You are on page 1of 14

FINAL PROJECT PROPOSAL

NON DESTRUCTIVE TEST (NDT)


BY USING LEVEL GAUGING METHOD

Asked By:

IKSAN ADITYO MULYO


NIM. 020800230

NUCLEAR PHYSICS TECHNOLOGY


POLYTECHNIC OF INTITUTE NUCLEAR
TECHNOLOGY
NATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY
YOGYAKARTA

2011
CHAPTER I
PRELIMINARY

1. BACKGROUND
Economical industrial process control requires rapid, precise, and sometimes it
continuously on various quantities such as thickness, density, flow rate and composition of
the processed material. One type of control system that utilizes the application of nuclear
techniques is a nuclear gauge. Nuclear gauge is a system of equipment (consisting of
radiation sources and radiation detectors) which utilizes the unique properties of ionizing
radiation to control the process and product quality. Please note that the data obtained from
the detector is passed to the computing system which is connected integrally with the
control system.
The application of nuclear techniques in process control has several advantages
compared with other techniques, among others:

1. Radioactive sources can be selected according to the nature of the material being
measured.
2. No damage, no contact, and do not leave marks on the material.
3. Quick and reliable measurements.
4. According to hazardous chemicals or materials that temperature extremes.

2. AUTHENTICITY OF RESEARCH
The research of Fill Level Inspection by Level Gauging (Photon Switching)
Method has been done before by UK the Health & Safety Executive and PT Coca-Cola
Amatil Indonesia.
The principle works as follows X-rays or gamma rays transmitted from one side of
the container or vessel, and then measured by detectors located on opposite sides.
Sometimes, the source of radiation inside the detector vesel while on the outside vesel. The

intensity of radiation that reaches the detector is determined by the height of liquid in the
vesel. When the surface of liquids or solids are above the line source-detector, the radiation
restrained so that census on the number of detectors is reduced, and vice versa. Thus, the
height of the liquid or solid surface can be maintained at a certain level.
.
3. PROBLEM FORMULATION
1. What the principle that used to inspects fill level of the bottle?
2. How to inspect the bottles by using Overfill inspection Mode and Underfill Inspection
Mode ?
3. How about the safety and protection of the radiation for workers?
4. PROBLEM LIMITATION
Inspection activities, this bottle height level testing using Level Gauging for
selecting or choosing a bottle whose contents correspond to doses that have been
determined by the PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Company to the existing height of the surface of
the liquid in the bottle can be maintained at a certain level. In addition, the level of
inspection activity at the height of the contents of the bottle is intended to improve product
quality and minimize losses by optimization of the production company because the
products are produced by PT. Coca-Cola Company amounted to thousands per day, so if
there is a bottle that contains more than a specified dose will greatly affect the amount of
fees and materials must be issued by the company. The parameters assumed to affect the
final result of Fill Level Inspection, among others:
1. The intensity of radiation that reaches the detector.
2. The height of liquid in the bottle.
3. Sources of radiation that used to inspect the bottles.
4. Gamma thresold counts as a reference for gamma count bottle at an appropriate
height on inspection activities to be conducted..
The assumptions above are things that are documented during the Fill Level Inspection.

5. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
Fill Inspector Level is the level altitude testing of the contents inside the bottle that works
on the principle of Level Gauging (Photon Switching) so that the height of the liquid
surface or the contents inside the bottle can be maintained at a certain level.
6. RESEARCH BENEFIT
Final Project is expected to the height of the liquid surface or the contents inside the
bottle can be maintained at a certain level. In addition, the level of inspection activity at the
height of the contents of the bottle is intended to improve product quality and minimize
losses by optimization of the production company because the products are produced by
PT. Coca-Cola Company amounted to thousands per day, so if there is a bottle that contains
more than a specified dose will greatly affect the amount of fees and materials must be
issued by the company.

CHAPTER II
BASIC THEORY

1. BASIC THEORY
Non Destruction Test (NDT)
An industrial products is designed to be used in accordance with its function and
durable. So to get the product in accordance with predetermined specifications, required a
method to monitor quality at every level of manufacture and use. Means used for that
purpose must be such that will not change appearance or shape of the products tested.
Non Destructive Test or Test Not Damaged (NDT) is a method for testing, checking
or inspection of a material or component of an industrial production. Objectives through
testing with this system is to determine the value of a material without damaging the object
itself. This means that a material or component that is checked or inspected did not change
either the size, shape, mechanical properties, and physical.
The concept of nondestructive testing of materials testing part of the concept that
was originally born from the human need for quality assurance (quality assurance) to
obtain products free from defects and have a long lifetime. Nondestructive testing of this
concept was born because experts expect that the material objects that have been tested
should still be used and the test can be performed on components installed.
NDT is an important equipment in the control of material quality, product
reliability, and control of maintenance systems. Modern NDT is used by manufacturers for
several reasons, namely:
1.

Ensuring the integrity and reliability of products.

2. Prevent accidents and Saving a human life.


3.

Member benefits for users.

4. Ensuring customer satisfaction and reputation of the manufacturer.


5. Assist in designing better products.
6. Assist the manufacturing process.
7. Saves the cost of manufacturing.
8. Maintain uniform quality level.
9. Ensuring the readiness of the operation.

Source Of Radiation ( Americium-241 )


Sources of radiation used is Americium-241 (Am-241) which has a half time of 472
years, so it is very effective for use by industrial companies because it can be used in a
very long period of time. Radiation used in the FT-50 Filtec this includes radiation that has
a low energy, which is about 60 kev.Sumber radiation and scintillation detectors placed on
the side next to the pass bottles to be inspected. Gamma radiation emission source is
directed toward the bottle and will be captured by a scintillation detector.
FT-50 Fill Level Inspector radisotop Americium-241 used as a source of gamma
radiation to inspect the bottles / cans. Radioisotope sealed or wrapped by a second joint
inserted a steel into the capsule of type 304 stainless steel. Americium-241 used in the form
of ceramic and enamel will melt in the range 900 to 1050 degrees Celsius.

Level Gauging (Photon Switching)


The principle works as follows:
X-rays or gamma rays transmitted from one side of the container or vessel, and then
measured by detectors located on opposite sides. Sometimes, the source of radiation inside
the detector vesel while on the outside vesel. The intensity of radiation that reaches the
detector is determined by the height of liquid in the vesel. When the surface of liquids or
solids are above the line source-detector, the radiation restrained so that census on the
number of detectors is reduced, and vice versa. Thus, the height of the liquid or solid
surface can be maintained at a certain level.

Figure 1. Level Gauge


FT-50 Fill Level Inspector
The instrument used to inspect the contents inside the bottle height at PT. CocaCola Company named Filtec FT-50 Fill Level Inspector. Filtec FT-50 is designed to
provide accuracy in the examination or inspection of the height of the contents (water) in
the bottle and reject a broken bottle. System inspection (inspection) This tool can detect
excessive bottle whose contents or the contents are less than the standard , at speeds up to
350 feet / minute or 107 meters / minute. The system will allow to perform the process
reject the broken bottle or data collection for statistical purposes. System Tools FT-50 Fill
Level Inspector can operate with two modes, namely Underfill or Overfill Inspection
Inspection. Both modes are not biased run simultaneously. Therefore, I tried two modes
sequentially, the first mode Underfill Inspection, and the next Overfill Inspection.

Figure 2. FT 50 Fill Level Inspector


Front side ( left ) dan Back side ( right ).

System FT-50 Fill Level Inspector operates with the principle of radiation to detect
a wide variety of content inside the bottle, whether it excessively or less than they should.
The principle works is the gamma rays transmitted from one side of the bottle, and then
measured by detectors located on opposite sides. The intensity of radiation that reaches the

detector is determined by the height of liquid in the bottle. When the surface of liquids or
solids is above the source-detector line, then suspended so that the amount of chopped
radiation at the detector decreases, and vice versa. Thus, the height of the liquid or solid
surface can be maintained at a certain level.

Underfill Inspection
Underfill Inspection is a state where the bottle to be inspected the surface of the
liquid or the content therein is less than the dosage, so it must be inspected by a particular
tool in order to obtain high-quality products and in accordance with the standards set by
the company.
To fill a normal container or bottle, the bottle when it passed through the beam of
gamma rays, the contents inside the bottle will prevent radiation, thus reducing the count
gamma scintillation detector is used. Count condition is in a state of "good".
But when the contents of the container or bottle that underfill through gamma rays,
the contents inside the bottle that underfill is still below the source detector, so as not to
impede the gamma rays emitted radiation, so the census was detected in gamma
scintillation detector is greater than the condition " good "on the content of the normal.
Higher count values will provide input to the processor to reject the bottle to the underfill,
the underfill so that the bottle was declared a failure.

Overfill Inspection
Overfill Inspection is a state where the bottle to be inspected the surface of the
liquid or the contents in it more than the dosage, so it must be inspected by a particular tool
in order to obtain high-quality products and in accordance with the standards set by the
company.
To fill a normal container or bottle, the bottle when it passed through the beam of gamma
rays, the contents inside the bottle will prevent radiation, thus reducing the count gamma
scintillation detector is used. Count condition is in a state of "good".

But when the bottle is overfilled container or gamma-ray beam passes, the contents
inside the bottle is above the line source of radiation, it will be more content in the bottle
that blocks radiation, thus reducing the count detected by the gamma detector. Gamma
count is lower than the detected gamma count when conditions are "good", namely when
the bottle is still normal. Lower count values will provide input to the processor for me
reject the overfill bottle, so that the overfill bottle is declared failed.

Safety Radiation
As for the beam of radiation exposure in the vicinity of this source of gamma
radiation, it is still allowed with a still safe dose received by a worker, provided it does not
hit exactly on the main beam of the radiation emitted radiation, although still relatively
weak, even if the source of this radiation emit radiation for several hours, the radiation is
also still weak. Even so, there will never be a reason to tolerate radiation exposure to the
parts of our body and the worker is prohibited to put a hand or part their bodies between
the radiation source and detector in a state when the shutter is still open.
Therefore, to protect workers from exposure to radiation emitted Radioisotope,
ceramic cylinder which is used as a container radiosiotop americium-241 should be
wrapped with a combination of two steel that is inserted into a stainless steel capsule. As
long as these capsules are not broken or open, there is no possibility of escape or release of
dangerous radioactive materials into the environment outside.
During the FT tool - 50 Fill Level Inspector of this work, workers are forbidden to
approach the emission of gamma radiation and putting hands or other body parts between
the gamma radiation source and scintillation detector to ensure safety for workers and all
the elements that exist in PT. Coca-Cola Company. In addition, to ensure safety for
workers, this tool is also equipped with a safety system component is called Shutter.
Shutter on the tool FT-50 Fill Level Inspector is designed automatically, so it will shut
down if there is no material to be measured and open if there is material to be measured
(Auto Shutter). Thus, the shutter serves as a shield that will prevent direct exposure of the
primary radiation beam toward humans.

2. HYPOTHESIS
The intensity of radiation that reaches the detector is determined by the height of
the liquid or the contents inside the bottle. When the liquid level or the contents of the
above line radiation source - detector, then suspended so that the amount of chopped
radiation at the detector decreases, and vice versa.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

3. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS


Inspection activities, this bottle height level testing using Level Gauging for
selecting or choosing a bottle whose contents correspond to doses that have been
determined by the PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Company to the existing height of the surface of
the liquid in the bottle can be maintained at a certain level. Below is the minimum
requirements that need to inspect the bottle:
Name of Equipment

FT - 50 Fill Level Inspector

Sources of Radiation

Americium - 241 (Am-241), At = 1 Ci

AC Power Input

220 VAC, 60 Hz, 1.0 Amps, 1 Phase

Testing Techniques

Level Gauging (Photon Switching)

Objects Which Tested

Packaging Bottle

Place of Testing

Line 7 Production

4. WORKING PROCEDURE
Before performing the inspection of bottles, we have to take 1 (one) bottle whose
contents in accordance with the standards set by the company. After that, the bottle is our
standard inspection level altitude Gauging the level of its content with the technique using
FT-50 Fill Level Inspector, then we observe gamma count that counted as much as 5 (five)
times and searched an average of five gamma count data. After the fifth count gamma is
averaged, then the average value that is used as a gamma shredded Good or Gamma
thresold counts as a reference for gamma count bottle at an appropriate height on
inspection activities to be conducted.
But when the contents of the container or bottle that underfill through gamma rays,
the contents inside the bottle that underfill is still below the source detector, so as not to
impede the gamma rays emitted radiation, so the census was detected in gamma

scintillation detector is greater than the condition " good "on the content of the normal.
Higher count values will provide input to the processor to reject the bottle to the underfill,
the underfill so that the bottle was declared a failure.
But when the bottle is overfilled container or gamma-ray beam passes, the contents
inside the bottle is above the line source of radiation, it will be more content in the bottle
that blocks radiation, thus reducing the count detected by the gamma detector. Gamma
count is lower than the detected gamma count when conditions are "good", namely when
the bottle is still normal. Lower count values will provide input to the processor for me
reject the overfill bottle, so that the overfill bottle was declared a failure.

5.

RESEARCH SCHEDULE

MONTHS
WEEK
Literature
Review
Study
and
Preparation
Fill
Level
Inspect
Data
Collection
Evaluation
and
Data
Processing
Result
Evaluation
Preparation
of Draft
Seminars
dan Revision
Final Exam

Juli
August
Sept
Oct
Nov
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

REFERENCES
[1] Nitiswati, Sri.
Yogyakarta.

2008. Teknik Inspeksi dan Pengujian.

STTN-BATAN.

[2] International Atomic Energy Agency, Safety Series No. 102. 1990.
Recommendations for the Safe Use and Regulations of Radiation Sources
in Industry, Medicine, Research and Teaching. IAEA. Vienna.
[3]

NDT Umum. 2000. Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional (BATAN). Jakarta.

[4] International Atomic Energy Agency. 1992. Practical Radiation Safety


Manual, Manual Nuclear Gauge. IAEA. Vienna.
[5] International Atomic Energy Agency. 1999. Technical Report Series No.393,
Nuclear Geophysics and Its Applications. IAEA. Vienna.
[6] Sudaryo, Ir. 2004. Aplikasi Teknik Nuklir. BAPETEN dan BATAN. Yogyakarta.
[7] International Atomic Energy Agency. 1990. Technical Report Series No.31,
Guidebook on Radioisotope Tracers in Industry. IAEA. Vienna.
[8] Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional. 2004. Laporan Analisis Keselamatan Pusat
Penelitian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Maju. BATAN. Yogyakarta.
[9]

Bakerhuges. Radiation Protection, Health & Safety Environment.

[10] Industrial Dynamics Company, Ltd. FT-50 Fill Level Inspector Installation
and Operation Manual. 1994. California.