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Unit 1 - Immunology Marking Scheme

1.

(a)

(b)

(i)

dead cells/keratin as barrier;


(sweat and sebum neutral)
(accept (commensal) skin flora kill/compete with microbe)
(accept skin acidity kills microbes)
(ii) mucus traps microorganisms;
(cilia neutral)
(iii) tears contain lysozyme/contain enzymes which kill microbes;
(accept bactericide)
move to site of infection;
phagocytosis/engulf bacteria;
(digest neutral)
stimulate (T)-lymphocytes/B cells/T cells;

1
1

2 max
[5]

2.

(a)

(b)

(c)

mucus traps pathogens;


lysozyme breaks down bacterial cell walls;
cilia moves pathogens to pharynx;
where they are either swallowed or removed;
max. 3
enzyme;
in saliva or gastric juice;
acid in stomach;
disrupts bacterial membrane / wall;
max. 3
nature of vaccine e.g. attenuated strain;
vaccine introduces antigen;
stimulate / sensitise lymphocytes;
memory cells produced;
if host meets pathogen (following vaccination);
production of same (B/T) lymphocytes;
large number / rapid production of plasma cells / antibodies / T killer cells;
pathogen destroyed before it can affect host;
max.6
[12]

3.

(a)

large variety of different molecules;


range of shapes;

OR
tertiary shape;
locks onto / complements specific antigen;
(b)

(c)

pathogenicity / toxicity of products;


site of infection;
invasiveness;
(i)
(ii)

5 hrs or more;
small vols. / water must be clear /
full sunlight needed if water required quickly / shortage of containers;

max.2
1
1

(d)

larger concentration of bacteria in food / bacteria need nutrients in food;

(a)

safer to catch some diseases when young; (reject immunity lasts longer)
example of side effect suffered if disease contracted by adult
2
consider vaccines to be unsafe / have side effects / damage immune system;
consider natural immunity to be more effective; allow in (a) if not here
religious / ethical objections qualified e.g. objections to use of fetal /
animal tissue;
consider low risk of disease when high percentage of population already
vaccinated/Ref. to Head Effect
max 2

[7]

4.

(b)

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(c)

(d)

T lymphocytes / cells recognize antigen in vaccine;


T cells attach to antigens / destroy antigens;
B lymphocytes / cells clone;
Produce Plasma Cells
produce antibodies (which kill microbe);
memory cells; rapidly produce of these antibodies on re-infection
influenza virus mutates;
different strains / different - shaped antigen;
mutant forms will not be recognised by lymphocytes memory cells
immune system; accept elderly have weaker immune system

max 3
[12]

5.

(a)

amino acid;

(b)

X at the end of either or both light chains;

(c)

shape of antigen fits / binds / attaches / complementary to (shape of)


antibody; (ignore references to active site)

(d)

allows antibody to lock onto / (easily) make contact with antigen;


more likely / able to make contact
with 2 / more than 1 (identical) antigens;

1 max
[4]

6.

Quality of Written Communication


Answers to part (e) of this question require continuous prose. Quality of written communication
should be considered in crediting points in the marking scheme. In order to gain credit, answers
must be expressed logically in clear, scientific terms.
(a) (i)
Injected with water/saline/something that did not include antigen;
1
(ii) Results could be compared with control group/
to make sure that nothing else in the treatment produced the results;
1
(b)
(c)

(d)

Allows a comparison to be made;


as different numbers of people might have been treated;
(i)
(ii)

Largest difference between the vaccinated and control group;


They have not been exposed as much to malaria/fewer have had malaria;
no natural immunity;

2
1
2

B-lymphocytes respond to specific antigen;


divide rapidly/clone produced;
form plasma cells;
plasma cells secrete antibodies;
some form memory cells which become active on second exposure to antigen;
produce antibodies faster
Max 5
[12]

7.

(a)
(b)
(c)

Remove / inactivate genes;


which allow them to cause infections/that would allow the virus to replicate;
Development of a tumour / cancer;

2
1

Viruses have (surface) antigens;


Which are recognised as non-self;
Activate a specific b-cell / lymphocyte;
Divides;
By mitosis;
To produce a clone;
Plasma cells produce antibodies;

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Memory cells also produced;


(d)
(e)

Gene earned within / as well as its own genetic material;


but produces no benefit to the virus / carrier;
(i)
DNA has entered cells
and is being transcribed;
(ii) MRNA has attached to the ribosomes / translation / protein synthesis
has occurred;
CFTR protein is functional;

max 6
2
2
2
[15]

8.

(a)

(b)

memory B / T cells do not recognise (new antigens);


antibodies previously produced are not effective;
shape not complementary to new antigen;
takes time to produce effective antibodies;
(i)
(ii)

2 max

antigen in membrane presented to lymphocytes / produce


cytokinins;

mitochondria provide (more) ATP / energy;


(more) RER / ribosomes synthesise proteins;
(more) Golgi body secretes / modifies or packages proteins /
produces glycoproteins;
(B lymphocytes) produces antibodies;

4
[7]

9.

(a)
(b)

Protein / glycoprotein / molecule on surface of virus;


Stimulates immune response / antibody production;

Greater / more rapid production of antibodies following


second vaccination;
First encounter takes time for B cells to become activated / clonal
selection process / time delay before antibodies can be produced;
Memory cells present as result of first vaccination;

3
[5]

10.

(i)

1360 = 2 marks
(general principle 0.68 0.05 x 100 gains 1 mark)

(ii)

still have maternal antibodies;

1
[3]

11.

(a)

(a)

(c)

(i)

A disease-causing organism / bacterium;

(ii)

Weakened organism;

(At 95% level) most people are immune;


5% / few vulnerable / susceptible individuals (remain in
population); Reject not immune
Little chance of contact (with affected person);
(i)

(ii)
(d)

2 max

Number of births each year varies / changes seen more easily /


allow valid comparisons to be made / provides an indication of
likelihood of outbreak of disease;

3600;

Antibodies not produced by body;

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No memory cells;
Short-term / not lifelong;
Antibodies (or context established) donated by mother /
across placenta / in milk;

2 max
[8]

12.

(a)

(b)

1
2
3
4
5
6

macrophages present antigens to B lymphocytes;


antigen binds to/is complementary to receptors on lymphocyte;
binds to a specific lymphocyte;
lymphocytes become competent/sensitised;
(B) lymphocytes reproduce by mitosis /(B) lymphocytes cloned;
plasma cells secrete antibodies;

restriction enzyme/endonuclease;
to cut plasmid/to form sticky ends in plasmid;
(use) ligase(to join) gene to plasmid;
culture bacteria with(in medium containing) plasmids
to allow uptake of plasmids / transformation;
use of cold shock/chemical treatment(to enhance uptake)/ heat
shock;
(ignore bullets/electroporation /microinjection)

4 max

1
2
3
4
5
6

3 max
[7]

13.

(a)

(b)

add antibodies/enzyme;
wash to remove unbound antibodies;
add (colourless) solution;
(mark correct responses sequentially)
antibodies specific/shape only fits one antigen;
other antigens different shape;
would not bind to antibodies;

2 max
[5]

14.

(a)

(b)

(i)

Molecule/part of molecule/protein/glycoprotein;
[Allow: polysaccharide]
Stimulates immune response;
(ii) These antigens/antibodies have complementary/particular shape;
[Reject: Active site]
Allow fitting/binding with (relevant) antibody/antigen;
Calichaemicin delivered specifically to cancer cells/less likely to/will
not harm normal/healthy cells;
Lower dose of calichaemicin needed to be effective;

2
2
2
[6]

15.

(a)

(i)
(ii)

(b)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

protein/immunoglobulin;
specific to antigen;
idea of fit/complementary shape;
1.
virus contains antigen;
2.
virus engulfed by phagocyte/macrophage;
3.
presents antigen to B-cell;
4.
memory cells/B-cell becomes activated;
5.
(divides to) form clones;
6.
by mitosis;
7.
plasma cells produce antibodies;
8.
antibodies specific to antigen;
9.
correct reference to T-cells/ cytokines;
antibody gene located using gene probe;
cut using restriction enzyme;
at specific base pairs;
leaving sticky ends/unpaired bases;
cut maize/DNA /vector using same restriction enzyme;

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2 max

6 max

6.
7.
(c)

join using DNA ligase;


introduce vector into maize/crop/recombinant DNA into maize;

passive;
person is not making own antibodies/antibodies not replaced;
memory cells not produced;

(d)

fewer ethical difficulties/less risk of infection;

(a)

(i)

4 max

2 max
1
[15]

16.

(ii)

(b)

principle of calculating percentage change;


6.25%;
(correct answer gains 2 marks)

decrease in number of vaccinations / vaccination ineffective /


side effects of vaccination / resistance to antibiotics /
new strains / mutants;

cilia move mucus / bacteria / debris;


(build up of) mucus / irritants stimulates coughing /
coughing to remove mucus;

2
[5]

17.

(a)
(b)

rhesus antigens stick / attach / bind to rhesus antibodies;


(reject antigen - antibody complex on its own)
(i)
antigens attach to macrophages / antigen presenting;
T lymphocytes activated by antigens;
helper T lymphocytes activate;
B lymphocytes;
specific cells (activated);
divide (by mitosis) / clone;
plasma cells / lymphocytes secrete antibodies;
(accept T cells/ B cells as alternatives throughout)
(ii)

memory (T) cells / lymphocytes;


activate B cells / lymphocytes quickly;
or
memory (B) cells / lymphocytes;
in (large) numbers; (do not allow antibodies produced quickly)

5 max

2
[8]

18.

(a)

47 213;

(b)

(i)

(ii)
(c)

there is no difference in the proportion / number of influenza cases


between the 5 vaccines;
(reject vaccinated versus no vaccinated)

significant difference in proportion / number of cases of influenza


between the vaccines / the null hypothesis should be rejected;

sample size small;


possible differences in exposure to infection;
exposure to different strains / mutants;
possible differences in existing immunity;
possible differences in sex / age;
possible differences in socio-economic status;

2 max
[5]

19.

(a)
(b)

4.0 (g dm ) AND 50 (ppm)


e.g. the greater the concentration of disinfectant the less the contact time

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(c)

(d)

needed to kill bacteria,


specific reference to comparative contact time to kill varying with species
e.g. E. coli killed quicker than Mycobacterium / Clostridia most difficult
to kill

NB marks are for explanation, NOT for naming factors


temperature
increase in temperature would reduce contact time required to kill all
bacteria; since speed up rate of chemical reactions involved
OR increase temp increases contact time since increase reproductive
rate of bacteria
OR volume of disinfectant
increase in volume would reduce contact time required to kill all
bacteria;
since more disinfectant available to kill bacteria
OR innoculum
size increase in innoculum size would increase contact time
required to kill all bacteria; since more bacteria to kill

affects biochemical processes / disrupt metabolism;


affects cell wall formation;
affects protein synthesis;
detail e.g. prevents translation;
affects membrane action;
affects division (Reproduction Neutral)

max 2
[7]

20.

(a)

Protease/peptidase/hydrolase;(accept endo/exo, trypsin/pepsin)

(b)

Receptor molecule specific shape to peptide;


Complementary/fit;

(c)

(i)

(ii)
(d)

Mitosis;
Identical genetic material/DNA passed to daughter cells;(ignore
reference to chromosomes)
DNA/gene codes for protein;
Antibody is a protein;

To quickly recognise/destroy second invasion of antigen;

Antibodies;
passed from mother in breast milk/across placenta;

2
[10]

21.

(a)

(b)

(c)

acts as an antigen;
stimulates immune response/production of antibodies;
production of memory cells;
which rapidly produce antibodies when individual infected by Hib;

max 2

herd effect/high percentage cover;


only unvaccinated individuals likely to catch disease;
small chance of infected individual meeting unvaccinated individual;

max 2

killed microorganism;
modified toxin;
attenuated/heat treated/UV treated microorganism;
genetically engineered antigens;
isolated antigen;

max 2

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[6]

22.

(a)

(b)

epidermis of skin is dead / keratinised so pathogens cannot penetrate;


mucus in respiratory system is trapping sticky pathogens;
cilia move fluid / mucus removing pathogens;
tears / saliva / mucus contain lysozyme breaking down bacterial cell wall;
stomach contains hydrochloric acid which destroys bacteria;
blood clot prevents entry;
fluid nature of tears wash away bacteria;
vaginal acid destroys bacteria;
commensal bacteria on skin compete with pathogen;
sebum (fatty acid) inhibits bacterial growth;

max. 5

action of phagocytes;
Interferon production;
body temperature increased;
ref to B or T lymphocytes;
activated by non-self antigen;
either clone / divide by mitosis;
T helper cells role;
B plasma cells produced;
which produces antibodies;
any specific effect (e.g. immobilise /agglutinate / lysis /coat for recognition /
neutralise toxins);
T killer / cytotoxic cell;
perform produced;
memory cell produced;
max 7
[12]

23.

(i)

smoking / alcohol / body mass / sleep / exercise / other medication / sex /


previous infection or vaccination / diet;

(ii)

antibody present;

(iii)

stress decreases response to vaccination;


as age increases, response to vaccination decreases;
as age increases, stress has a greater effect;

2
[4]

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