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Submitted To:

Submitted By:

Mrs. Alka Mehta

Kamaljeet Meena

Hidayatullah National Law University



Semister-1, Roll No. 68

Date of submission:- 18-10-2016



I hereby declare that this research work titled COMMUNICATION SKILLS is my

own work and represents my own ideas, and where others ideas or words have been included, I
have adequately cited and referenced the original sources. I also declare that I have adhered to all
principles of academic honesty and integrity and have not misrepresented or fabricated or
falsified any idea/data/fact/source in my submission.

(Kamaljeet Meena)

Date: 18th October 2016

I, Kamlajeet Meena, would like to humbly present this project to Mrs. Alka Mehta.I would first
of all like to express my most sincere gratitude to Mrs. Alka Mehta for her encouragement and
guidance regarding several aspects of this project. I am thankful for being given the opportunity
of doing a project on Communication Skills. I am thankful to the library staff as well as the IT
lab staff for all the conveniences they have provided me with, which have played a major role in
the completion of this paper.
I would like to thank God for keeping me in good health and senses to complete this project.
Last but definitely not the least, I am thankful to my seniors for all their support, tips and
valuable advice whenever needed. I present this project with a humble heart.




To understand what are COMMUNICATION SKILLS.

To know the importance OF Communication skills.
To know its different types.


This doctrinal research is rigorous and indicative in nature and approaches the subtle issue in an
objective, non-prejudiced way leaving no span for any unrequited inquiry on the subject at hand.


Table of Content
Certificate of declaration......................................................................2
Objectives and Research Methodology................................................4
Importance of Communication Skills...................................................7
7 Cs of Communication Skills.............................................................8
Elements of Communication Skills....................................................11
How to be a good Communicator.......................................................12
Mode of Communications..................................................................13


Communication is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of ideas,
feelings, intentions, attitudes, expectations, perceptions or commands, as by speech, gestures,
writings, behavior and possibly by other means such as electromagnetic, chemical or physical
phenomena. It is the meaningful exchange of information between two or more
participants(machines, organisms or their parts).1
Defining communication is not easy. In the very start, communication was viewed as a process
where the speaker builds an idea in the form of message to be sent to the recipient to create a
desired outcome. Understanding types of communication vary and are equally important in
human interactions. Communications is about giving, receiving, developing and understanding
of data, information, and other output. Its a process of sending information, ideas, and
perceptions by using symbols, actions, pictures, words, and data from the giver to the receiver
with the intention of influencing with purpose.
A process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of
symbols, signs, or behavior.2
Communication also occurs without words; Once the alarm rings each morning, it conveys a
message that its time to get up. The human senses, such as touch ears, eyes, and smell act as
codes of connection. We gaze from the window; the eyes inform us of the weather and condition
outside the house. When we hold a coffee mug with our hands, the touch informs us if the tea is
hot or not. By smelling, it tells us whats being cooked in the kitchen. Images, models, pictures,
expressions also are oral ways of communication. An easy nod of ones head can communicate
yes or no having a wave in the hand, one can exhibit the disinterestedness. Eyes could
transmit emotions such as hate, anger, love, sorrow etc. Performers use their art as a way of
1 Wiener, Norbert(1948). Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal
and the Machine. Cambridge:MIT press
2 Merriam Webster

communication. Painting is a painters method, an image is actually a photographers and dance
is the dancers channel of communication particularly non-verbal. Peaceful thinking can be
considered as a non-verbal conversation with oneself. A Communication involving man with
animal is mainly non-verbal. When a dog wags its tail and riffs his owners hand; when a cat
hugs its master to demonstrate its love. Non-verbal type of communication involving man with
his surroundings is an occurrence we discover each day but dont realize it. In the summer
season, a warm sun and hot wind pass around a sense of comfortableness to us, while a cloudily
sky sends a feeling of joy. This really is communication involving us and the environment in the
form of non-verbal way. Communication in different types of relationships is essential. A lot of
couples find this once they enter into relationships. Nevertheless, theres been lots of discussion
on communication with no action. It is essential that we should understand how to communicate
efficiently with your companion. Speaking with each other doesnt suggest that youre on the
same footing. It merely implies that we have spoken. Efficient communication may bring people
on the same page as well as script, to be able to have the harmony in all your concerns.
Communicating with others involves three primary steps:1. Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a concept, idea,
information, or feeling.
2. Encoding: Next a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols.
3. Decoding: Lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or
information that a person can understand3.

Importance of Communication
1. Communication skills has become one of the most important aspect of every activity off
late. Communication skills serves as a lubricant in the smooth functioning of every
activity. It helps in interacting with people.

3 Donald Clark Communication and Leadership. Retrieved 14 December 2013

2. Communication skills acts as a basis of coordination it provides, a manager provides the
basic set of goals and which every individual has to follow thereby it is done with help of
communication only amongst different level.
3. It helps in smooth functioning of an organization. A job of a manager is to coordinate
among the men and the material asset of an organization which is done only through
communication skills.
4. Communication skills can boost the performance of the employees as through
communication they are able to share various incentives available to them.
5. Communication skills are necessary for the development of self-advocacy and selfdetermination, important skills for lifelong success.
For example, if working with youth with disabilities, create opportunities to practice
communicating how, when, and to whom to disclose a disability on the job or in post-secondary
education and/or different ways to communicate a request for a reasonable accommodation. If
you support youth involved in the juvenile justice system, enhance this sections extension
activities to include practicing how to communicate the proactive changes they are making in
their lives, what they have learned from previous experiences, and how any mistakes of the past
have helped them to become more focused and dedicated young adults.

7 Cs of Communication skills



1. Clear:When writing or speaking to someone, be clear about your goal or message. What is your

purpose in communicating with this person? If youre not sure, then your audience wont be sure
either. To be clear, try to minimize the number of ideas in each sentence. Make sure that its
easy for your reader to understand your meaning. People shouldnt have to read between the
lines and make assumptions on their own to understand what youre trying to say.

2. Concise:When youre concise in your communication, you stick to the point and keep it brief. Your
audience doesnt want to read six sentences when you could communicate your message in
three. Are there any adjectives or filler words that you can delete? You can often Eliminate
words like for instance, you see, definitely, kind of, literally, basically, or I mean.
Are there any unnecessary sentences? Have you repeated the point several times, in Different

3. Concrete:When your message is concrete, then your audience has a clear picture of what youre telling
them. There are details (but not too many!) and vivid facts, and theres laser like focus. Your
message is solid.
Example:Bad Example:The Lunchbox Wizard will save you time every day.
A statement like this probably wont sell many of these products. Theres no passion, no vivid
detail, nothing that creates emotion, and nothing that tells people in the audience why they
should care. This message isnt concrete enough to make a difference.
Good example: How much time do you spend every day packing your kids lunches? No more! Just take a
complete Lunchbox Wizard from your refrigerator each day to
give your kids a healthy lunch AND have more time to play or read with them!

This copy is better because there are vivid images. The audience can picture spending quality
time with their kids and what parent could argue with that? And mentioning that the product is
stored in the refrigerator explains how the idea is practical.The message has come alive through
these details.

4. Correct:When your communication is correct, it fits your audience. And correct communication is also
error free communication. Do the technical terms you use fit your audiences level of education
or knowledge? Have you checked your writing for grammatical errors? Remember, spell
checkers wont catch everything. Are all names and titles spelled correctly?

5. Coherent:When your communication is coherent, its logical. All points are connected and relevant to the
main topic, and the tone and flow of the text is consistent.

6. Complete:In a complete message, the audience has everything they need to be informed and, if applicable,
take action. Does your message include a call to action, so that your audience clearly knows
what you want them to do? Have you included all relevant information contact names, dates,
times, locations, and so on?

7. Courteous:Courteous communication is friendly, open, and honest. There are no hidden insults or passive
aggressive tones. You keep your readers viewpoint in mind, and youre empathetic to their



Element of Communication Skills

1. Connect:a) Establish bond with people
b) Pay attention to peoples facial expressions, body language, and tone
of voice.
c) See things from the other persons point of view.
d) Adjust your communication style to match theirs.
e) Avoid criticizing, making negative judgments, or saying that the other
person is wrong.
f) Show interest in the other persons interests and concerns.

2. Listen:a) Encourage people to talk.

b) Show your willingness to listen. Minimize distractions. Attend to the
person with your whole body (your body language, eyes, facial
c) Nod your head and give verbal cues to communicate that you are
paying attention.
d) Ask open-ended questions.
e) Listen to what people are trying to communicate, not just to what they
are saying. Listen to their emotions. Listen also to what they want.
f) Check to make sure you understand. Use your own words to reflect
what you have heard and noticed.

3. Communicate:a) Speak with sincerity and conviction.

b) Be sensitive to other peoples communication style.
c) Know what you want to accomplish. Do you want people to understand
your position? Lend their support? Approve your request?
d) Listen at least as much as you talk.
e) Attune what you say with how you say it. Keep your messages fitting
with your tone of voice, facial expression, and body language.

4. Speak
a) Project confidence.
b) Connect with your audience.
c) Know what you want to accomplish. Do you want people to understand
position? Lend their support? Approve your request?
d) Keep it short and simple. Most communication can accomplish only one
develop three main points, and hold peoples attention only so long.5

How to be a good communicator:1. express own reflections and ideas clearly

2. develop relationships
3. provide feedback (answers, reacts)
4. be open to others feedback (accept others answer without prejudice, references etc.
5. respect attitudes and opinions of others
6. be tolerant to different customs and cultures
7. Give full attention to people while they are talking to you.
8. Encourage other people to talk, and ask appropriate questions.
9. Present your ideas so that others are receptive to your point of view.
10. Treat people fairly and let others know how you want to be treated.
11. Value teamwork and know how to build cooperation and commitment.
12. Strive to understand other people and to be empathetic.
13. Be able to easily win peoples trust and respect.
14. Check to make sure you have understood what other people are trying to communicate.
15. Follow through on your commitments.

Mode of Communications
Verbal Communication

Verbal communication refers to the form of communication in which the message is transmitted
verbally; communication is done by word of mouth or by writing. It includes face-to-face
5 Let us give you a hand in communicating effectively ABB Lunmus Global B.V, TheHague,
The Netherlands.

conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet.
In oral communication, communication is influenced by pitch, volume, speed, clarity of
speaking, accent and choice of words. Objective of every communication is to have people
understand what we are trying to convey. In verbal communication it is always recommended to
use the rule of KISS6 i.e. keep it short and simple. When we talk to others, we assume that others
understand what we are saying because we know what we are saying. But this is not the case.
Usually people bring their own attitude, perception, emotions and thoughts about the topic and
hence create barrier in delivering the right meaning.
So in order to deliver the right message, we must put yourself on the other side of the table and
think from your receivers point of view. Would he understand the message? How it would sound
on the other side of the table? And if we are ambiguous, how would he interpret it?
Oral communication has several pros and several cons. A pro is that it brings quick feedback. In
a face-to-face conversation, by reading facial expression and body language one can guess
whether he/she should trust whats being said or not. A con of oral communication would be the
inability of a user to deeply think about what he is delivering.

Written Communication

In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written message
may be printed or hand written. In written communication message can be transmitted via email,
letter, report, memo etc. Message, in written communication, is influenced by the vocabulary &
grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used.
Written communication is the most common form of communication being used in business. So,
it is considered core among business skills. Memos, reports, bulletins, job descriptions, employee
manuals, and email are the types of written communication used for internal communication. For
communicating with external environment in writing, electronic mail, internet web sites, letters,
6 Jacquie Ream Kiss: Keep It Short and Simple

proposals, telegrams, faxes, postcards, contracts, advertisements, brochures, and news releases
are used. Just like oral communication, written communication has its own advantages. Written
messages can be edited and revised many time before they are actually sent. Written
communication provides record for every message sent and can be saved for later reference. A
written message enables receiver to fully understand it and send appropriate feedback.

Oral Communication

Oral communication is the sending or receiving of wordless messages. We can say that
communication other than oral and written, such as gesture, body language, posture, tone of
voice or facial expressions, is called oral communication. Oral communication is all about the
body language of speaker. Oral communication represents two-thirds of all communication. Oral
communication can portray a message both verbally and with the correct body signals. Body
signals comprise physical features, conscious and unconscious gestures and signals, and the
mediation of personal space. The wrong message can be established if the body language
conveyed does not match a verbal message. Oral communication strengthens a first impression in
common situations like attracting a partner or in a business interview: impressions are on average
formed within the first four seconds of contact. First encounters or interactions with another
person strongly affect a person's perception. 7 When the other person or group is absorbing the
message they are focused on the entire environment around them, meaning the other person uses
all five senses in the interaction: 83% sight, 11% hearing, 3% smell, 2% touch and 1% taste.8
Oral communication helps the receiver in interpreting the message received. Often, oral signals
reflects the situation more accurately than verbal messages. Sometimes oral response contradicts
verbal communication and hence affects the effectiveness of message. Unlike oral
communication, written communication doesnt bring instant feedback. It takes more time in
7 Demarais,A., White, V. (2004). First Impressions. New York, NY: BanTam Books
8 Pease B., Pease A. (2004). The Definitive Book of Body Language. New York, NY:
Bantam Books.

composing a written message as compared to word-of-mouth. And a number of people struggle
with their writing ability.
Oral communication has the following three elements:
Appearance of the speaker matters a great deal. Clothing, hairstyle, neatness, use of cosmetics
are included in the appearance of the speaker. The surrounding also plays a major role. Room
size, lighting, decorations and furnishings comprise of the surroundings. Body language is
another very important factor and it depends on facial expressions, gestures and postures of the
speaker. Sound is the most basic and most important aspect and voice Tone, volume and pitch.
Based on style and purpose, there are two main categories of communication and they both bears
their own characteristics.

Barriers to Effective
Barriers to effective communication can retard or distort the message and intention of the
message being conveyed which may result in failure of the communication process or an effect
that is undesirable. These include filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions,
language, silence, communication apprehension, gender differences and political correctness.9
This also includes a lack of expressing "knowledge-appropriate" communication, which occurs
when a person uses ambiguous or complex legal words, medical jargon, or descriptions of a
situation or environment that is not understood by the recipient.


9 Robbins, S., Judge, T., Millett, B., & Boyle, M. (2011). Organisational Behaviour. 6th ed.
Pearson, French's Forest, NSW p315-317.

As we have shown, communication skills are important if we are to build meaningful
relationships with services users, carers and others.
It is especially important that we are able to build these relationships as social practice moves
towards more market-based and managerialist policies and practices.
These pose a number of challenges to practitioners in terms of our ability to create and maintain
positive relationships. This is particularly true in those situations where managerial priorities
based on the 'three E's', effectiveness, economy and efficiency, (Stepney 2000a: 2) have tended to
confine social work practice within specified time boundaries and prescribed approaches to


Pease B., Pease A. (2004). The Definitive Book of Body Language. New York, NY:
Bantam Books.


Robbins, S., Judge, T., Millett, B., & Boyle, M. (2011). Organisational Behaviour. 6th
ed. Pearson, French's Forest, NSW p315-317

Demarais,A., White, V. (2004). First Impressions. New York, NY: BanTam Books

Let us give you a hand in communicating effectively ABB Lunmus Global B.V, The
Hague, The Netherlands.


Donald Clark Communication and Leadership. Retrieved 14 December 2013