervisors and coworkers, and chance for advancement. Each dimension contributes to an
individuals overall feeling of satisfaction with the job itself. When circumstances such as stated
above as the nature of the job, supervisors and coworkers, pay levels, or the employees own
disposition cause the employee to become dissatisfied with the job and lead him to avoid the
work situation physically, mentally, or emotionally (Noe & Gerhet 2003).
Dissatisfied employee first they psychologically remove themselves from the job and exhibit a
very low level of job involvement.
Writers agree that human positional for good work is enormous, given the right environment. But
in many case both in developed and developing countries managers give less value for human
and more concern about technology.
In organization downsizing, it more concerned with the reducing the employees of the
organization who are more important than technology. Murthy (2003) underlined that employees
want an environment where they can take pride in what they are doing and needs recognition as
they are valuable for the organization. Hence, employees need a conducive and satisfactory for
work. The work environment for the job can bring a sense of satisfaction as he contributed to the
organization. Managers in return bring job satisfaction through rotating the job, posing newer
challenges, giving more responsibility, and praising employee for job well done (Murthy, 2003).
In a working areas employees are interact with supervisors and colleague (fellow employees) and
this influence employee feelings about job satisfaction.
Henman, Schwab, Fossum, and Dyer (2000) defined Job satisfaction as depending on an
evaluation the employee make of the job and the environment surrounding the job.
15

The number of people who are dissatisfied with their jobs nationally varies with the
unemployment rate. Higher unemployment rates usually mean more dissatisfied workers because
it is more difficult to change jobs, and people stay longer on jobs they do not like. Those workers
who are mostly satisfied with their jobs vary from 60 to 85 percent of the total. These numbers
are similar to those found in Europe when employees are asked about satisfaction with their jobs.
Individual managers seem to have a greater impact on employee satisfaction than the company
itself.
As researcher revealed, there is no simple formula for predicting a workers satisfaction.
Furthermore, the relationship between productivity and job satisfaction is not entirely clear. The
critical factor is what employees expect from their jobs and what they are receiving as rewards
from their jobs. Although job satisfaction itself is interesting and important, perhaps the bottom
line is the impact that job satisfaction has on organizational commitment, which affects the goals
of productivity, quality, and service.
2.5.3 Organizational Commitments
If employees are committed to an organization, they are more likely to be more productive.
Organizational commitment is the degree to which employees believe in and accept
organizational goals and desire to remain with the organization. Research has revealed that job
satisfaction and organizational commitment tend to influence each other. What this finding
suggests is that people who are relatively satisfied with their jobs will be somewhat more
committed to the organization and also that people who are relatively committed to the
organization are more likely to have greater job satisfaction.
A logical extension of organizational commitment focuses specifically on continuance
commitment factors, which suggests that decisions to remain with or leave an organization
ultimately are reflected in employee absenteeism and turnover statistics. Individuals who are not
as satisfied with their jobs or who are not as committed to the organization are more likely to
withdraw from the organization, either occasionally through absenteeism or permanently through
turnover.

16

2.5.4. Pays and Benefits Conditions


Turnover depends on employee perceptions of the desirability and easy of movement. Employees
seek to improve their employment conditions when they change job. Therefore, employees in an
organization improve their pay level if they obtain a new job before the leave their present job.
Herbert, Donald, John, and Lee (2000) stated organizations pay level is a potentially important
direct influence on voluntary turnover. In this knowledge era, where pay is one of a determinant
factor, employees quits current job and accept the job with higher pay opportunity. Therefore,
organizations critically aware that low wage rate will result into higher employee turnover and
separation.
Pay level is not the only reason for employees turnover and separation but also, pay system
whereby employees can be satisfied or dissatisfied with the organizations pay system. Pay system
based on the seniority of employees or per the performance appraisal. Employees are satisfied
with existing pay system if they believed that rewards or incentives are paid based on fairness
and considered seniority or performance evaluation of all employees (Herbert, Donald, John, &
Lee, 2000, pp 514).
For all the concerned with positive relationship and interesting work, it is important to keep in
mind that employees definitely care about their earnings. A job is the primary source of income
and financial security for most people. Pay is also is an indicator of status within the organization
and in society at large, so it contributes to some peoples self-worth. For all these reasons,
satisfaction with pay is significant for retaining employees. Decisions about pay and benefits are
so important and complex.
With regard to job satisfaction, the pay level is the amount of income associated with each job is
important. Employers seeking to attract another organizations employee often do so by offering
higher pay. Benefits such as insurance and vacation time are important, but employees often have
difficulty measuring their worth. Therefore, benefits influence job satisfaction, employees may
not always consider them as much as pay itself (Noe & Gerhet, 2003).

most studies stress the importance of compensation in attracting and keeping or reducing
turnover and separation, particularly for workers who skills and responsibilities are unique or
17

indispensable to the organization or for the worker whom the organization invest considerable
resources in recruiting and training programs. According to Clarence and Alex (2004) companies
in highly competitive local labor markets expected to pay highly competitive rates against their
competitors in each of their job classification, either it is semi-skilled or unskilled position.
Merit pay can play in attracting and minimizing employee turnover. Gedefaw (2012) on his
research claimed that, salary and benefit were one of the major reasons for teachers
dissatisfaction. Low level pay has made a significant impact on teachers classroom performance
and on the quality of education.
2.5.5. Leadership Style and Characteristics of Work Environment
Staff turnover has been always a key concern issues faced by organizations regardless of its
locations, sizes, nature of the organization or strategy of the business. It is believed that in any
measure that staff turnover is costly to all level of organizations regardless of its nature and
usually, the productivity and quality of the products or services of all kinds of organization are
always negatively affected. It also bring destruction to the organizations in the form of cost, loss
in productivity, declining in number of customers and others (Choi, Lee, Wan, & Ahmad, 2012).
Leadership style is one of the influential factors for employee to leave their job or intent to leave.
The study conducted by Jane, Namusonge, & Mike, (2012) in public universities revealed that,
unfavorable leadership practice was one of the basic reason for employees to leave.
Therefore, there is indispensable attention to the importance of leadership style to the operation
of the organization in terms of minimizing employee turnover. Employees are one of the most
valuable asset in the organization that leader to lead in a way that enhance employees motivation
level for effective and efficient accomplishment of the organizational objectives such as
productivity, profitability, and growth whereby at the ultimate minimizes staff turnover.
2.5.6. The characteristics of the job
Some jobs are intrinsically more attractive than others. A job's attractiveness will be affected by
many characteristics, including its repetitiveness, challenges, danger, perceived importance and
capacity to elicit a sense of accomplishment.

18

2.5.7. Career Development


David and Stephen (2005) Career development is another leading factor that contributes to
employee turnover and separation. It is defined as advancement. Career development is the
pattern of work-related experiences that span the course of a persons life. Career development is
a process through which the action plans are implemented. It is where individual career plans
encounter organizational realities (Herbert, Donald, John, & Lee, 2000). It is a guarantee for an
employee to be promoted. Employees commitment towards achievement of organizational goal
will be developed by creating sense of ownership among the employee of the organization
(Dessler, 2000).
Dessler (2000) affirmed that career development programs of an organization helps an individual
in the organization to see himself and develop career potential. Therefore, workshop, and other
skill assessment and career gap analysis are implemented to identify career-related skills and
develop the need they require. Hence, structured and well function development plan encourage
employees and enable them to have equal opportunity and make themselves promotable at their
firm. Organizations make the system easier for employee to choose and get lateral move. It also
provides continues opportunity for each employee to grow, by learning new subject and meet
new challenges there by foster commitment.
Such a clear and equal opportunity in career development build sense of organizational
ownership and minimizes employee turnover and separation (Dessler, 2000).
From organizational view point Lioyd and Leslie (2004) career development can reduce costs due
to employee turnover. And from employees side career improve moral, boost productivity, &
help the organization becomes more efficient. Career development has a positive effect on the
employee. Lioyd and Leslie (2004) stated that career development is an ongoing formalized
effort by an organization that focuses on developing and enriching the organizations human
resources in light of both the organization and individual needs. The organizations develop and
communicate career opinions with the organization to employees and employees by their side
prepare themselves to receive encouragements, pp 228-229.
Lioyd and Leslie (2004) described the managers commitment towards willingness of career
development as the critical battleground in career development is inside the mind of the person
19

charged with supervisory responsibilities. It means that, managers or immediate supervisors


towards consulting of their subordinate, in relation to career development are very weak and
slow. Because of this, many managers do not perceive career counseling as part of their
managerial duties. This inappropriate handling of career development program among employee
of the organization leads to dissatisfaction and turnover.

2.6 EFFECTS OF EMPLOYEE TURNOVER AND SEPARATION


Employee turnover and separation can have detrimental effects on clients and remaining staff
members who struggle to give and receive quality services when positions are vacated and then
filled by inexperienced personnel. Also, high rates can bring about clients mistrust and
discourage workers form remaining loyal to the organization or even those seeking to enter it.
Additionally, labor turnover is costly and unproductively time consuming, and it is responsible
for the early cycle of recruitment employment orientation production, resignation that is
detrimental to the reputation of organizations which are entangled in it.
Yared (2007), on his research conducted at the IRC stated that the organization has been incurred
a huge amount of money in a year because of staff turnover. Accordingly, the institute was
incurred costs for vacancy posting, medical checkup expense, telephone call for checking
references, travel cost, costs related with orientation new recruited employees, relocation
expenses and others which estimated to birr 202, 200.00. He also underlined other non-financial
values that the organization has lost including, time spend by managers to review the
employment process, loss of organizational memory, time and money spent for training of newly
employed personnel until he gain the desired level of skills are other major factors that the
institute have lost.
2.6.1 Loss in Productivity
Higher rate of labor turnover has the tendency to bring about low productivity where employees
are aware that their position is not secure. For instance employees who are not under intense
supervision devote much productive than those intense supervision (Tim & Bruce, 2008).

20

2.6.2 Low Level of Commitment


Job security takes away the fear which prevents total commitment of employees to the
organization. The employment security debate rest upon the crucial question of how much value
the company places on stability of employment within its overall philosophy. Whether
organizations really believe that job stability gives the business a competitive advantage is
determined by their rates of labor turnover, obviously, where job insecurity is the order of the
day, employees tend not to give off their best at the workplace as they mostly live in fear of
losing their job (Henry, 2007).
2.6.3 High Training and Recruitment Costs
Once new employee come on board, they could have to go through the companys laid down
training, orientation/induction programs. These activities are organized at an extra cost to the
organization depending on their frequency. However, with a low rate of labor turnover, a greater
percentage of this cost could be avoided (Henry, 2007).
2.6.4 Loss of Experienced and Skilled Personnel
Labor turnover results in the lose of some of the very experienced and skilled employees. This
adversely affects the organization since quality of output tends to suffer. it will therefore, take
some time for new employees to have control over their respective roles whereas existing
employees would not have to go through that process. In terms of output however, it is the
organization that losses.
2.6.5 Loss of Confidence
When labor turnover rates becomes so alarming the public will began to lose confidence in the
operation of the organization. The future or survival of the organization will be in doubt to the
public once they see employees moving in and out or quit the organization. In addition to this
loss in public confidence can bring a problem in getting of qualified employee to replace those
left the organization. This is obvious because it is the employees who demonstrate what the
organization represents through the delivery of quality output or service to the public. And if
these same employees have uncertain future in the organization then eyebrow will surely be
raised (Henry, 2007).
21

2.6.6 Other Factors


Different writers agree that the cost of replacing one employee equals one to three times the
annual salary and benefits total plus the additional cost of lost revenue that the seasoned
employee would likely have generated. The number one reason employees voluntarily leave their
jobs is not the company, not the work, but the boss. Researchers agree that salary, career growth,
benefits and job fit are leading factors for why employees stay or leave an organization. And
employee retention are related to managers behavior because, they want more involvement in
decision making, more appreciation, better communication, more team-building, flexible work
conditions, more autonomy and better coaching (Mark, 2011).

22

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
This chapter discusses how the research methodology was employed in the study. It indicates the
research design, the population, research instrument, sampling techniques and data analysis
techniques.
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
This study used both the qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. Qualitative and
quantitative researches provide both an in-depth look at context, processes, and interactions and
precise measurement of attitudes and outcomes. In this mixed method the presentation of the
results can be convincing and powerful (Marguerit, Dean, & Katherine, 2006).
This method was used in the different phases of the research to obtain a variety of information on
the same issue and use to obtain a higher degree of validity and reliability through deeper
analysis.
In this study the researchers used descriptive research design, specifically frequency, cross
tabulation which is the most commonly used research method in the social since was used. The
study was both qualitative and quantitative, the mixed approaches design which enables to
capture the best.
3.2 STUDY POPULATION
The researchers target population was composed of instructors, department heads, section heads,
and other key administration (support unit) employees of both Mekane Yesus Semianry and the
Head office. The total number of existing employees were 273 and 48 ex- employees those left
the organization in between 2009 and 2013 because of different reasons. The sample sizes was
selected in relation to the job position of employee in the organization.

23

3.3 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES


Samplings is process of choosing a smaller and more manageable number of people to take part
in the research process and generalize the results to the whole of the research population
(Catherine, 2002 PP 47-48).
The sample of 75 existing employees and 11 ex-employees, 3 department heads was selected
from all departments. The selection was categorized into instructors, section heads, key support
unit employees (administration), controllers and coordinators.
Purposive sampling technique was employed to select department heads since they have the
knowledge about the employees under their supervision and are concerned with staff turnover
and employment process. Accordingly total of 3 department heads were participated on the
interview process.
Departments were stratified and random sampling procedures within each stratum were used on
existing employees and samples were taken from each strata department. The research followed
the method of proportional allocation under which the size of sample from different department
were kept proportional to the size of the strata.

3.4 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS


Questionnaire Survey
The study was used self-administered questionnaire and semi-structured instruments to collect
data from ex-employees and from others who are currently working in the organization. Closed
and scaled items were carefully applied to get and generate all necessary information. Data was
systematically categorized in order to as respondents easily understand and express their fillings.
The researcher was used Likert scale which enables to understand respondents degree of
agreement with each statement. Questionnaire for some ex-employees who were living far was
sent through the email.

24

Key Informant Interview:


In interview, through direct personal investigation researcher collects data personally from the
sources concerned. Kothari (2004) stated that, in an interview the interviewer on the spot has to
meet people from whom data have to be collected. Interview helps generate in depth information
and gives greater flexibility for questions, and is suitable for intensive investigations. Hence,
from five department heads, face to face interview was carried out with 3 department heads. The
interview was designed in a way that more specific and truthful answers were got. This method
helped the researcher to get additional information that was not provided by the questionnaires.
Document Analysis
According Marguerite, Dean, and Katherine (2006), documents are other forms of data collection
tool. Documents have been observed by the researcher including records, personal writings, or
instructional materials are part of sources used for data analysis.
Accordingly, document Analysis was made to gather necessary information on number of
employees exist and who left their job voluntarily or forced, retired. Further data analysis was
also made to get relevant information what action was taken by manager or prerequisites were
taken on the employee left their job.
3.5 DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
After the ascertaining the reliability of the instruments, the researcher proceeded to administer the
area of study. The researcher distributed and administered the collection of questionnaires.
Interview were conducted and recorded by the researcher. Datas obtained through interview, and
questionnaire were computed with the use of computer and software programs (SPSS), edited and
coded. Then data was grouped into tables, figures and graphs to analysis, summarized and
recommend.
Information obtained from questionnaire, interview and documents was analyzed, coded and
updated according to coding framework. Datas conducted through interviews was recorded and
analyzed and datas obtained through questionnaires was coded and analyzed using statistical
package for the social science software (SPSS). The researcher used descriptive statics such as
frequency counts, percentage, mean values, and charts for structured items and interpreted
25

according to the findings and finally triangulated datas obtained both in questionnaire and
interview analysis.
3.6 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION
Confidentiality and privacy are some of the most corner stone of field research activities in order
to get relevant and appropriate data. The researcher assured the purpose of the research paper and
confidentiality of any information gathered through questionnaire on the introductory part of the
paper. During data gathering some respondents didnt show willingness to respond to the
questionnaire but, the researcher approached and explained the purpose and assured the
confidentiality and finally they were positive to give response.

26

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
This study examined factors affecting employee turnover and critically analyzed the negative
effect it has made on the performance of the organization. As stated on the methodology part, a
five year data was collected form from currently employees of the organization. In addition
document review was conducted and department heads were interview used. The data was
analyzed using percentage, cross tabulation based on the SPSS (Statistical Package for the social
Science) software
4.1 DATA PRESENTATION:
Demography Background of Respondents
Table 1: Demographic Background of Respondents from existing employees

Sex

Existing
Employees
N
%

Ex-Employees
N
%

Male

42

56

63.6

Female

32

42.7

36.4

Total

74

98.7

11

Department
Heads
N
%
3

100.0 3

100
100.0

Age
Below 25 Years

2.7

26-30

17

22.7

31-35

14

18.7

36-40

16

21.3

above 40

26

34.7

Total

75

100.0

Married

56

Single
Total

18.2
1

33.3

27.3

33.3

54.5

33.3

74.7

72.7

66.67

19

25.3

27.3

33.33

75

100.0

Marital Status

27

Qualification
Below 10th grade

1.3

10+2

11

14.7

Diploma

17

22.7

36.4

BA/BSc/BTh

28

37.3

36.4

33.33

MA/MBA/MTh

18

24.0

27.3

66.67

Total

75

100.0

1-2 years

5.3

27.3

3-5 years

14

18.7

36.4

6-10 years

11

14.7

66.67

Above 10 years

46

61.3

33.33

100

Service Year

Total

75

36.4
4

100.0

Job Position
Department Head

1.3

Section Head

13

17.3

18.2

Instructor

22

29.3

27.3

Coordinator

12.0

9.1

Others

30

40.0

45.5

Total

75

100.0

Age of respondents has been categorized into four groups. Accordingly, from all currently
working respondents 26 (34.7%) of respondents were 40 years and above, 16 (21.3%) between
36-40 years old, 14 (18.87% ) 31-35 range, 17(22.7%) were between 26-30 years old, and the
remaining 2(2.27%) respondents are less than 25 years old. As indicated on the table 1above,
majority respondents of existing employees aged more than 40 years old.
Former employee age distribution; 6(54.5%) are above 40 years, 3(27.3%) of respondents are
between 36-40 years old, 2(18.2%) are between 26-30 years old.

28

The research tried to make gender based composition in all section of work units and also make
balanced in the data gathering process. From all respondent of existing employee, 41 (56.2 %)
are male and 33 (44.58%) are female respondents. From former employees 7(63.6%) are male
and 4(36.4%) are female respondents. Respondents from department heads are all male.
In an attempt to ascertain academic qualification, respondents from existing employee were
requested to provide their qualifications. The qualification was categorized into five parts. From
datas gathered,

1(1.36%) of respondents are below 10th grade, 11(14.7%) are 10+2 or

certificate, 17 (22.6%) are diploma holders, 28 (37.3%) are degree holders and 18(24.65%) are
masters degree holders who are working in different department of the organization. Most of the
respondents 28(37.3%) are degree and from these 28 degree holders 10 of them are section head.
From total 18 Masters holder of respondents 16 of them are instructors and the remaining are
working in different section.
Regarding academic qualification of respondents 4(36.4%) are diploma level, 4(36.4%) are
degree holder, and 3(27.3%) have post graduate degree. There are two department heads who
holds postgraduate degree and one undergraduate degree.
Respondent from existing employees were asked how long have been they served in the
organization. Thus, for analyzing and interpreting of datas, the respondents year of service was
categorized into four groups. Thus, as summarized in the table 1 above, about 46(61.3%) of the
respondents from existing employee have been serving more than 10 years in the organization,
11(14.7%) have been served 6-10 years, 14(18.7%) respondents served 3-5 years and 4(5.3%)
have been served the organization less than 2 years. The former employee response on service
year distribution indicated that, 4(36.4%) of respondents were served more than 10 years,
4(36.4%) were served between 3-5 years in the organization, and 3(27.3%) were served between
1-2 years in the organization. Table1 above summarizes service year of both currently existing
and former respondents of the MYS and HO employees.
The respondents were asked to indicate their current position in the organization since the job
position determines to analysis which area or position is more vulnerable to staff turnover and
separation. It also makes easy of analyzing state of satisfaction, or intention of employees either
to stay or leave the organization. Response from existing employee indicates that 1(1.3 %) are
29

department head, 9 (12.0 %) are coordinators, 13(17.3 %) are section head, 22(29.3 %) are
instructors, and 30(40.0%) are other department which are from administration area including,
finance office, library, registrar, print shop and other work units. Instructors and other sections
are comprised the biggest percentage of respondents; that is 29.3% and 40% respectively. These
positions have been affected because of staff turnover and are vulnerable to the problems.
Response from former employees data in relation to their job position indicated that 2 (18.2%)
are section heads, 3(27.3%) are instructors, 1(9.1%) coordinator and 5(45.5%) of respondents are
from other work sections.
From the data collected from former employees indicated that the majority 45.5% are from other
sections workers (finance, general service, and other administration section ) and instructors
constitute 27.3 percent of respondents. 1(9.1%) and 2(18.2%) are coordinators and section heads
respectively.

4.2 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


The previous section dealt with the general background of the respondents and this section
presents the analysis and interpretation parts. The primary objective of the data gathered was to
understand factors effecting staff turnover and its impact on job performance of the organization.
All questionnaires or data collected pointed out why employee leave their current job, what
feeling do the existing employees have regarding the turnover, what additional burden do existing
employee carrying because of the leaver, and what effects have it brought to the job performance
of the organization.
4.2.1 Job Related and Environmental Factors
The questionnaires were designed according to Likert-scale type that respondents have to indicate
whether they strongly agree, agree, agree somewhat, disagree, and strongly disagree for each
statement. Numeric values (5, strongly disagree and 1 strongly agree) were assigned to enable the
quantitative analysis of the results. Descriptive statistics frequency, percentage, mean scores, and
standard deviations were used to present and analysis the data gathered through the questionnaire.

30

Table 2: Respondents Response from Existing Employees on Workload and Work Environmental
Related Factors

Ex-Employee

Existing Employee
Work
environment is
comfort to
perform a job

I am
satisfied
with current
workload

Freq. Perc. Freq. Perc.

Working envt. is a
major drive that
would make me to
stay in my current
job

Freq.

Perc.

Workload equally
distributed among
employee of the
org

Working
environment had
an impact on your
resignation

Freq. Percent

Freq. Percent

Agree somewhat

24

32.0

22

29.3

19

25.3

Strongly Agree

16

21.3

9.3

9.3

Agree

14

18.7

21

28.0

12

16.0

Disagree

13

17.3

19

25.3

24

32.0

9.3

6.7

12

16.0

1.3

1.3

1.3

Strongly Disagree
No comment

28

37.3

18.2

9.1

5.3

9.1

16

21.3

54.5

27

36.0

9.1

Source: Questionnaire, 2014

As indicated in table 2 above, for the statement that the working environments is comfortable for
the job,

16(21.3%) of the respondents from existing employee are strongly agreed with the

statement and14(18.7%) agreed with the statement, 24( 32%) of respondent agreed somewhat,
13(17.3%) disagree, and 7(9.3%) strongly agree with the statement and 1.3 % not responded.
This mean the aggregate value states that majority or more than 70% of respondents from
existing employee agreed with the statement that the working environment is comfortable to
perform the jobs. Former employees of the organization were asked that either working
environment had an impact and was a reason for the resignations. And they responded that
2(18.2%) agreed somewhat, 1(9.1%), strongly agreed and agreed, 6(54.5%) and 1(9.1%)
respondents were disagree and strongly disagree with the statement, the summarized value shows
that 4(36.4%) of respondents were agreed with the statement and 7(63.6%) former employee
responded that working environment had no impact for their resignation. Therefore, the overall
analysis from both currently working former respondents confirmed that the environment of
MYS and HO is good for doing a job.
31

Working environment is one of reasons for employee to leave their job and from the data
distributed among respondents of existing employee as stated on table 2 above, 7(6.3%) strongly
agree, 12(16%) agree, 19(25.3%) agree somewhat, 24(32%) disagree, and 12(16%) strongly
disagree with the statement that working environment is the major drive that could make to stay
or leave the organization..
The cumulative score, regardless of the level of difference, shows that 50.6% of respondent
agreed with the statement that, good working environment is the major reason for employees to
leave or stay in the organization, and 47% disagree 1.3 with no suggestion. From the above
related statements, even though working environment is one of a reason for employee to leave
their job, majority of the respondents 70% accepted that the working environment is conducive,
good, and attractive to perform the duties they assigned on.
4.2.2 Satisfaction with current work load
Satisfaction level of employees with current workload determines feelings of employees to stay
or leave their current job. In addition to this, organizations ability to achieve its objectives
depends on the level of job satisfaction that are obtained from the work. As stated on table 2
above,7(9.3%0 of respondents of existing employee are strongly, 21(28.4%) agree with the
statement, 22(29.7%) agree to somewhat, 19(25.7%) disagree, and 5(6.8%) strongly disagree
with the statement. The overall value shows that 67.6 % of the respondents are satisfy with their
current work load. This means satisfaction with work load enables to provide quality service and
reduces work stress.
Fair and equal distribution of work load among the worker was one of the questions forwarded
among respondents of existing employees. Accordingly 27(36%) of respondents are strongly
disagree with the statement, 16(21.3%) disagree, 28 (37.3%) are agrees somewhat, and 4(5.3%)
are agree with the statement. The mean value of 3.88 shows that majority of the respondents of
existing staff argued that the work load is not equally distributed among all employee of MYS
and Head Office.
Even though employees are satisfied with current work load as indicated on table 1 above, it was
also shown that existing employees are dissatisfied with the currently work load are disagree with
fair distribution of the work load. The scenario is that jobs are not well studied and designed, job
32

specification and evaluation was done in an unfair manner. This is one of the core reasons for
employee to be dissatisfied and look for other job.
4.2.3 Salary, Other Benefits and Career Development
Organizations pay level is highly influences employee turnover since it is one of the core reason
for the staffs to quit their job. According to data collected from 75 respondents of existing
employees as indicated in the table 3 below, 35(46.7 %) strongly disagree with the statement,
21(28.8%) are disagree, 8(11%) agree somewhat, and 7(9.6%) agree, and 2(2.7%) strongly agree
with the statement that I am satisfied with my current salary.
Table 3: Salary and other Benefits Related Factors
Existing Employee

Ex-Employees

I am satisfied Salary scale and other The salary you were


benefits motivated you getting compensated
with my
current salary to stay at current job
your workload
Freq. Percent

Freq.

Percent

Freq.

Percent

Strongly Agree

2.7

9.1

Agree

9.3

5.3

9.1

Agree Somewhat

10.7

9.3

Disagree

21

28.0

32

42.7

45.5

Strongly Disagree

35

46.7

29

38.7

36.4

Mean Value

1.91

4.1

Source: Questionnaire, 2014

Respondents those terminated from the organization in a different period of time were requested
either they were paid well or not. Accordingly, as indicated in table 3 above, 1(9.1%) strongly
agreed, and agreed with the statement, 5(45.5%) disagree, and 4(36.4%) of former employees
were strongly disagree with the statement. the overall value indicated that, 10(90.9%) of

33

respondents said they were not paid well and 1(9.1%) said they were paid well. The mean value
1.91 shows that majority are not paid well.
The aggregate result shows that 76.7% of existing respondent claimed that they are not satisfied
with MYS and HO salary or pays structure. The mean value 4.1 indicated in table 3 above,
analyzed by descriptive statistics, proofs that greater part of the respondents are not satisfied with
the current salary. Ex-employee of the organization were requested either they had satisfaction
with salary of the organization. And it revealed similar statement that 1 respondent agreed with
the statement and 10 of the respondents answered that they were not paid well by the MYS and
HO.
Table 4: Ex-employees response on salary, management fair treatment
and training factors

Statement

Yes

No

Freq. Percent

Freq. Percent

Do you think that you were paid well?

9.1

10

90.9

Do you feel that that you were fairly

18.2

81.8

27.3

63.6

treated by the management of the


organization
Have you trained your successor
employee about the job?
Source: Questionnaire, 2014

Ex-employee were requested either they were fairly treated by their former employer of Mekane
Yesus Seminary and the Head Office. Accordingly, 2 of respondents were agreed and 9 of
respondents not agreed that they fairly treated by the management of the organization.
Question was also raised to the former employee either they were trained and transferred their
jobs to their successor or not. As indicated in the table 4 above, 3 agreed with the statement and 7
of former employee were not trained their successor.

34

Scholars disclosed that dissatisfied employee first psychologically remove themselves from the
job and exhibit a very low level of job involvement and ultimately leave the organization for
better pay.
Salary and other benefit packages of the organization enable employee to remain on their job.
The data collected from respondents of existing employees as indicated in the table 3 above,
reveals that 81.4% of respondents disagree with the statements that salary scale and other benefits
motivated to stay in the organization and 18.6% of respondents are agree with the statement. In
other words majority of respondent are agreed that salary of the organization is not attractive and
employees are dissatisfied in this regard. For positive relationships and employees commitment
to the objectives of the organization, it is important for manager to keep in mind that employees
definitely care about their benefits because it contributes self-worth. Therefore, satisfaction with
pay is the most core factor for employee to remain on the job or look for other better pays.
Question was forwarded to existing employees whether salary scale and other benefits motivated
them to stay in the organization. The data indicated in table 3 above stated that 29 (38.7 %),
32(42.7%) of respondents from existing staff strongly disagree and disagree respectively.
7(9.3%), 4(5.3%), and 3(4%) are agree somewhat, agree, and strongly agree respectively
with the statement. The Majority 81.4% respondents of MYS and HO agreed that salary scale and
benefits are not motivated them to stay in the organization. This means, dissatisfaction with pay
drastically leads declining in the service of the organization including a low morale on the
teaching learning processes of MYS.

On the open-ended questionnaire employees resigned from their job confirmed that, poor pay
system, low salary/wage rate, and unfair or unequal benefit distribution among the workers. They
also stated that the pay structure is far lower than other similar institution. As the result
instructors and other administration workers left their duties and those who are on job perform
their duties with dissatisfaction and low morale.

35

Table 5: Cross tabulation of employees job position by salary satisfaction factors


I am Satisfied with Current Salary * Job position of respondent Cross tabulation

Job position of respondent

Count
Strongly
Agree
Percent (%)
Agree

Total

Department Section Instructor Coordinator Others


Head
Head
1
1
--

Count

11.1%

3.7%

2.8%

Percent (%)
I am Satisfied
Count
Agree
with Current
somewhat Percent (%)
Salary
Disagree Count

0.0%

0.0%

4.5%

11.1%

18.5%

9.9%

0.0%

8.3%

13.6%

0.0%

Percent (%)

0.0%

25.0%

27.3%

44.4%

12

100.0%

66.7%

54.5%

33.3%

12

22

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

Strongly
Disagree
Total

Count
Percent (%)
Count
Percent (%)

14.8% 11.3%
7

20

25.9% 28.2%
10

34

37.0% 47.9%
27

71

100.0% 100.0%

Source: Questionnaire, 2014

The above table 5 cross tabulation response by existing employees shows the relationship
between job position and salary satisfaction. As sated on the above table 5, from total 12 section
heads 11(91.7%) of the respondents are dissatisfied with the salary. Of these, 8(66.7%) are
strongly dissatisfied with current salary of the organization. Again from 22 instructors 18(81.8%)
of respondents, are disagreed with the statement, 12 (54.5%) of respondents are strongly
dissatisfied with current salary of the organization only 18.1% of respondents are satisfied with
current salary. Other staffs including print shop, registrar, finance office, and general service
offices are also responded in a similar way. Accordingly, from 27 respondents, 62.9% are
disagreeing with the statement. and the remaining 2(22.23%) agrees with From 9 coordinators,
7(77.7%) are not satisfied with current salary.

36

Table 6: Job position of respondent * Do you think that you were paid well? Cross
tabulation

Job position of
respondent

Do you think that you were


paid well?
yes
no
0
2
0
3
0
1
1
4
1
10

Section Head
Instructor
Coordinator
Others

Total

Total

2
3
1
5
11

Source: Questionnaire, 2014

Table 6 above depicts the salary that was paid in relation to job position of former employees of
the organization. As indicated on the table 6 above, two section heads, three instructors, and four
respondents from others work are stated that they were not paid well. The overall result revealed
that 10(90%) of respondent from ex-employee stated that they were not paid well and 1(10%)
respond agreed he was paid.
Quality of education can be affected by the ability, skill, and moral of the instructors. If
Workers dissatisfied, the intention to provide good education remains in question. Low level pay
makes a significant impact on instructors classroom performance and on the quality of
education. In this rapid growing economy and knowledge era, where pays is one of a core value,
employees choose to leave current job and look others for higher pay opportunity. Therefore,
organizations pay system and benefits can retain or force employee to quit the job.
4.2.4 Employees Reward, Career Development, and Promotion System
Clear and equal opportunity in career development and fair reward and promotion system builds
sense of organizational ownership and minimizes employee turnover and separation. In the mean
time it reduces costs related to employee turnover. In the competitive environment leaders pay
considerable attention to the needs of employee, particularly for workers whose skills and
responsibilities are indispensable to the organization and for the workers whom the organization
invest considerable resources in recruiting and training purpose. Therefore, to retain knowledge
and skills of the organization, fair and equal opportunity in all aspects of organizational benefits
is a crucial factor.

37

From questionnaire that was distributed with open ended questions, respondents stated that
managers reward employee without any valid performance evaluation procedures. Thus,
competent and hard working employees are ignored

by the organization. The response also

disclosed that, because of this, well experienced and competent and skilled employees left the
organization and joined similar institution with better benefits and high salary.

Table 7: Response on job and Work environment related factors from ex- employee and current
employee respondents factors

Existing Employees Response


Employee who
work more are
rewarded with
better appraisal
rate & promotion

Freq. Percent

Ex-Employees
Response

Unfair reward & Training and career


promotion system advancement are
would drive me to given in a fair
leave the orgn.
manner

Freq. Percent

Freq.

Percent

Qualification &
experience were fairly
considered on
employee promotion

Freq.

Percent

Strongly Disagree

38

50.7

9.3

30

40.0

45.5

Disagree

27

36.0

16

21.3

31

41.3

36.4

Agree somewhat

6.7

18

24.0

10.7

9.1

Agree

5.3

12

16.0

1.3

9.1

Strongly Agree

1.3

18

24.0

4.0

No comment
Mean Value

4.29

Source: Questionnaire, 2014

Respondents from current staff were requested whether employee who work more rewarded with
better appraisal and promotion. The data collected from the respondents of existing employee as
stated on table 7 above, exhibit that, 38(50.7%) strongly disagree, 27(36.0%) disagree, 5(6.7%)
agreed somewhat, 4(5.3%) agree, and 1(1.3%) strongly agree with the statement that, employee
who work more rewarded. The overall findings indicated that, 93.4% of respondents are disagree
with the statement that employees who work more rewarded with better appraisal and promotion.
38

From these 50.7% are strongly disagreeing with the statement. The mean value of 4.29 exhibits
that majority of the respondents are disagree with the statement. The result indicates that the
organization not reward and promote according to their professions and competency and
performance evaluation mechanism of the organization is not fairly treat all employee on equal
basis.
Dissatisfied employees stay longer on jobs they do not like. 64% of the respondent of existing
employee as stated on table 7 above, agreed that unfair reward and promotion system is one of
the reasons to leave the organization. 93% believed that competent personnel are not rewarded
and promoted.
Ex-employees were requested why they were resigned and they responded that low salary, unfair
leadership systems were considered as a basic reason.
Employees want to be motivated, grow and develop job and career enhancing skills and
knowledge such opportunity of growth and development gains through training and development
which is one of the most important factors for employee to retain on their job and reduce costs
related to turnover. On the document analysis it was read that, staff development plan of the
organization encourage training programs to develop the skills and potentials of its teaching
staffs and other personnel of the organization. it also indicated that, based on the needs of the
organization, employee of the organization can get formal and informal education program
according to the staff development and policy of the organization. Thus, staff that can provide the
minimum requirement may get international scholarship or want to attend university or college
granted up to 80% of the tuition fees.
Researchers identified that lack of or inadequate training and development program that not goes
to specific needs of employees lead to job dissatisfaction. Hence, lack of training lead employees
to leave their current job and join other rival organizations. As stated on the table 7 above;
existing employee respondents were requested that training and career advancement are given in
a fair manner. Hence, 3(4%) of respondents strongly agree, 1(1.3%) agree, 8(10.7%) agree
somewhat, 31(41.3%) disagree, and 30(40%) strongly disagree with the statement. The overall
response shows that 81.3% of the respondents agreed that training and career advancement are
not given in a fair manner and 12% agreed with statement.
Former employees of the organization responded to similar question that qualification and
experiences were fairly considered on the process of transfer and promotion. Thus, 2 agree,
39

4 disagree, and 5 of respondents strongly disagree with the statement. The overall analysis from
formers staffs as indicated in the table 7 above, revealed that, majority of respondents were
replied that they were not fairly treated by MYS based on their experience and academic
qualifications.

4.3 MANAGEMENT RELATED FACTORS


4.3.1. Higher Officials allow you to participate in Decision Making Process
The research also investigated if higher officials allow employee to participate in the decision
making process. With regard to this, as shown in Table 8 below, 23(30.7%) of respondents are
strongly disagree with the statement and 25(33.3%) disagree, 18(24%), 5(6.7%) agree somewhat,
and 3(4%) are strongly agree with the statement. The summarized response indicates that
majority of respondent 64% of respondents are disagree with the statement. This implies that,
management of MYS and HO are not in a position to allow employee to participate in the
decision making process of the organization.
The same statement was forwarded to the former employee of the organization as indicated in
table 8 below, and they responded that 7 strongly disagree, 2 disagree and 2 respondents were
agreed with the statement. Majority of respondent claimed that leaders of the MYS had not
allowed them to participate in the decision making process of the organization. If employees take
part in the decision making process, it creates sense of ownership, decrease job dissatisfaction,
and minimize staff turnover thereby increase productivity or quality of service rendered by the
organization.

Ex-staff were requested about their relationship with the management of the organization. as
specified in table 8 below, 3 respondents strongly disagree, 6 disagree, with the statement that
there were good relationship between managers and employees of the organization. Thus,
majority of respondent of former employee pointed out that there were no good relationship
between management and employees of the organization.

40

Table 8: Response on job and Work environment related factors from ex- employee and current
employee respondents

Existing Employees
Response

Ex-Employees Response

Higher officials
Relation b/n You were allowed to
There were good
allow you to
managers and participate in the
relationship b/n
participate in
employee is
decision making managers and employee
decision making
good
process of the orgn.

Freq. Percent Freq. Percent

Freq.

Percent

Freq.

Percent

Strongly Disagree

23

30.7

16

21.3

63.6

27.3

Disagree

25

33.3

26

34.7

18.2

54.5

Agree somewhat

18

24.0

26

34.7

9.1

9.1

Agree

6.7

5.3

9.1

Strongly Agree

4.0

4.0

No comment

1.3

9.1

Source: Questionnaire, 2014

Similarly, current employee of MYS and HO were asked about the degree of relationship exist
between employee and manager. With regards to this as shown on the table 8 above, for the
statement relationship between employee and managers is good 16(21.3%) and 26(34.7%)
strongly disagree and disagree with the statements and 26(34.7%), 4(5.3%), 3(4%) are agree
somewhat, agree, and strongly disagree respectively. 42(56 %) of respondent of existing
employee pointed out that there was no good relationship between management and employees of
MYS and head office.

41

4.3.2. Employee, Employer relations, and Organizational Impartiality


Table 9: Employer, Employee relation, organizational impartiality, team work, and
mismanagement related factors
Strongly

Agree

Agree

Statements
The organization is impartial
for overall employee
benefits
Managers encourage team
works
Your immediate boss
arrange flexible working
conditions
Organization provides
necessary tools to complete
the jobs
Mismanagement is one of
the reason employees leave
their jobs.

Agree

Somewhat

5.3

10.7 23

12

2.7

Strongly
Disagree

Disagree

30.7 24

32.0 15

20.0

24

32.0 24

32.0

12.0

6.7 30

40.0 25

33.3 13

17.3

2.7 15

20.0 22

29.3 20

26.7 14

18.7

25

33.3 19

25.3 19

25.3 6

16.0

8.0

8.0

Source: Questionnaire, 2014

Respondents of current staff were requested whether managers encourage teamwork.


Accordingly, 9(12%) of respondents are strongly disagree, 24(32%) disagree, 24(32 %) agree
somewhat, 12(16%) agree, and 3(4%) strongly agree. 44.9% in general disagree and 52% are
agreed that managers encourage teamwork. With regard to organizations impartiality over all
benefits of employee, respondents were responded as follows. 15(20%) of respondents are
strongly disagree with the statement that the organization is impartial over all benefits of the
employees, 24(32%) disagree with the statement and the remaining 23(30.7%) agree somewhat,
8(10.7%) agree and 4(5.3%) strongly agree. The overall analysis states that majority of the
employees of MYS and HO claimed that the organization is not impartial over the employee
benefit handling mechanisms.
Regarding flexibility on the working conditions respondents existing employee were requested
either the immediate boss arranges flexible working condition. As indicated on the table 9 above,
2(2.%), 5(6.7%), and 30(40.0%) of the respondent are strongly agree, agree, and agree somewhat
with the statement that immediate boss arranges flexible working conditions, and 25(33.3%) and
42

13(17.3 %) disagree and strongly disagree with the statement. The cumulative result shows that
with slight difference majority disagree with the statement and the mean value of 3.6 reveals that
higher numbers of respondents were disagreed with the statement.
The same analysis was made either the organization provides necessary tools or not. Accordingly
as shown on the table 9 above, 2(2.7%), 15(20%), 22(29.3%) of respondents are strongly agree,
agree, and agree somewhat that the organization provides necessary tools to complete their jobs.
The other way 20(26.7%) and 14(18.7%) of respondents are disagree and strongly disagree
respectively.

4.3.3 Mismanagement is one of the reasons for employee to leave their job
As shown in the table 9 above, respondents of existing employee were asked about the extent to
which mismanagement is a reason for employee to leave the organization accordingly, 25(33.3%)
and 19(25.3%) respondents responded strongly agree and agree respectively, 19(25.3%) agree
somewhat, 6(8%) disagree, and 6(8%) strongly disagree with the statement. The overall data
analysis indicates that 83.9% of the employee of the MYS and HO agree that mismanagement is
one of the reasons for employee to leave the organization. The same question was asked using
opened ended why employee are leaving their job. They were responded that, unattractive salary
and benefit packages, unfair staff treatment by managers like act of nepotism, unfair promotion
procedure, unwillingness of leaders not allowing employees to participate in the decision making
process are some of main and basic reasons for employee to quit the job.
Respondent of former employees were asked why they were left their job and replied that lower
level salary, lack of career advancement, mismanagement, looking for better opportunity were
some of the reason for their resignations.
On an interviewed that was conducted with department heads, question was raised do you feel
that employees are equally treated? .

It as

replied that at department level teacher are

participating in all departmental activities and have equal chance of participation in all matters
related to the teaching and learning process.
When comes to the Seminary or at the organization level, unfair acts of management are
observed particularly on employment of new candidates, unfair benefits distribution, unfair
43

salary allocation are some that are observed. Therefore, the overall analysis from current and
former employee and department head indicated that act of mismanagement behaviors are the
characters of the organization.
4.3.4 Management Intent to Address Dissatisfied Employees not leave Their Job.
Management ability to retain its employee and keep them with their knowledge gives a
competitive advantage and increase service quality and productivity. It is also true that
identifying why employees are dissatisfied and minimizes turnover are core activities of human
resource management program.
On the questionnaire employees were requested either management is addresses work related
issues to dissatisfied employees. The data collected from respondent of existing employee as
indicated in table 10 below revealed that, 3(4%)strongly agree, 1(1.3%) agree with the statement,
10(13.%) agree somewhat, 34(45%) disagree, and 27(36%) strongly disagree with the statement
that managers are addressing work related issues to dissatisfied employees.
The overall response indicates that 84% of respondent of MYS and HO agreed that managers did
not take any action to dissatisfied employees of the organization.
Similar question was presented to the respondents of current employees either managers are
doing their best to ensure that employees will not leave the organization. From data collected as
stated on the table 10 below, 1(1.3%), strongly agree, 2(2.7%) agree, 8(10.7%) agree somewhat,
27(36%) disagree, and 36(48%) strongly disagree with the statement that managers are doing
their best to ensure that employees will not leave the organization.
The data collected make known that the highest number 84% of respondents disagree with the
statement. This means that managers of MYS and HO are not doing their best to ensure that
employees will not leave their jobs. Managers have an influential factor in the operation of the
organization and have an indispensable role in the minimizing of turnover and employee
retention strategy.

44

Table 10: Respondents intent either managers address dissatisfied and try best employee
not leave

Management address
work related issues to
dissatisfied workers

Strongly Agree

Frequency
3

Percent
4.0

Managers are doing their


best to ensure that
employees will not leave
the orgn.
Frequency
Percent
1
1.3

Agree

1.3

2.7

Agree somewhat

10

13.3

10.7

Disagree

34

45.3

27

36.0

Strongly Disagree

27

36.0

36

48.0

Source: Questionnaire, 2014

4.4 EFFECTS OF TURNOVER ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE ORGANIZATION


Employee turnover unless otherwise wisely managed and controlled has great impact on the
performance of the organization. It will reduce productivity and decreases service of the
organization. In this regard questions were distributed to respondent to understand what jobs are
impinged because of staff turnover. Table 11 below; revealed that 6(8%) strongly disagree,
12(16%) disagree, 8(10.7%) agree somewhat,27( 36%) agree, and 22(29.3%) strongly agree with
the statement that there are jobs hampered due to staff turnover. Majority of respondents 65.3
percent claimed that there are jobs in the organization affected due to staff turnover.
The same open ended question was forwarded to existing employee respondent if there are jobs
affected due to staff turnover. Accordingly respondents briefly stated that some service giving
section was fully closed because the two employees who were assigned in the section left their
job. A program that was functioning at the church level has been terminated after the assigned
staff left the job. They also indicated that, when employee quits their jobs, their duties will be
handed over to existing employee. Teachers have been given additional courses that were given
by the quitted staff. Section heads stated that working activities of their respective section have
been hampered after employees quit their jobs because existing employee took over the jobs and
45

forced to work excessive duties. This made demoralizing existing staffs and minimized quality of
work.
On the interview that was conducted with the department heads, and asked that do existing
employees work extra workload for the resigned post? It was proved that there were courses
cancelled because of the leavers. In the mean time due to the absence/quit of the staff, the course
that being given by the leaver was distributed among the remaining teacher. And because of this,
some instructors obliged to teach excessive course. Instructor teaches two or more subjects in the
same class and this leads to a decline in the quality of education and students cant get
appropriate subject matter of the course. Sometimes the department hires part-time teachers from
outside and pays double pay rate than usual. On the interview with department heads, it was
revealed that in the last few years more than five individuals were repetitively assigned for a
single position for one department head position.
Respondents of existing employee of the organization were asked either agree or disagree that
organization pays additional cost for announcement, medical and other related costs when
recruiting new employee. Accordingly, the response as indicated on table 11 below, asserted that
24 (32 %) of respondents strongly agree, 23 (30.7%) agree, 15 (20%) agree somewhat, 9(12%)
disagree, and 4(5.3%) strongly disagree with the statement that organization pay excess and
additional cost for announcement, medical, and other matter related with recruiting new
employees.
The overall analysis from the respondent depicted that, majority of the respondent 62 (82.7%)
argued that the MYS and HO pays excess cost related with employee recruitment, training,
medical examination, and other related factors. The mean value of 2.28 as indicated in Table 11
below confirms that highest rate of respondents are agree with the statement.

46

Table 11: Existing employees response on Jobs Affected due to turnover and cost incurred
due to turnover

There are jobs that


are affected because
of employee turnover
Freq.

Percent

The organization pay excess


cost for new employment
and other related factors
Freq.

Percent

Strongly Agree

22

29.3

24

32.0

Agree

27

36.0

23

30.7

Agree somewhat

10.7

15

20.0

Disagree

12

16.0

12.0

Strongly Disagree

8.0

5.3

No comment
Mean value

2.28

Source: Questionnaire, 2014

Respondents through open ended question were asked about their views as to what cost the
organization so far incurred due to staff turnover. Majority stated that the organization has
spent cost for taking new recruited employee to medical examination, take new recruited to
external examiners, pays top up for existing who took over as additional job, excess cost for
announcements made on different mass medians, loss in income due to turnover, are few or
matter connected to new employment process. Apart from this, respondents stated that the
organization has been losing other non-monetary values; mentioning decline in the service of the
organization, best minds that cannot be replaced for years have left the organization. Some
employees who were got trained in country or abroad left the organization after serving for few
years and joined other similar institutions. When employee leaves his/her job the organization
pays excessive amount of money some time double salary for the newly employed person.
Existing employee took over additional workload until new employee gets the desired level of
performance or ability.
47

The question was triangulated through interview that was conducted with department heads.
Question was asked what major cost does the organization pays for new employment process
and other related factors? It was confirmed that MYS has been paying additional cost for matter
related to the turnover. Recruitment process sometimes goes for months and until the new
employee occupies his/her position, MYS pays excess payment for part-time teachers.
Sometimes recruitment processes go to external examiners and the organization still pays
additional cost. When the organization recruit employee in the general service areas it pays for
medical examination results.
He also stated that when employees leave the organization courses that were being given by the
former employee distributed among existing instructors. The moral of existing employee is
declining when their fellow employee leave and join other organization thus, they are intending
to follow their footsteps. In general it can be concluded that the organization has incurred
indispensable tangible and intangible costs because of repetitive employee turnover.
Qualified employee which are the backbone of any organization are not simply emerged rather
came through frequent learning activities on purpose to acquire knowledge and skills. With this
fact, the response collected from respondents as indicated in the table 12 below, 39(52% ) of
respondents answered that they did not receive short or long term training from the organization
and 33(44 %) responded that they have got short and long term training. With slight difference
majority didnt get short or long term training including any educational opportunity.
The interview that was conducted with department head it was asked do the organization have
training and development programs? and was answered that Seminary have staff development
plan to upgrade MA holder to PhD and BA holders to MA, however, practical implementation of
the program not functioning as was intended.
Respondents from ex-employees who left the organization replied that, from 11 respondents 6 of
them agreed that they had not received any training where as 4 replied that they were received
training and 1 respondent not responded. The overall analysis indicated that with slight different
most respondents who left the organization and respondents of existing employee indicated that
they have not got any types of training from the organization.

In the mean time the analysis

revealed that most of respondents who left the organization have got training from the
48

organization. In other words it argues that employees those received training and education have
been living the organization with their skill and knowledge.
Table 12: Matters related with intent to leave the job, getting training opportunity
Current Employee
Yes

No

Freq. %
Do you leave your
current job if you get
other opportunities?
Have you got any
long or short term
training by the orgn.?
Have you got training
opportunity by the
organization

Ex-Employee
Yes

Freq.

61

81.3

12

16.0

33

44.0

39

52.0

Freq.

No
%

Freq.

36.4

54.5

Source: Questionnaire, 2014

It is argued that dissatisfied employees because of salary, working conditions, mismanagement or


any other reason can leave the organization. Respondents of current employee of MYS and HO
were asked their intention either they leave their current job and joint others if get opportunity.
The data gathered from the survey indicated that 61 (81.33%) responded that they will leave their
current job if they get any job opportunity,
12 (16.0%) responded that they do not want to leave the organization, and 2(2.67%) responded
no comment on the statement. Majority of respondents of current employee in MYS and HO
concluded that they are ready to leave the organization if get any opportunity.
On the open ended questions it was asked why they want to leave their current jobs? And some
respondents stated that they are not satisfied with existing situations of the organization because
of salary, lack of career advancement, mismanagement and other reasons. At the same time
employee those did not want to leave the organization reasoned they case and said that, they do
not want to leave their job because, they joined the organization with a call to serve the church.
49

They confirmed and said that they returned from abroad leaving good opportunities behind and
just to serve the church.

Table 13: Cross tabulation leaving current job and getting training opportunity
Do you leave current job if you get other opportunity? * Have you got training or education
opportunity by the organization? Cross tabulation
Count
Have you got training or education opportunity by the Total
organization?
Yes
No
Do you leave current job Yes
27
32
59
if you get other
No
6
6
12
opportunity?
Total

33

38

71

Source: Questionnaire, 2014

The cross tabulation table 13 above indicated that from the total 33 respondents who have got
training by the organization, 27 (90%) of them are intending to leave the organization if they get
any opportunity. 10% of the responded who got training opportunity are not intending to leave
their current job. And 32 respondents of 38 existing employee who did not get still need to leave
the organization if they get any job opportunity.

50

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This study investigated into the effects of employee turnover in Ethiopian Evangelical Mekane
Yesus Seminary and Head Office. The study was conducted through a samplings survey using
existing employee, ex-employees, and department heads. Data collection was made in the month
of April 2014 by the use of questionnaire, interview, and document analysis techniques. Data that
was collected was analyzed through percentage and frequency. In this chapter attempt is made to
present the findings of the study, draw conclusions and make recommendations. The summaries
are presented along research objectives. The general objective of the study is to understand what
effect does the employee turnover has made on the performance of the organization. Specific
objectives of the study are; to examine the determinant factors of employee turnover, to measure
the degree to which turnover contributes on the performance of the organization, identifying
major cases and specific areas affected by the turnover, examine effects of staff turnover on the
service of the organization, and finally to suggest ways and means of resolving the problems.
4.1.SUMMARY
The first objectives of the study were to understand the determinant factors for employee
turnover at Mekane Yesus Seminary and main Head Office of the organization. Unfavorable
working environment is one of the main reasons for employee to move from organization to
organization. The analysis that was conducted

revealed that 70% accepted as the working

environment is comfortable for performing their jobs. Both currently working and employees
who left the organization admitted the same response in this regard. Therefore, the work
environment had a low rate of contribution for employee turnover and separation.
Satisfaction level of employees with normal work load determines feelings of enjoying on their
respective jobs. Even thought dissatisfaction on the workload can force staff to quit, majority of
them were satisfied with the work load of the organization. However, it was analyzed that there
are discouraging factors when additional jobs were transferred or handed over to existing
employee when a staff resigns from the organization.

51

Work load and equal job distribution to every employee according to their job position are
inseparable factors. Even though the work load is manageable by employee 57% were revealed
that the distribution of the work load among employees was unfair.
Pay level, salary and benefits packages are the most and highly influential factors for employee
turnover. 76.7% of existing employee concluded that they are highly dissatisfied with the current
pay level of the organization. About majority former employee who left the Mekane Yesus
Seminary indicated that salary was one of the reasons for their resignation. Therefore, the
analysis indicated employees are discouraged because of low pay system as 81.4% agreed salary
scale and benefits did not motivate them stay in the organization.
The analysis that was conducted to identify major causes and specific areas affected by staff
turnover, it was exhibited that 27.3% of former employees who left the organization were
instructors and 45% from other sections including finance office, registrar, library, and other
sections.
81% from instructors and 62.9% from other section were the highest numbers that were not
satisfied with pay level of the organization. Findings from former instructors revealed that they
were not paid well.
Organizations reward system was indicated as one of the bottleneck for staff not to remains in the
organization. 93.4% from existing employee indicated that employee who work more and have
higher performance was not rewarded with better pay and was not get promotion or career
development opportunity. Thus, 64% intended to leave the organization because of unfair reward
system.
Employees want to be motivated and gain training and development which is one of the
important factors on employee retention strategy. However, 81.3% said training and career
advancement was not given in a fair manner.
Investigation was made if higher officials allow employee to participate in the decision making.
From the finding of existing employee, 64% indicated that employees were not allowed to
participate in the decision making process. Ex-employee of the organization agreed that they
were not allowed to participate in the decisions making process of the organization.
52

Employee employer relationship was one of the areas that 60% concluded it as a disadvantaged
issue in the organization. The relationship between both parties was poor. Former employees had
also revealed that there were poor relation with the managers and employee of the organizations.
Team works which in one of modern approach for implementation of organizational activities
through integrating skills and knowledge of the teams. Thus, from findings 50% indicated
managers of the organization encourage team work among the employees.
Mismanagement is also one of the reasons for employee to quiet their job. The finding shows
83.9% of Mekane Yesus Seminary and Head office accepted mismanagement as a reason for
turnover.
Managements ability to retain employee increases productivity and competitive advantage of the
organization. Findings indicated that managers were not in a position to address dissatisfied
employees not to leave their job. And 84% claimed manager were not able to address dissatisfied
employees to ensure that employee not leave their job.
As indicated on the objectives, study was undertaken to examine effects of turnover on the
service of the organization. The finding revealed 65.3% shown; jobs of the organization were
affected by the employee turnover. Finding sort out that service sections were closed due to
leavers, programs were terminated, and existing employee shared the jobs of resigned employees
and took more burdens until the new employee recruited or occupy the position.
Replacement cost or costs related with vacancy announcement, medical examination cost,
external examiner expenses, time spent for screening, and interview are costs incurred due to
staff turnover. Instructor teach excessive course, high payment has been made for part time
teachers, best minds that cannot be replaced for years have been leaving the organization.
Employees feeling to the organization indicated that 81% have intention to leave the organization
if they get any opportunity. From existing employees those got training and education by the
organization, 90% have an intention to leave the organization.

53

4.2.CONCLUSION
The study found that mismanagement; low level salary and benefit packages are significantly
reasoned for employee turnover. In particularly, lack of career advancement, job dissatisfaction,
leaders unwillingness to allow staff to participate in the decision making process of the
organizational matters, inadequate training opportunities directly impacted on the staff turnover
and separations.
It was revealed that unfavorable employee related factors low level of team works, impartiality of
management over benefits, lack of flexible working condition, and other related factors increased
employee dissatisfaction, lack of commitment, in the end result was resignation.
Study findings shows that major activities of the organization were affected due to staff turnover.
Increase in work load due to resignation of employees, extra pay for part time instructors,
medical examination cost, external examiner cost for new recruited employee, losing skilled and
knowledge of due to employee turnover, and others were affected job performance of the
organization. The real factors of the organization forced even the existing employee to follow
footsteps of the leaver. The finding claimed that most of existing employee intended to quit their
job if they get any opportunities in other similar organizations.
The findings lead to the conclusion that the Mekane Yesus Seminary and the main head office of
Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus are losing their human capital that means educators
and other key personnel those cannot be replaced in years and due to this it leads to jeopardize
the service of the church

4.3.RECOMMENDATIONS
The researcher has recommended that to reduce on the rate of employee turnover, employer of
Mekane Yesus Seminary look to the personnel manual of the organization and revise
administrative policies including salary administration, benefits packages and try to meet
employees expectations.
It is not quite enough for employers to acquire qualified and skilled personnel; rather retaining
the experienced one is a crucial factor. Since turnover for skilled and knowledgeable employees
54

particularly those cant be replaced for years are capable to damage credibility of the organization
and in the mean time lead to decline in the productivity and job performance of the organization.
Hence, managers should make a maximum effort in the handling of employee and motivate
dissatisfied employees.
As training capacitates staff productivity, managers should work with its human resource policies
and provide training programs in a fair manner to all levels and categories of employee based on
the pre-planned programs and upon departments need assessment analysis as stipulated on the
personnel manual of the organization.
Fair and clear employee promotion program based on employees performance and ability
increase staff morals. In the mean time it confirms employee trustworthiness to their
organization. Thus, employer should demonstrate equal and fair employee handling mechanisms
based on their performance evaluation.
From findings 50% of respondents indicated that management encourages team work among
employee however, 50% of respondents were not similarly responded. Hence, recommended that
managers do more effort on team work so they may able to share and integrate individual ideas
for the betterment of job performance.
Managers of the organization should approach employees at their work place, particularly
identify employees with dissatisfied and address issues not to leave their jobs. The higher the
participation of employee in the decision making process, the faster for its implementation and
employee satisfaction. Hence managers should encourage, employees to participate the decision
making process of the organization core programs.

55

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Ababa University, pp 77-78

58

Appendix A: Questionnaire for Existing Employees

Addis Ababa University


School of Graduate Studies
Faculty of Educational Planning
This Questionnaire will be filled by Employees of Mekane Yesus Seminary and Head Office
The questionnaire is designed to prepare a thesis on the title of Effects of Employee Turnover and
Separation on job Performance of Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus Seminary and Head
Office (EECMY-HO & MYS). The outcome of the study will be used for suggesting possible solutions to
problems identified while conducting this study. Therefore, I would kindly request you to share your
precious time to fill in the questionnaire. I would like to confirm that the information you provide will
only be used for academic purposes. Your genuine, frank and timely responses are extremely determinant
for the success of this study. Hence, I would once more kindly request your contribution in filling this
questionnaire honesty and responsibly.
A. General Background

1. Your age ;
a) Below 25 years

b) 26-30

c) 31-35

2. Sex:

a) Male

3. Marital Status;

a) Married

b) female

d) 36-40

e) above 40

b) Single

4. Academic qualification;
a) Below 10th grade

b) 10+2

f) PhD

e) MA/MBA/MTh

c) 12+2

d) BA/BSc/BTh

5. Year of Service in EECMY-MYS/HO;


a) Less than 1 year
e) Above 10 years
6.
Position;

b) 1-2 years

a) Department Head
d) Coordinator

c) 3-5 year

b) Section Head

e) Controller

59

d) 6-10 years

c) Instructor/professor

f) Other please specify

B. Individual and Job Factors

Please indicate the extent to which you agree with each statement below by putting a
mark in the appropriate column in the table below against each of the response scales:
SA = Strongly agree;
D = Disagree;

A = Agree;
ASW = Agree somewhat;
SD = Strongly disagree

No
Statements
SA A ASW D SD
1 The working environment is comfortable and allows ease to perform
my job.
2 I am satisfied with my current salary
3 There is a clear reward system based on performance in the
organization
4 Attractive salary and benefits are the major drivers that would make me
stay in my current job
5 Good working environment is the major driver that would make me
stay in or leave my current job.
6 I am satisfied with the current work load
7 The work load is divided equally among all the organization employees
8 Employees who work more are rewarded with better appraisal rate and
promotions.
9 Unfair rewards and promotion systems would drive me to leave my
current job.
10 Career development program is available in the organization
11 Job training and career advancement are given in a fair manner
12 I believe that lack of career development is one of the reasons for
employees to leave the organization.
13 My organization is fair in general
14 There is promotion and appraisal procedure in the organization
15 Salary scale and other benefits motivated you to stay at your current job
16 You stayed at the current job because you dont have other options.
17 Your immediate boss/administration arrange flexible working
conditions
18 Organizations higher officials allows you to participate in decision
making
19 The relationship between employees and managers is good
20 Interpersonal relationship between employees is good.
21 Your current organization is impartial for over all benefits of employees
22 I believe that mismanagement is one of the basic reason for employees
to leave their current job.
23 There are jobs that are affected because of employee turnover
25 I am provided with necessary tool/resources to complete my job
26 My manager encourages team work
27 There is a high moral among members of the organization
28 Management tries their best to ensure that employees will not leave the
organization
29 Management addresses the work related issues to the dissatisfied
employees
30 The Organization pays additional and excess cost for announcement,
medical, and other matters when recruiting new employees.

60

31. When one staff leaves the organization, existing employee takeover his duties as additional job
until new employee recruited or assigned.
a) Yes

b) No

32. Have you got any long or short term training or education opportunity/scholarship program in the
a) Yes

organization?

b) No

33. Do you leave your current job if you get other opportunities?
a) Yes

b) No

If your answer is yes to the above question, why is it?


1.
2.
3.
4.

Due to weak leadership/administration system of the organization


No career development program in MYS
To get better salary and benefits
Dissatisfaction with the job

C. Please answer the following questions in some detail.


In your view what are the basic reasons for employees leaving the organization?
______________________________________________________________________________
In your view what cost does the organization incurred due to the leavers?
______________________________________________________________________________
Do you know any job or work areas that are interrupted or fully terminated due to the leavers
(employee leaving their job?) Please explain in detail ___________________________________

How do you observe the service of the organization in relation to the employee leaving their job?
Do you explain how it affected or can you explain effects of turnover on the performance of the
organization?___________________________________________________________________

Thank you very much for your kind co-operation

61

Appendix B: Questionnaire for Ex-Employees

Addis Ababa University


School of Graduate Studies
Faculty of Educational Planning
This Questionnaire will be filled by ex-employees of Mekane Yesus Seminary
This questionnaire is designed to prepare a thesis on the title of Effects of Employee Turnover and
Separation job Performance. The outcome of the study will be used in order to suggest possible solution
for problems identified while conducting this study. Therefore, I kindly request you to spend your
precious time to fill the questionnaire. I confirm you that the information you provide will be fully used
for academic purpose only. Your genuine, frank and timely responses are extremely determinant factor for
the success of this study. Hence, again I kindly request your contribution in filling this questionnaire
honestly and responsibly.

D. General Background
7. Your age ;
b) Below 25 years

b) 26-30

c) 31-35

8. Sex:

a) Male

9. Marital Status;

a) Married

b) female

b) Single

d) 36-40

e) above 40

10. Academic qualification;


b) Below 10th grade

b) 10+2

f) PhD

e) MA/MBA/MTh

c) 12+2

d) BA/BSc/BTh

11. Year of Service in EECMY-MYS/HO;


b) Less than 1 year
e) Above 10 years

b) 1-2 years

c) 3-5 year

d) 6-10 years

12. Position;
a) Department Head
d) Coordinator

b) Section Head
e) Controller

c) Instructor/professor

f) Other please specify

E. Job and management related questions


13. Did you feel that you were fairly treated by the management of the organization?
a) Yes

b) No

62

If your answer is no what is the reason?


14. How was your relationship with the management/department heads and immediate boss?
a) Very Good
b) Good
c) Fair
d) Bad
15. Have you ever made any grievance to your boss?
a) Yes
b) No
If your answer is yes how did you feel about the response?
a) Very satisfied b) satisfied c) Not satisfied

d) Was no reply at all

16. Do you think that you were paid well?


a) Yes
b) No
17. How was the work environment in which you were working?
a) Very good
b) Moderate
c) Fair

d) Bad

18. When you resigned your job, did you handover the jobs to your successor (replacement)?
a) Yes
b) Yes but not fully c) No because there was no successor
employee / replacement

d) No, because resignation was immediate (without prior

notice)
19. Have you trained your successor employee about the job?
a) Yes
b) No
20. Have you got any long or short term training or education opportunity in the organization?
a) Yes
b) No

F. Please indicate the extent to which you agree with each statement below by putting a
mark in the appropriate column in the table below against each of the response
scales:
SA = Strongly agree;
D = Disagree;
No
1

A = Agree;
ASW = Agree somewhat;
SD = Strongly disagree

Statement

SA

You resigned from the organization because of unfair


management system
Employees were treated unfairly

The salary you were getting compensated your work load.

There was good relationship between leadership and


employees
There was good relationship among employees

63

ASW

SD

You believe that employee assigned on your former job


perform the duties without any further training
There was structured career development system in the
organization
There were promotion mechanisms based on performance

7
8
9
10
11
12
13

On employee promotion and transfer procedures


qualification and work experience were fairly considered.
There were training and development programs in the
organization
Working environment had an impact on your resignation
You were allowed to participate in the decision making
process
You got knowledge or skills at your former organization.

21. Reasons /factors contributed for your resignation (please number {1, 2, 3, ..} from the best basic
reason to the lowest reasons
To get better pay/ salary
Unfair employee handling system in the organization /Mismanagement system in the orgn.
Lack of career development
Dissatisfaction with the job
To get further educational opportunity
Better opportunity in other organization in
Family related causes
22. Do you think that employee turnover may incur an additional cost on training and recruitment
Process, and also have an impact on the productivity of the organization? If yes please
explain..

Thank you very much for your co-operation

64

Appendix C: Interview guide questions for administration and department heads

Addis Ababa University


School of Graduate Studies
Faculty of Educational Planning

Interview guide questions for administration and department heads of Mekane Yesus
Seminary (EECMY MYS/HO)

1. How do you understand employee turnover? ___________________________________


2. Do you feel that employee turnover from the organization is a serious problem?
3. Do you make an exit interview when employees resign? __________________________
4. Do you know why employees are leaving the organization? _______________________
5. For any promotion or transfer are employees equally treated?_______________________
6. Do employees participate in organization decision making process? ________________
7. Do you have training and development program/plan? ____________________________
8. Do you think that there is smooth relationship between management and employees?
9. How do you characterize communication system between management and employees?
10. Do you agree that employees are paid well for the service they render? ______________
11. What major costs does the organization incurred while recruiting new employee?
12. Do employees work extra work load for the vacated position? ______________________
13. How long does it take to replace or assign new employee for the vacated post or job?
14. Do you measure cost of turnover and discuss what effect does made on the performance
of the organization? ___________________________________________
15. Which areas of responsibilities so far have been affected because of employee turnover
and which area is more vulnerable of high turnover?

Thank you very much for your response

65

Appendix D: Questionnaire for Existing Employee in Amharic


(Thesis)
/





1.
) 25

) 26-30

) 31-35

2.

3.

) 36-40

) 40

4.
) 10

) 10+2

) 10+3

5.
) 1

) 1-2

) 6-10

) 10

) 3-5

6.
)


.
1
2
3
4
5






/
/

66

6
7


()

8
9


10

11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18

/
( )


19
20
21
22
23

24
25
26
27

28
29
30

67

31. ?
)

32. ?
)

33. ?


34. ?

35.
?

36. /

37.
?

68

Appendix E: Questionnaire for Ex- Employee in Amharic

(Thesis)

/




1.
25
2.

26-30

31-35

36-40

3.

40

4.
10

10+2 10+3

5.
3-5

1
1-2
6-10
10

6.

.
7. ;

8.

9.

69

10.

11.

12.

/
13.

14.

70

10
11

12
13

15.
(1 2 3 . . )

71