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0 REFERENCES
1. Missen, Ronald W., Charles A. Mims, and Bradley A. Saville. Introduction to chemical
reaction engineering and kinetics. J. Wiley,, 1999.
2. Mann, Uzi. "PlugFlow Reactor." Principles of Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design:
New Tools for Industrial Chemical Reactor Operations, Second Edition (2008): 239-316.
3. Renken, A. "The use of periodic operation to improve the performance of continuous
stirred tank reactors." Chemical Engineering Science 27.11 (1972): 1925-1932.
4. Penry, Deborah L., and Peter A. Jumars. "Chemical reactor analysis and optimal
digestion." Bioscience 36.5 (1986): 310-315.
5. Curl, R. L. "Dispersed phase mixing: I. Theory and effects in simple reactors."AIChE
journal 9.2 (1963): 175-181

4.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The objective of this experiment are to study the effect of pulse and step change inputs on
the residence time distribution (RTD) of reactor, and to compare the performance of single CSTR
and PFR. After conducting this experiment, we have obtained the result of the RTD for PFR and
CSTR which are ___ minutes and ___ minutes respectively. Then, the graph is plotted for both
reactor which is concentration (M) against time (minute). The graph plotted shows that the
concentration of the outlet is decreased as the outlet conductivity decreased. The conductivity of
the outlet is decreasing because the pulse input only inject in one shot into the feed stream
entering the reactor at constant flow rate which is 150mL/min. By comparing for the both reactor
PFR and single CSTR based on RTD, PFR has smaller value of RTD compare to single CSTR.
This proved that by using PFR reactor, the time spent of material inside the reactor is shorter. So,
we can obtained more product at shorter time with constant flow rate. From the explanation
above, this shows that the performance of PFR reactor is much better compare to single CSTR.
Next is for the step change input for PFR and single CSTR reactor, the RTD value is ___
minutes. The graph plotted for inlet concentration (M) against time (minutes) shows that the
value is increasing per minutes. As the concentration increase, the conductivity is also increase.
To compare the inlet conductivity between PFR and single CSTR reactor, PFR is much better
compared to single CSTR. This also indicate that the PFR reactor can produce more efficient
product compare to single CSTR reactor.
There are several recommendation must be taken before conducting the experiment and
while conducting the experiment to obtain more accurate result without any error. The reactor
should be calibrate to avoid error such as random error. The measuring apparatus also should be
calibrate first to avoid any error. While preparing the solution of sodium chloride, eyes must be
perpendicular to the scale reading when measuring the solution with the apparatus to avoid
miscalculation of reading. Student is compulsory to wear proper personal protective equipment
to prevent any accident occur during the experiment. All apparatus must be wash and cleaned
before use to avoid any disruption of result. While record the data, the time taken must be taken
seriously by mean that you should take the reading every minute to obtain better result and data.