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TypeQC102/400-20.57(1.96)-1.85(0.51)/370(196)

Instruction of Boiler Design, Erection, Usage

Serial NO.111432SM
REV.A

Hangzhou Boiler Group Co., Ltd.


August2011

Hangzhou Boiler Group CO., LTD.

Instruction of Boiler Design, Erection, Usage

111432SM

CONTENTS
IPreface ................................................................................................................................... 2
IIBoiler Specification & Technical Parameter ......................................................................... 4
IIIBrief Description of Boiler Structure ............................................................................... 4
1. General Description ............................................................................................................. 4
2. Drum .................................................................................................................................... 5
3. Heat Surface ......................................................................................................................... 6
4. Steel Structure & Platform and Stair.................................................................................... 6
5. CasingDuctFurnace Wall ............................................................................................. 6
IVInstruction of Erection ...................................................................................................... 6
1.General Provision .................................................................................................................. 6
2. Facility Storage .................................................................................................................... 7
2.1 Outdoor Storage ................................................................................................................. 7
3. Construction Preparation...................................................................................................... 8
4. Erection ................................................................................................................................ 8
4.1 Boiler Orientation .......................................................................................................... 8
4.2 Installation Flow Chart................................................................................................. 10
4.3 Installation of Steel Structure and Platforms & Stairs ................................................. 11
4.4 Installation of the Heat Surface Block ......................................................................... 13
4.5 Drum & Internal Equipment ........................................................................................ 14
4.7 Boiler Proper Piping & Valves ..................................................................................... 16
4.8 Hydrostatic pressure test .............................................................................................. 16
4.9 Furnace Wall & Insulation18
4.10Painting21
4.11Dry-out,Boil-out and Commissioning,etc21
VUsage & Maintenance ....................................................................................................... 25
1. Water Quality Requirements ............................................................................................ 25
2. Normal Startup ................................................................................................................. 25
3. Requirements for Running and Control ............................................................................. 26
4. Maintenance ..................................................................................................................... 28
VISummary Sheet of Heat Transfer Calculation .............................................................. 31
VIISummary Sheet of Gas Resistance Calculation ........................................................... 32
VIIIFIG: Capacity and Inlet Gas Temperature..34

MADE

RVW

CKD

APP

DATE

DATE

DATE

DATE

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I Preface
If this instruction contravenes Chinese version, please subject to Chinese one.
Thank you very much for being a customer of Hangzhou Boiler Group Co., Ltd.
(hereafter, as HBG). We not only supply you high quality products, but also
professional service all the time from a team of experienced engineers.
The points of the usage and the maintenance provided by this instruction are
just the summarization of some partial experiences, which have a particular premise
before they are applied. Maybe they are practical for one unit, while they arent for
another. The users should have an understanding of this when using this instruction.
In general, users should work out relevant standards of usage and the maintenance
according to their own conditions.
This instruction just provides the operating instructions of Waste Heat Boilers
and the components belong to the boiler proper according to the agreement reached
by supplier and purchaser. To help users have a better understanding of this
instruction, we also have some suggestions on components out of the scope of
supply. However users cant mistake that it is our obligation.
This instruction is the summarization of the points which should be abided by in
the running and the maintenance of the equipment, but it is not complete and it is
difficult to be complete.
This instruction can only be the first edition before the end of trial running. All
the experiences and knowledge gained during the time of trial running may be used
for the modification and supplement of this instruction. It can replace the first edition
after being organized and then will tend to reach perfection.
The manufacturer of the auxiliaries should provide the instruction of the
equipment and the applicable standards of work which users should follow besides
this instruction.
If the content of this instruction contravenes local laws and rules, please subject
to local laws and rules without exception.
This instruction is compiled according to the steps of trial running in order of

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precedence, and that is equipment description, preparation for startup, startup,


normal running, malfunction and the operating instruction of the stop of the boiler, and
finally the project points of the relevant equipment maintenance which need to check.
This product, (Model: QC102/400-20.57(1.96)-1.85(0.51)/370(196)) is the Waste
Heat Boiler for 3300t/d kiln head calcination cooler in the cement produce line. This
boiler (for short AQC boiler), along with the Waste Heat Boiler for kiln rear preheater
in the cement produce line (for short PH boiler) forms the waste heat recovery
system.
With the development of the calcination technology of the cement clinker, the
energy conservation in cement industry has got a great improvement. For the high
temperature waste heat has been reused in the cements production, the energy
consumption of the cement clinker has been decreased to 3000~3300KJ/Kg now, in
contrast to 4600~6700KJ/Kg in the past. But because of technical limits, there is still
plenty of the middle & low temperature heat wasted ,that is, the energy waste is still
very serious. The heat of the middle & low temperature waste gas, which is below
450 , discharged from the cement clinker cooling machine of the kiln head and
preheater of the kiln rear accounts for about 35% of the total consume in this system.
So its necessary for the cement supplier to recycle the waste heat through AQC &
PH boiler, it will decrease the energy consume greatly, thus the competitive capacity
of the enterprise will be increased greatly.
HBG has begun to design the heat recovery boiler for cement kiln since 2002.
The first heat recovery boilers (including kiln head and rear) were put into use in 2003,
then succeeded in generating electricity and acceding to the net, and several hundred
other units are being in use up to now. The product described herein is the partly
optimized design on the base of the former experience.

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IIBoiler Specification & Technical Parameter


Item

Description

Value

Unit

20.57(1.96)

t/h

Rated steam production

Rated steam pressure

268(74)/1.85(0.51)

Psi/MPa

Rated steam temperature

698(385)/370(196))

F/

Feeding water temperature

131/55

F/

Inlet flue gas volume

102000

Nm3/h

Inlet flue gas temperature

752/400

F/

Designed outlet flue gas

183/84

F/

50

g/Nm

N2

77.8

O2

20.6

CO2

Ar

H2O

1.58

temperature
8

Dust content

Gas composition

IIIBrief Description of Boiler Structure


1. General Description
This AQC boiler have inverted HP system and LP system, this can heighten the
waste heat recovery efficiency. The maximum permissible working pressure
(hereafter, as MAWP)of HP drum is 333.5Psi/2.3Mpa, that of LP drum is 101.5
Psi/0.7Mpa,.
This product adopts structure of blocks, from bottom to up therere HP High and
Low Temperature SH. Blocks, two-stage HP EVAP Blocks, HP ECO &LP SH. Blocks,
LP EVAP Blocks and Share Economizer Blocks. The mixing superheated steam from
HP Low Temperature SH and PH boiler goes through Desuperheater then enters into
HP High Temperature SH .These blocks will pass their weight to the beams of the
steel structure through the bases shape steel. This structure of blocks can reduce the
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heat waste caused by air leakage, and heighten the efficiency of boiler, meanwhile, it
will decrease the workload on site as well.
Bastard heat transfer element spiral-finned tube is adopted in heat surface
(except LP Superheater). To balance the deposition and attrition, proper data of
spiral-finned tube is adopted according to the character of flue gas combined with lots
of heat recovery boilers operating experience at home and abroad and the
experiences gained from the spiral-finned tube used in the similar circumstance.
The boilers pressure parts are designed as the criterion of IBR and ASME, while
the nonpressure parts are produced, inspected and accepted as Technical
Supervision Regulation for Safety of Steam Boilers (96), the related effective state
regulations and the technical requirements in its drawings.
The max figure size of the boiler(namely: lengthwidthheight) is 20800mm
9200mm29660mm.(The size length and width refers to the outmost dimension
of the platform and stair, and the height is the elevation of the awning highest point.)
2. Drum
HP steam drum is 1800mm in inner diameter with 30mm thickness, and the
material is SA-516 Gr.70.
LP steam drum is 1800mm in inner diameter with 18mm thickness, and the
material is SA-516 Gr.70. Its located at the top of the steel structure.
Baffle plate acts as the Primary Separator of the drum internal equipment, while
the demister the Secondary one. In order to ensure the high steam quality and the
qualified drum water, the drum also has the chemical dosing pipe and surface
blowdown pipe. Rapid drain pipe is fixed in order to control the water lever
conveniently.
In order to keep the safe and convenient operation, there are pressure gauges,
safety valves and reserve tube set on the top of the drum. In the front of the drum,
there are a silex water level gauge and a quartz double-color water level gauge so as
to make it easy to set up the CCTV; meanwhile, there is also a set of electrode
water level meter arranged for indicating and alarm in control room; Two water level
balancing containers are installed to record and control the water level.
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3. Heat Surface
Main heat surface, like the blocks, will be supplied as a whole, other parts will be
supplied in bulk. This can not only reduce the workload on site ,but also shorten the
installation period. AQC boiler is heat insulated outside the block, and the outer casing
is fixed outside of the insulator layer to protect the refractory.
4. Steel Structure & Platform and Stair
Steel structure is designed for seismic intensity no greater than 7 degrees.
In order to keep operation and inspection conveniently, there are 10 floors of
platforms, and most of the stairs are at the right of the boiler. Except the inspection
platform is made of compound chequered plate, the others are all made of common
chequered plate. In order to improve the operation environment ,an awning is erected
at the top of the whole boiler. The platforms & stairs are all galvanized. Platforms
would be capable of bearing 2000 N/m2 live load; the inspection platform around the
drum 4000 N/m2;while the stairs deflection would be no more than 1/250 when it
bears 3500 N/m2 live load.
5. CasingDuctFurnace Wall
If the structure of the boilers main heat surface is block, these blocks form a gas
chamber along with the duct. The insulation is laid outside of the duct. The boiler is
cased by the galvanized iron steel along the exterior of the columns, and the columns
are exposed outside, thus the boiler is in good appearance and harmony with the
surroundings.

IVInstruction of Erection
1.General Provision
Boiler erection is a complex technical work finished by many different work types
together. Pay more attention to the erection quality, because whether the boiler
can run smoothly will depend on it. The construction must be carried out according to
the requirements in the installation drawings and technical documents Hangzhou
Boiler Group Co., Ltd. Provides. and it should also follow the national relevant
professional technical codes and standards below:

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(1)IBR(calculation criterion: India boiler act 1923, and regulations 1950 up to


amendment 2011)
(2)Local relevant law and regulation.
(3)Instruction of Boiler Design, Erection, Usage(111432SM)
When some engineering change is necessary, the construction must be paused
and not restarted until the related imperative procedure is implemented. Afterward, the
data on the change should be kept carefully and completely. By the end of the boilers
construction, the following documents must be available:
(1)Certified and co-signed record on equipment defect;
(2)Data on design change (or modification);
(3)Certified and co-signed record on midterm acceptance of concealed work;
(4)Certified and co-signed technical record of construction.
2. Facility Storage
On the site, all the equipment, insulating and refractory materials should be
stored and protected well; Depending on their categories, weight, dimension and their
wrapping methods, outdoor, indoor, and semi-outdoor could be adopted respectively.
The stacking field should be plane and clear. Ditch should be arranged there to keep
all the articles dry, and to avoid water accumulating. No piling up on the earth
directly.
2.1 Outdoor Storage
It is mainly applicable for boiler steel structure, platform, heating surface,
down-comers, connecting tubes etc. As for the steel structure, in order to avoid
distortion, its columns and beams should be put on a steadier, which are fabricated
and straightened beforehand. The platform and headers should be put on a pillow;
their convex part should be away from ground; the caps and lids should be preserved
well and completely.
As for the articles kept outdoor, they would be repair-painted where the paint falls
off. When the blocks of the heat surface are piled up, the block in the bottom should
be placed flat to avoid the bottom distortion of those heavier blocks. At the same time,
the blocks would be rainproof to keep the tube of the heat surface from the rain.
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2.2 Semi-outdoor Storage


Its mainly for inner & outer casing , steel-plate part in bulk, metal hardware for
insulation etc.
2.3 Indoor Storage
Its mainly for valves, flanges, fasteners, instruments, water level gauges, motors,
insulation material etc.
3. Construction Preparation
Boiler installation drawings, relevant technical documents and safety measures
should be understood before the erection starts. Meanwhile, detailed erection plan
and quality inspection reports should be made according to the technical specification
& code, specific circumstance and requirements. Every procedure would be
inspected and recorded carefully. Each part, component should be accepted strictly in
the different phase, and the whole boiler would be accepted strictly as well.
The quantity and the size of each component would be checked according to the
drawings to make sure whether its correct before the erection. Look though all the
components and parts and record the detriment caused by transport and storage ,
then make a proper adjustment measure. If the deflection is very small, cold
adjustment could be used, but be sure that there is no pit and crackle etc. in the
surface after adjustment ; If the deflection is a little large ,while this part is firm enough,
hot adjustment could be used.
They could be assembled when the parts are certified after the flaws are
removed. Alternate, concurrent, current constructing method could be adopted as
much as possible while erecting. In order to insure the erection quality and make the
construction go smoothly, all the workers in this project should cooperate and a close
construction plan should be made.
4. Erection
4.1 Boiler Orientation

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Gas Outlet

Left

Front

D
r
u
m

Boiler Centerline

Back

Right

Main Project Direction

Note: In all the drawings we supplied for construction, the front view is the projected
plan seen from the front visual angle.

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4.2 Installation Flow Chart

Foundation below Elevation 0 finished,


Mark up foundation center

Count, inspect, test the parts


arrived

Steel Structure,Platform &


Stairs installation

For some beams,it should be installed along with


blocks.Attention its sequence.It should be clone
from down to up.I.e.:when the lower block's
installation is finished,the upper beams and
corresponding air cooled beams begin to install:

Heat Surface Block


installation

Drum installation

Down-comer, Riser, etc


installation

Sealing Equipment installation

NOte:
Sealing equipment installation
should be done strictly according
to the drawing.Attention its sealwelding of expansion joint

Inlet/outlet Duct
installation

Piping line, Valves &Instruments installation

Hydrotest

Piping line insulation

Furnace Wall, Outer casing installation

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Boil-out, safety valve set-point

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4.3 Installation of Steel Structure and Platforms & Stairs


4.3.1 Lineation and Acceptance of Foundation
The owner and Erector witness and record carefully and completely the process
altogether.
While accepted ,the relative dimensions between the main centerline (i.e. boiler
centerline) and

the assistant centerline (i.e. the centerline of the columns

embedded parts and pre-set hole) will be measured first, and it should agree with the
following codes:
(1) Deflection between the centerline and main centerline: 25mm
(2) Displacement of the centerline and main centerline is no more than 50mm.
(3) Diagonal deflection of the foundation is no more than 1.5mm/m, and will no more
than 5mm in total.
After inspection and acceptance ,the longitude centerline and drum centerline
would be inked on the operation base, and would be marked with the paint for the
check-up of the installation.
Measuring, recording the elevation difference of the steel structures embedded
parts, and take the highest point as the installation base. As for the low-embedded
parts, they will be block up with the backing strip, but pay attention that the backing
strips number should be no more than 3 pieces.
4.3.2 Every part should be checked before the installation, and it should be adjusted if
it doesnt follow the table below.
Allowable Tolerance of Steel Structure before Installation

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Allowable Tolerance
0

-4

Length of Column(m)

+2

>8

-6
0

-4
0

1~3

-6

Length of Beam(m)

3~5

-8
0

>5

-10

Straight Line Degree of Column About 1/1000 of the length, and no


and Beam

larger than 10.

4.3.3 When installation, it should be in consistant with the table below.


Allowable Tolerance and Inspection Method of Steel Structure Installation:
NO.

Allowable Tolerance (mm)


5

Location of column
Distance of columns(Positive

1/1000 of the distance,

deflection preferred)

and no larger than 10.

High

Difference

Based on any column

from

Elevation 1m to the Base

supporting

drum,

measure the others

Point of Elevation
Elevation

Inspection Method

Difference

with water level

between Columns
Non-vertical

Degree

of

Columns

1/1000 of the highness,


and no larger than 10.
Measured

Two

Diagonal

Length

at

1.5/1000 of the length,


Elevation 1m and the

Difference of Columns

and no larger than 15.


top of the column

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Two

Diagonal

Instruction of Boiler Design, Erection, Usage

Length

Measured

111432SM

at

the

1/1000 of the length, and


Difference of Columns in

both ends of the


no larger than 10.

Vertical Plane

column.

Elevation of the Beam

Supported Drum

-5

Level

Degree

of

the

Beam Supported Drum

1/1000 of the length, and


no larger than 3.
5

Elevation of other Beams

4.3.4 Platforms ,stairs, brackets, handrails, stair railings , pedal etc. would be welded
fast and erected straight; The pitch between the stair railings would be uniform, and
welding joint would be smooth.
4.3.5 The backguy would be installed with no interference with other parts. In order to
avoid the distortion of the beam, the backguy at both sides should be installed before
the heat surface is assembled.
4.4 Installation of the Heat Surface Block
4.4.1For the blocks are adopted in this boiler, so the feasible schedule should be
made in advance to avoid blocks incapable hoist occurring .They should be hoisted
along with the erection of the steel structure.
4.4.2 The block would be inspected thoroughly before its erection. If its damaged for
transportation and other causes, it should be erected after rectify and repair is
finished.
Allowable Tolerance of Block Installation:
Allowable Tolerance
No.

Item

mm

Level degree at the top of the

Remark

support frame
2

Elevation of the support frame

Vertical degree of block

Distance

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between

8
5

the

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centerline of the block and that


of the steel structure
5

elevation at the top of block

4.4.3 Requirements for the tube welding:


(1) The tube should be welded per IBR(Calculation Criterition: Indian Boiler Act 1923,
and Regulations 1950 up to Amendment 2011). Welding procedure manual would be made
and welding procedure would be verified as qualified. The welder should be certificated
with qualification for the regulation of IBR (Calculation Criterition: Indian Boiler

Act 1923,

and Regulations 1950 up to Amendment 2011)


(2) As for the slant degree of the welding tube end, it will be 0.5mm if the diameter
60mm ,others will be no more than 0.6mm.The unfitness of mating tubes central-line will
be 10% of the tube thickness and its no more than 0.8mm. The deflection caused by the
welding would be inspected at the distance 200mm from the welding centerline, and it will
no more than 1mm.
(3) All the tube welding fittings would be welded before the hydrostatic pressure test.
(4)The tube should be hydro-tested singly before assembly, which is potentially
difficult to be remedy post welding, once any defect happens. The hydrostatic pressure test
will be 2 times of its working pressure.
4.4.5 Allowable Tolerance of Header Installation
NO.

Inspection Item
Header Elevation

1
2
3

Allowable Tolerance(mm)

Remark

Difference
Header Line Degree
Difference of Header

3
5

Centerline

4.5 Drum & Internal Equipment


Drum will be supported with saddles which are fixed on the steel structure. When
erected, the drum would be adjusted to make it level and in the right elevation. and at
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the same time, the bolt would be screwed according to the drawing detail.
Arc striking and welding random at drum skin is prohibited during installation.
4.5.1 Drums Inspection & Rectification
The number, specification and location of tube stubs should be inspected to
make sure they are right. Meanwhile, confirm if there is any damage to them. If any, it
should be repaired on the ground. The drums internal and external skins should be
checked carefully to confirm if there is any nick, contusion or other defect. As for the
defect whose depth is less than 2 mm, it could be milled to the extent of smooth
transition; for greater than 2 mm, it must be repair-welded, then milled smooth. Its
longitudinal and transverse central lines should be checked and settled according to
the practical positions of the tube stubs. (Theyre marked up on the drum skin before
shipped. Confirmation is necessary.)
4.5.2 Drums Hoist
When its ready to be hoisted, the drum should be laid at the location right below
the lifting direction to relieve the possibility of its swing, which could cause collision or
damage. When the drum is lifted beyond the ground, it should be held on for a while;
then its transverse horizontality be adjusted; at last it could be lifted slowly to its own
installation position and laid down.
When its put on its installation position, the drum should be aligned strictly and
accurately. Make sure it conforms to the requirements in Table below:
Allowance
NO.

Inspection Items

Remarks
Tolerance(mm)

Elevation

Longitudinal/ Transverse
2

2
Horizontality

Distance to Column

5
Measuring the distance

Axial position

between ends tube stub and


columns centerline

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4.5.3 Internal Inspection and Cleaning


The drum should be internally inspected and cleaned carefully after all the tubes
connecting with drum are installed, before the whole hydrostatic pressure test is
conducted. After its confirmed acceptable, the manhole doors should be closed
firmly.
After installation of drum is accomplished, level of 0 (i.e. normal level), highest,
and lowest for water gauge should be marked up according to drum central line: HP
level 0 is the HP drum central line. LP level 0 is the LP drum central line.
4.6 InletOutlet duct & Location for Gas Measuring
The duct should be installed according to the drawings and it should be sealed
firm. At the same time, attention should be paid to avoid damage on headers and
tubes while its welded. Sealing test should be taken after installation.
The gas measuring would be located according to the measuring drawing, and
the actual location will depend on the design institute. Installation company will cut the
outer casing and erect it on site. The inspection sleeves, whose interface dimension
is M332, will be supplied by HBG. See 1432/89GM, and it can also be fabricated on
site.
4.7 Boiler Proper Piping & Valves
4.7.1 The valve should be sealing-tested by the clean water one by one.
4.7.2 There should be a release tube on the safety valve. It will lead through to the
safe place and no valve will be installed on it.
4.7.3 After calibrated as qualified, the pressure gauges should be marked up with
certificate and lead-seal.
4.7.4 The blowdown and drain piping line should be expedite. The slant degree to the
flow direction will no less than 0.2%, moreover, as less as possible elbow is preferable.
4.7.5 The elevation difference of water level gauge will be no more than2mm(keep
the normal level as the base).Every level should be marked on the glass tube.
4.8 Hydrostatic pressure test
Hydrostatic pressure test should be done after the steam, water system and the
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fittings are assembled and it should be done according to IBR(Calculation Criterition: Indian
Boiler Act 1923, and Regulations 1950 up to Amendment 2011).
4.8.1 Preparations:
(1)Clean up the remnant of the drums and headers; Inspect if the tubes are
blocked ,and if the bolts on the manholes, handholes, flanges are wrenched firmly.
(2)Assemble the pressure gauge qualified;
(3)Install the drain piping and vent valve;
(4)Check if all the instruments are isolated, and they will not be damaged for
over-pressure in this state .
(5)Check hydrostatic pressure test procedure in the safety valves instruction. Some
protection measurement should be taken according to the requirements of the instruction
when the whole boiler is being hydrostatic pressure tested.
4.8.2 Water Quality & Temperature Requirements of Hydrostatic pressure test
The testing water would be in high quality ,and the chemical added would be
mixed completely. The environment temperature will be higher than 5. To prevent
the surface of the boiler from dewing, the testing water temperature should be higher
than 20 degree C , beyond the dew point temperature; meanwhile, it should be lower
than 70 degrees C.
4.8.3 Hydrostatic test Pressure
The MAWP of HP drum is 333.5Psi/2.3 Mpa, the hydrostatic test pressure of HP
system is 500.3 Psi/3.45Mpa. The design MAWP of LP drum is 101.5Psi/0.7 Mpa,
and the hydrostatic test pressure of LP system is 152Psi/1.05Mpa. The MAWP of
Shared ECO is 536.5Psi/3.7Mpa, and it`s separate hydrostatic test pressure is
805Psi/5.55Mpa.
4.8.4 Hydrostatic pressure test Process
(1) The water would be injected as quickly as possible to vent the air off the boiler effectively.
(2)All the vent valves should be open to give the air off completely when the boiler is
injected.
(3)The pressure will be raised no quicker than 0.3MPa every minute.
(4)The dew on the metal surface should be cleaned up when the boiler is filled with
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water. When the pressure is raised to 10% of the working pressure, the boiler should be
checked to remove the abnormal phenomena; the bolts on the manholes, handholes, and
flanges may be wrenched firmly if necessary.
(5)When the hydrostatic test pressure is raised to the working pressure, the complete
inspection should be done. The hydrostatic test pressure could keep rising slowly and the
boiler could have an over-pressure test now if the working pressure doesnt drop. Then
drop the pressure to the working pressure after having kept 20 mins, inspect the boiler
again. If the pressure keeps unchanged and there is no rupture, deflection, leakage etc
during the hydrostatic pressure test, it will be certified as qualification
(6)The water should be let out completely after the hydrostatic pressure test. If it will
be a long time to start the boiler after the hydrostatic pressure test, rust-resistant measures
of the steam-water system would be taken; blow in the pressed air to dry the interior system
when necessary.
4.8.5 Others will be processed per IBR(Calculation Criterition: Indian Boiler

Act

1923, and Regulations 1950 up to Amendment 2011).

4.9 Furnace Wall & Insulation


For this product, its furnace wall is constructed with the inner casing, outer casing filled
with insulation. It should be constructed according to the corresponding requirements on
the insulation thickness and specifications and codes quoted in this instruction. For any
change on furnace wall structure or material, HBGs permission must be acquired first.
Otherwise, any complaint or claim will be unacceptable to HBG.
As for the construction procedure, the erector can make it according to its own
practice and working conditions.
4.9.1 Material
For the characteristic for the heat recovery of the low temperature gas, insulation
material would be not only heat-resistant, light, but also has low heat conductivity capacity.
For insulation material at sealing device, it will be not only suitable for sealing and insulating,
but also flexible for expansion.
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(1) Stack, Storage and Transportation


Refractory material should be stored, stacked and transported per relevant regulations.
When the furnace wall is being constructed, the material must be supplied in a planned way.
It should be supplied with the suitable quantity and categories to avoid losing, damage and
wetting. At the same time, each kind of material would be stored enough in the storehouse
to avoid the construction delay for the lack of the material.
(2) Inspection & Acceptance
It will be inspected and accepted per relevant regulations.
Its inspection and acceptance would conform to the relative national standard and the
technical requirements of the drawings. As for those material having no technical
requirements and not mentioned in national standard, it could be inspected and accepted
after the agreements have been attained with the material manufacturer.
(3) Purchase
Now, there are many refractory material suppliers in the market. Its inevitable that
there are some low-class products, or even fake ones. Therefore, a strict investigation is
necessary before purchasing to get the risk of.
(4) Character
See the drawing of Furnace Wall And Hardwork.
4.9.2 Construction
(1) Preparations
Furnace wall would be constructed after the boiler proper is installed and
hydrostatic pressure tested as qualified.
1) Some relative technical documents and drawings would be referred to for details
before the construction. Pay more attention to the construction order between the furnace
wall and its hardware. As for the insulation requirements and material specification,
111432SM3 Instruction of Boiler Furnace Walls Construction and Piping Lines Insulation
would be referred to.
2) Recheck if those components relevant to the furnace wall, such as boiler proper,
steel structure and so on, are installed properly and ready for construction. For doors,
brackets and other device to be installed along with construction of wall, it should be done
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by related technician or worker.


3) Make the construction process and procedure, including the selection of the
furnace wall materials species, budget for the auxiliary material; Compile rules and
regulations for Safety, Health and Environment, and Routine Schedule as well.
4) A complete inspection of all the furnace wall material should be done before the
construction..
5) At the material warehouse, reserve a spacious room for good working
circumference.
6) The mechanical equipment for constructing furnace wall and insulation should be
mounted, checked and trial-operated for at least one time beforehand.
7) Check the water and power equipment, clean the yard, install the scaffold and the
necessary auxiliary device.
8) Keep the devices, equipment on the boiler from damage when the furnace wall is
constructed.
9) Compile terms and methods for quality assurance and acceptance of concealed
work.
(2) Furnace Wall s Thickness
The thickness and dimensions of the furnace wall can't be altered optionally. If there is
some tolerance at some structures assembly with the wall, it may be adjusted suitably.
Once the changes on dimension is relatively great, HBGs confirmation and permission
must be acquired first. Meanwhile, it must be recorded in details as long as such changes
happen.
(3)Alteration in Material
While alteration is inevitable, HBGs permission must be acquired first.
(4) Construction of Pre-formed Casing
While constructing pre-formed casing, firstly, the supporting anchors should be welded
well in staggered layout as design. When it comes to the wall of no less than two layers, the
seam between layers and floors should be away from each other. That is, a successive
seam at two layers or floors should be avoided. The holes on the insulation material where
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the anchors penetrate through will be drilled with proper tools. Random drilling or
embedding is definitely forbidden. The iron web outside the insulation must be tensed and
clamped well. For two adjacent webs, some overlapping margin should be reserved. The
anchors will be clamped with pat behind the iron web. As for the position where the
construction is very complex, it could be stuffed with aluminum silicate fiber pasted with
mastic. As for seams between plates, mastic is adopted for connection as well.
4.10 Painting
The steel structure will be painted according to relevant regulations, actual conditions and
Painting Guide by users.
4.11 Dry-out, Boil-out and Commissioning, etc
After the boiler passes the hydrostatic pressure test as qualified, furnace wall, out
casing, steam/water connection tubes, piping insulating and dry-out could be carried out
step by step. When it comes to this boiler, dry-out could be omitted and boil-out conducted
immediately after the construction and insulation is accomplished; because the most part of
wall is just insulation outside the chamber. For boil-out, it could be with two kinds of
chemical: acid or alkaline. Either could be selected based on boilers fouling condition and
practical condition.
4.11.1 It is recommended that alkaline boil-out method should be adopted for this
boiler, and the chemical dose may be as the following table:
Chemical Dose Adding for Boil-out
Chemical
Sodium Hydroxide
Tri-sodium Phosphate
(Na3PO412H2O)

Dose (kg/m3 water volume)


Thin Rust

Thick Rust

2~3

3~4

2~3

2~3

Note: The purity of chemical is calculated as 100%.


Sodium carbonate could be used as the substitute if there is no tri-sodium
phosphate, but the dose would be as 1.5 times as that of tri-sodium phosphate.
Sodium hydroxide may be used singly in boil-out, and the dose is
6kg/m3(water).

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4.11.2 Water Volume:

Part Name

Hydrostatic pressure test

Operation

(Full water)
HP Water Volume

20 m3

10.5 m3

LP Water Volume

16.5m3

9.5 m3

3.2 m3

3.2 m3

Shared ECO Water


Volume

While the boiler is boiled-out with alkaline, the chemical solution should be
absolutely forbidden into the superheater.
No matter its boiled-out with alkaline or acid, the job must be carried out under
the professional guide of the Chemist or done by the professional team on person
4.11.3 Before boil-out, the chemical solution with the purity of 20% should be
confected. When dosing, the water will be at the low level, and the chemical solution should
be absolutely forbidden into the superheater. After the chemicals dosed, the pressure could
be increased. It should last 2~3 days with a blow-off flow-rate of 10~15% of nominal steam
production, meanwhile, the dirty water should be blown down from the lower positions as
clean water pumped in until the internal water quality meets the related criteria. Then it
could be stopped; or the pressure could be increased so to carry out steam blowing, steam
tightness test, and set-point the safety valves. If its boiled out at a low steam pressure, the
time should be prolonged properly.
4.11.4 The water in the drum and lower headers should be sampled periodically during
boil-out. When the alkalinity is below 45mmol/L, chemical should be redosed. At the end of
the boil-out, the steam pressure would be kept as 75 percent of the working pressure.

4.11.5 After its boiled-out, the deposit in the drum and headers should be cleaned.
Meanwhile, the valves that contacted with chemical solution and the boiler inside should be
flushed. The blowdown valves should be inspected to confirm if there is any blockage.

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There should be no oil dirty in the internal surface of the drum and headers, and no rust
spot would exist at the metal surface after the fittings are wiped off.

4.11.6 The feed-water piping lines for the boiler unit should be flushed and blown to
eliminate the contaminant and rust inside before the boiler starts to be fed water and to
produce steam. Its better to use softened water. The water usage for flushing should be
greater than that of feed-water while running normally. Only when the outlet water quality
confirms to the related requirements could its flushing be certified as qualified.
Afterward, the first commissioning and steam tightness test could be done: Increase
the pressure to 0.3~0.4 MPa, while heat up; Fasten the bolts of flanges, manholes,
handholes and other connection positions among the boiler unit under the hot condition;
Continue to increase the pressure to boilers nominal working pressure; Re-check the
pressure sealing interface, the expansion and force condition of piping lines, supporters,
hangers, suspending frameworks, etc carefully.

4.11.7 Set-point of Safety Valves


Calibrate the pressure gauges on the drum, confirm its accurate; Adjust and set-point
the safety valve on the drum and the superheater, See the following table for requirement
on set-point; Inspect if there is any leakage or impact phenomena.

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Set-point of Safety Valve


Description

Safety valve Set Pressure (MPa)


One is 319Psi/2.2MPa,another is

Safety valve on HP drum


312Psi/2.15MPa
Safety

valve

on

HP
283Psi/1.95MPa

superheater
Safety valve

on

Steam
290Psi/2.0MPa

Safety

Header

valve

Safety valve on LP drum

One is 94.3Psi/0.65MPa,another is
97.2Psi/0.67MPa

Safety

valve

on

LP
87Psi/0.6MPa

superheater
Safety valve on outlet of
508Psi/3.5MPa
Shared ECO
NOTE:p is the working pressure of the safety valve location;
HP drum: P=1.7Mpa,

HP ECO: P=1.5Mpa;

LP drum: P=0.4Mpa,

LP ECO: P=0.35Mpa;

Outlet of Shared ECO: P=3.0MPa


After the safety valve is set-pointed and inspected as qualified, it should be marked.
The start-up & reseating pressure should be recorded and archived after the safety
valve has been set-pointed and inspected.

4.11.8 The superheater should be flushed with the proper flow rate steam under the
75 percent of the normal working pressure after the boil-out, and it should last no shorter
than 15 minutes.
After all the above-mentioned jobs are completed as qualified, the boiler could run with
full load for 72 hours without stop. Meanwhile, inspection should be conducted from time to
time during its commissioning. The boiler could be confirmed as qualified with all the
equipment runs normally. By now, the boilers construction is finished successfully.
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VUsage & Maintenance


This boiler is not an independent steam generator, but a corollary equipment of
cement kiln process. So, an operation and maintenance regulation should be programmed
based on the design condition, related boiler codes and standards with consideration of the
characteristics of cement kiln and the requirements of this boilers running.
This section is organized per the sequence of boilers running, that is, normal startup,
running and stop. And the inspection and maintenance schedule is given for reference.
In the course of running, its the most important that: the operator should be trained
strictly and completely per relevant program to make sure that the knowledge on boilers
safety and the structure, performance, characteristics of each component be understood
comprehensively. He must have enough practical operating skills and ability. Only when he
is identified as a qualified boiler technician through the test conducted by Labor Bureau and
meets the requirements of relevant laws and regulations could the operator take part in the
routine jobs. Meanwhile, the feed-waters quality must meet the specific requirements.

1. Water Quality Requirements


For the steam is used to generate electricity, the water quality requirements should be
as follows:
(1)Hardness

2.0mol/L

(2)Dissolved oxygen

15g/L

(3)Fe

50g/L

(4)Cu

10g/L

(5)PH(25)
(6) oil content

8.8~9.2
<1.0mg/L

2. Normal Startup
2.1 The precondition for startup:

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(1) Erection is finished with the boiler wholly-hydrostatic tested as qualified.


(2) Chemical cleaning is finished.
(3) Safety valves work well.
(4) Feed water equipment is ready.
(5) Auxiliary equipment is ready.
(6) Power supply is ensured.

2.2 Preparation for Startup


(1) Check and eliminate the rust in the duct, and shut off all the manholes, duct
interfaces, inspection doors firmly.
(2) Inspect if the whole boiler is ok, confirm the display of DCS with field indication,
and the hand-operated valves should be checked manually.
2.3 After all the preparations are finished, water could be pumped into the boiler. The
feeding velocity should not be too high in order to alleviate the heat impact on drum,; about
5 t/h is recommended. Make sure the drum water attain to the normal level.

2.4 When the flue gas is being introduced, the boiler could be started up. Regulate the
opening of the gas damper to regulate the boiler load and make each inspection point attain
to the required value as design,.

3 Requirements for running and control:


(1) The owner should work out the operation specification fit for this system per
IBR(Calculation Criterition: Indian Boiler

Act 1923, and Regulations 1950 up to

Amendment 2011), instruction of AQC & PH boiler and relative codes etc. (PH boiler
should be considered together with this boiler.)
(2) Open the regulating damper for flue gas slowly when the boiler is started up.
(3) This boiler is designed according to the initial condition (flue gas quantity
102000Nm3/h, flue gas temperature 752F/400), in this condition the velocity of flue
gas is acceptable. If the flue gas quantity increases, some shunt measures for the flue
gas should be taken into consideration to avoid unacceptable gas velocity and bitter
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attrition to the heating surface. For the long time running, the flue gas quantity shouldnt
exceed 112000 Nm3/h and the inlet flue gas temperature shouldnt be higher than
450. The duration of the temperature higher than 842F/450 should be no more
than 60 seconds, and the temperature mustnt exceed 1292F/700.In the boiler
running (including the shutdown period), the situation of ash deposition in the ash
hopper should be monitored and the ash deposition height should not exceed 1600mm.
When the flue gas quantity and the flue gas temperature deviate from the rated
value, the boiler evaporation capacity and the outlet gas temperature would change at
the same time. For details, see the summary sheet of heat transfer calculation in the
final. In addition, the change of the PH boilers evaporation capacity would affect the
outlet temperature of the shared economizer, thereby affecting the boilers evaporation
capacity.
(4) The main point for boiler startup and running is keeping a proper drum water
level. On running with a high level, steam is liable to take much moisture. That means
chemical in the moisture may deposit inside superheater tubes to influence heat
transfer efficiency.
(5) If the inlet flue gas temperature is higher than 842F/450, such measures as
interfusing cold air to decrease the flue gas should be taken into consideration to avoid
the heat surface overheated to reduce its service life.
(6) Make sure that the maximum permissible working pressure doesnt exceed the
MAWP.
(7) To protect boiler circulation parts from corrosion and deposition, the feedwater
and drum water must be treated appropriately.
(8) Continuous blowdown is the main method to eliminate the impurity inside the
water-steam circulation loop. However, excessive blowdown means more heat loss and
more chemical consumption. Therefore, the blowdown ratio could be kept at a relative
steady level as long as the steam and drum water quality meet requirements. It should
be increased appropriately while the feedwater quality decreases, that is, more impurity
must be removed from drum water.
(9) More attention should be paid that: only when the non-dissolvable impurity
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should be eliminated periodically could the drain valves at the lower headers be opened.
The duration and frequency will depend on the analyse result about the special
non-dissolvable impurity (such as ferric oxide and so on). Too much drainage from the
boiler will bring the bad effect to the water chemistry control, water level and other
operation parameters.
(10) Patrol Inspection & Specification for the Operator.

Its recommended that at least once patrol should be conducted for each shift to
ascertain the situation of the unit. The following items should be done, but not limit to:
Check if all the close-valves are shut off firmly, and leakage should be avoided
when the valves are shut off.
Find out where the water and steam leaks and repair it at once
Check if the blow-off valves leak, for they are used more frequently than others.
Compare the value of the remote pressure gauges and thermal meters recorded
in the control room with that of field indication periodically, and keep a record and
adjust them while deviating
The water level gauge should be blown down twice each shift to avoid fouling
and unclear display of the water level in the glass tube.

4.Maintenance
4.1 Stop of Boiler
The fluctuation of cement producing will result in the change of steam production,
even the interruption of steam output. However, as long as the boiler proper works well, and
its likely that the boiler could be ready for running at any moment once the cement
producing system could startup shortly,.
As for this kind of temporary interruption, the main steam valve should be shut off at
first to keep the superheaters being still cooled with steam, meanwhile, the steam pressure
should be controlled carefully, and the continuous water feeding should be sustained to
ensure the economizers could be cooled completely.

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As for the necessary stop of boiler, the hot flue gas should be shut off. Because of duct
liners high temperature and its thermal inertia, to cool down the boiler is a long process. So
the cooling-down of duct is also a step of the stop of boiler. Just as above mentioned,
during the relief process of remainder steam, the superheaters must be cooled well, and
the feedwater of economizers should be kept; meanwhile, the boilers temperature should
be under control until the flue gas inlet temperature decreases to 212F/100 .

Attentions for Stop of Boiler


Have a thorough inspection before the stop of boiler.
Switch off the regulating damper of inlet flue gas, and open the bypass.
When AQC boiler is stopped, PH boiler should be stopped; Otherwise, PH
boilers feedwater should be preheated.

4.2 Maintenance after Stop of Boiler


Precautions must be taken for the boiler to avoid inner/outer corrosion on stop.
Normally, as for the emergency stop of the boiler , wetting maintenance will be adopted;
while, as for the long stop of boiler, dry maintenance or moisture remover will be adopted.

4.2.1 Wetting Maintenance


Wetting maintenance could be adopted if there is plenty of the chemical treated water.
It prevents the corrosion by raising the PH value of the water and deaerating the medium.
For medium to be used, it must be treated appropriately and protected with a positive
pressure from air intaking.

4.2.2 Drying Maintenance


No matter whether its possible that it freezes or not, drying maintenance should be
adopted while the boiler is stopped for a long time (over two weeks), or no appropriately
treated water is available. For drying maintenance, the boiler is drained totally and
exhaustively to prevent corrosion.
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Nitrogen Protection
Its a very effective method to blast nitrogen to isolate oxygen away from tube inner
surface.. When the pressure is decreased to 0.07Mpa and the boiler begins to drain,
nitrogen will be blown from the drum or the upside connection pipes to replace the
water .When the nitrogen goes out from the drain piping, the drain valves should be
shut off at once, Maintain the pressure of the nitrogen at 0.0354Mpa to prevent the
open air from entering.
Continuous loop with dry air
Continuous loop with dry air (whose relative humidity is lower than 30 %.) is an
economical method of maintenance. Moisture inside the tubes and piping lines etc will
be taken away as dry air flows throughout. With switching vent, drain, blowdown valves
here and there, make dry air could arrive everywhere inside. Shut off all the valves to
prevent the air from entering when the humidity inside attains to related requirements (it
takes about one day). Check the valves periodically.
Drying Agent
Its also a good method to remove the moisture with the drying agent. Silica gel, one
of the drying agents, can absorb moisture as much as about 25 % of its own weight.
The dose of silica gel depends on the field temperature and humidity. Otherwise,
calcium oxide could be used as the drying agent too. Put it in a flat anti-corrosive tray,
then lay them into the drum, make sure it doesnt block any holes on the drum. In
addition, the drying agent shouldnt be scattered, otherwise, it will result in the
corrosion.

4.2.3 The general maintenance procedure, details and some important remarks for stop
of the boiler:
(1) If freezing may happen, drying maintenance is recommended for use.
(2) The solution used for wetting maintenance should be tested every week, and
the chemical dosing be adjusted if necessary.
(3) The maintenance chemical may be dosed into the boiler water at the several
hours before the boiler is stopped when the wetting maintenance is adopted.
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(4) The air should be prevented from entering when the relative humidity is
inspected. Only when necessary could the manholes be opened.

4.3 Routine Maintenance


4.3.1 For this boiler, it better to have a major maintenance every 5 years, and a minor
one every year, at the same time, at least once exterior inspection every year. For its
rapping system, routine maintenance is indispensable.

4.3.2 For each major maintenance, an interior inspection should be done. When it
comes to a newly-built boiler, the first interior inspection should be done after one-year run.

4.3.3 When the boiler has been stopped for more than one year, and the pressure parts
are repaired or reconstructed greatly, the interior & exterior of the boiler should be
inspected; the hydrostatic pressure test should be done at the same time.

VISummary Sheet of Heat Transfer Calculation

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Calculated Steam

Efficiency of Heat Recovery

12.7

370

354

377

400

HP-HT.SH

9.6

354

213

352

377

HP-LT.SH

213

213

268

77.4

16.4

196

162

196

220

LP SH

20570(1960)

11300

214

214

220

268

EVAP II

EVAP I

352

HP

HP

9500

0.13

196

145

196

220

HP Eco.

162

162

167

196

EVAP

LP

296500

0.25

145

55

84

167

Shared Eco.

Instruction of Boiler Design, Erection, Usage

kg/h

kg/h

kg/h

m/s

Gsmq

wg

t"

"

t'

'

Symbol Unit

Steam From PH Boiler

from Eco

Water outlet Production

Fluid

Velocity of Working

Working Fluid

Temperature of Outlet

Working Fluid

Temperature of Inlet

Gas

Gas
Temperature of Outlet

Temperature of Inlet

Description

Item

Hangzhou Boiler Group CO., LTD.


111432SM

VIISummary Sheet of Gas Resistance Calculation

32

Hangzhou Boiler Group CO., LTD.

Item

Instruction of Boiler Design, Erection, Usage

Description

Total pressure drop at boiler proper

Stack draft

Flue gas outlet flow-rate

Flue gas outlet temperature

111432SM

Value

Unit

68.5

mmH2O

11

mmH2O

103020

Nm3/h

84

VIIIFIG: Capacity and Inlet Gas Temperature


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26000
24000

92000 (Nm3/h)
102000 (Nm3/h)

HP. System Capacity

22000

112000 (Nm3/h)

20000
18000
16000
14000
300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450

Inlet Gas Temperature


2700
92000 (Nm3/h)
102000 (Nm3/h)

2500

112000 (Nm3/h)

LP. System Capacity

2300
2100
1900
1700
1500
300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450

Inlet Gas Temperature

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