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NTRODUCTION TO THE HARTOG COMMITTEE REPORT-1929

UNIT STRUCTURE

1.

Learning Objectives

2.

Introduction

3.

Historical Background of the Setting up of the Committee

4.

Formation of the Simon Commission and Appointment of the Hartog Committee

5.

Terms of Reference of the Committee

7.

Report of the Hartog Committee

1.

Recommendations on Primary Education

2.

Recommendations on Secondary Education

3.

Recommendations on Higher Education

4.

Recommendations on Women Education

5.

Other Recommendations

8.

An Evaluation of the Recommendations

9.

Result of Recommendations

10.

Let Us Sum Up

11.

Further Readings

12.

Answers to Check Your Progress

13.

Possible Questions

14.

References

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After going through this unit, you will be able to:
Explain the historical background, i.e., Montford Reform and System of Diarchy,
Illustrate the circumstances that led to the formation of Simon commission and appointment of the Hartog
Committee in 1929,
Discuss the recommendations of the Hartog Committee in different aspects of education,
Evaluate the recommendations of the Committee, and
Discuss its impact in the field of Indian education.

INTRODUCTION
The First World War started in Europe in 1914. The outbreak of the war had brought about significant changes in the British
policy of administration in India. These changes had made long standing impact on both political and educational scenario of
our country. It is necessary for us to know what these changes were and how they influenced the political and educational
aspects of the country. In this unit, we will first discuss the historical background of the setting up of the Hartog Committee
in 1929. This includes discussion on the Montford reform and education in the System of Diarchy. This will be followed by
formation of the Simon Commission in 1927 and the appointment of the Hartog Committee in 1929 alongwith its
recommendations on Primary, Secondary, Higher and other aspects of education. We will conclude with an assessment and
evaluation of the recommendations of the committee and its result.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE SETTING UP OF THE HARTOG COMMITTEE


It has already been mentioned above that outbreak of the First World War had brought some significant changes in the
British policy of administration in India. In 1917,Edwin Montaque, the Secretary of State for India had announced in the
British Parliament that the goal of the British policy is the progressive realisation of responsible Governance in India. This has
created an impresion in the mind of the nationalist leaders that the British Government was willing to give the power of self
administration to Indian people. But when the war came to an end the British Government did not keep their promise. This
made the Indian people offended and new political unrest was imminent. In order to meet the situation the Government
passed the Government of India Act in 1919, creating a diarchy in the provincial administration. This Act is known as
Montford Reform.
The Montford reforms introduced diarchy in the field of education as well. Under this introduction of some subjects were
under the centre and some under the provincial Governments. These were called reserved and transferred respectively.
Education was transferred to the representatives of the people. Thus all the educational powers were transferred to the
education ministers of the various Provincial Governments but they were given rights within a limited sphere. Finance was
kept back as a reserved subject. Without finances education could not proceed. This created problems for the
representatives of the people.
The central Government had made the state administrators completely responsible for education in spite of very limited
resources at their disposal. It was impossible for them to spend sufficient money for the progress of education. On the other
hand, the Governors of the provinces were given unlimited powers. They could intervene even in the transfer of teachers. All
these things created a difficult situation for the progress of education. Diarchy did not prove successful in India. A lot of
criticism was levelled against it. Thus Montford reform did not help the development of education in the country.
The Indian leaders were not satisfied with the working of diarchy. The nationalist movement by the time became more
powerful in the states on account of the repressive measures taken by the Government. In 1921 Gandhiji had launched the
Non-cooperation movement and as response to his call students had left their schools and colleges and joined the
movement. Thus, the attention of the people was diverted towards political movement.

FORMATION OF THE SIMON COMMISSION AND APPOINTMENT OF THE HARTOG COMMITTEE


Now that you are familiar with the historical background, let us discuss the formation of the Simon Commission and the
Hartog Committee.
By responding to the dissatisfaction felt by the Indian people about the Government of India Act of 1919, the Simon
Commission was appointed on November 8, 1927, to inquire into the working of the administration under the Government of
India Act, 1919. About this time as agitation against the Government was going on, it was felt necessary to give due
importance to education in India. The Government therefore authorised the commission to appoint a Committee to help it in
preparing a report on education. So the commission appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Sir Phillip Hartog to
inquire into the conditions of education in India. Sir Phillip Hartog had served as a number of the Sadler Commission. He had
also been a vice-Chancellor of the Dacca University in 1921. Since he was the chairman of the Committee, the Committee
was known as Hartog Committee.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


Write short notes on:
1. Montford Reform

2. Education under Diarchy

3. Simon Commission

4. Sir Phillip Hartog

TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE HARTOG COMMITTEE


It is necessary for us to know the terms of reference of the Hartog Committee
The Hartog committee was appointed to enquire the organisation of various aspects of education in India and to give its
suggestions for its over all improvement and progress. In the words of the Committee, They were required to report on the
organisation of education, on almost every point that organisation needs reconsideration and strengthening, and the
resolutions of the bodies responsible for the organisation of education need readjustment.

REPORT OF THE HARTOG COMMITTEE, 1929

Let us discuss the report of the Hartog Committee on different aspects of education.
The Committee studied the various aspects of education and submitted its report before the commission in 1929, It put
forward comprehensive recommendations in regard to various facts of education in India. First, the Committee made some
general observations regarding the state of education in India. The committee observed that there was considerable
progress made in education by the time. In general, people regarded education as a matter of national importance.
Increasing enrolment in primary school indicates that the sense of indifference to education was breaking down and social
and political consciousness among the people had also increased. The women, the Muslims and the backward classes had
also awakened and there had been rapid progress in the numbers. Although there was general consciousness of the people
in education, the Committee was not satisfied with the growth of literacy in the country. With these ideas in view, the
Committee presented a comprehensive report. It was valuable in the sense that it tried to feel the pulse of education in
India. It made recommendations in regard to primary secondary, higher and also some other aspects of education.

Recommendations on Primary Education

Now we will discuss the recommendations of the Hartog Committee regarding primary education.
Hartog Committee made a thorough study of the primary education in India. It realised that the progress of primary
education has not been satisfactory. Therefore, before making the recommendations, the committee pointed out the major
defects of the existing system of primary education quite convincingly. They may be outlined below
A)

Defects of Primary Education :

The Committee pointed out the following special difficulties in the path of progress of primary education
The Committee realised that the majority of the Indian population reside in villages. Hence primary education is more a
rural problem than an urban one. In rural areas school units are usually small, adequate staffing is more expensive, the
conditions of living are not attractive to teachers, needs for supervision and inspection is much greater and it is more
difficult to secure regular and prolonged attendance of children.
The Committee found that the villagers were poor, illiterate and conservative and unwilling to send their children to
schools. The general economic conditions of the villagers were also unfavourable to the spread of mass education.
The villages were scattered, roads and means of communications were very bad. Physical and climatic conditions were
also not favourable for education.
The Hartog committee noted that there were many inaccessible and economically backward areas where primary
education had not been encouraged.
As villages did not have hygienic conditions, epidemic often broke out which affected the regularity of attendance of the
children. Besides, agricultural work was also responsible for poor attendance. Children had to help their parents in
agriculture and the parents found that if they sent their children to schools, their work would suffer.
The committee also found very serious barriers of caste, religion and communal feelings making the expansion of primary
education complicated.
Another big challenge is found by the Committee on primary level, is Wastage and Stagnation:

According to the Committee wastage meant premature withdrawal of children from school at any stage before the
completion of the primary course.

By stagnation the committee meant detention in the same classes for more than one academic year. Regular promotion
of the students to the next higher class is interrupted resulting in the withdrawal of the student from school learning. The
committee had highlighted the following causes of wastage and stagnation in primary education

As most of the parents are illiterate children dont find suitable environment to retain their literacy.
The committee found that 60% of the primary schools were single teacher school.
The teachers are not trained and regular inspection of schools was not possible due to inadequate number of inspectors.
The method of teaching employed by the teachers was unscientific and stereo typed and the curriculum was not scientific
and upto date.
Many of the schools were temporary and short lived. There were certain schools that did not hold their sessions regularly.

B)

Recommendations for Improvement:

After describing the defects of primary education Hartog committee condemned the policy of its hasty expansion and
recommended concentration on consolidation and qualitative improvement. Its main recommendations were

Planning to make primary education compulsory: Primary education should be made compulsory, but there should be no
hurry about it. Environment and circumstances of the locality should be carefully studied while making education compulsory

Quality Development: Policy of consolidation should be adopted and haphazard expansion should be dropped. Qualitative
development should be made instead of increasing the number of primary schools.

Duration: The minimum duration of the primary course should be of four years.

Timetable: The time table of the schools should be drawn up in accordance with the environment and the circumstances
of the schools.

Curriculum: The curriculum of primary schools should be liberalised. It should be based on the needs and conditions of
village life.

Standard of teachers: Standard of the primary teachers should be improved. Training institutions should have better
equipment and efficient staff. Refresher courses should also be arranged from time to time. Salary conditions of the service
should be made attractive.

Reduction of wastage and stagnation: Special attention should be given to the lowest class in primary schools and
determined effort should be made to reduce the large extent of stagnation and wastage that prevail therein.

Government inspection: The inspecting staff of the Government should be considerably strengthened both in quality and
quantity.

Centres for rural welfare: Primary schools should serve as centres for rural uplift works, medical relief, adult education,
mass literacy, sanitation, recreation etc

Finance: The Hartog committee opined that primary education should be a national concern and imperial Government
should not entirely withdraw from the field of educational finance. It should provide necessary funds to meet financial
deficiencies in the interest of India as a whole.

Recommendations on Secondary Education

The Hartog committees survey of secondary education is not comprehensive. It stresses only on a few major defects and
suggests some remedies. First, we shall discuss the defects of secondary education as pointed out by the committee and
then we shall proceed to the recommendations regarding its improvement.
Defects in the Secondary Education :
Examination Oriented: The committee found that the whole system of secondary education was dominated by the
matriculation examination and the ideal of every boy who entered a secondary school was to prepare himself for the
university examinations. It had no other purpose before it.
Failures: The percentage of failures at the matriculation examinations was very large. This involved the waste of time,
effort and money of the pupils. This was mainly due to laxness of promotions in the secondary schools from class to class
and the absence of reasonable selective system.

Recommendations for Improvement :


In order to remove the defects of the system of secondary education the committee made the following recommendations
Diverting Pupils to Non-Literacy Pursuits : With a view to reducing the domination of the matriculation examination, the
committee recommended
a) The introduction of a more diversified curriculum in the middle vernacular schools,,
b) The diversion of more boys to industrial and commercial careers at the end of the middle stage, for which provision
should be made by alternative courses in that stage. The students should be encouraged to offer these courses as they
would be of great help in practical life.

Improvement in the training and service conditions of secondary teachers: In this


regard the committee said

a) Remuneration and conditions of service of the secondary teachers are for from satisfactory. Therefore, the salaries and
service conditions of the teachers should be improved so as to attract really capable persons into the job. Teachers should be
provided with better service conditions, higher salary and better social status.

b) The committee noted that there was no security of service for the teachers. Teachers were frequently sent away at
short notice. Many schools recruit teachers for nine months only and thus avoiding the payment of vocation salaries and
increments. The salaries of teachers are paid very irregularly. The committee recommended the removal of such evils for the
improvement of secondary education.

c) The training facilities of the teacher should also be improved.

Recommendations on Higher Education


Already you have learnt about the recommendation of the Hartog Committee regarding primary and secondary education.
The committee gave some important suggestions for the university education as well. But before suggesting
recommendations it evaluated the condition of higher education, as prevalent in India in those days. The committee looked
at the defects and suggested for their remedy.

A)

Defects in Higher Education:

Low standards: The committee praised the growth in the number of affiliated college but criticised the falling standards of
education due to the worsening of environment in these colleges. The committee also stated that the lowering of standards
is also due to indiscriminate admissions and poor work culture in secondary schools.

Failure to achieve purpose: The main aim of higher education is to inculcate a taste for learning in the students and to
prepare the right type of person for the society. But the universities have failed to produce leaders of society both from the
qualitative and quantitative points of view.

Overcrowding: The universities are over-crowded with students who are not exactly for university education.

Neglect of Honours Course: The universities have not properly organised the Honours courses. This led to an unbalanced
growth in the field of education.

Inadequate Libraries: Libraries are ill equipped. Laboratory equipment and teaching aids are unsatisfactory which are so
essential for higher educations are not up to the mark.

Unhealthy competition: The committee felt that there was unhealthy competition among the universities. They paid more
attention to increasing the number of students than to raising the standard of education.

B) Recommendations: The Hartog Committee made the following recommendations for the

improvement of higher education in India.

Unitary as well as teaching universities: The committee recommended the establishment of affiliated universities
alongwith the unitary, residential and teaching universities, keeping in view the great demand for higher education in India.
It admitted that the standard of education in the affiliated colleges of these universities would be poorer than in the teaching
universities, but under the circumstances affiliated colleges alone could meet the demand for higher education of the
people.

Appointment of teachers: The committee recommended that the teachers for affiliated colleges should be appointed by
the universities. This procedure will raise the standards of education.

Provision for Honours course: The honours course should be of more advanced nature than the pass courses and these
courses should be instituted only at the universities.

Employment: Provision should be made for technical education by the universities. Graduates should not suffer from
unemployment and Employment Bureau should be opened in the universities to help the students get suitable employment.

Improving the standard of secondary education: In order to improve the standard of higher education, the standard of the
secondary examination should be raised.

Restricted admission: The admission in the universities should be made on the basis of abilities and aptitudes of students.

Libraries: There should be a well equipped central library in each university in order to enable the teachers to keep
themselves upto date in the field of education.

Examination for administrative services: Departmental examinations should be held to recruit the graduates in
administrative services.

Improvement in university work: Efforts should be concentrated on improving university work cluture, on confining the
university to its proper function of providing good advanced education to students, who are fit to receive it and to make the
university a more fruitful agency in the life of the community.
Other Recommendations

Women Education
The Hartog committee observed that vast discrepancy exists between the education of boys and that of the girls. The
condition of women education was deplorable. The committee recommended that
Equal importance should be given to the education of the boys as well as girls.
More primary schools for the girls should be established in rural areas where convenient, girls should also be allowed to
study in the schools meant for boys.
Curriculum for girls should include home science, hygiene, music etc. in secondary schools.
Greater attention should be paid towards the training of women so that sufficient numbers of trained lady teachers could
take up the teaching jobs.
The number of inspecting staff should also be raised.
The education of the girls at the primary level should be gradually made compulsory.
Priority should be given to education of women in India.

Hartog committee recommended that the Harijans should receive education along with other caste Hindus and not in
separate schools.

Provisions for technical and industrial education should be made in the universities.

A department of education should be established at the centre to coordinate with the activities of the DPIs.

The committee recommended for the appointment of more personnel in the department of education and appointment of
more inspecting staff for the assistance of DPIs.

AN EVALUATION OF THE RECOMMENDATIONS

Already we have discussed in detail the recommendations of the Hartog Committee in different spheres of education. Now
we will assess and evaluate these recommendations.

The report of the Hartog Committee holds a unique position in the history of Indian education. It greatly influenced the
educational policy of the Government which was consolidation rather than expansion prior to independence. The
recommendations of the committee regarding primary education were important and well thought out. The report was the
first official recognition of the neglect of primary education. It blamed the provincial Governments for poor progress of
primary education. The committee observed that primary education had become meaningless and ineffective. Therefore it
argued for qualitative improvement. It pointed out that the problems of primary education were basically rural and it had
also drawn attention to the problem of wastage and stagnation. The recommendations were welcomed by the officials but
the Indian people, however, did not appreciate them. Indian nationalist opinion was in favour of quantitative expansion. The
Government continued the policy of consolidation and it had an adverse effect on the primary education. The idea of
compulsory primary education was sidetracked.

Regarding secondary education, the Hartog committee laid emphasis on industrial and commercial subjects, thereby making
provisions for the students to take up practical occupations in life. The committee also recommended for improving the pay
scale and service conditions of the teachers and rightly expressed that no education can be successful unless the teachers
were well paid and enjoyed the security of service. But the Government did not choose to implement the recommendations
on the teachers and no attempt was made to raise their salaries. The committee very distinctly remarked that qualitative
improvement of education was not possible unless the conditions of the teachers were improved.

The Hartog committee had concentrated its attention more on primary and secondary education and less on university
education. The committee praised the growth of affiliated colleges but criticised the falling standards of the university
education. It expressed the opinion that the universities had failed to meet the needs of the people. It was the duty of the
universities to produce such individuals who were tolerant, liberal and suitable to undertake great responsibilities. Giving
importance on developing the libraries of the universities was one of the important recommendations of the commission.

RESULT OF THE RECOMMENDATIONS


Let us examine the impact of the Hartog committees recommendations on the field of Indian education.

We know that the essence of Hartog committee was the importance on qualitative improvement of primary education and
not on the quantitative expansion. Accordingly some steps taken by the Government led to the qualitative improvement of
this stage. But the general people of the country were asking for quantitative expansion. So the recommendations of the
committee aroused sharp reaction. People wanted an education policy which could lead to the increase in the rate of literacy.
In fact, increase in literacy was the need of the country. However, little was done upto 1937 to develop primary education.
The total numbers of primary schools were 1, 96,708 in 1931-32. During 1936-37 the number came down to 1, 92,244. Such
was the sorry plight of primary education in the country.

The condition of secondary education however, was better than that of primary education. From 7.530 schools in 1921-22
increased to 13,056 in 1936-37. The numbers of students were also doubled. But the real cause of improvement was not the
committees recommendations because nothing had been done by the Government to implement the suggestions. The
cause of the improvement had been the efforts of private enterprises and awakening of national spirit. A spirit of love for
education was developed in all sections of the people. There was a healthy competition among the people for opening new
schools and many teachers opened their own schools by being dissatisfied with the existing state of educational affairs.

Due to the growth of secondary education higher education also developed. A number of new universities and colleges were
opened during this period. The number of teaching department in universities and colleges had gone up to 446 in 1936-37
from 207 in 1921-22. Besides new degree colleges and universities were opened during the period. Some special institutions
like Shantiniketan founded by Rabindra Nath Tagore were also established. Delhi university was established in 1922, Nagpur
1923, Agra 1927, Andhra university in 1926 and Annamalai in 1929. Most of the students were attracted towards higher
education because they realised that secondary education could not fulfill their aspirations. Moreover university educated
persons were getting preference over matriculation passed individuals. Therefore there was a rush towards higher education.

But the report of the Hartog committee received cold and hostile reception in the nationalist circles because they felt that a
definite programme of expansion was urgently needed for the liquidation of illiteracy and mass education in the country. It
was criticised as political device to check the expansion of mass education.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Answer briefly:
13. What does Hartog Committee say on women education.
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14. Evaluate the recommendations of the Hartog Committee.
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15. Discuss the Impact of the committees recommendation on Indian education.


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LET US SUM UP
In the first part of this unit, we have focused our attention on the historical background behind the setting up of the Hartog
Committee. The condition of education under diarchy and the criticism levelled against it have also been discussed. The
Simon Commission was appointed to enquire into the working of administration under the Government of India Act, 1919.
Hartog Committee was appointed by the Simon Commission as an Auxiliary Committee under the chairmanship of Sir Phillip
Hartog to prepare a report on education.

The Committee studied the various aspects on education and submitted its report in 1929. We have discussed the
Committees recommendations regarding primary education. The Committee laid emphasis on qualitative improvement of
primary education and not on quantitative expansion. It pointed out various defects of primary education and laid emphasis
on developing primary schools into a community centre. The problem of wastage and stagnation in primary education was
first pointed out by the Committee which offered suggestions for its improvement by taking measures, such as, Government
inspections, enhance quality of teachers, adequate finances etc.

Then we have discussed the recommendations of the Committee on secondary education. The Committee identified
examination orientedness and large scale failure in the Matriculation examination as the main defects of secondary
education. It recommended to introduce more diversified curriculum during this period and to improve the service
conditions, security of service and facilities for training of secondary school teachers.

In the field of higher education the Hartog Committee evaluated the condition of higher education and found that the
standard of education was low and it had failed to achieve its real purpose. The universities were over-crowded and libraries
were ill equipped. The committee suggested the establishment of affiliated universities along with unitary and residential
universities, improving the condition of university libraries, opening of honours courses, admission on the basis of abilities
and aptitudes of students, examination for administrative services, improvement of university work etc. Hartog committes
recommendations also included women education, education of Harijan, and technical and industrial education.

In the concluding section of the unit we have focused on an evaluation of the recommendations of the committee and its
impact on the field of Indian education.

FURTHER READINGS

Chaube, S.P.: History and Problems of Indian Education, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra.
Naik, J. P. & Nurullah, S.: A Students History of Education in India, MaCMillan

ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1.
Montford Reform: Montford reform was introduced by the Government of India Act in 1919. This reform brought diarchy in
the system of administration in India. Under this some subjects were under the centre and some under the provincial
Governments. These were called reserved and transferred respectively. Montford reforms prevented the central Government
from introducing any educational reform as it used to do previously.
2.
Education under diarchy: Montford reforms introduced diarchy in the field of education. Education became a transferred
subject. All educational powers were transferred to the representatives of the people but they have limited resources.
Finance was kept as a reserved subject. Therefore it was impossible for them to spend sufficient money for the progress of
education.
3.
Simon Commission: Simon Commission was appointed to inquire into the working of the administration under Government of
India Act of 1919. Simon Commission was authorised to appoint a committee to help it in preparing a report on education in
India.
4.
Sir Phillip Hartog: Hartog was the Chairman of the Hartog Committee appointed by the Simon Commission to prepare a
report on education. He was the Vice-Chancellor of Dacca University in 1921. Hartog was also a member of the Sadler
Commission.
5.
The Hartog Committee observed that the problems of primary education were mostly rural in character rather than urban.
Villagers were poor, illiterate, conservative. Physical and climatic conditions such as roads for communication, rainy season,
and inaccessible conditions etc. have made the situation unfavourable for education. Moreover, economic backwardness,
agriculture, barriers of caste, religion and communal feelings are the main hindrances in the path of the progress of primary
education in India.
6.
Wastage means premature withdrawal of children from school at any stage before the completion of the primary course and
stagnation means the detention of a student in the same class for more than one academic year.
7.
The four recommendations of the Committee for the improvement of primary education were:

(a) Qualitative development should be made instead of rapid expansion of primary education.
(b) The course should be of four years duration.
(c) Standard of the teachers should be improved.
(d) Special attention should be given to the lowest class in primary schools to reduce the large extent of wastage and
stagnation.
8.
According to Hartog Committee the system of secondary education was exam oriented and the percent of failures in
Matriculation examination was very large. This was a waste of time, effort and energy.
9.
Hartog Committee recommended that provision should be made for alternative courses in the High schools. It would help the
students to choose the courses of their choice and according to their aptitude.
10.
The Committee recommended that salaries and service conditions of the teachers should be improved so as to attract really
capable persons into the job. Teachers salary should be paid regularly and training facilities of the teachers should also be
improved.
11.
The defects of the University education as pointed out by the Committee were:

(a) Low standard of education.


(b) Fail to achieve purpose.
(c) Overcrowding.
(d) Neglect of honours course.
(e) Inadequate libraries.
(f) Unhealthy competition.
12.
The suggestions made by the committee were the establishment of affiliated universities alongwith unitary universities, a
university should appoint teachers in the affiliated colleges, honours course should be of more advanced in nature,
employment bureau should be opened in the universities, admission to the universities should be restricted, the condition of
the library should be improved and departmental examinations should be held to recruit graduates in administrative
services.
13.
Regarding women education the committee recommended that equal importance should be given to the education of boys
and girls; more primary schools for girls should be established, curriculum should include hygiene, home science and music
in secondary schools and greater attention should be paid towards the training of women for teaching jobs.
15.
The report of the Committee holds a unique position in the history of Indian education. The recommendations of the
committee regarding primary education were important and well throughout. It gives importance to the qualitative
improvement of primary education rather than its quantitative expansion. Regarding secondary education the Hartog
Committee laid emphasis on introducing industrial and commercial subjects, improvement of pay scale and service
conditions of teachers etc. In higher education the committee gave importance to producing learned, liberal and suitable
individuals capable of undertaking responsibilities.
16.
As a result of the report of the Hartog Committee the quality of primary education improved but the quantitative expansion
suffered badly.
A large number of primary schools were closed down and progress in different states was very slow. The condition of
secondary education was better than that of primary education and the number of schools increased during this period.
Healthy competition for opening new schools was observed among private enterprises. Due to the growth of secondary
education, higher education also improved and the number of affiliated colleges had gone up. Students were attracted
towards higher education.

POSSIBLE QUESTIONS

Briefly discuss briefly Hartog Committees observations and suggestions on Primary Education in India.

Under what circumstances was the Hartog Committee formed? Give its major recommendations on Primary Education.

Discuss the problem of wastage in Primary Education as raised by Hartog Committee. What were the Committees
suggestions?

Evaluate the recommendations of Hartog Committee for reforms on education.

Give an account of the educational development during 1921 and 1939.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


Answer briefly:
5. What are the hindrances in the path of progress of primary education?
6. What did the Hartog Committee mean by Wastage and stagnation?
7. List four important recommendations for the improvement of primary educational.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


Answer briefly the following questions:
8. What are the defects of secondary education?

9. Alternative courses proposed by the Hartog committee.

10. Service condition of teachers.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Answer briefly:
11. List the defects of university education as pointed out by Hartog committee 1929.
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12. What suggestions were made by the committee for improvement?
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REFERENCES

Aggarwal, J. C.: Landmarks in the History of Modern India Education, Vikash Publishing House, New Delhi, 2004.
Mukerji, S. N.: Education in India, Today and Tomorrow, Acharya Book Depot, Vadodara, 1976.ll India.
Purkait, b. R.: Milestones in Modern Indian Education, New Central Book Agency, Kolkatta.
Rawat, P. L.: History of Indian Education, Ram Prasad & Sons, Agra.

The contribution of the Hartog Committee to the


university education
Anika Sharma
The Hartog Committee had concentrated its attention more on primary and secondary education and less
on university education. However, the Committee gave some important suggestions for this stage as
well.
The Committee praised the growth in number of affiliated colleges and it also hinted at the fall of
standard in university education due to the worsening of its environment because of growth of affiliated
colleges. The Committee criticized the introduction of Honours courses in some universities and pointed
out that they were outmoded.

Higher education could not be possible through Honours courses, as only increasing the duration by one
year for these was not enough. The Indian public opinion, too, felt that the universities had failed to meet
the needs of the people. The country was undergoing political upheavals and it needed young men with a
spirit of sacrifice and hard work. The universities in India were unable to contribute anything in this
sphere. Hence a discontent against them spread in the people.
Many universities were conducting only examinations, although the teaching and research work had
already been started in some universities. There were no good libraries in any university. In the opinion
of the Hartog Committee it was the duty of universities to produce such individuals who were tolerant,
liberal and suitable to undertake great responsibilities. The universities in India were not equal to this
task. Hence the Committee gave the following suggestions for their reforms1. The Committee recommended the establishment of some affiliating universities keeping in view the
great demand for higher education. The Committee admitted that the standard of education in the
affiliated colleges of these universities would be poorer than in teaching universities, but under the
circumstances affiliated colleges alone could meet the demand for higher education of the people.
2. The teachers for affiliated colleges should be appointed by universities.
3. The admission, in universities should be controlled on the basis of abilities and aptitudes of students.
4. The Honours course should be of more advanced nature than the pass courses and these courses
should be instituted only at the universities.
5. Provision should be made for technical education by the universities. The universities have to control
the problem of unemployment by opening employment opportunities.