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Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 41 (2012) 5158

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Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/etfs

Heat transfer enhancement in a tube with twisted tape inserts placed


separately from the tube wall
Halit Bas, Veysel Ozceyhan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering. Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039, Turkey

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 20 October 2011
Received in revised form 3 January 2012
Accepted 12 March 2012
Available online 30 March 2012
Keywords:
Twisted tape insert
Heat transfer
Pressure drop
Heat transfer enhancement

a b s t r a c t
Flow friction and heat transfer behavior in a twisted tape swirl generator inserted tube are investigated
experimentally. The twisted tapes are inserted separately from the tube wall. The effects of twist ratios
(y/D = 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4) and clearance ratios (c/D = 0.0178 and 0.0357) are discussed in the range of
Reynolds number from 5132 to 24,989, and the typical one (c/D = 0) is also tested for comparison. Uniform heat ux is applied to the external surface of the tube wall. The air is selected as a working uid. The
obtained experimental results from the plain tube are validated by using well known equations given in
literature. The using of twisted tapes supplies considerable increase on heat transfer and pressure drop
when compared with those from the plain tube. The Nusselt number increases with the decrease of clearance ratio (c/D) and twist ratio (y/D), also increase of Reynolds number. For all investigated cases, heat
transfer enhancement (f) tends to decrease with the increase of Reynolds number and to be nearly uniform for Reynolds number over 15,000 and y/D lower than 3.0. The highest heat transfer enhancement is
achieved as 1.756 for c/D = 0.0178 and y/D = 2 at Reynolds number of 5183. Consequently, the experimental results present that the best operating regime of all investigated twisted tape swirl generator
inserts is detected at low Reynolds number, leading to more compact heat exchanger. The empirical correlations based on the experimental results of the present study are also given for prediction the heat
transfer (Nu), friction factor (f) and heat transfer enhancement (f).
2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Heat exchangers are mostly used devices in many areas of the
industries. Hence, the using of high performance heat exchangers
is very important for saving energy. A lot of methods are applied
to increase thermal performance of heat transfer devices such as
treated surfaces, rough surfaces, swirling ow devices, coiled
tubes, and surface tension devices [1].
Twisted tape swirl turbulator is one of the commonly used passive types for heat transfer augmentation due to their advantages
of steady performance, simple congurations and ease of installation [2]. These type inserts generate swirling ow and cause improved uid mixing between central region and the nearly wall
region so, the heat transfer in tubes can be enhanced by uid mixing. Sarma et al. [3] gave generalized correlations to predict friction
factor and convective heat transfer coefcient in a tube tted with
twisted tapes for a wide range of Reynolds number and Prandtl
number. The contribution to thermal performance of the conventional, short-width and center-cleared twisted tapes was studied
numerically [2]. Conguration optimization of regularly spaced

Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 352 437 4901x32108; fax: +90 352 437 5784.
E-mail address: ozceyhan@erciyes.edu.tr (V. Ozceyhan).
0894-1777/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermusci.2012.03.008

short-length twisted tapes in a circular tube for turbulent heat


transfer was carried out by Wang et al. [4] by using computational
uid dynamics (CFDs) modeling. Eiamsa-ard et al. [5] presented
experimental study on convective heat transfer in a circular tube
with short-length twisted tapes inserted under uniform heat ux.
Akhavan-Behabadi et al. [6] conducted some experiments to analyze effects of twisted tapes on heat transfer enhancement and
pressure drop in horizontal evaporators. They selected R-134a as
working uid. Heat transfer and friction factor of CuO/water nanouid and water were experimentally investigated in circular tube
equipped with modied twisted tapes has alternate axis [79].
Eiamsa-ard et al. [10] performed experimental works on heat
transfer and friction factor characteristics in a double pipe heat exchanger tted with twisted tape elements. They made their analysis for both continuously placed twisted tape and twisted tape
placed with various free spaced in circular tube. The heat transfer
augmentation and pressure drop during condensation of HFC-134a
in a horizontal tube tted with twisted tapes were experimentally
analyzed [11]. Jaisankar et al. [12] experimentally examined the
heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance caused by
twisted tape for solar water heater. Twist ratio, space ratio, tapewidth, rod-diameter and phase angle effects on heat transfer and
pressure drop were analyzed experimentally in a circular tube
tted with regularly spaced twisted tape elements [13]. Naphon

52

H. Bas, V. Ozceyhan / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 41 (2012) 5158

Nomenclature
c
Cp,air
D1
D2
f
h0
h
I
k
L
_
m
Nu
Pr
DP
r1
r2
r3
Re
q
Qloss
Qair
T
U

distance between inner wall of the tube and twisted


tape insert (m)
specic heat capacity of air (J/kg K)
inner diameter of the tube (m)
outer diameter of the tube (m)
friction factor
heat transfer coefcient of natural convection (W/m2 K)
local heat transfer coefcient (W/m2 K)
current (A)
thermal conductivity (W/mK)
length of the test tube (m)
air mass ow rate (kg/s)
Nusselt number
Prandtl number
pressure drop (Pa)
inner radius of the test tube
outer radius of the test tube (m)
outer radius of the insulation (m)
Reynolds number
heat ux (W/m2)
the heat loss (W)
the heat transfer to the air (W)
temperature (K)
uid velocity (m/s)

[14] also made experiments by using conventional twisted tape inserts in horizontal double pipe. Ferroni et al. [15] conducted some
experiments in circular tube equipped with physically separated,
multiple, short-length twisted tapes. Laminar convective heat
transfer enhancement in twisted tape inserted tube was discussed
experimentally by Sarma et al. [16].
In some studies, researchers focused the thermal effects of
twisted tape inserts in modied tube instead of smooth tube, for
example; Thianpong et al. [17] examined heat transfer enhancement in a dimpled tube with a twisted tape swirl generator inserted. They also presented the empirical correlations based on
the experimental results of their study for prediction the Nusselt
number and friction factor for Reynolds number from 12,000 to
44,000. Bharadwaj et al. [18] conducted experiments by using conventional type of twisted tapes to determine pressure drop and
heat transfer characteristics of water in a 75-start spirally grooved
tube.
Some researchers [19] modied the conventional twisted tape
geometries, for example; Murugesan et al. [20] used V-cut twisted
tapes to analyze heat transfer and pressure drop in a circular tube.
Some experiments were performed to obtain heat transfer
enhancement in a tube using delta-winglet twisted tapes [21].
Thermal characteristics were investigated experimentally in circular tube tted with serrated twisted tapes [22,23], with twisted
tapes consisting center wings and alternate-axes [24], with a
peripherally-cut twisted tape has an alternate axis [25].
Many researchers combined a swirl ow generator element
with one more; Experiments were realized to determine heat
transfer, friction factor and enhancement efciency in a tube with
combined conical-ring and twisted-tape inserts. [26]. Heat transfer
and the friction factor in the horizontal concentric tube placed with
twisted wires brush were investigated experimentally [27]. Eiamsa-ard et al. [28,29] studied heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance behavior in a tube tted with the combined
between the twisted tape and wire coil. Thermal characteristics
in a tube inserted with dual twisted tape elements in tandem were
analyzed [30]. The effects of twin-counter/co-twisted tapes on heat

V
V_
Wtotal
y

voltage (V)
volumetric ow rate (m3/s)
total electrical power (W)
half of pitch (m)

Greek letters
q
uid density (kg/m3)
t
kinematic viscosity (m2/s)
f
heat transfer enhancement
Subscripts
b
bulk
c
twisted tape inserted tube
f
uid
i
inlet
iw
inner wall of test tube
ins
insulation
m
mean
o
outlet
ow
outer wall of test tube
p
plain tube
pp
pumping power
x
local
1
ambient

transfer, friction factor and heat transfer augmentation were


experimentally interpreted [31].
The given literature shows that twisted tape inserts are always
attached and contacted with the tube wall to enhance heat transfer. In some other kinds of inner rib inserted works, they used inner
ribs separated from the tube wall [32,33]. They investigated only
heat transfer enhancement because of destruction laminar sublayer, so they eliminated the heat transfer enhancement owing to
increasing the effective heat transfer area. Garcia et al. [34] focused
the disturbing laminar sublayer in terms of heat transfer enhancement caused by wire coil as a turbulence promoter. So, the effects
of laminar sublayer on heat transfer and the necessity of disturbing
existing layer were presented.
In many industrial applications such as heat exchangers, contaminants may get mixed with pure uids as water, and of course
inuences the heat transfer process and hence deteriorates the
effectiveness of such applications [35]. If uid contains some seeds
or impurities, Satta et al. [36] reported that seeding material led to
the contamination of the heat transfer surface. Moreover, it is clear
that attaching the inserts on the tube wall may cause more contamination over time in contacts points of inserts and tube inner
wall when compared to the plain wall, so there will be an additional resistance to heat transfer [32,33,37]. Thus, placing the inserts separated from the tube wall also provides abatement of
contamination.
In this experimental study, differently from literature, the
twisted tapes are placed separately from the tube wall to augment
heat transfer. So, the heat transfer is enhanced and also prevention
of the contamination is supplied. The experiments are carried out
with ve different twist ratios (y/D = 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4) and two
different clearance ratios (c/D = 0.0178 and 0.0357) in the range
of Reynolds number from 5132 to 24,989.
2. Experimental set-up
The schematic diagram of experimental set-up is given in Fig. 1.
The experimental facility includes a blower, a bell-mouth for air

H. Bas, V. Ozceyhan / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 41 (2012) 5158

53

Fig. 1. Schematic view of experimental set up.

entering to the tube uniformly, a ow meter to measure the volumetric ow rate, a calming tube (6000 mm) for developing ow
hydrodynamically and the heat transfer test tube (3100 mm) with
a twisted tape insert. The SS304 seamless steel test and calming
tube has 56 mm inner diameter (D1), 60 mm outer diameter (D2),
and 2 mm thickness (t). The twisted tapes tested in experiments,
which ve different twist ratios (y/D = 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0)
and two different clearance ratios (c/D = 0.0178 and 0.0357) are
considered in this experimental study, are fabricated from steel.
The schematic gure of the test tube with twisted tape insert is given in Fig.2. The teon attachments are manufactured according to
the twisted tape thickness and clearance ratios in order to x the
twisted tapes separated from the tube wall and attached onto
the twisted tapes to prevent contact of inserts with the tube inner
surface. The twisted tapes with teon attachments contained in
the experimental study are shown in Fig. 3.
3 kW blower is used to vacuum air through rstly calming tube
and then, it is directed through the test tube. Uniform heat ux is
applied to external surface of the test tube by means of heating
with electrical, whose output power is conducted by a variac transformer to supply constant heat ux along the entire section of the
test tube. The outer surface of the test tube is well insulated with
glass wool to reduce the convective heat loss to the surroundings.
The external surface temperatures of the test tube wall are measured by 28 K-type thermocouples, which are placed on the outer
wall of the test tube and calibrated within 0.2 C deviation by
thermostat before being used. Also, the inner and outer temperatures of the bulk air are measured by K-type thermocouples at certain points. A differential pressure transmitter is used to measure
pressure drop across the test tube. After the air passes the test
tube, it enters to the ow meter for determining volumetric ow
rate. The volumetric ow rate of air supplied from the blower is
controlled by varying motor speed through an inverter.

Fig. 3. The twisted tapes inserts with teon rings.

The experiments are conducted by varying the ow rate in


terms of Reynolds numbers from 5132 to 24,989 of the bulk air
and electrical power. The test tube is heated from the external surface during the experiments, and the data of temperatures, volumetric ow rate, pressure drop of the bulk air and electrical
output are recorded by a multi-channel data logger with high resolution after the system is approached to the steady state condition. The Nusselt number, Reynolds number, friction factor, heat
transfer enhancement are calculated based on the average outer
wall temperatures and the inlet and outlet air temperatures by a
computer program written in FORTRAN language.
The uncertainties of experimental measurements are determined by using the method given by Kline and McClintock [38].
The maximum uncertainties of the non-dimensional parameters
are obtained 3.1% for Reynolds number, 8.2% for Nusselt number
and 6.1% for friction factor.
3. Data collection and analysis

Fig. 2. Schematic view of the twisted tape inserted tube separated from the tube
inner surface with teon rings.

The data reduction of the obtained results is summarized in the


following procedures:

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H. Bas, V. Ozceyhan / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 41 (2012) 5158

The local outer wall temperatures are measured from 28 different axial points on the outer surface of the test tube during experiments. Therefore, the heat loss is calculated for each part of the
test tube in which the thermocouples exist. The total heat loss is
taken as the sum of these 28 parts. The heat loss Qloss is the heat
transfer from the outer tube wall to the surroundings and can be
calculated as follows:

T ow  T 1
 

Q loss

1
2pr 3 Lho

ln

r3
r2

2pkins L

In Eq. (1), r3 and kins indicate the outer radius and thermal conductivity of the insulation material, respectively, h0 represents the heat
transfer coefcient of the natural convection occurs between the
outer surface of the insulation and the surroundings determined
by iterative computation via FORTRAN computer code, also r2 is
the outer radius of the test tube.
The net electrical power and heat transfer to the air are calculated as;

W net DVI  Q loss

_ p;air T 0  T i Q air
mc

Consequently, the heat ux applied to the test tube can be expressed as:

10

which kt is the heat conduction coefcient of the test tube.


The energy balance is applied to the heated tube with a length
of Dx in order to calculate the bulk temperature of air (Tb) in any
cross-section. It can be calculated as:

_ p T b x  T b x  Dx
mc

DVI  Q Loss
Dx
L

11

_ is the mass ow rate, L is the length of the heated test tube


Here, m
and cp is the specic heat capacity of the air.
As a result, the local Nusselt Number can be expressed as;

Nux

hxD1
kf

12

which kf is the conductive heat transfer coefcient of air.


The Reynolds number is dened by

Re

The heat supplied to the air by the electrical cable in the test tube is
about 34% higher than the heat absorbed by the air because of the
convection heat losses (Qloss) from the test section to the surroundings. The radiation heat losses were neglected because of the low
surface temperature and low emissivity of the insulation material.
Thus, only the heat transfer rate absorbed by the air is taken into
consideration for the convective heat transfer coefcient calculation.
The local heat transfer coefcient through the heated test tube
in any axial x direction is dened as;

q
hx
T iw x  T b x

Here, Tiw(x) and Tb(x) represent the local inner wall temperature
of the heated test tube and local bulk temperature of the uid,
respectively.
Instead of the inner wall temperatures (Tiw), the outer wall temperatures (Tow) where the thermocouples exist are measured in the
experiments in order not to disturb the ow eld in the test tube.
Inner wall temperatures can be calculate by using the heat conduction equation in radial direction:



1 @
@T
rkt
Q v
r @r
@r

DVI  Q Loss
 2 2
1
L
p D2 D
4

U m D1

13

DP

q  U 2m DL1
2

14

where Um indicates the mean uid velocity in the tube. All of the
thermophysical properties of air are determined at the overall bulk
mean temperature.
According to constant pumping evaluation criteria [39];

V_ DPp V_ DPc

15

and the relationship between the friction factor and Reynolds number can be given as below;

f Re3 p f Re3 c

16

Rep Rec fc =fp 1=3

17

Heat transfer enhancement (f) is expressed as the ratio of the, hc of


an enhanced tube with twisted tape insert to that of a plain tube, hp
at a constant pumping power is introduced by Webb [39]:




 1=3
hc 
Nuc 
Nuc
fp

hp pp Nup pp


Nup
fc

18

In existing equations, Nuc, Nup and fc, fp are Nusselt numbers and
friction factor with and without twisted tape in tube, respectively.

4. Results and discussion

@T
0 insulated wall
kt
@r

T T ow

measured

f 1

Qv is the amount of the generated heat in the tube wall per volume
via the electrical power applied to the test tube. D2 and D1 indicate
the outer and inner diameters of the test tube, respectively. The
boundary conditions below are used according to the cross-section
of the test tube for solving the Eq. (5):
For r = r2:

For r = r1

T T iw

"  
#
 2
2
Q r2
r2
r1
T iw T ow  v 2 In

1
4kt
r1
r2

The friction factor (f) is calculated as follows;

W net
pD2 L

Qv

Consequently, the inner wall temperature of the tube (Tiw) is dened as:

4.1. Validation experiments of plain tube


In this study, experimental results of Nusselt number and friction factor for the plain tube are obtained and validated with equations of Dittus Boelter and Petukhov as given below;

Nu 0:023 Re0:8 Pr0:4

19

f 0:790 ln Re  1:642

20

The comparisons of Nusselt number and friction factor for the present plain tube with existing correlations are shown in Figs. 4 and 5,
respectively. These gures shows that validation experiments of
heat transfer in terms of Nusselt number and friction factor for

H. Bas, V. Ozceyhan / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 41 (2012) 5158

Fig. 4. Verication of Nusselt number for plain tube.

55

Fig. 6. Variation of Nusselt number with Reynolds number for different y/D ratios
(c/D = 0.0178).

Fig. 5. Verication of friction factor for plain tube.


Fig. 7. Variation of Nusselt number with Reynolds number for different y/D ratios
(c/D = 0.0357).

the plain tube are in good agreement with the results obtained from
Dittus-Boelter and Petukhov equations. The results of present plain
tube and previous equations are nearly the same. Thus, this accuracy provides reliable results for heat transfer and friction factor
in a tube with twisted tape inserts in this present study. Also, the
experimental results of Nusselt number and friction factor for the
plain tube are correlated as follows,

Nu 0:02235 Re0:8015 Pr0:4

21

f 0:3131 Re0:249

22

4.2. Effect of twist ratio


The variations of Nusselt number with Reynolds number for ve
different twist ratios (y/D = 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4) of the inserts with
c/D = 0.0178 and c/D = 0.0357, respectively, are shown in Figs. 6
and 7. The Nusselt number from the plain tube is also plotted for
comparison. Nusselt number increases with the decrease of twist

ratio, clearance ratio and the increase of Reynolds number. The


highest Nusselt number is achieved for twist ratio (y/D) = 2 and
clearance ratio (c/D) = 0.0178 among the existing clearance ratios
and twist ratios. The results of heat transfer in terms of Nusselt
number for the tube with twisted tapes inserted are found about
95175%, 75157%, 69137%, 46118% and 39112% higher than
the plain tube depending on Reynolds number for y/D = 2, 2.5, 3,
3.5 and 4, respectively, at c/D = 0.0178. These values are also obtained as 87168%, 73138%, 64125%, 41108% and 36100%
for the same twist ratios, respectively, at c/D = 0.0357.
The relationship between pressure loss in terms of friction factor and Reynolds number for the tube with twisted tape inserted
which have given twist ratios and clearance ratios, and also for
the plain tube is presented in Fig. 8 and 9. It is found that using
twisted tape gives higher friction factor values than those from
the plain tube as expected. The friction factor decreases with the
increase of twist ratio and Reynolds number. The highest friction

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H. Bas, V. Ozceyhan / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 41 (2012) 5158

D = 0.0178 and c/D = 0.0357), and also typical twisted (TT) tape
(c/D = 0) has the existing twist ratios is examined for comparing
with the separated types. Fig. 10 shows the effects of the clearance
ratio and the typical one on Nusselt number depending on Reynolds number at the same twist ratio. It is clear from the gure that
Nusselt number increases with the decrease of clearance ratio. For
all examined twist ratios, the highest Nusselt number is obtained
from the typical one (TT) when compared with the separately
placed types at the same twist ratios (y/D = 2, 3, 4).
The variation of friction factor with Reynolds number at the
same twist ratios for c/D = 0.0178, 0.0357 and 0 (TT) is given in
Fig. 11. It shows that friction factor decreases with the increase
of clearance ratio and Reynolds number. The maximum friction
factor is always achieved from the typical type of twisted tape
(c/D = 0) for the same twist ratios (y/D = 2, 3, 4).
Obtained experimental results from the typical one (TT, c/D = 0)
are correlated to predict Nusselt number and friction factor and are
expressed as:

Fig. 8. Variation of friction factor with Reynolds number for different y/D ratios (c/
D = 0.0178).

Nu 0:6 Re0:57 y=D0:45 Pr0:4

25

f 12:32 Re0:45 y=D0:65

26

Fig. 10. Variation of Nusselt number with Reynolds number for different c/D ratios.
Fig. 9. Variation of friction factor with Reynolds number for different y/D ratios (c/
D = 0.0357).

factor (or pressure loss) is obtained in case y/D = 2 and c/


D = 0.0178 included given clearance ratios and twist ratios. The
highest friction factor values of the tube with twisted tape inserts
are found about 4, 3.5, 3.1, 2.6 and 2.5 times that of the plain tube
for y/D = 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4, respectively, at c/D = 0.0178. They are
also achieved as 3.8, 3.1, 2.8, 2.4 and 2.2 times that of the plain
tube for the same twist ratios, respectively, at c/D = 0.0357.
It is noted that the experimental results of Nusselt number and
friction factor for the tube with twisted tape inserted are correlated
depending on twist ratio (y/D) and clearance ratio (c/D) as follows,

Nu 0:406903 Re0:586556 y=D0:443989 c=D0:055072 Pr0:38

23

f 6:544291 Re0:452085 y=D0:730772 c=D0:1579

24

4.3. Effect of clearance ratio


The present experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor is realized with two different clearance ratios (c/

Fig. 11. Variation of friction factor with Reynolds number for different c/D ratios.

H. Bas, V. Ozceyhan / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 41 (2012) 5158

57

4.4. Heat transfer enhancement


Fig. 12 and 13 show the variation of heat transfer enhancement
with Reynolds number for ve different twist ratios (y/D = 2, 2.5, 3,
3.5 and 4) of the twisted tapes with c/D = 0.0178 and c/D = 0.0357,
respectively. In general, the heat transfer enhancement decreases
with the increase of Reynolds number and twist ratio. The variation of heat transfer enhancement with twist ratio is nearly the
same at the y/D = 3.5 and 4. It means that heat transfer enhancement decreases with increase of twist ratio up to y/D = 3.5, then
it is nearly uniform. It is also clear from these gures that the heat
transfer enhancement is greater than 1 in the range of Reynolds
number from 5132 to 24,989 for all cases. The maximum heat
transfer enhancements for c/D = 0.0178 and y/D = 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5
and 4 are about 1.75, 1.70, 1.64, 1.60 and 1.58, respectively. These
values are achieved as about 1.74, 1.64, 1.61, 1.57 and 1.57, respectively, for c/D = 0.0357 and the same twist ratios.

Fig. 14. Variation of heat transfer enhancement with Reynolds number for different
c/D ratios.

The effects of clearance ratio on heat transfer enhancement at


the same twist ratio are given in Fig. 14. TT is also added to compare. In general, the typical one provides more heat transfer
enhancement than separately placed types at the same twist ratios.
Nevertheless, the heat transfer enhancement is the nearly same for
the different clearance ratios and typical type at the same twist ratios. It means that the more effective parameter is the twist ratio
on heat transfer enhancement than the clearance ratio. In general,
heat transfer enhancement is greater for c/D = 0.0178 than for c/
D = 0.0357 at the same twist ratio.As a result, the heat transfer
enhancement is correlated as well as Nusselt number and friction
factor as;

f 9:750184 Re0:177983 y=D0:183513 c=D0:009558 Pr0:38

27

Also, for the typical one it is expressed as:


Fig. 12. Variation of heat transfer enhancement with Reynolds number for different
y/D ratios (c/D = 0.0178).

f 11:7 Re0:19 y=D0:2 Pr0:4

28

5. Conclusion

Fig. 13. Variation of heat transfer enhancement with Reynolds number for different
y/D ratios (c/D = 0.0357).

Heat transfer enhancement in a twisted tape inserted tube is


studied experimentally in this present study. The twisted tapes
are placed separately from the tube wall to obtain only heat transfer increase depending on laminar sublayer destruction near the
tube wall. So, the effect of increased heat transfer surface area is
eliminated. The results are given as follows;
The twist ratio (y/D) has major effect when compared with the
clearance ratio (c/D) on heat transfer in twisted tape inserted tube.
The heat transfer enhancement decreases, while Reynolds number increases and it is nearly constant at Reynolds number is higher than 15,000 and twist ratios are lower than 3.
The highest heat transfer enhancements are obtained as 1.756
for c/D = 0.0178, as 1.744 for c/D = 0.0357 and as 1.789 for the typical twisted tape (c/D = 0) at y/D = 2 of all twist ratios.
Heat transfer enhancement is higher in the tube with twisted
tape inserted which has c/D = 0.0178 than c/D = 0.0357 for all
cases.
Experimental results show that using twisted tape separately
from the tube wall instead of attached type can also supply
enhancement on heat transfer. Also, this provides less contamination when compared with the attached one.

58

H. Bas, V. Ozceyhan / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 41 (2012) 5158

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