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Answer guide for O Level Biology (5090/2) – Paper 2 Theory November 2000

1(a) efficient / favourable / best / optimum (temperature) / body


temperature ;
(for) enzyme(s) (or either named) ; 2
(b) Hole 1: no enzyme / protease / no effect on milk / not digested / not
broken down / control ;
Hole 2: lactose / sugar not responsible for the colour ;
Hole 3: milk protein (or named) digested OR protein responsible for
the colour of milk / amino acids colourless ;
Hole 4: enzyme destroyed / denatured / inactivated / control ;
Hole 5: enzyme / protease (present) / (milk) protein digested /
hydrolysed / broken down ; 5
(c) meat, or meat implied, contains protein ;
enzyme / protease tenderising / partially digesting (meat / protein) ; 2

2(a)(i) osmosis / diffusion ; 1


(ii) Direction: to the left / toward potato cylinder / arrow shown pointing 1
to the left ;
Explanation: lower water potential / relatively fewer H2O molecules
+ in potato cylinder ;
water enters potato (cylinder) ;
carrying / pulling water / air bubble along capillary tube ; [max 1] 1
(b) concentration / water potential + cell sap / cells / tissues / potato ;
equal to that of the solution / isotonic ;
no movement of water ; [max 2] 2
(c) water leaves the potato / cells / tissues / exosmosis ;
cylinder decreases in width / length / loses turgidity / becomes
flaccid / falls into solution ; 2

Page 1 of 5 © UCLES 2002


Answer guide for O Level Biology (5090/2) – Paper 2 Theory November 2000

3(a) any three from:


broad / wide, major vein / midrib, net / branched venation , petiole /
leafstal ;; 2
(b) drawing to show clearly the following :
longer than broad and without obvious petiole ;
parallel veins (more than one) ; 2
(c) any 4 from:

dicotyledonous plants monocotyledonous plants


2 cotyledons / seed leaves, 1 cotyledon / seed leaf,
tap / main / central / primary fibrous or described root,
root, flower parts arranged in 3s,
flower parts in 4s / 5s, sepals and petals not distinct /
different / distinct sepals and different,
petals, no cambium,
cambium, vascular bundles scattered in
vascular bundles in stem in a stem,
circle, xylem in many groups / pith
xylem central / few groups in central in root,
root ,
;;;; 4
(d) importance must be correct for named plant
(importance) up to 2 named nutritional constituents (e.g. starch,
protein, vitamins, minerals)
or 1 constituent and its function (e.g. fat ; for energy ; ) ;;
part of plant which is used (e.g. stem / root / seed) ;
name of food (e.g. bread) / easy to grow / high yield / grows well /
cheap ; [max 3] 3

4(a) glucose ; 1
(b) fright (or any other acceptable emotional event) ; 1
(c) adrenaline / epinephrine more / increased / released ;
glycogen (to glucose) / inhibition of insulin ;
reference to energy and muscles ; max 2
(d) Blood sugar: (sugar) used in respiration ;
(re)converted / changed to glycogen ;
reference to insulin ; [max 2]
Adrenaline: (adrenaline) broken down and liver ;
passed out in urine / reference kidney ; 4

Page 2 of 5 © UCLES 2002


Answer guide for O Level Biology (5090/2) – Paper 2 Theory November 2000

5(a) U ciliary muscle ,


V cornea ,
W iris ,
X sclera / sclerotic (coat), 4 x 1/2;; 2
(b) refraction shown at cornea / at or through lens, both lines must bend
inwards ;
rays meeting on fovea ; 2
(c)(i) A/B; 1
(ii) ciliary muscles ;
contract ;
(suspensory) ligaments ;
slacken / loosen ;
reference to elasticity of lens ; [max 4] 4

6(a) low light intensities / dawn / dusk / dim light ;


photosynthesis ;
respiration ;
at same rate / balance / compensation point ;
oxygen uptake = oxygen evolution ;
carbon dioxide uptake = carbon dioxide evolution ; [max 4] 4
(b) xylem ;
in vein / vascular bundle ;
to palisade / spongy / mesophyll (cells) ;
water film ;
evaporation ;
air / intercellular spaces ;
diffusion ; [max 6] 6
(c) (more) stomata (on lower surface) ;
cuticle (on upper surface) waterproof / waxy ; 2

Page 3 of 5 © UCLES 2002


Answer guide for O Level Biology (5090/2) – Paper 2 Theory November 2000

7(a) biceps + triceps (for elbow or appropriately for other named hinge
joint) ;
correct ref. attachment to radius / ulna or as appropriate ;
one muscle contracts while the other relaxes ;
muscles can only pull / contract / work only when contracting /
cannot push ;
antagonistic / correct reference to flexor and extensor / biceps for
bending and triceps for straightening the arm ;
tendons join muscle to bone / for transmission of force to bone ;
[max 5] 5
(b)(i) Vitamin D / vitamin C if reference to osteoporosis ;
dairy produce / eggs / liver / margarine / fish ;
calcium ;
dairy produce / milk / water / nuts / grains / fruit / green vegetables ;
fluoride / fluorine / protein ; [max 4] 4
(ii) weak / soft bones ;
deformed legs / arms / bones ;
teeth rot / decay / thin enamel / caries ; 3

8(a) transpiration / evaporation from plants ;


evaporation from soil / lakes / rivers / seas / bodies of water ;
cloud formation ;
condensation / precipitation / rain / snow etc. ;
water evolved from breathing out / respiration / combustion ;
sweating / urination / perspiration / excretion ;
water used in photosynthesis ; [max 5] 5
(b) decrease in transpiration / water uptake ;
effect on cloud formation / less rain ;
desertification / hotter / drought ;
less used for photosynthesis ; [max 3] 3
(c) (no roots) to hold soil / loss of soil stability ;
no canopy to protect soil / greater drainage into rivers / lakes / seas ;
erosion by water / wind ;
lack of humus ;
lack of fertility / salts / poor water-retention ;
greater temperature fluctuations ; [max 4] 4

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Answer guide for O Level Biology (5090/2) – Paper 2 Theory November 2000

9(a)(i) softened / melted / bolus formation / chewing / mechanical or


physical digestion ;
(ii) bile ;
(iii) alkaline / neutralises ;
emulsification / increased surface area ;
reference to faster enzyme action / digestion ;
lipase ;
from pancreas / pancreatic juice ;
from duodenum walls / in intestinal juice / released by duodenum ;
fatty acids + glycerol ;
insoluble / large or complex molecules / non-diffusible + converted
to soluble small or simple molecules / diffusible ;
villi ;
Lacteal / lymph (capillary) ;
absorption ; [max 10] 10
(b) insulation / in cell membranes / as shock absorber ;
energy (store) ;
storage / solvent for vitamins ; [max 2] 2

10 (a) (continuous) wide range / example / graph showing a normal


distribution ;
caused by genes / alleles / chromosomes / DNA / inheritance ;
and environment ;
(discontinuous) only few possible variants / example / bar chart ;
no intermediates ;
caused only by genes ; [max 5] 5
(b) reference to advantage / adaptation and changing environment ;
natural selection ;
survival (of the fittest) ;
to reproduce / breed / hand on genes ;
leads to evolution ; [max 4] 4
(c) change in chromosomes , Down’s syndrome ;
one extra / 47 ;
change in gene / allele , sickle-cell anaemia;
structural alteration either of gene or haemoglobin ; [max 3] 3

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