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Text 1

Mobile phones may help reverse Alzheimer's disease


DESPITE the debate that radiation from mobile phones can cause brain
cancer, a new study has found a possible health benefit - that the electromagnetic
waves may protect against and even reverse Alzheimer's disease.
The debate has raged for years on the dangers of mobile phones and whether
the radiation emitted from the devices cause brain tumours.
But researchers at the University of South Florida found mobile phones might
be good for users after conducting a study that exposed 96 mice, most of whom had
been genetically altered to develop the Alzheimer's disease as they aged, to
electromagnetic waves generated by mobile phones.
The mice were zapped with 918MHz of frequency twice a day for one hour
each time over a period of seven to nine months - the equivalent of several decades in
humans.
In older mice with Alzheimer's, long-term exposure to the electromagnetic
fields caused deposits in the brain of beta-amyloid, a protein fragment that
accumulates in the brain of Alzheimer's sufferers to form the disease's signature
plaques, to be erased.
Memory impairment in the older mice disappeared, too, the study showed.
Young adult mice with no apparent signs of memory impairment were
protected against Alzheimer's disease after several months of exposure to the mobile
phone waves, the study showed.
And the memory levels of normal mice with no genetic predisposition for
Alzheimer's disease were boosted after exposure to the electromagnetic waves.
The study was the first to look at the long-term effects of mobile phone
exposure in mice or humans and its findings took even the researchers by surprise.
Based on the findings in mice, the researchers hoped electromagnetic field
exposure could be an effective, non-invasive and drug-free way to prevent and treat
Alzheimer's disease in humans.

Text 2
Alzheimers Disease Research
The number of Australians with dementia, of which Alzheimers
Disease is the most common form, has passed 200,000, or 1%
of the population
The economic cost to the Australian community is in excess of
$7 billion annually.
Alzheimers Disease is named for Dr Alois Alzheimer, a German physician. In 1906,
while conducting an autopsy of a woman who had died after what appeared to be a
mental illness, he observed tangles of brain fibre surrounded by dense deposits
(plaques). These tangles and plaques are now recognised as the hallmarks of the
disease.
Professor Colin Masters, who heads the Alzheimers Disease research team of
scientists from the Mental Health Research Institute and University of Melbourne,
was the first person to discover that overexpression of a brain protein, amyloid Beta
A4 (A-beta protein), is the cause of the disease. This protein is toxic to nerve cells and
forms plaques in the brain that interfere with normal brain function.

Text 3
Australian Statistics of Alzheimers disease.

In 2008, there were 227,300 people with dementia, with the number expected to be
731,000 by 2050 unless there is a medical breakthrough.

In Australia there were an estimated 57,000 new cases of dementia in 2008.

Dementia can affect younger people; currently over 9,600 Australians under the age
of 65 have younger onset dementia.

Between 2000 and 2050, the number of people with dementia in Australia is expected
to increase by 327%, while the total population increases by less than 40%.

Dementia is a major determining factor in precipitating entry to residential care. At


least 60% of people in high care facilities and 30% of people in low care facilities
have dementia. Many more have an obvious cognitive impairment (90% high care;
54% low care).

Currently some 12.4% of Australians with dementia around one in 8 do not speak
English at home, ranging from 21% in NT to 3.5% in Tasmania. Overall in the period
2001 to 2050 there is projected to be a fall in the proportion of Australians with
dementia speaking English (83.8% to 82.4%) and other European languages (7.6%
to 6.0%), with a greater proportion speaking Asian (6.0% to 8.3%) and Middle Eastern
(1.8% to 2.3%) languages.
There are approx 2100 indigenous people aged 45 and over in the Kimberley region,
WA. Latest research has shown the prevalence of dementia in this group is 12.4%,

compared to a rate of 2.6% in the Australian population nearly five times higher.
The prevalence was higher in males in the general community, the rate is generally
higher among females.

Reading Subtest A Level II (three texts)


Alzheimers Disease
Complete the following summary using the information in the texts provided. You do
not need to read each text from beginning to end to complete the task. You should
scan the texts to find the information you need. Gaps may require 1, 2 or 3 words. You
should write your answers next to the appropriate number in the right hand column.
Use correct spelling marks will be lost if there is incorrect spelling.
Please write legibly.
Summary Task
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Text of Cloze

Alzheimers disease, first described by a (1) from (2), Dr Alois Alzheimer,


(3) 1906, is a disease characterised pathologically by (4) and plaques in
brain tissue. It has since been discovered that there is a (5), Amyloid Beta
A4, otherwise known as (6) protein, which is deposited in the brain,
forming plaques that are (7) neurons.
The disease (8) in Australia is rapidly increasing, being over (9) people in
2008, and predicted to reach (10) by 2050. Each year, more than (11)
new cases are diagnosed. Certain subgroups in the community are more
(12) of dementia, especially Aborigines, who have an incidence nearly
(13) greater than in the general community. Asian and (14) language
groups will be a larger part of the dementia population in Australia in years
to come, with the (15) component increasing from 6.0% to 8.3% in the
years from 2001 to (16).
(turn over page)

17
18
19
20
21

Recent research in (17) with


electromagnetic (18) has pointed to
the possible protective effect of (19). In
view of the cost of in excess of (20)
per year of Alzheimers disease, any

treatment that is effective, (21) and


drug free would be welcome.

Text on Alzheimers disease reading exercise

Alzheimers disease, first described by a physician from Germany, Dr


Alois Alzheimer, in 1906, is a disease characterised pathologically by
tangles and plaques in brain tissue. It has since been discovered that
there is a protein, Amyloid Beta A4, otherwise known as A-beta protein,
which is deposited in the brain, forming plaques that are toxic to neurons.

The disease incidence in Australia is rapidly increasing, being over


200,000 (has to be less than 227,300) people in 2008, and predicted to
reach 731,000 by 2050. Each year, more than 50,000 (has to be less than
57,000) new cases are diagnosed. Certain subgroups in the community
are more at risk of dementia, especially Aborigines, who have an
incidence nearly 5 times greater than in the general community. Asian and
Middle Eastern language groups will be a larger part of the dementia
population in Australia in years to come, with the Asian component
increasing from 6.0% to 8.3% in the years from 2001 to 2050.
Recent research in mice / Florida / Alzheimers disease on
electromagnetic radiation has pointed to the possible protective effect of
mobile phones. In view of the cost of in excess of $7 billion per year of
Alzheimers disease, any treatment that is effective, non-invasive and
drug free would be welcome.