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Definisi Umum

Meteorologi : Ilmu yang mempelajari


atmosfer dengan berbagai fenomena di
dalamnya, terutama yang terkait dengan
proses-proses cuaca dan iklim.
Cuaca : keadaan atmosfer yang pengaruhnya
dapat dirasakan saat ini parameter cuaca
: temperatur, tekanan udara, kecepatan
angin, curah hujan, dsb.
Iklim : kondisi rata-rata atmosfer dalam
jangka panjang; merupakan hasil interaksi
seluruh komponen Bumi (atmosfer,
hidrosfer, biosfer, humanosfer, litosfer dan
kriosfer)
Perubahan Iklim: perubahan kondisi ratarata cuaca, perubahan distribusis statistik
pola cuaca

Humanosfer

Composition and Structure of the


Atmosphere
1. Composition
a.
b.
c.

The atmosphere
Permanent gases
Variable gases

2. Vertical
Structure
a.
b.
c.

Temperature
Electrical properties
Function

1. Composition of what?
100 km

12 km thunder heads

Where does Earths atmosphere end?


100 km 99.99997%
2% of Earths thickness
Photo from NASA: http://eobadmin.gsfc.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=17542

1. Composition components cycle

input rate

Physical Processes:
chemical reactions
volcanic eruptions
Biological Processes:
photosynthesis
respiration
human activity

output rate

Steady State

Residence time = length of time an individual


molecule remains in the atmosphere
Photo from NASA: http://eobadmin.gsfc.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=17542

1. Composition (and some structure)


Permanent Gases (homosphere: 0-80 km alt.)

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Aguado and Burt, Table 1-2.

1. Composition (and some structure)


Variable Gases (heterosphere: > 80 km alt.)

Methane

CH4

0.00017

76.01

Low abundance, but very important


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Aguado and Burt, Table 1-3, with Methane added.

1. Composition
Water Vapor

Gas molecules (not liquid), source for cloud formation


Radiative forcing = ++
Created by evaporation
Removed by precipitation
Residence time = 10 days
water vapor
clouds
Tropical
Storm
Gustav

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http://wwwghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/GOES/goeseastconuswv.html - 1 September, 2008

1. Composition
Carbon Dioxide
Radiative forcing = +
Input: respiration,
organic decay, volcanic
eruptions, anthropogenic
activity

Uptake: photosynthesis
Residence time =
150 yr

From the Mauna Loa Observatory: http://www.mlo.noaa.gov/home.html

1. Composition
Methane
Radiative Forcing = +
Input: wetlands, termites,
anthropogenic activity

Uptake: soils,
Atmosphere

Residence time =
10 yr

http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/iadv/

1. Composition
Ozone
Radiative Forcing = +
(nearby), (up high)
Input: chemical
reactions involving
ultraviolet radiation
Destroyed via
chlorine-containing
compounds chlorofluorocarbons
http://www.epa.gov/air/oaqps/gooduphigh/

Composition and Structure of the


Atmosphere
1. Composition
a.
b.

Permanent gases
Variable gases

2. Vertical
Structure
a.
b.
c.
d.

Density
Temperature
Electrical properties
Function

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2. Vertical Structure via density

density (kg / m3)

Density = mass per unit volume

Aguado and Burt Fig. 1-8. Because air is


compressible and subjected to greater
compression at lower elevations, the
density of the air at lower levels is greater
than that aloft.

Mean free path =


average distance traveled before colliding with another
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molecule. e.g. 0.0001 mm at 0 km asl vs. 1 km at 250 km asl

2. Vertical Structure via temp.


Why temperature?
temperature impacts how easily air moves vertically

Standard Atmosphere =
models defining atmospheric variables as a function of
altitude, for a given set of mean conditions at sea
level

For example, the U.S. definition of standard atmosphere is described or defined in the following web sites:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Standard_Atmosphere
http://modelweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/atmos/us_standard.html

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Layers in the ISAStandard Atmosphere 1976

Layer

Level
Name

Base
Geopotential
Altitude above
MSL[5]
h (in km)

Base
Geometric
Altitude
above MSL[5]
z (in km)

Troposphere

0.0

0.0

6.5

+15.0

101325

Tropopause

11.000

11.019

+0.0

56.5

22632

Stratosphere

20.000

20.063

+1.0

56.5

5474.9

Stratosphere

32.000

32.162

+2.8

44.5

868.02

Stratopause

47.000

47.350

+0.0

2.5

110.91

Mesosphere

51.000

51.413

2.8

2.5

66.939

Mesosphere

71.000

71.802

2.0

58.5

3.9564

Mesopause

84.852

86.000

86.28

0.3734

Base
Lapse
Base
Atmospheric
Rate
Temperature Pressure
(in C/km)
T (in C)
p (in Pa)

2. Vertical Structure via temp.


Thermosphere (thermos = heat)
T increases with alt., to > 1500C
little heat, b/c low density

Mesosphere (mesos = middle)


T decreases with alt.
99.9% of remaining atm.

Stratosphere (strato = layer)


T increases with alt., little vert. motion
19.9% of atm.
ozone layer between 20-30 km (10 ppm)

Troposphere (tropos = turn)


T decreases with alt.
80% of atm. by mass
depth varies (8-16 km, mean 11 km)

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2. Vertical Structure via temp.

Mesospause

Stratopause

Tropopause

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2. Vertical Structure via electrical properties


Ionosphere:
defined by electrical properties
reflects AM radio waves
responsible for aurora

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionosphere

Solar Activity Variations

2. Vertical Structure via function

Ozonosphere:
maximum ozone
concentrations
(20-30 km)

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Earths Climate System


climate system
electromagenetic spectrum
Earths radiation budget
albedo
greenhouse effect

Earths climate system


climate driven by solar energy
climate operates to distribute solar energy across surface

electromagnetic radiation (light)


both a particle (photon) and wave
photons can have different energies (wavelengths)
high energies = shorter wavelengths
low energies = longer wavelengths

Electromagnetic spectrum

Solar Energy Distribution

Earths Energy Balance


1. Energy Balance and Temperature
a. Atmospheric influences on insolation: absorption,
reflection, and scattering
b. Fate of incoming solar radiation
c. Surface-atmosphere energy transfer
d. Greenhouse effect
e. Temp. distributions

27

a. Atmospheric Influences on Insolation (review)


Absorption:

Reduces energy reaching Earth surface

Scattering:

Rayleigh, Mie, Nonselective


Radiation is redirected

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b. The Fate of Solar Insolation


Assume a constant supply of incoming
solar radiation:
50% does not reach surface:

5%
5%

19%
25% absorbed by atmosphere
19%
(7% via ozone)
19% reflected via clouds
6%
6%
6% back scattered via atmosphere

50% that reaches the surface:


45% absorbed by Earth surface
5% reflected by ground

45%
45%

25%
25%

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b. The Fate of Solar Insolation

planetary albedo = 30%

5%
19%

6%
45%
25%

Earth and Atmosphere


absorb 45% + 25% =
70% of solar
insolation
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C. Surface Atmosphere Energy Transfer

Radiation Exchange:
Earth emits radiation (longwave), almost like a
blackbody
Most radiation (96%)
is absorbed by the
atmosphere

(Radiation emitted
by Earth)

Radiation absorbed
by atm.

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C. Surface Atmosphere Energy Transfer

Radiation Exchange:
Selective absorption
Atmospheric window

(Radiation emitted
by Earth)

Radiation absorbed
by atm.

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C. Surface Atmosphere Energy Transfer

Radiation Exchange:
Net loss of radiation

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C. Surface Atmosphere Energy Transfer

Net Radiation = absorption of insolation


+ net longwave radiation

Net radiation
for atmosphere
= 25-54 units
= -29 units
Net radiation
for surface
= 45-16 units
= +29 units

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C. Surface Atmosphere Energy Transfer

Surface surplus offset by transfer of sensible (8


units) and latent (21 units) heat to atmosphere.

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C. Surface Atmosphere Energy Transfer

Latent heat (21 units) a


bigger player than
sensible heat (8 units):

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C. Surface Atmosphere Energy Transfer

Latitudinal variations:
Between 38N and S = net energy surpluses
Poleward of 38o = net energy deficits
Winter hemispheres - Net energy deficits poleward of
15o

39

C. Surface Atmosphere Energy Transfer

Latitudinal variations:
Energy surplus at low latitudes is offset by advection (horizontal heat
movement) of heat poleward by global wind (75%) and ocean (25%)
currents

Global Sea Surface Temperatures: Climatology:


http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/GODAS/clim_movie.shtml

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If sun overhead,
get more photons
concentrated in a
smaller area...

more energy in

Earths spin axis is inclined, so we get seasons

Energy out is controlled by albedo

Albedo --the brightness of a surface

can be quantified:
0% albedo

100% albedo

--darkest surface
--all light absorbed
none reflected

--brightest surface
--all light reflected
none absorbed

energy in

energy used for warming


+ energy radiated back to space

% energy used for warming = (100 albedo)

% energy radiated back to space = albedo

the amount of light absorbed depends on the


incident angle of sunlight
High incident
angle

Albedo of water listed as 5-10%


these diagrams imply not always true

Low incident angle

Energy radiated back to space:


-- reflected or scattered off of
clouds or surface

If ~30% of incoming solar energy is


reflected back to space, what does this say about the
overall average albedo of Earth?

~30% of
incoming

Can have
temperaturealbedo
feedback

But recall that atmosphere is not completely transparent to IR light


...this means that the IR light cant be radiated
back to space easily
...so it becomes trapped

This leads to the Greenhouse Effect

Greenhouse Effect

Visible light from the sun passes


through the atmosphere and warms
the surface.
Heat radiated from the surface (infrared
or IR light) travels back out into space
but is absorbed or deflected back to the
surface by certain gas molecules.

Greenhouse Effect...

Trapped IR light warms the


atmosphere, which warms the surface.

Temperature goes up gradually.

Greenhouse
effect.

Energy out

Main point
of this
is that ~95-96%
of the IR light
radiated from
the surface
is trapped in
the atmosphere
--warming it &
the Earths
surface

X
Confusing!

Only some gases contribute to the Greenhouse


Effect.
N2 and O2 (the main constituents of our atmosphere) are not greenhouse
gases.

H2O, CFCs (chloroflourocarbons), CH4, CO2 are greenhouse gases and


absorb IR light.
SO2 is not a greenhouse gas. It combines with water to form H2SO4 (sulfuric
acid) droplets. These droplets reflect incoming solar light back into space,
resulting in planetary cooling.

Greenhouse gases.
H2O is ubiquitous; we cant control the amount of it in the atmosphere.
CH4 is a fermentation product. Large amounts could be released from
ocean (ice) deposits if the ocean warms.
CFCs are largely man-made. International agreements in the 1970s limited
their use, because of their harm to the ozone layer.

Greenhouse gases.
CO2 is released by volcanoes.
CO2 is produced by burning petroleum products and by burning trees. This
can be controlled.

Is the greenhouse effect all bad?


No!

It makes life as we know it possible on Earth.


Earth gets about 32o C of greenhouse warming.
Taverage = 15 oC now, with Greenhouse Effect.
Taverage = 15 - 32 oC = -17oC, without Greenhouse Effect.

Climates on three planets

Venus

Earth

avg. temp.

460 oC

15 oC

greenhouse
warming

285 oC

32 oC

avg. temp.
with no
greenhouse

175 oC

- 17 oC

Mars
Just right -55 oC
5 oC

Too cold -60 oC

Climates on three planets

Venus

Earth

Mars

greenhouse
warming

285 oC

31 oC

5 oC

atmosphere
composition

96% CO2
3.5% N2

OK with
77% N2
21% O2
0.037% CO2
0.25% H2O

95% CO2
2.7% N2

The Greenhouse Effect

Earths atmosphere absorbs incoming solar radiation and warms the planet.

Surface temperature without atmosphere: -17 C (1 F), actual: 15 C!

Greenhouse gases on the rise:


Pre-industrial

Now

Sources

Carbon dioxide:

280 ppm

380 ppm

Methane

700 ppb

1750 ppb

Nitrous oxide

270 ppb

310 ppb

Forests; Grasslands; Oceans;


Soils; Soil cultivation;
Fertilizers; Biomass burning;
Burning of fossil fuels

533 ppt

Refrigerators; Aerosol spray


propellants; Cleaning solvents

CFC
Ozone

0 ppt
Unknown

Varies with
latitude and
altitude

Organic decay; Forest fires;


Volcanoes; Burning fossil
fuels; Deforestation; Land-use
change
Wetlands; Organic decay;
Termites; Natural gas & oil
extraction; Biomass burning;
Rice cultivation; Cattle; Refuse
landfills

Created naturally by the action


of sunlight on molecular
oxygen and artificially through
photochemical smog
production

Water Vapor
Water vapor is a naturally occurring greenhouse gas and accounts for
the largest percentage of the greenhouse effect, between 36% and
66%. Water vapor concentrations fluctuate regionally, but human
activity does not directly affect water vapor concentrations except at
local scales (for example, near irrigated fields).
Water vapor is special in the sense that the amount of water vapor
depends directly on the temperature.
Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid.
Water has a tendency to evaporate to a gaseous form, and water
vapor has a tendency to condense back into liquid form. At any given
temperature, for a particular substance, there is a pressure at which
the gas of that substance is in dynamic equilibrium with its liquid or
solid forms. This is the vapor pressure of that substance at that
temperature. The air cannot hold more water vapor than is allowed by
the vapor pressure.

Clausius-Clapeyron Relation
The Clausius-Clapeyron relation gives a relationship between the saturation
vapor pressure and the temperature.

es T 6.112e

17.67T
T 243.5

This equation establishes that warmer air has the potential to hold more water
vapor per unit volume. As a simple example, the air at 30 oC can hold about 3.5
times more water vapor than air at 10 oC. Current state-of-the-art climate
models predict that increasing water vapor concentrations in warmer air will
amplify the greenhouse effect created by anthropogenic greenhouse gases.
Thus water vapor acts as a strong positive feedback to the forcing provided by
greenhouse gases such as CO2.

Temperature
Degrees Celsius

Vapor (g) per


Kilogram of Dry
Air

50

88.12

40

49.81

30

27.69

20

14.85

10

7.76

3.84

Positive feedbacks tend to accelerate change and


make things worse

Global temperature

+
The greenhouse effect increases
temperature further

More CO2 trapped in soil reservoirs is


released
More water vapor in the atmosphere

+
Greenhouse gases

Negative feedbacks tend to slow or reverse change

Global temperature

Reduced rate of greenhouse gas


accumulation slows global warming

More CO2 in the atmosphere, higher


temperatures enhance plant growth and
CO2 uptake

Greenhouse gases
- The CO2 fertilization effect -

Negative feedbacks tend to slow or reverse change

Global temperature

Higher temperatures increase cloud


cover and scatter more solar radiation
back to the sky.

IPCC story lines:


A1 family:
rapid economic growth and technology
development, world living standards
converge, global population peaks in
mid-century. A1FI: fossil fuel intensive,
A1T: Non-fossil fuels, B: fossil/non-fossil
balance.

A2 family:
Heterogeneous world with continued
population growth.
B1 family:
Like A1 but with rapid transformation to a
service and information economy, less
material intensive, with clean efficient
technologies.

B2 family:
Like A2 with emphasis on local solutions
to social and environmental
sustainability.

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia