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CivilEngineering:FORMWORK
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CivilEngineering
Thursday,June10,2010

FORMWORK
RelatedTopics
WhatisFormwork
Formworkisadieoramouldincludingallsupportingstructures,usedtoshapeand
supporttheconcreteuntilitattainssufficientstrengthtocarryitsownweight.Itshould
becapableofcarryingallimposeddeadandliveloadsapartfromitsownweight.
INTRODUCTIONTOFORMWORK
Formwork has been in use since the beginning of concrete
construction.
Newmaterialssuchassteel,plasticsandfiberglassareusedin
formwork.
greater attention is being given to the design, fabrication,
erectionanddismantlingofformwork

ADVANTAGES&BENEFITSOFSYNTHETIC
FIBRESINCONCRETEFLOORING&
PLASTERINGAPPLICATIONS
ANAEROBICDIGESTION
APPLICATIONOFINTELLIGENT
TRANSPORTSYSTEMFORTRAFFIC
CONTROLANDSAFETY
APPLICATIONOFFUZZYCONCEPTSIN
CIVILENGINEERING
CARTOGRAPHY
EARTHQUAKERESISTANTCONSTRUCTION
FLYASH

DEFENITION:
Asastructure,

FORMWORK

Temporarywhichisdesignedtocontainfreshfluidconcrete.

HIGHPERFORMANCECONCRETE

Formitintotherequiredshapeanddimensions.

INTERLINKINGOFRIVERSININDIA

Supportituntilitcuressufficientlytobecomeselfsupporting.

OFFSHOREPLATFORMS

The term formwork includes the actual material contact with the concrete, known as
formface,andallthenecessaryassociatedsupportingstructure.
REQUIREMENTSOFAGOODFORMWORKSYSTEM
Howformworkcanbeerectedanddeshutteredfast.
Howgoodconcretequalityandsurfacefinishcanbeachieved.
What is the optimum stock of formwork required for the size of work
force,thespecifiedtimescheduleandflowofmaterials.
What is the overall cost savings that can be achieved using the right
typeofformwork.
HowSAFETYcanbeimprovedforthesitepersonnel.

In order to successfully carry out its function, formwork must achieve a balance of
followingrequirements:
Containment

REPAIROFCORROSIONAFFECTED
REINFORCEDCONCRETESTRUCTURES
SELFCOMPACTINGCONCRETE
SILICAFUME
SOILSTABILISATION
USEOFBABMBOOASCONSTRUCTION
MATERIAL

indi wearein
Indiae.in
ae.i india'sguide
n

Strength
ResistanceToLeakage
Accuracy
EaseOfHandling
FinishAndReusePotential
AccessForConcerted
Economy

Containment: formwork must be capable of shaping and supporting the fluid concrete
untilitcures.
Strength:formworkmustbecapableofsafelywithstandingwithoutdistortionordanger
the dead weight of the fluid concrete is placed on it, labour weight, equipment weight
andanyenvironmentalloadings.

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Resistance to leakage: all joints in form work must be either close fitting of covered
withformtapetomakethemgrouttight.IfgroutleakageoccurstheconcreteWillleak
atthatpoint.Leakagescausehoneycombingofthesurface.
Accuracy: formwork must be accurately set out so that the resulting concrete product
isinarightplaceandisofcorrectshapeanddimensions.
Ease of handling: form panels and units should be designed so that their maximum
sizedoesnotexceedthatwhichcanbeeasilyhandledbyhandormechanicalmeans.
Inadditionallformworkmustalsobedesignedandconstructedtoincludefacilitiesfor
adjustments,leveling,easingandstrikingwithoutdamagetotheformworkorconcrete.
Finish and reuse potential: the form face material must be selected to be capable of
consistently imparting the desired concrete finish (smooth, textured, featured or
exposed aggregate etc.) At the same time it should also achieve the required number
ofreuse.
Accessforconcrete:anyformworkarrangementmustbeprovideaccessforplacingof
theconcrete.Theextentofthisprovisionwillbedependentontheeaseofcarryingout
theconcreteoperations.
Economy:alltheformworkisveryexpensive.Onaverageabout35%ofthetotalcost
of any finished concrete unit or element can be attributed to its formwork of this just
over 40% can be taken for material for formwork and 60% for labour. The formwork
designermustthereforenotonlyconsiderthemaximumnumberoftimesthatanyform
canbereused,butalsoproduceadesignthatwillminimizethetimetakenforerection
andstriking.
FORMWORKBASEDONMATERIALS
MATERIALSFORFORMWORK
Formworkcanbemadeoutofalargevarietyof
materials.
The material most commonly being used to date is timber.
However, due to the depleting forest reserves and increasing
cost of timber the use of alternate materials such as plywood
andsteelhasbecomeprominent.
More recently, materials such as plastics and fiberglass are
alsobeingusedforprefabricatingformwork.

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The type of material to be used depends on the nature of


constructionaswellasavailabilityandcostofmaterial.
The constraints on the project such as overall cost, time of
completion also play a major role in the use of a particular
materialforformwork.

TIMBERFORMS
Timber is required for practically all jobs of formwork. The timber bring used for
formworkmustsatisfythefollowingrequirements:
I.Itshouldbedurableandtreatable
II.Itshouldhavesufficientstrengthcharacteristics
III.Itshouldbelightweightandwellseasonedwithoutwarping,
IV.Itshouldholdnailswell.
Advantagesofusingtimberforms:
I.Itiseconomicalforsmallconstructionjobs
II.Itisdesignflexibleandeasytoerect
III.Ithasgoodthermalinsulationwhichmakesitusefultobeusedincolder
Regions
Iv.Itcaneasilybemadeintoanyshapeorsize
Plywoodforms(incombinationwithtimber)
Concreteshutteringplywoodisbwpgradeplywood,preservativetreatedand
speciallysuitedforuseinconcreteshutteringandformwork.
Theplywoodisbuiltupofoddnumberoflayerswithgrainofadjacentlayers
perpendiculartoeachother.
Plywood is used extensively for formwork for concrete, especially for
sheathing,deckingandformlinings.
Therearetwotypesofplywoodinternalandexterior.
The interior type is bonded with water resistant glue and exterior type is
bondedwithwaterproofglue.
Hardboardforms

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Hardboardisaboardmaterialmanufacturedofwoodfiber,which
isthenrefinedorpartlyrefinedtoform a panel having a density
rangeofapproximately50to80poundspercubicfoot.
Hardboardsarestandard/nontemperedortempered.
The tempered one being used for formwork. Tempered
hardboard is solid or perforated hardboard panels impregnated
with resin under high pressure to make them stronger and more
resistanttomoistureandabrasion.
The boards available in large sheets have a hard, smooth
surfacethatproducesaconcretewhosesurfaceisrelatively free
ofblemishesandjointmarks.
The thin sheets can be bent to small radii, which is an
advantage when casting concrete members with curved
surfaces.

ALUMINIUMFORMS
Forms made from aluminum are in many respects similar to
thosemadeofsteel.
However, because of their lower density, aluminum forms are
lighterthansteelforms,andthisistheirprimaryadvantage when
comparedtosteel.
As the strength of aluminum in handling, tension and
compressionislessthanthestrengthofsteel,itisnecessary to
uselargesections.
The formwork turns out to be economical if large numbers of
reusesaremadeinconstruction.
The major disadvantage of aluminum forms is that no changes
canbemadeoncetheformworkisfabricated.

PLASTICS
These forms have become increasingly popular for casting unique shapes and
patterns being designed in concrete because of the excellent finish obtained requiring
minimumornosurfacetreatmentandrepairs.
Differenttypesofplasticformsareavailablelikeglassreinforcedplastic,fiber
reinforcedplasticandthermoplasticsetc.
Fiberglassreinforcedplasticisthemostcommonandhasseveraladvantagessuch
as
I.Thematerialallowsgreaterfreedomofdesign
II.Unusualtexturesanddesignscanbemoldedintotheform
III.Itallowsthecontractortopourstructuralandfinishedconcrete
Simultaneously
IV.Becausesectionscanbejoinedonthejobsiteinsuchawaysoastoeliminate
joints,thereisnosizelimitation
Ifcarefullyhandled,anumberofreusesarepossiblemakingithighly
Economical
Vi.Itislightweightandeasilystripped
The disadvantage of using plastic forms is that it does not lend itself to field
fabricationHence,thedesign and planning of this form must be carefully carried out.
Also care must take not to damage the plastic by the heat applied for accelerated
curingoftheconcrete.Troughandwaffleunitsinfiberglassareusedinconstructionof
largefloorareasandmultistoriedofficebuildings.

STEELFORMWORK:
Mostlyusedinlargeconstructionprojectsorinsituationswherelargenumber
of reuses of the same shuttering is possible. Suitable for circular or curved shaped
structures such as tanks, columns, chimneys. Etc. & for structures like sewer tunnel
andretainingwall.
Advantagesofsteelformworkovertimberform:
I.strong,durable&havelongerlife
II.Reusescanbeassumedtovaryfrom100to120warestimbervaries
from10to12.

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III.Steelcanbeinstalled&dismantledwithgreaterease&speedresulting
insavinginlabourcost.
IV.Excellentqualityofexposedconcretesurfaceobtained.Thussavingin
thecostoffinishingtheconc.surface.
V. no danger of formwork absorbing water from the conc. & hence
minimizinghoneycombing

CONSTRUCTIONOFFORMWORK:
proppingandcentering
shuttering
provisionofcamber
cleaning&surfacetreatment
Proppingandcentering:
The props used for centering may be of steel, timber post or
ballies.pillars made up of brick masonry in mud mortar are also sometimes used as
props.
Shuttering:
canbemadeupoftimberplanksoritmaybeintheformofpanelunit
made either by fixing ply wood to timber frames or by welding steel plates to angle
framing.
Provisionofcamber
Certainamountofdeflectioninstructureisunavoidable.Itistherefore
desirable to give an upward camber in the horizontal member of conc. Structure to
counteracttheeffectofdeflection.
Surfacetreatment
Before laying conc. The formwork should be cleaned of all
rubbishparticularlythesawdustsavings&chippingsetc.
Before laying conc. the face of formwork in contact with conc.
shallbecleaned&treatedwithreleaseagentlikerawlinseedoil
orsoftsoapsolutionastopreventtheconc.gettingstrucktothe
formwork.
Orderandmethodofremovingformwork:
Shuttering forming vertical faces of walls, beams & column
sides should be removed first. Shuttering forming sofit to slab
shouldberemovednext.
Shuttering forming soffit to beams, girders or other heavily
loadedmembershouldberemovedintheend.

DURATIONTAKENFORREMOVALOFFORMWORK
1WALLSCOLUMNS&VERTICALSIDES
OFBEAMS12DAY
2SLABS3DAYS
3BEAMSOFFIT7DAYS
4REMOVALOFPROPSTOSLABS
A)SLABSPANNINIGUPTO4.5M7DAYS
B)SLABSPANNINIGOVER4.5M14DAYS
5REMOVALOFPROPSTOBEAMS
ANDARCHES
A)SPANNINGUPTO6MTS14DAYS
B)SPANNINGOVER6MTS21DAYS

TYPESOFFORMWORK
Therearedifferenttypesofformworkavailablefordifferentpurposes.
Generally, the formworks for vertical concreting are called wall forms and those for
horizontal concreting are called slab or floor forms. The various types of formwork
availabletodayinthemarketarediscussedindetail.
TRADITIONALFORMWORK
This usually consists of standard framed panels tied together
overtheirbackswithhorizontalmemberscalledwaling.
The waling is provided with the basic function of resisting the
horizontalforceofwetconcrete.

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Onesideofthewallformworkisfirstassembledensuringthatit
iscorrectlyaligned,plumbedandstrutted.
The steel reinforcement cage is then placed and positioned
beforetheothersideoftheformworkiserectedandfixed.
Plywood sheet in combination with timber is the most common
materialusedforwallformwork.
The usual method is to make up wall forms as framed panels
with the plywood facing sheet screwed on to studs on a timber
frame. This allows for the plywood to be easily removed and
reversed and used on both sides so as to increase the number
ofreuses.
Thewallformsaresusceptibletoedgeandcornerdamageand
mustbecarefullyhandled.
Special attention must be given to comers and attached piers
since the increased pressures applied by wet concrete could
cause the abutments to open up, giving rise to unacceptable
groutescapeandapoorfinishtothecastwall.

CLIMBINGFORMWORK
Method of casting walls consists of a climbing formwork, the
climbingofwhichmaybemanualorcraneassisted.
Itemploysacommonsetofformsusedina repetitive manner
forcastingwallsinsetverticallifts.
Aftereachcastingtheformsareremovedandraisedtoformthe
nextliftuntiltherequiredheighthasbeenreached.
These forms are widely used in the construction of industrial
chimneys,silos,highrisetowers&buildingcores,bridgepiers&
pylons,airportcontroltowers,telecommunication,towersetc.
Theclimbingformhasmanyadvantagessuchasthefollowing
Stagedconstructionprocessallowsbalanceofsiteresources.
Anchor accessories can be reused after each pour, reducing
materialcostsoncurrentandfutureconstructionprograms.
In case of trolley mounted formwork, the panel retracts from
theface,providingspaceforcleaningandfixingofconcrete.
Formwork & access platforms lifted as one, minimizing crane
support,reducinglabourandmaterialcosts.
fine adjustments of the form face can be made during
construction, providing accurate alignment of the form face
vertically&laterally.

SLIDINGFORMWORKORSLIPFORMING
slipformmeansacontinuouslymovingform,movingwithsuch
a speed that concrete when exposed has already achieved
enough strength to support the vertical pressure from concrete
still in the form as well as to withstand lateral pressure caused
bywindetc.
Thus, the slip form concreting technique is a rapid and
economical construction method that can be applied with great
advantage to many types of construction projects such as
chimneys, silos, water towers, bridgecolumns, lift shaft cores
andshaftliningetc.
The technique is based on movable forms which are gradually
liftedbyhydraulicjacks.
It is a continuous process where wet concrete is added to wet
concrete. Reinforcing steel and/or post tensioned cables are
continuouslyfixedasthenormalslippingspeedis3to 6 meters
per 24 hours. The slip form construction is designed for each

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project depending on the structure of the project. The
advantagesofslipformingare
Minimumconsumptionoftimberandsteelplates.
Totaleliminationoftraditionalscaffolding
Minimumrequirementsofcarpentersforassembling.
Itgivesamonolithicstructure.
The concrete surfaces can be treated and finished while
concreteisgreen,
Dependingontheweatherconditions,itispossibletoachievea
vertical rise to the tune of 4 to 5 m in summer and 2 to 3 m in
winter.
The procedure of continuous slipping is applied to making both
innerandouterwallsaswellascolumnsofabuilding.
Formclimbs.

PERMANENTFORMWORK
Permanent form or stayinplace formwork is one in which the
formisleftasanintegralpartofthestructure.
Permanentformworkcanalsobeutilizedasthefacingmaterials
of in situ reinforced concrete. They can be of two types
participatingandnonparticipating.
The material used for these forms must be durable and of
sufficient strength. Commonly used materials include polyvinyl
chloride (pvc), galvanized coiled sheet steel, fabricated steel,
carbon/epoxythinshell.
The high initial cost of design and installation, lack of
familiarity for installation and maintenance and more specified
formdesignaresomeofthebarrierstotheuseofthisform.
However, there are various advantages like low cost of
transportation and installation, precise form design, maximum
flexibility, greater durability with reduced long term maintenance
andversatility.

SPECIALFORMS
These are those forms that are specially designed and manufactured for a
particular kind of construction. The need for a special formwork may arise due to
severalfactorssuchas
whenthecontractdemandsthehighestclassofdimensionaltolerance
tobefollowed
Where the form work shape required becomes uneconomical or
impracticableforsitefabrication
Wheretheformworkisrequiredtobeselfcontainedi.e.selfpropelled,
Where rate of concreting, admixtures or types of concrete are such
that concrete pressure developed within forms and stresses in the
formsdemandspecialattentionwhereasubstantialnumberofreuses
isenvisaged
TABLEFORM
This is a special formwork designed for use in casting large
repetitivefloorslabsinmediumtohighrisestructures.
The main objective of reducing the time required reerecting,
strikingandreerectingslabformwork.
Asystemwhichcanbeputasanentireunit,removed,hoisted
andrepositionedwithoutanydismantling.

GANGEDPANELFORM
The increasing pace in the construction of multistorey and
massive concrete structures, and the parallel progress in
development of cranes and other mechanical methods of
transporting forms have made the use of ganged prefabricated

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forms for the concreting of large sections of high walls very
common.
Ranging up to 30x50 ft, their size is limited only by the
mechanics of handling. Large panels can be assembled flat on
thegroundwhereitiseasiertowork.Delay and lost motion are
avoided in stripping because the gang forms are stripped as a
unit.

TUNNELFORM
Thetunnelformworkisaroomsizedstructuralsteelfabricatedformwhichis
used to cast the rcc walls and floor slabs of a building as a monolithic structure in a
continuouspour.Theformsarethenheatedusinghotairblowersforacceleratedcuring
oftheconcrete.Thissystemismosteconomicalwhenthestructureconsistsoflarge
numberofidenticalunits.Thereexisttwoversionsofthistypeofformwork.Theyare:
A.Thehalftunnelformworkusedtocastonlyonewallandslabsimultaneously
B.Thefulltunnelformworkusedtocasttwowallsandaslabsimultaneously
Thesequenceofconstructioninvolvesplacingofreinforcement,electricaland
sanitary conduits along with the tunnel forms. Concrete is then poured and the open
sideoftheformsiscoveredandhotairblowersplacedinside.Theformsareremoved
thenextdayandplacedonthenextsiteusingcranes.Theoptimumuseoftunnelform
isinmultiunitshearwallstructurewithidenticalfloorlayoutateachlevel.

DOKAFormWorkSystem.
I.DokaSystemComponents
ThevariousbasiccomponentsthatmakeupthevariousDOKAsystemareas
follows:
1.Dokaformworkbeams
2.Dokaformworksheets
3.Dokadurpanels
4.Dokafloorprops
5.Formtiesandsuspensioncones
6.Multitrippackaging

1.Dokaformworkbeams

ThecoreofthesystemliesintheusageofanEngineeredtimbercomponent,
theHBeam.
The Hbeams are manufactured in a modern automated plant at Pondicherry under
strict quality control the flanges are made of seasoned chemically treated timber. The
web is made of boiling water proof ply wood and joined with the flange by the unique
fingerjointingmethod.TheHbeamsthusmanufacturedarelight,dimensionallystable
andretainsitsstructuralpropertiesoveraperiodoftimeevenafterrepeatedusage.It
is more predictable, easy to design and use, The number of reuses of HBeams is
morethan100times(8timesthatofconventionaltimber)anditconsumesonly40%of
timbervolumerequired.
The Hbeams are available in two size namely in H16 16 cms depth & H20 20
cmsdepth,lengthvaryingbetween1mto6m.

SalientFeature
Reductioninconsumptionoftimber.
Makingworkatsiteminimized.
No.ofreusesmorethan8timesthatofconventionaltimber.
Dimensionallystable,uniforminsizeandconsistentinstrength.
CostratioperuseH16beam:conventionaltimber=1:3.5
Economicalandlonglasting.
Lightweight@6kgsperRMT.
Max.ShearForce

Max.Bending
Moment

EI

11KN

4KN/M

170x106KG.CM2

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DokabeamH20
Innovativeendreinforcement.
Forlessdamagetotheendsofthebeams
Foroutstandingdurability

Outstandingproductionlevel.
Ensures uniformly high quality and loadbearing strength for safe and
dependableusage
IsthebasisforthereliabilityoftheDokabeamformworkandDokaflexfloor
formwork
Frommechanicalstrenghtgrading

Practicalmarksforallstandardlengths.
AsagridforeasyinstallationandcheckingoftheDokaflex124system
DokabeamH20eco
Endsofbeamsbevelledformorestrengthbuthasnoendreinforcement.
2.Dokaformworksheets
Doka has an extensive range of formwork sheets for the most varied areas of
application.Allsheetsaremadeofgluebondedlayeredwoodandareextremelystrong
anddimensionallystable.
Formworksheet3SPlus
Threeply concreteformwork sheet, made of European spruce (picea abies), designed
speciallyforbuilding.Producesauniformconcretesurface.
Surface:SyntheticmelamineresingluewithPUsealantandlightcorundumsanding
ononeside
Bonding:Boilproofandweatherproof
Edges:Impregnatingemulsion,
Dokayellow
Thicknesses:21and27mm
Formworksheet3SO
Threeply concreteformwork sheet, made of European spruce. Produces a uniform
concretesurface.
Surface:Syntheticmelamineresinglue
Bonding:Boilproofandweatherproof
Edges:Impregnatingemulsion,
Dokayellow
Thicknesses:21and27mm
DokaplexMultiplysheets
Highgrade multiply sheet made of Finnish birch hardwood for use again and again.
Producesahighquality,smoothconcretesurface.
Surface:Phenolresincoating,120g/m
Bonding: Boilproof and weatherproof phenolresin glue (BFU 100) to DIN
68705T3
Edges:Dispersion
Thickness:21mm

3.Dokadurpanels
Dokadurpanelsarethestateoftheartforfloorslabpanels.Allroundedgeandsurface
sealing dependably protects the panel against the wear and tear of everyday
constructionwork.
Maximisednumberofreusesandbestqualityconcretesurfaces.

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FromspecialsurfacesealingbymeansofPURvarnishandmelamineresin
coatingwithprecisionmeteredcorundumsanding
Forimprovedsafetyatwork,becauseriskofslippingisreduced
From significantly reduced moisture absorption for muchreduced
discolouration,structuringandcracking

Bigsavingsoncosts
Fromeasycleaningofthesurfaces,readyforthenextuse
FromallroundedgeprotectionmadeofhighgradePU
Forexactedgeswithminimalcleaning
Forlowcostsonaccountofeasyandfastreconditioningoftheedge
4.DokaFloorProps.
Doka floor props are the right choice for every application. High loadbearing strength
plusmanypracticaldetailsthathelptomakehandlingeasier.
The props are available in various sizes viz. CT250,CT300,CT340 & CT
410.Thenumberindicatestheextendedlengthofpropsincms.

Carryingcapacityisratedfrom20kNto30kN.

The tripods make the props self standing for easier and faster erection of
theshutteringsystem.Theadjustmentsinheightareobtainedby operating
the prop nut. The required dimension in plan is obtained by sidelapping of
theHBeamsintheprimaryorsecondarylayer.

A very accurate and convenient shutter is ready for tying of reinforcement


andconcreting.

The system also facilitates repropping. By adopting the method of


repropping it is possible to reduce the total quantity of formwork materials
significantly. The system is very well adapted for use alongwith the L&T
DokaBeamFormingSupportingsystem.

5.Formtiesandsuspensioncones
Doka has a complete range of triedandtested formtie solutions and dependable
suspensionpointsforwallformwork,singlesidedformworkandclimbingformwork
inuncompromisingqualityformaximumsafety.
Dokatierodsandanchoraccessories
Providesafetythroughsuperbmanufacturingquality
Reduce labour costs for installing ties, because a hammer is all that is
neededforeasyinstallation
Aredurable,robustandunaffectedbydirt
Robustlydimensioneduniversalclimbingcones
ensurefirmconnectionsbetweenstructureandformwork
forsafetyonhighstructures
forallkindsofclimbingformwork
Safesuspensionsolutionsforworkingandprotectionplatforms
Withdifferentattachmentstosuittheapplication
Ideally matched to the carrying capacity of Doka working and protection
platforms
Easytoinstallandreusable.
6.Multitrippackaging
Multitrippackagingsuchascontainers,stackingpalletsandskeletontransportboxes
keep everything in place on the site, minimise time wasted searching for parts, and

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streamline the storage and transport of system components, small items and
accessories.
Savingsonmaterialoverheadsandlabourcosts.
Through faster loading and unloading of system components, small items
andaccessories
Througheasyrelocationtothenextpointwherethepartsareneeded
Throughsafestorageinstacks,particularlywhenspaceisatapremium

Stacking pallets 150 and 120 simplify the storage and transport of floor props,
removablefoldingtripods,formworkbeamsandDokadurpanels.Theclamponwheels
makethestackingpalletsmobile,sotheycaneasilybesteeredthroughstandarddoor
sizeopeningsinresidentialaccommodationprojects.

II.DOKAFloorSystem
No matter what the room height, the shape of the layout or the slab thickness, with
Dokayoualwayshaveexactlycoordinatedformworkinonesingleconsistentsystem,
comprisingaconvenientlysmallnumberofeasytomanagesystemcomponents.
Dokaflex124
Dokaflex124isthefast,versatilefloorformworkforfloorplansofanyshape,
forbeams,slaboverhangsandsemifinishedfloorelementsandthereadyreckoneris
ideal for calculating the quantities of materials, so there's no need for formwork
planning. The free choice of formwork sheets leaves nothing to be desired when it
comestothefinishedstructureofthefairfaceconcrete.
TheL&TDokaFexsystemissuitableforRCfloorsupto4.40mhigh.

The plywood sheathing is supported by a layer of secondary HBeams at


the designed spacing. The primary layer of HBeams are supported with
necessary accessories over the collapsible telescopic props fitted with
tripodstoensurelateralstability.

Definedpositioninggridwithfullflexibilityinfloorplangeometry
Forquickerectionoftheformwork,becausethepositioningpointsareclear
Enables rapid adaptation to walls and columns by simply telescoping the
transverseandlongitudinalbeams

Speedyprogressandsimplelogistics
Becausethereisonlyasmallnumberofmatchedindividualcomponents
With highgrade Eurex floor props with consecutively numbered pegging
holesandlowreleaseforces
With highgrade Eurex floor props with consecutively numbered pegging
holesandlowreleaseforces
Because the ready reckoner makes it easy to calculate the quantities
needed
Becausedispensingwithplanningandpreparatoryoperationscutscostsby
asignificantmargin
Because the maximum pitches for longitudinal and transverse beams and
propsaremarkedonthebeamsforfloorslabthicknessesupto30cm

Safetyandeconomy
Fromdurableandrobustindividualcomponents
Becausethepanelscanberented
Withhighgradepolyurethanesurroundforfirstclassconcretesurfacesand
reducedinvestmentcosts
Withnonslipsurfacesforsignificantlyenhancedsafetyatwork

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With highgrade Eurex floor props with consecutively numbered pegging
holesandlowreleaseforces
With the new, muchimproved longitudinal and transverse beams for
significantlyreducedpostusecosts

Everyrequirementforfairfacedconcretefulfilled
Byfreechoiceofformworksheets
Bythesealedsurfaceoftherentablepanels

Dokamatictable
TheinnovativedesignoftheDokamatictablemakesforevenfasterformworkhandling
whenever large floor slabs have to be cast. Standard functional components can be
installed for straightforward, speedy adaptation to changing requirements on the
constructionsite.
Fastrepositioningreduceslabourcosts
Because fully assembled units are manoeuvred quickly into place no
laboriouscarryingofindividualcomponentsfromonelocationtothenext
Because practical shifting devices makes for virtually fatiguefree
operations
Because easier to handle and safer than handoperated formwork,
particularlyasroomheightsincrease
The Dokamatic table helps save on labour and on crane time: One man using the
shifting trolley with attachable drive unit can move the tables to the next casting
location on the same level. The system is optimised for minimal forming times on
largearea projects and deals easily with varying requirements in terms of statics and
geometry.
Dokamatictablesizes
Comesin4rentablestandardsizeswithgridlogic:4.0x2.0m,4.0x2.5m,
5.0x2.0mand5.0x2.5m
Specialsizesforspecialapplicationscanbesuppliedatanytime
Made up of highgrade system components such as the sturdy Dokamatic
table waling 12 and Doka beams H20 top for outstanding durability and
minimumpostusecosts
FullyassembledDokamatictablesdeliveredtoyoursiterightontime
LoadbearingtowerStaxo
Staxo is a highstrength loadbearing tower made of robust steel frames for high
shoring and heavy loads. Integrated connectors for rapid assembly. This modern
loadbearing tower system comprises only a few individual parts and is extremely
versatile.Acomprehensiverangeofsafetyaccessoriescompletesthesystem.
Highlystableandhighlyversatile
With1.52mwideframewithnonbucklingverticalsections
With50cmgridforsettingtheframespacing
Withthetowerunit'slargefootprint
Becausehorizontalloadsaresafelydissipated
Loadbearingcapacityupto70kN/leg
Speedyassembly,evenwhenthetowersarehigh
Because there are only a few individual parts, they are light and easy to
handle
Because the vertical adapters for the next lift are integrated, without loose
partsoraddons
Withdropinassemblybattensandintegratedclimbingrungs
Lesscranetimeneeded
Because the towers can be preassembled on the flat, then hoisted into
position
Withshiftingcarriagesforhorizontalrepositioning
Staxoframe

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Extremely strong, galvanised steel frame for straightforward height
adjustmentina30cmgridchoiceofthreeheights0.90,1.20and1.80m
Frame spacing with diagonal crosses from 1.00 to 2.50 m adjustable in 50
cmgrid
Reliablywithstandshorizontalforcessuchaswindloads
Integrated nextlift frame adapters for ergonomic handling even high above
thegroundnotoolsrequired
Integrated climbing rungs and dropin assembly battens support safe
assemblyanddisassembly

Diagonalcross
Timesaving integration of horizontal and diagonal braces in a single
component
Differentlengthsforvariableframespacing
Colourclipsandstampingforclearmarkingofthelengths
Safeassemblywithcaptivegravitycatches
Settingthenextliftisalwaysquickandsafe:notimeislostlookingforparts,because
thelockingsprings(1),
(3)andconnectingsleeves(2)arecaptive,integratedintotheframes.
No additional parts or loose parts, so even high above the ground handling is still
straightforward.
Heightadjustment
Heightadjustmentaccuratetothemillimetre,evenunderload.Bymeansofscrewjack
Uspindle at the top, screwjack foot or heavyduty screw jack at the bottom. The
heavydutyscrewjack130hasanextensionheightof130cmandisavailableforjobs
requiringmaximumversatility.

Beamformingsupportsystem
The L&TDoka Beam Forming Support system is suitable for RCBeams of depth
between30cmto120cm.
Beambottom
The plywood sheathing is supported by a layer of secondary H20 Beams at the
designed spacing to form the beam bottom. The primary HBeams in turn support the
secondarylayer.
Beamsides
The plywood sheathing is supported by HBeams at the designed spacing running
alongthelengthoftheRCbeamtoformthebeamsides.TheHbeamsaresupported
bythebeamformingsupportwhichareclampedontotheH20beamsprovidedforthe
Beam bottom. The beam forming support ensures the right angle between the beam
bottomandsides.TheBFSextn.providesthenecessaryadjustmentindepth.
The beam forming support with extension are available in three sizes viz.BFS with
extn.600mmlong,900mmlong&1200mmlong.
III.WallFormworkSystem
The L&TDoka Wall formwork system is suitable for casting of RCWalls including
watertightstructures.
The plywood sheathing is supported by HBeams which are in turn supported by the
steel walers. The wall formwork facilitates fixing of working platforms for access,
checkingofreinforcement,concretingetc.,thepanelsalsohaveprovisionforfixingfor
alignment system which ensure verticality. The pressure due to concrete are
sustainedbyHighstrengthtiesystem.
The walers are available in sizes of 0.8m, 1.2m, 1.6m, 1.8m, 2m & 2.4m the inside
corners are formed by universal inside corner and the outside by universal outside
fixing or angle plates. The high strength tie system can be through tie system or lost
anchor system depending on the structure. The HBeams can be butt jointed to form
largersizeofpanels.
The formwork panel along with the working platform and alignment systems can be
lifted as a single unit using a crane thus the labour involved in each operation of
erection and deshuttering is reduced to a minimum. The panels are formed in the

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carpentry workshop at site and the number of operations/assembly of components at


each location is minimal and hence accuracy is maintained. Since large panels are
handled as a single unit, the damage/loss of small components is eliminated
contributingtoveryhighmaterialproductivity.Intheabsenceofacranethepanelscan
be dismantled and handled separately. The wall formwork system can handle very
largepressuresgeneratedduetopumpingofconcrete.
TheplannersplacetheDokaformworkbeamsH20(1)andthebracing,whichconsists
of steel waling (2) to suit the anticipated load. The sheeting (3) is freely selectable
yourchoiceofsmoothfairfacedconcrete,woodtexturedsurface,andsoon.
DokaframedformworkFrameco
TheFramecoformworksystem
Formswallheightsupto3.00mwithoutstacking
Hassturdy,galvanisedsteelframestoproducesmoothconcretesurfaces
Permissiblefreshconcretepressure70kN/m
Only2anchorsuptoaheightof3.00m
Meansfeweranchorshavetobeset,soformingworkisfaster
Reduceslabourcostsforpostcastingworkontheanchorageholes

Endtoend15cmgridwithonly5panelwidths
Simplifiesplanning,formingandlogisticsontheconstructionsite
Reducesthenumberofcostintensiveclosures
Meansmatchingpanelformatsforbestpossibleutilisationofformwork
Reduces quantities in stock and costs for rental, because of effortless
adaptationtoanyfloorplan
Makesforcompactliftingunitsforfastpositioningandshortcranetimes
IV.ColumnFormworkSystem
The L&TDoka Column formwork system is suitable for casting of columns of
minimum15cm*15cm.
IntheColumnformworksystemtheHBeamsalongwithsteelwalersandaccessories
makeuptheassembly.TheColumnformworkfacilitatesfixingofworkingplatformsfor
access,checkingofreinforcement,concretingetc.,Theformworkpanelalongwiththe
working platform and alignment systems can be lifted as a single unit using a crane
thusthelabourinvolvedineachoperationoferectionanddeshutteringisreducedtoa
minimum. The panels are formed in the carpentry workshop at site and the number of
operations/assemblyofcomponentsateachlocationisminimalandhenceaccuracyis
maintained.Sincelargepanelsarehandledasasingleunit,thedamage/lossofsmall
components is eliminated contributing to very high material productivity. In the
absenceofacranethepanelscanbedismantledandhandledseparately.Thecolumn
formwork system can handle very large pressures generated due to pumping of
concrete.

Anycolumnsize,straightfromthemodularsystem...
Forspeedyformingofanycolumncrosssectionwithstandardparts
Foroptimumadaptationtoanyspecialgeometryupto5mindiameter
Forcolumncrosssectionsupto120x120cmwithonlyonespliceplate
Forfirstclassconcretesurfaceswithanysheeting
Permissiblefreshconcretepressure90kN/m

Someofthepossiblecrosssectionsofcolumn
V.ClimbingFormworkSystem

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The L&TDoka Climbing System are used for tall structures like cooling towers, etc
where it is very uneconomical to provide staging or scaffolding for supporting the
externalorinternalwallformwork.
In this system a bracket is hooked on to anchors called lost anchors provided in the
alreadycastwallandsupports/alignmentsaretakenfromthesebrackets.Thebrackets
are suitably braced to prevent any sway and are provided with walkways/working
platforms/handrailsetcforsafetyandeaseofworking.
Varyingdegreesofsophisticationareavailableinthe
Climbingformworksystems,afewofwhichareaslisted.

CB150ASimpleClimbing,Cranehandledplatformwidth1.50m.Thebrackets&
wallformworkaretobehandledseparately.
CB 150 F Traveling Climbing, Crane handled platform width 1.50 m. roll back
arrangement for deshuttering & cleaning of shutters. The wall formwork and climbing
bracketareliftedasoneunit.
Automaticclimbingformwork,thewallformworkalongwiththeclimbingbracketsslide
along the wall using motors, thus eliminating the need for crane. This system is very
oftenusedfornaturaldraughtcoolingtowers.
MF 240 Simple Climbing, Crane handled platform width 2.40 m. these brackets
canalsobefittedwithautomaticclimbersSKE50whichisahydraulicsystemwith5T
carryingcapacityorSKE100with10Tcarryingcapacity.
TheMF240system
*TravellingunitMF(1):
Platformis2.40mwideforsafeandconvenientmanipulationoftheformwork.75
cmretractionforeasycleaningoftheformworkandforworkingonthereinforcement.
*ClimbingbracketMF(2):
Combines with beam and frame formwork, high loadbearing capacity (50 kN per
climbingbracket),angleofinclination15fromvertical.
*Workingbrackets(2):
Modular principle for versatility: these brackets can be used as pouring,
intermediateandsuspensionbrackets.
TheSKEsystem
Themodularsystemforautomaticclimbing
* Free positioning of brackets and automatic climbers as singlesection climbing
scaffold
*Liftheightsupto5.50m
*Formworksystems:
wallformworkFF20andlargeareaformworkTop50
framedformworkFramaxandAluFramax
*Climbingspeed5min/m
SKE50
*Loadcarryingcapacity5metrictonsperbracket
*Idealsolutionforahugenumberofclimbingtasks
*Upto40automaticclimbersperhydraulicunit

SKE100
*Loadcarryingcapacity10metrictonsperbracket
*Platformsystemforsimultaneousworkatdifferentlevels
*Extremelystrongbracketspermitwide,variablespacing

at5:40PM

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86comments:
indianidol.007 February16,2011at10:12PM
Hey I am looking for total concrete formwork produced or manuctured every
year.DoyouhaveanyideawhereIcangetthosedatafrom?
Reply
Replies
FocusEngineerrs August9,2016at2:15PM
Thankyouforthearticle,itsreallyniceanduseful.
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zama September23,2011at12:00AM
Thanks....thisreallyishelpful.
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Thanksveryinformative:)
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VelloreInformation September27,2016at5:32PM
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uniscaff December8,2012at11:12AM
Hi indianidol.007@ We can buy a shuttering systems like Flexible & Adjuster
Panel,FormworkSystemforRCCwallEtc.atUniscaffEngineering
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SakshiChemSciences December12,2012at5:05PM
Thiscommenthasbeenremovedbytheauthor.
Reply

AliZakour December29,2012at1:52AM
thanks
Reply

sipilworld April1,2013at10:40AM
thanks
Reply

http://civilresources.blogspot.co.uk/2010/06/formwork.html

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CivilEngineering:FORMWORK

Admin May9,2013at10:41PM
Thiscommenthasbeenremovedbytheauthor.
Reply

Admin May9,2013at10:44PM
Txs for sharing good knowledge about shuttering. For practical construction
guideonecanvisittoconstructionguide
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Constructionisimportantpartofbuildingdesignandmaterialuseandstrength
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thanks
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This article piqued my interest in the latest products available on the market,
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_PriyaRaj_ May17,2014at2:51PM
Hithere!
I am a student of Construction Management from India and i am currently
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Doesanyonehere,haveexperience/usefulinformationinthisfield?
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CivilEngineering:FORMWORK
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CivilEngineering:FORMWORK

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CivilEngineering:FORMWORK
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CivilEngineering:FORMWORK
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CivilEngineering:FORMWORK
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CivilEngineering:FORMWORK
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http://civilresources.blogspot.co.uk/2010/06/formwork.html

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CivilEngineering:FORMWORK
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