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DEBATER OS DIREITOS E DEVERES

DOS CIDADOS
Cdigo do IEFP: 6663
Autor do Manual:

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NDICE
Objetivos
do
manual
3
Background
information
/
Human
rights
. 4
Useful
words

5
Fighting
for
the
right
to
be
beautiful
. 7
Multiculturalism

... 9
Islam
insult
woman
facing
death
.14
Womens
rights

16
Persecuted
for
being
white

.17
Song
by
Santana

20
Freedom
of
speech

... 21
Universal
DeclarationofHumanrights

Articles
.22
Bibliografia

..24

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OBJETIVOS GERAIS DO MANUAL


Guiar o estudo autnomo dos formandos.
OBJETIVOS ESPECFICOS DO MANUAL
Facultar uma sntese de principais contedos tratados nas sesses de modo a resolver
questes de interpretao textual de revelao de conhecimentos adquiridos,
produo textual e do funcionamento da lngua.
MODALIDADE DE FORMAO
Expositivo / Demonstrativo;
Interrogativo / Ativo;
Exercitao.
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FORMAS DE ORGANIZAO
Exposio terica dos temas do mdulo Debater os direitos e deveres dos
cidados.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION
HUMAN RIGHTS
All humans are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed
with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of
brotherhood.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Art.1
The theme Human Rights has been an essential and debated subject throughout
the years. Its implementation was not easy but many people have tried and fought to
keep them and make them a reality.
Human rights have been defined as basic moral guarantees that people in all
countries and cultures allegedly have simply because they are people. Calling these
guarantees rights suggests that they attach to particular individuals who can invoke
them, that they are of high priority and that compliance with them is mandatory rather
than discretionary. Human rights are frequently held to be universal in the sense that
all people have and should enjoy them and to be independent in the sense that they
exist and are available as standards of justification and criticism whether or not they
are recognized and implemented by the legal system or officials of a country. (Nickel,
1992:561 2)
The moral doctrine of human rights aims at identifying the fundamental
prerequisites for each human being leading a minimally good life. Human rights aim to
identify both the necessary negative and positive prerequisites for leading a minimally
good life, such us rights against torture and rights to health care. This aspiration has
been enshrined in various declarations and legal conventions issued during the past
fifty years, initiated by the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1954) and the
International Covenant on Civil and Economic Rights (1966). Together these three
documents form the centerpiece of a moral doctrine that many consider to be capable
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of providing the contemporary geopolitical order with what amounts to an international


bill of rights.

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this
right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either
alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his
religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Art. 18

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this
Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex,
language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin,
property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on
the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country
or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust,
non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Art.2

USEFUL VOCABULARY
WORDS
TRANSLATION
Discriminated
Discriminado /a
Values
Valores
Customs
Costumes
Racial
Racial
Ethnic
tnico /a
Symbols
Simbolos
Issue
Questo / assunto
Equality
Igualdade
Feeling
Sentiment
Pride / proud
Orgulho / orgulhoso /a
Demand
Exigir
Challenge
Desafio
Offensive
Ofensivo
Mainstream culture
Culturavigente
Diversity
Diversidade
Allow
Permitir
Democratic
Democrtico
Hostile
Hostil
Friendship
Amizade
Concept
Conceito
Stereotype
Esteretipo
Standards
Padres
Mix of cultures
Mistura de culturas
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Disparities
Threaten
Ban
Mosque
Church
Policy
Similar
Enforce
Damage
Multicultural
Law
Tolerance / tolerant
Sophisticated
Capable of
Exploit
Troubles
Isolated
Peaceful
Excuse
Neighbourhood
Role
Perception
Provide
Prejudice
Faith
Scorn
Holy
Put up with
Behavior
Relationship
Current social problems
Accountability
Burqa
Stunning
Cohesion
Peoples
Trampling
Seek
Slavery
Gender
Judgment
Avoid
Prohibit
Oblige
Impose
Obey
Employment
Segregation
Disobey
Attach
Choice
Choose

Disparidades
Ameaar
Proibir / banir
Mesquite
Igreja
Poltica
Similar / semelhante
Compelir / fazer cumprir
Estragon / prejuzo
Multicultural
Lei
Tolerncia / tolerante
Sofisticado
Capaz de
Explorer / tirarpartido de
Problemas / sarilhos
Isolado
Pacific
Desculpa
Vizinhana
Papel / funo
Perceo
Fornecer
Preconceito
F
Desdm
Sagrado
Tolerar / aturar
Comportamento
Relacionamento
Problemassociaisatuais
Responsabilidade
Burca
Assombroso / invulgar
Coeso
Povos
Atropelo
Procurer / buscar
Escravatura
Gnero
Julgamento
Evitar
Proibir
Obrigar
Impor
Obedecer
Emprego
Segregao / separao
Desobedecer
Vincular / unir
Escolha
Escolher
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Speech

Discurso

A
Read the following text and answer the questions.

FIGHTING FOR THE RIGHT TO BE BEAUTIFUL


In Iran, wearing make-up is punishable by torture, trousers are absolutely banned,
even riding a bicycle is considered immoral. However, 10 000 women refuse to accept
these male laws. So they gave up their lives, their families and are now in the Middle
Eastern desert, training in all aspects of front line battle for the day when they will
liberate their homeland. A thirty-seven-year-old Iranian woman tells her experience as
one of the female combatants.
The night before ParvinFirhusan left
she stayed awake all night. She was
looking at her fourteen-month-old
son thinking about what sort of
future he would have would he be
humiliated because he did not have
a mother? Would she see him
again?
It was not safe to take him with her
because of the permanent threat of
attack to the base. But she was
decided, she had to go. When it was
time for her to leave, she locked the
front door for the last time, she got
in a taxi holding her son in her arms. She instructed the driver to head for her motherin-law's house. She had asked her to baby-sit. Of course, she didn't tell her she was
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going to join the Rebel forces, the National Liberation Army of Iran (NLA). She used the
pretext of visiting friends.
This was not her only sacrifice. Her husband volunteered to join the army too. In the
NLA the women know celibacy is inevitable. She knew she would have to divorce and
this would be a very difficult choice because she loved her husband.
However she couldn't stand living any more in a country under martial law. There was
no future for her. She had already spent her youth in prison because when she was
eighteen and a member of the movement opposing the Ayatollah, she was condemned
to nine years for distributing leaflets. She was tortured and saw many people
slaughtered.
A woman was even taken just because she used nail varnish. The Guard locked her in a
dark room and put her hands in two sacks full of cockroaches.
Parvin's story is a testament to the personal sacrifices each woman has made in joining
the rebel army. They say, trying to control their sadness, "We are fighting for our
daughters' freedom."
Source: Marie Claire, May, 1999
(abridged and adapted)

WORDS
banned- forbidden
threat- intention to punish or hurt
celibacy- a life without sexual relations
slaughtered- killed, massacred
cockroaches-large, dark-brown insects
EXPRESSIONS
head for - take the direction of, go to

Answer the following questions about the text:


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1. Do Iranian women have the same rights as other women? Explain.


________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Did ParvinFirhusan accept Iranian law? Justify.
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Was this an easy decision? Why?
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
4. In your opinion, is celibacy inevitable for these rebellious women? Explain.
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
5. What made Parvin join this rebel army?
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
6. Is Parvin the only woman to make sacrifices? Explain.
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

MULTICULTURALISM
1. SourcesofHarmonyandConflict
Living in a multicultural community was never easy. There
are many aspects that keep people closer like language,
race, culture, religion or myths; the same aspects, however,
can be sources of conflict when extremism, antagonism or
even beliefs are at stake. What brings people together may
also lead to extreme situations of conflict, war or hate.
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In modern societies, be it in Europe or America, full integration becomes extremely


difficult - especially when people suffer discrimination for religious, racist, cultural or
sexist reasons. All too often in the name of integration minorities are required to deny
their entire way of life and conform to the majority culture. They are told to fit into a
society that may be openly hostile to them. If we are to talk of integration we must
recognize that the problem is created and maintained by the privileged. The challenge
then is to make the effort to understand how it affects people across the divides of
coloUr, culture, language and religion.
Every society has its tradition, beliefs and myths; those who defy the old system are
often treated as outsiders. American Indians were
gradually chased and slaughtered as white men
went west. Finally they were forced to live in
reservations where they could hardly survive. Black
people have suffered the stigmas of colour and
they have often expressed their anger through
crime, hate or prejudice; Jews have been
persecuted for religious reasons and theirs has
been a constant struggle to retain their own
culture and religion. Mexicans have had difficulty in
integrating into American society although they
are now one of the most colourful ethnical group
there.
In the American system competition and conflict
among ethnic groups has never been eradicated. Intergroup frictions have existed from
the beginning. In politics, housing, religion, education, unionism and business, ethnic
groups in the past have struggled to obtain more power or to preserve the power they
had - and they still do today.
A.
1. What factors may lead societies to extreme situations of conflict?
2. Why do some minorities keep on struggling for their traditions and beliefs?
3. How do the most powerful groups try to impose their laws?

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2. Race
The causes of race conflict are
complex and cannot be reduced to
a single factor. Its rise and fall are
often linked with real conflicts of
interest and competition for scarce
resources.
It has commonly accompanied
slavery, colonialism and other forms
of exploitation and inequality In
other cases relatively powerless
groups that have felt threatened by
social and economic instability have
blamed other powerless groups for
their predicament. The insecure
white working class and lower
middle class of industrial societies
have often expressed racist attitudes toward defenseless minorities, such as blacks in
the United Sates or Commonwealth immigrants in Great Britain.

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Rapid social change often fosters discrimination. Examples are the sudden immigration
of highly visible groups of foreigners, quick changes in the ethnic composition of a
neighbourhood or the threat of political change brought on by a nationalist movement.
Racism, in short, is frequently an irrational reaction to a real or perceived threat to the
status quo.
No one considers himself personally to be prejudiced.
But prejudice is about much more than personalities; it is about privilege. All our social
structures are built around competition rather than co-operation. Discrimination is a
consequence of dominant groups trying to keep their privileges at the expense of all
others.
People must fight against any kind of discrimination not only on the streets but also
involving themselves in political action, reporting in the papers we read, protesting
against culturally insensitive education, helping to improve the atmosphere at our
workplace, supporting local campaigns against racial injustice.
B.
1. Name the main causes of racism and discrimination.
2. Do people easily admit they are racist? Why?
3. What can one do to prevent demonstrations of hate and racism?

3. Language
Language is one of the most difficult barriers to
full integration. The older generations of
immigrants have often felt that so deeply that
they made their children learn the native
language of the country they were living in,
even if this meant forgetting the language of
their ancestors.
Using the same language links people from
different worlds or races and it should be an
element of union rather than of conflict.
C.
1. Older and younger generations show
different approaches towards learning a new
language. How do you account for that?

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2. Some national languages play an important role. Give some examples.

Ethnical cultures, however, where the language is an essential linking feature and
plays an important role - like Welsh or Gaelic or Spanish for example - may become
very intolerant towards language unification.

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4. Religious Groups Within The Community


Religion has a social aspect
that leads its adherents to
form a community, which may
be more or less tightly
organized.
In earlier times the religious
community could scarcely be
distinguished
from
the
community
at
large;
all
professed the same faith, and
the ruler was both a political
and a religious leader. In the
course of time, however,
religious and civil societies
have become distinct and
may come into conflict.
In modern states - the United
States,
for
example,
a
plurality of creeds coexist
peacefully within a single
political entity.
Each religious community has
its organized structure.
The US is a nation which was,
in effect, religiously pluralistic before it became politically pluralistic.
Americans early had to learn a sufficient amount of tolerance for
religious diversity merely to survive. It was necessary only to expand
that tolerance when the new immigrant groups arrived on the scene
with their own peculiar kinds of religious difference. The American
ideal that all men are created equal forced society to tolerate religious
and ethnic diversity Under such circumstances it was possible for
members of an ethnic group to continue and develop an ideology that
could be Irish, German, Polish, or Jewish.
Sources: America in Close-Up;
We Americans;
A Nation of Nations;
Time

D.
1. What is the prevailing attitude towards the various religions and
beliefs inside a community?

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2. The USA are proud of their religious tolerance. Explain why.

C
Read the following text and do the exercises:
'Islam insult' woman facing death
A
Pakistani
Christian
woman
condemned
to
death
for
blasphemy against Islam, has
tearfully pleaded her innocence
and asked that her life be spared.
The case of Asia Bibi, 45, has
drawn appeals from Pope Benedict
XVI and human rights groups to
free her. She was sentenced to
death earlier this month and has
been in prison for the last 18
months.
MrsBibihas
appeared
in
a
televised interview at her prison, protesting her innocence to
reporters and maintaining the case stemmed from a personal dispute.
"It was just the outcome of a rivalry. I would never even think of
blasphemy," she said weeping. "I have small children. For God's sake,
please set me free."
The verdict has drawn attention to Pakistan's blasphemy laws, which
critics say are used to persecute Christian and other minorities and
fan extremism. They are also often exploited to settle personal
grudges.
Shahbaz Bhatti, Pakistan's minister for minority affairs, said that
President Asif Ali Zardari has asked for a report on the case.
"The president has taken notice of this case ... he is concerned on this
issue," Mr Bhatti said, adding that Zardari has the power to pardon
her even ahead of the court appeal.
Her husband said MrsBibi's original spat was in June 2009 with a
group of Muslim women who refused to drink from the same water
bowl as a Christian when they were picking fruit in an orchard in
their village of AttianWali, west of Lahore in Punjab province.
After MrsBibi argued with them, the women told the local imam that
MrsBibi had insulted the Prophet Mohammed. The imam told the
police and she was arrested. A local court sentenced her to death on
November 8.
Dozens of Pakistanis - many of them Christians - are sentenced to
death each year for blasphemy. Most cases are thrown out by higher
courts and no executions have been carried out, Mr Bhatti said, but
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the law is being examined to prevent what he said is widespread


abuse by religious extremists and opportunists.
In Daily Mirror

Find opposites:
Absolved: _______________________________
Life: _______________________________
Guilt: _______________________________
Majority: _______________________________
Answered: _______________________________
Accepted: _______________________________
Lower: _______________________________
Find synonyms:
Liberate: _______________________________
Condemned: ___________________________
Jail: __________________________________
Dispute: ______________________________
Crying: _______________________________
Kids: _________________________________
Preoccupied :_____________________________

1)
Besides rights and freedoms, there are also duties. Write the words
RIGHT; DUTY and FREEDOM after its meaning:
Something people should do because it is what is expected. _____________________
Something people are entitled to and are allowed to. _________________________
Something people can do because they are free to choose.
-______________________

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D
Womens rights
Millions of women throughout the world
live in conditions of abject deprivation of,
and attacks against their fundamental
human rights for no reason than that
they are women.
Abuses against women are relentless,
systematic and widely tolerated, if not
explicitly
condoned.
Violence
and
discrimination against women are global
social epidemics, notwithstanding the
very real progress of the international
womens rights movement in identifying,
raising
awareness
about,
and
challenging impunity for womens human rights violations.
The Womens Rights Division of Human Rights Watch fights
against the dehumanization and marginalization of women. We
promote womens equal rights and human dignity. The realization of
womens equal rights is a global struggle based on universal human
rights and the rule of law. It requires all of us to unite in solidarity to
end traditions, practices and laws that harm women. It is a fight for
freedom to be fully and completely human and equal without apology
or permission. Ultimately, the struggle for womens human rights
must be about making womens lives matter everywhere all the time.
In practice, this means taking action to stop discrimination and
violence against women.
http://ww.hrw.org/women

Equality now
Equality Now was founded in 1992 to work for the protection and
promotion of the human rights of women around the world. Working
with the national human rights organizations and individual activists,
Equality Now documents violence and discrimination against women
and adds an international action overlay to support their efforts to
advance equality rights and defend individual women who are
suffering abuse. Through its Womens Action Network, Equality Now
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distributes information about these human rights violations to


concerned groups and individuals around the world, along with
recommended actions for publicizing and protesting them. The
Womens Action Network is committed to voicing a worldwide call for
justice and equality for women. Issues of urgent concern to Equality
Now include rape, domestic violence, reproductive rights, trafficking
of women, female genital mutilation and equal access to economic
opportunity and political participation.
http://www.equalitynow.or

Feminist Majority Foundation Online


The Feminist Majority and the Feminist Majority Foundation are
committed to empowering women and winning equality through
research, the sharing of information of value to feminists everywhere
and effective action. Our work is supported by the generosity of tens
of thousands of caring feminists women and men all across the
USA and around the world.
http://www.feminist.org

1 . Read the information above and then answer the following


questions.
a) What have you learnt about womens lives around the world?
b) Is there any department which protects the rights of women?
c) What is the aim of The Womens Rights Division of Human
Watch?
d) Why are women discriminated against?
e) What is the purpose of Equality Now?
f) Why is the movement important? (Mention at least three
reasons).
g) What does the term feminism mean?
h) Is the movement The Feminist Majority supported by anyone?
Explain.
E
Read the following text and to the tasks.
PERSECUTED FOR BEING WHITE

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Feared and loathed by their own


community and rejected by
whites. South Africas black
albinos inhabit a lonely no-mans
land in the worlds most colourconscious nation.
Blondie, pinkie and monkie are
just
some
of
the
insults
NomasontoMazibuko has had to
endure throughout her life.
Nomasonto
suffers
from
albinism, a congenital disorder in
which there is an absence of
pigment in the skin. It affects people of all ethnic groups, but in
colour-conscious South Africa, being born black without black skin has
forced people like Nomasonto to face superstition and discrimination
from blacks and whites alike.
Nomasonto was born in Soweto, the second youngest of ten children.
Four of her siblings had albinism, and much of her strength comes
from the love and support she received in her early childhood.
"People are ignorant," she says. "They don't know what causes
albinism."
Nomasonto recently counselled the mother of an albino child. The
other children at school didn't want to play with her, touch her or sit
next to her, because they thought her condition was contagious.
Nomasonto told the girl, "Life is like a garden - you get red, pink,
purple and white flowers." "People", she said, "are just the same".
But Nomasonto knows that fell-good metaphors aren't enough to beat
discrimination. When she attended the Primary school, life was a
silent nightmare. Her family was protective and loving, but at school
she was teased and ostracized. To avoid her tormentors, she varied
her route to school each day.
Some years later Nomasonto was on her way to a meeting when she
overheard a colleague whisper, "Sssh... Here comes Pinkie." What
hurts most, she says, is that her colleagues knew she was University
educated. "They weren't questioning my intelligence skills or
leadership," she says. "Theywerequestioningmycolour."
Source: Marie Claire, January 1999

WORDS
loathed- disliked very much
endure- undergo
absence-lack
overhear- hear what someone says when he is not talking to you and he doesn't
know you're listening
EXPRESSIONS
no-man's land - the land of nowhere

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feel-good- optimistic
ostracized- treated in an unfriendly way and not allowed to take part in other
people's activities

A ) Translate the text.


B)

C)

Answer the following questions about the text:


1. Why has Nomasonto always been discriminated?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__
2. Whats albinism?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__
3. Was she the only in her family who suffered from albinism? Justify
your answer.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__
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4. How did she cope with her problem?


______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__
5. What do you think she meant when she said Life was a silent
nightmare?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__
6. What hurts her most: being questioned for her skill or for her
colour? Justify your answer.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__

F
Listen to the song and answer the questions.
Everybody tells me, we love your songs
Your soul is precious, but it just aint good enough
You need a single to help you through
Program directors, they all make the rules
I said, youre kidding, youre putting me on
What about the constitution, freedom of expression
Listen to the music, just feel the sound
Love is the motion, thats what makes the world go around.
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Sing, songs of freedom


Bring joy to the world
Sing, songs of freedom
Bring joy to the world.
Everybody listen, stop and take some time
To understand the world situation
There is no meaning in fighting the way we do
Lets come together and forgive each other.
Refro
Santana

1. How would you define freedom?

2. Read the lyrics of the song and say what is it about?


3. Explain the meaning of the line Love is the motion, thats what
makes the world go around.

G
Freedom of Religion
Because religious belief, or
non-belief,
is
such
an
important part of every
persons life, freedom of
religion
affects
every
individual.
Religious
institutions
that
use
government
power
in
support of themselves and
force their views on persons
of other faiths, or of no faith,
undermine all our civil rights.
Moreover, state support of
an established religion tends
to make the clergy unresponsive to their own people, and leads to
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corruption within religion itself. Erecting the wall of separation


between church and state, therefore, is absolutely essential in a free
society.
www.en.wikipedia.org (adapted)

Freedom of Expression
One of the most fundamental of our
freedoms is that summarized by the
First Amendment to the US
Constitution: freedom of expression.
Freedom of expression includes
everything listed in the First
Amendment freedom of speech,
freedom of the press, freedom of
religion, freedom of petition and
freedom of assembly. Unfortunately the founding fathers couldnt see
into the future and so omitted an equally important aspect of freedom
of expression: freedom of communication in any form, including
broadcast and electronic.
www.freedomofexpression.com

After reading the information above, answer the questions.


1. What do you think of these freedoms?
2. Are they important to you?
3. In a short essay, comment on one of the extracts above.
4.
H

THE RIGHT TO BE DIFFERENT


Article 1.
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All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and
rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should
act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 2.

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in


this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race,
colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national
or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no
distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional
or international status of the country or territory to which a person
belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or
under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Article 13.

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and


residence within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his
own, and to return to his country
Article 15.

(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.


(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor
denied the right to change his nationality.
Article 18.

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and


religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief,
and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in
public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching,
practice, worship and observance.
Article 19.

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression;


this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference
and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any
media and regardless of frontiers.

Work in pairs

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1. From the articles presented, choose the one you think is


the most important. Justify your answer.
2. How important is the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights?
3. How many articles does it have?
4. When was it proclaimed?
5. By whom was it adopted and proclaimed?

BIBLIOGRAFIA

www.maismanuais.com // geral@maismanuais.com

Prime Time 1/2/3 Ingls, Margarida Vilela e Virgnia Barros, Porto


Editora
Dictionary of English Language, Longman
Meanings 11, Maria Raquel Barroso, LisboaEditora
FilmeRabbit Proof Fence
FilmeGhandi
Msica do Santana

WEBGRAFIA

Google.com
www.un.org/en/document
www.merriam.webster.com
www.dictionary.reference.com

www.maismanuais.com // geral@maismanuais.com