._ .-.~















My object in this work is to enable even a village schoolma.ster to train his pupils to a considerable knowledge of words; which, according to Coleridge's frequent admonition, is itself a knowledge of things; and the acquiring of which is an exercise admirably suited to open and strengthen the powers of the mind. Till the meaning of words is acquired, the meaning of principles can never be fully mastered; no chain of reasoning can be followed; no fJVe and full communication of thought can take place between the upper and lower classes of society.

I feel convinced that, by fr6fJ1lRl1£t repetition, even village children may acquire an extensive vocabulary, and be taught to use it accurately, because they understand it thoroughly.

The second and more important part of the work will contain the words derived immediately from Greek and Latin roots.


I should add, with respect to the UB6 o( the book, that it is intended (or the master or monitor. The spelling lists will be printed separately (or the pupils ; though it is not 'n8C68Bary that they should have even these. They must first be made to spell the words in each list; and then be required to form, viva. voce, the derivatives given in the Exercises *. I am much mistaken, if they do not soon become interested in this practice, and expert in (orming the words that express the required notion.

Lyndon, July 24, 1844.

T. K.A.

• After Exercise 28, the meaning of the barder words is .sk~d. .



Division of Syllables •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• I. •• •• •• "ii ---- English CODIOnanta. ... • • .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... viii IIITaonuOTlolI :

Prefix_Suflb:etI or Terminations 1

On the Parte cif Speech-Number.. .. .. .. .. .. •• "

On the Second and Third Singular of a Verb.... •••••• •• 6


I. Sounds of A-The a inIal,.. •• .. ...... .... ........ .. .. 6 2. Sound of a in/flt. (continued).......................... 8

8. -- aiD/ear •••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••••• 9

4. - a inlall 10

6. - ain/at 11

6. Sounds of E-Long Sound of, 13

7. Sound of. in mil .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 16

8. Long I ••••• 1 II 11.......... 17

9. Long i (continued) 18

10. Long i (continued) 19

11. Diphthongal Bound of' ib.

12. Short i 90

18. Short i (continued) II

14. Long 0 .. .. ib.

16. Long 0 (continued) ,'............ 14

18. Short 0 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 25

17. Long close sound ofU (c1lille),&c 26

18. Short close Bound of II (full) ... .. • .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. J7

19. Short Bound of u (tub) •• •• • • •• •• •• •• • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • •• 28

20. Short sound of u (continued) 29

21. DilO8yllables [AJ 30

II. DiuyllableB [AJ (continued) 32

23. Worda in which a ha, the BOund ofo in not.............. 36

24.. Sounds of a (continued) 37

26. Sounds of a (continued) 39




26. AI. •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••.••.•.•.••••• 41

27.AU 43

28. C 46

29. CO .••••••••••••..••••••••.••• , ••••••••••.•••••••••• 49

30. C .•.............. 0- ... e.............................. 51

31. CH ••••••••••••••.•.•••••••••••••.•••••••••••••••••• 63

32. D 66

83. EI 68

34. On Participles. • • .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 60

36. F 63

36. G-GH 66

87. G ib.

88. H ~'.""""""" 68

89. Words with ai pronounced like a in/ate.................. ib.

40. EO 71

41. EA ~ 73

42. EAU, EE, EOU, EW, EY..... .71S

43. IE ...................•.• 0 •••••••••••••••••••••••• I.. 77

U. 1.0, IOU, OA ~.... • • • • • 78

41. Ol,-O=U. .•............................. .•......• HI

46. OE, OU ; : 83

47. UA, UE, UI. .. .. .. •• .. .. .• .. .. .. 85

48. Word. in which a letter is not pronounced............... 86

49. Words exactly, or very nearly, the same 'in sound, but differ-

ent in spelling and signification...................... 88 ISO. List of words which are, or used to be, sometimes spelt differ~

ently 96

61. List of some di88yllablel with 'the first syllable short, but

only one consonant in the middle '.' • . . • • 99

62. Latin nouns in. or. Words beginning with em, ell 100

63. Pronouns. (Adjectives and Substantives. relating to number) 102 64.. Adjectives of number, or numerals •••••••••••••••••••••• 194

66. Table of the helping verbs, .tim, Have, Do.. • • • . • • •• • . • • •• ] 06 Table DC the other helping verlis.. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. ..... 106 Verbs that do not form the past tense and past participle in

ed, ed : 107

Prepositions and Adverbs •••••••••••••••••..•..•••••• 112 .cU>PENDrx. Table of the English ¥ erb • • •• •• •• • • • • •• • . • • • • .• 116


OB8.-In the Exercises, the words are not always divided properly for spelling, but for the purpose of showing their formation; the following are the principal rules for the


I. If one eonsonant stands between two vowels, it i. taken with the second j al: pro.p.r, na-ture.

EXCEPTION. X between two vowel. belonp to the former: 'lI.iu, .:I·ld, '/r·dmin e.

II. When Iwo con.onante .tand between two vowels, the IIrst eon.onant belongs to the first vowel; the secend to the seoond: dan·ger, num·ber.

EXCEPTION a.) If'the two consonants are a mut, and alilJuld (in that order), they are both taken with the second vowel: a-ble, tri-.fIe, ,a'gle, pene.trated, r,.cruit, d,-gre.. But ... gn are regularly aeparated r -s·rtiftcm" mag.netic.

b) So ch, ph, til are kept together with the following vowel: ba·chelor, bro-Iher.

c) But ck go with the preceding vowel: pock-.t, jack·et.

rrr, When more than two consonants stand between two vowel., the first consonant goes with the preceding vowel; the others with the following one: g.n-Iu, cum·brou., il, ... ·tral e,

EXCEPTION. If the two first are nc, mp, or ck, they both go with the preceding vowel: dlatlnc.tion, compunc·tion, .mp.ty, conIUmp·tion, piremp.tory, buck-I... But acknowledge is divided ac-knowledg ••

IV. But when words are derived from others by .yllables prefixed or appended, the original word is kept disti net from the prefixture or appendage: an-other, up·on, di'·.lJIe, arm-ing, 'Peak. '81, great.", broad-est, r.ad·er, tun-ing, giv-ing, fool·i.h, condemn.ed, r.mark·abl., aclJuaint-ancB, de.droyer, c/laracter-i.tic, Rich·ard.

RElIf,lRX 1. Silent. goes with the preceding syllable: .ore, peace.

But when the e is sounded in consequence of any addition, the general rule for the divlslon of syllables is followed: hou •• ", aClJuaintan-cel.

2. When the dlent e has fallen away before a termination begin. ning with a vowel, the final consonant goes with the termination: kna-vi.h, wri·ter (not knav-i.h, writ .. r).

3. When a final consonant is doubled before a termination, tbe second consonant goes with the termination; as: grin-ning, b16l-ted. But if the t/erb it,elf ends in two consonanta, both are kept together: fall· inK, call·ed.




smrla./ Mire. 4'1'it'·

t d th

(p sound .. ) (It Bounds.) (I Bound .. )

088. The aspirateB are not represented by any ringIB letttlr in English, though I is very nearly ph. Tbe ch meant is ch bard, 88 in ch6mill; c bard is equal to k.

(Division of all the conllOUantB.)

L, M, N, n, .......•...... liquilh.

P, B, PH, F, V, W, .••••• labia16, or lip-COIW1ftGflt ••

T, D, TH, Z, S, •••••••••• lingualll, or tongw-coouOllaltu. C, K, G, C H, J, H, Q, X, •• ptl'lfra18, or thrOGI-cOll.oItGltl ••


Le880n X and Le880n XI, }ahould not have been

Le880n XXXVI and Le880n XXXVII, separated.

Page 61, to controller, add, 011. who controu _Itt, is called a comptroller, not a cOlltroller.




Un signifies .ot.

(a) Before verbs, un denotes the making what had been done to be undone. (To unbind. untie. &c.) (6) Un, before a present participle, turns it into an adjectioe. ( U.cultivated.)

2 Mi, signifies tu, in a wrong manner. (To mi,calculate.)

3 With marks oppo,ition. (To tIIithstand.)

4 Be turns an intra1l8itiue 1 verb into a tramit;oe 1 one: it sometimes means, to cotTer tIIith, or to do all ooer. (To bemoan; besplinkle; bepraiae.)

5 Ouer marks too· much ; ,uperiority. &c.

6 Out marks the going beyond or beating a person. (To


.7 Fore signifies bifore, beforehand. (To foretell.)

8 Up } . h' .

9 Under retain t eir own meanmg.


10 er is the male doer of an action. (A player.)

J 1 el' is the female doer of an action. (A governel'.)

12 ian} are the names of men derived from their occupa-

13 ist tion, &c. (A guardian; an artist.)

14 OT is the Latin termination for the male doer of the

:lbne words will be esplsined tliewhe:.


action; but it is added to many words that do not come immediately from the Latin.

15 our (not following. or t) is a termination of aintract substantives or names of thing ••

(a) Tbis termination is or in Latin; eur in French: and as the words that have it, come to us from the French, they should not be spelt without the.s,

16 hood and head1

~ ~ d~ are th? terminati~n8 of abst~act sub-

19 stantivea" denoting a qualIty, ,tate,

nell d' . h lik

20 tI, con .hon, or tel e.

21 y

(a) Those in nes, are deri~d from adjectives.

( b) Tbe vowel sound of the root, is often changed (generally shortened) before th : and there is frequently some further change, in the way of contraction or rejection. Thua leng-th for long-th; dep-tll for deep-th; mir-tA for merry-th, merr'tll, &c.

(c) til is changed into t if an A precedes: thus ",eight for ",eig/lt/I.

22 ing denotes the action of the verb: but sometimes the state, or thing done. (Whipping. A ",hipping.)

23 ment is a termination that conies to us from the French, to whom it came from the Latin. It is the termina-. tion of a substantive denoting generally the state or other thing corresponding to the action of the verb. Engage-ment; amasre-ment.

24 age, also from the French: the substantives that end in age have a collecti"e meaning (as herb-age); or Rome abstract meaning.

25 ric } especially denote dominion or jurisdiction: aa

26 ",ick bishopric, bailytllick.

"7 Jul } •

28 'our denote afolness of what the root means.

29 y denotes either abundance of-or simply the con,i,ting tfwhat the root means. (Rainy. hilly-earthy.) . (a) A single consonant terminating an accented syllable having a short vOtllel, is doubled before y.

30 ly is the termination of adjectives, that denote agree-

J Ablltract BubataDrivel I re explained in 44, b.


mmt mt", or lUilablen,,, to, the notion of the root.

~ (Fat"'rly.) .

31 ly is also the termination of adv"b, derived from adjectives. (Broadly.)

32 ilh added to substantives expresses mllnn" (like ly). ilh added to adjectives means somerrlhat, rather.

ilh is also the termination of adjectives from names of country. (Childi.h; reddish; British.)

33 en is the termination of adjectives meaning of such a material.

34 en is the simplest termination ofverbs meaning to mak, or cause wha,t the root expresses. It is added to IUb.tantiv" and adjective.. (To whiten.)

(a) Several of these verbs have an intransitive meaning (to grorrl or become what the root denotes), as well as the tran,itive one, which usually belongs to verbs of this class. (The plot thickens.)

35 em is the termination of adjectives derived from the points oJthe ctnnpall. (Southern.)

36 ell denotes being furnished or provided wjth what is expressed by the root.

(a) These adjectives resemble past participles I; but there is often no verb to which they can be referred.

(b) Tid. termination is often added to an adjective and substantive, or other s/Iort combination of words. (Pale-faced; pig-headed; 'an out-of-fashionetl thing.')

37 ward expresses situation or direction. (A fomard . eourse.)

38 ty forms ten. in numeration. (Twenty.)

39 lell implies the absence or fIIant of what the root eX. presses.

40 able denotes .fitne" to be done; capability of being' done.

(a) This is properly a Latin termination; but from having an English meaning it was readily received into the language, and used to form adjectives from our simplest words; as drinkable.

41 ling} h .. f E I' h d' . t'

42 k' are t e termmationa 0 ng IS '&m.nu .ves.

43 ~k (Duckling, lambkin, bullock.)



(II) DiminutifJe, express little thing, of the kind, often with the notion either of tendeme81 and tmdearmen', or of contempt.


44 A ",intanlifJe is the name of a pn',on or 'of a thing. (a) A substantive will make sense with a or the.

(6) When a substantive is the name of some virtuei quality, or property, it is called an abBtract substantive.

(c) An aintract substantive seldom, takes' the,' unless it is followed by f oj' and another substantive. (Whitens". Yirtue. The whiteness of this paper. The virtue of prudence.)

45 An adjective is the name of some q.uality that we per-

ceive in things. .

(II) An adjective is the name of a quality not in the form iu which we think of it by itself, but in which we describe a thing as having the quality. 'Wl&itene,s' is the form in which I think and talk of the

. quality by'itself; but' white' is the form in which I describe a thing as being w/,ite.

(b) An adjective will generally make sense with men or thinga. (Good men: black men. Round things.) 46 A fJerb is a word by which we express that persons do any thing, or are any thing, or "ave any thing done to them.

(a) A verb in its simplest form may have' to' put before it.

47 An adverb expresses time, place, or manner, in the form in which we add on such circumstances to verbs and adjectives •.

(The other parts of speech will occur in other places.)


48 The aingular number stands for one: the plural for more than one. (A dog': two dogs.)

49 A substantive is made plural by adding a.


50 Those that end in Form the plural in

,h. ch, '. ~. 0 after a} e, : except canto. qlUJrto.

con80nant tyro. and a few more.

51 f,le fie,: except oof, ief (but

thief/e,) • .If (but .taflll), if, with .trife,jiJe.

52 y after a consonant ie.. (Cherry, cherrie.: but

chimney, chimney •• )

53 The genitifle ca.e is the form of a substantive that marka the po"elsor. (CAarle,., hat.)

54 Tbe genitifle ca,e ia made by adding. to the word with a comma written OfIer the space between it and the last letter.

(The comma so written is called A-p6-.tr~-pAe.)

55 To form the genitive of a plurall'Ub.tantifle ending in '. the apolt,t1phe only is added. (Lion" dens.)

56 ~djectives are said to be in tbe comparative degree, when they are so altered as to have the notion of 'more' added to their meaning. Tall-er; that is, • more tall.'

57 Adjectives are said to be in the ,uperla,tive degree, when tbey are so altered as to have the notion of' most' added to their meaning. Talle.t; that is. 'mo.t tall.'

58 Adjectives are made comparatifle by the addition of er, or (if they end in e) r,

Adjectives are made '"perlatifle by the addition of est, or (if they end in e) It.

(a) y is chauged into i before these terminatious. (Easy, easi-er.)

(b) If they end in a single consonant follQwing a lingle vowel it ia doubled. (Red, redder.)

(On 'Ta, Second and TAird Singular of' a Yerb.)

59 The second person singular is the form used after thou. (a) It ends in elt, and the rules for changing y into i, and doubling the last consonant, are the same as those given Cor the superlative adjective. (58, a, b.)

60 The, third singular is the form used after he, ,he. it. or any substantive.

B 8


[Ex. 1.

The third lingular of the preaent tense enda in ,: and the rules for farming it are the same aa those for forming the plural of a substantive. (49-52.)



LESSON I; So~nds of A.

1 II a 6

Fate; far; fall; fat.

1 The tJ in fate is ,lender: this sound may be called its name ,ound, being the sound its name has in the alphabet.

2 Words in which-a has its name BOUnd, end in lilent e. 3 Words in which tJ has its name 'Bound.

make take name spade

qunke trade blade slave

rake care dare hare a

. blaze share age haste

wage stale change pale

bake mare wave' 8ave

shake cake

spare stare face



4 I make to-day: what yesterday? (I made s.) Onewho-makes (a mak-er). Add ing to make (making): to take (tak-ing). 1 take: thou .-? (thou *ak-est.) What person is ,ak-est? (2nd pers. singular.) 1 make: he -? (he make-s.) What person is make-,? (3rd singular.) I take to-day: what yesterday? (I took.) What tense is took? (the past a tenae.) Do to take and to make express doing any thing 1 [Yes.] What parts of speech are they then ? [verbs.] What part of speech is a maker?

• The animal. ' Of the sea.

I Let the pupil spell all the derivative word. and form •• I Called aleo the pried or preterite tenH.



(l substantive.) 'Form a word to mean mae flJho trade» (a trad-er): to mean one flJho quakes (a quak-er). Form a word to mean ,laDe-like (slavish). You can say a ,la"i,h fIIan: what part of speech is ,lav-ish? (an adjective.) Full-of-care (care-ful). Without-care (care-less). Form a Hubstantive from care-ful (care-ful-ness). Form a substantive from ,lavish (slavish-ness). Sla,,;sh-Iy means in a ,lavish manner: what part of speech is ,lavish-ly? [an adverb.] Form an adverb fro~n care-ful (care-ful-Iy): from care-leIS (care-less-ly).


5 Add ing to dare (dar-ing). A person-who-shares

(a shar-er). Rather-stale (stal-ish). Full-of-chan"e (change-ful). Possible-tc-be-ehanged (changeable ). Not-possible-to-be-changed (un-changeable). What are abstract substantives?' (The names of some virtue, quality, or, property.) Form abstract substantives from changeable and unchangeable (changeable-ness: un-changeable-ness). Not-changing (unchanging). Rather-pale (pal-ish). Most-pale (palest). Baked-teo-much (over-baked). One-whobakes (bak-er). Having-a-pale-face (pale. faced).


On the Part, of Speech. 6 What part of speech is -- ?

Name, in: What. is its name? Name them. Trade, I , trade with the interest. Trade is dull.

The fire blase«, What a blaze!

Let me have a share, Share it with me.

Give me a rake to rake the grass with. I shall put a good face on it. I shall face the danger.

I shall banish care, and care for nobody.

Blaze, Share,

Rake, Face,


7 Often in the sense of 'gilJefl to change;' • often changing.'

Change, in:

Daring, Halte, Spare,


[Ex. 3.


7 The sound of llender a (or the a in fate) is sometimes expressed by :

ai, ei, ag, ey. e, ea.

[They pay eight great maids there.]


EY (finaf) prey'

AY (final) day pray

(EI) eight

to neigh

(EA) to bear wear

Change me a shilling. I have flot any change.

A daring attempt. That was an instance of noble daring.

Make haste. Haste off. Spare that spare man.

(Sound of a infale.)





clay say play gray
stay pay way
a vein to weigh a skein
reins' reign" heir'
a bear tear swear
a pear'' a beef-steak break
snail aid a maid
hail aim maim
gain pain rain
praise hair chair
saint faith tail (AI) tJ pail' fail


rail stair-case sprain

(E followed by silent e). He il there. Where 1 There = in that place.

Their = belonging to them,

• In the prey of wild beasts. I In the Dey of Algiers.

I I D take the ,.ei"..

I In this is the hei,..

9 In; white-wine whey. I In; the Bey of Tunis. • In; the king'a ,.eip.

e The fruit.

t Of water.

Ex. 4-.J



9 Add ,;"g to obey (obey-ing). ·Make obey third person singular (obey-s). A-thing-said (a say-iog). Somewhat-gray (gray-ish). Add er to pray (pray-er). Form an abstract Bubstantive from ",eigh (weigh-t). Form from .",ear a substantive to express the action (swear-ing). Without-an-aim (aim-less). One-

,who-claims (a claim-ant)., Full-of-gain (gain-ful).

Full-of-pain (pain-ful), Abounding-in-rain (rain-y). To make what was chained not chained (to un-chain). Add i1llf to praise (prais-in g). Make praise plural (praises). To cover-with-praise (to be-praise). Having-much-hair (hair-y). Full-of-faith (faith-ful). What is an abstract substantive? (See 44, b.) Form an abstract substantive from playful (play-ful-ness), Having-weight (weight-y).


10 The a in far is called middle or Italian a., A has this sound in one-syllable words ending in r; before lm, and sometimes if and lfJe; before the sharp th, and 11

followed by c, t, or d. '

11 to" mar a car to spar art bark
dark hard harm large lark
star part tart sharp
bath path lath father dance
glance lance France chance prance
[In the following, I is not sounded]
alms' balm (cif Gilead) calm calf
to calve half palm psalm salve
12 The sound of middle a (in far) is sometimes repre-
sented by au, 00, ea, e.
[The clerk laughed heartily at my aunt.]
laugh aunt guard hearth
launch haunch clerk 8 In; to give aim,.


[En. 6, 6.


13 Add III to mar (mar-r-ed). Add ing to '1K'r (.par-riug). Full-of-art (art-lul). Without-art (art-Iell). One-who-practil8l-an-art, eIp8CiaII, that oC painting (an art-ilt). Form an abltl'llCt .nbltantive from dark (dark-ne.s). Rather-dark (dark-ilh). To makedark (to dark-en). To make-hard; allO, to growbard (to hard-en). Form an adverb from artful (art-ful-l,). Form an abltract subltantive Crom

• hard (bard-nell): an adverb from hard (bard-Iy).

Without-harm (harm-leu). Adverb from lar,e (large-I,). Abstract substantive frolll ,harp (sharpnesl). One-who.compolel-psalms (a plalm-ilt). Like-a-fatber (father.ly). Form a verb from half, as to cal", i. formed from calf (to halve). Fit-tobe-laughed (at) (laughable). One-who-guardl (a pard-i. an). The-office-of-being-a-clerk (clerk-ship). The·01llce.of· being.a-guardian (guardian •• hip).


On ,he Par', oj Speech. 14 What part of speech i. --?

Dark, in: It iI a dark night, and I am afraid of the dark.

Bark, The dog bark" but who care. for the

bark of a dog 1

Part, He asked for a f'tIrt; but I could not

fJtIrl with an,.

Tart, The plums in that tart are IMt indeed.

Dance, - Whom did you dance the last dance with?


. 15 The lOund of a in/all iI its broad lOund.

all wall '0 call bald

false falcon (pronounced faw'ku) also

almost tall walk swa~

Imall warm dwarf warp

;Ex. 7.]


] 6 The corresponding short sound ia represented by 0, a. infolly, "oily.

17 The broad sound of a is sometimes represented by au, aw, 0, ou, aug".

[1 bought a broad shawl at Audrey aud Fortescue' •• ]

18 AU (middle).

"e caught daub fault fraud quart

A W (jiraal).

paw draw

law crawl

saw dawn

claw straw

OA (middle). broad

OUGH (middle).

he brought "e thought

. 0 (middle). broth or-phan cord scorch


"e fought

horn corn cork form

horse lJlom fork atorm

frolt scorn short

orb thorn stork


19 Form a substantive to express the act or state from to call (calling). Form a substantive from false (false-hood). Adverb from false (false-Iy). More-tall (tall-er). Most-tall (tall-est). Form a subst, to express the act from to walk (walk-ing). A person-who-walks (a walk-er). More-false (falser). More-small (small-er). Form an abstr, subst. from warm (warm-th). Full-of-thought (thoughtful). Without-thought (thought-less). Form adverbs from the two last words (thoughtful-Iy, thoughtless-Iy). One who daubs (a daub-er), Having faults (fault-y). Without fault (fault-less). Adjective from fraud (fraud-ful). Form an abstr. subst. from to draw (draught, draft). Form an abstr. eubst, from, ","oad (bread-th). More-broad (broad-er). Mostbroad (broad-est). Furnished-with-horns (hom-ed).

• I)


[Ex. 8.

Adj. from fro., (frost-y). Adj. from d",arf ( d warfIsh),

EXEllcrn 8.

On the Parts of Speech. 20 What part of speech is --1

Fall, in: The snow is beginning to faU; there will be a beavy fall before night.

Walk, - Don't walk above two hours s you can take a long ",alk in that time.

S",arm, - There is a ,,,,arm of bees. hn't it early for bee. to ,,,,arm?

Cia"" - The cat cia"" me with it. cia"".

Dawn', - The dawn appears: the day begin. to da",n.

(a) What part of .peech is .mall? broad? catch? fault? broadly?

(6) Try to show that catch i. in one .ense a verb: in another sense (or other .enles) a substantive.


21 The sound of a in fat is its short .ound,; being the short sound of the middle or Italian a.

22 lamp Anne and pant thank prank
lie drank theAlps axe bad bag bat
back catch chat chasm hat lad
mad man mat wax have lamb
match rash scalp scratch Ipasm thatch
thrash trap
Before f, I, fI, the .hort sound of a is often a liltle
ant graft glas. gra •• plant aI. , Walker i. again.t this compromi.e: but Mr. Smart, hil lut editor (or ratber remodeler) lay., .. Surely there can be DO harm in avoiding the cenlure of both partlel by IhUSlDing the extreme that oIi'eudl the talte of each."

Ex. 9.]



23 Subst. to express the act from pant (pant-ing). Full of thanka (thankful). Without thanks (thankless). Adj. from Alp. (Alpine). Abounding in cAat (chat-t-y). Abstr. subst. from thankful (thankfulness). Adv. from ,hanltful (thankful-ly), A makerof-hats; or, deeler-in-hats (hat-t-er). Abounding-inwax; or, resembling-wax (wax-y). Made-of-wax (wax-en). Abstr. subst, from ,tIIA (rash-ness). One-who-thatches (a thatch-er). One-who-thrashes (a thrash-er). Make malcA the third singular (match-es), Make lamb plural (lambs). More-fat (fat-t-er). Abetr. subat. from/at (fat-ness). What part of speech is chat in 'let us chat together 1'in 'let us have a ella' together l'


I 2

E.-Sounds of E: me-met.

Long sound of E.






24 The long sound of e is also represented by other characters :-ee, ea, ei, ie, i followed by silent e.

[Seized by fearful grief she seeks the .ravine.]

EE (middle andjinal).

breeze cheek cheese eel
fee flee fleece fleet
keep knee leech queer
screech sleeve sneeze speech
squeeze IIweep sweet three
tree veer weep
C 14 [Ex.l0.
EA (middle andJnal).
beam bean beast bleak
cheap cheat cream dream
each ear fear freak
heath leash peach preach
sneak speak squeak squeal
teach veal wheat wreath
(Some have also e final.)
breathe cease cleave crease
ease league weave wreathe
EI (middle) : to ceil I Beize
IE (middle) :
brief chief field fiend
grief lief I priest. shield
shriek thief yield fierce niece

(Several with silent e also.) grieve


liege pierce

I followed by silent e :

antique ravine

caprice routine



25 Abounding-in-breezes (breez-y). Without-a-breeze

(breeze-less). A seller-of-cheese (8 cheese-monger). Make cMe.e plural. Make eel plural. More-fleet (fleeter). Most-fleet (fleetest). Rather-queer (queerish). One-who-keeps (a keeper). Form a substantive to express the act from keep (keeping), Without sleeves (sleeveless). Without speech or speaking (speechless). Form an abstract substantive from

I That ii, to cover with a ceiling.

I J.n the phrase, " I had a. lief do this .. that."

( Eu. to, 11.] "


apeecAlell (speechlessness). An abstract lubltantive from .flee' (fleetnels). Make ,creech third penon singular (screeches). One-who-.weep8 (sweeper). Abstract substantive from ""eet (sweetness). Adverb from 1fIIee' (sweetly). Most sweet (Iweetest). Having-fleeces (fleecy I). Not-ceaaing (ceaaelell). Without fear (fearlels). Full-of-fear (fearful). Form abstract substantives fromfearful and f,ar'e" (fearfulness, fearleslnels). Adverb. from fearful and fearle .. (fearfully, fearlessly). Occurring-every-year (yearly). Add ing to breathe (breath-in~). Make grief plural (griefs). Add inll to pierce (pierc-ing). To-make.cheap (to cheap-en). One-who-preaches (a preach-er). One who teaches (a teach-er).


On ,II, Part, of Speech. 26 What part of speech is -- ?

Fee, in : You must fee the doctor. His fee is


Sneak, - He meak, away. What a ,neak! Squeak. - I beard a ,queak. Did you 'queak ? Fear. - Whofear,? I have no/ears.

(a) What part of speech is 'Peach? 'PreacA? 'eaell? 'Preacher? "eal? 'queal?

(b) Try to prove that 'queal is both a Bubstantive and a verb.


Sounds of e in met.

2'1 The sound of short e is represented in other ways. (e in met.)

• Often only ,.."",611.., IJ ftleH. c2


[Exx. 12, 18.

EA (middle) breadth head stead wealth

breath health stealth

dead meant thread

dread realm threat

[ai and ay in lay', laid.]

Before r ahort i haa very nearly the sound of ahort e. [See 69.J

fir irk birth

atir bird girth

chirp third mirth

birch shirt thirst

air gird flrat


28 Witheut-breath (breath-leu). Full-or·dread (dreadful). Full-of-health (healthful, healthy). Add ing to dread (dreading). 1 dread to-day: what yesterday? (I dreaded.) Make ,.ealn, plural (realms). Form an adjective from ,teaW, (stealthy). Form an abstract substantive from Itealtlly (stealthiness). Form a verb from tll,.ea~ (threaten). Form a substantive to express the act from tl,reaten (threatlming). .Abounding-in-wealth (wealthy). Abstract substantive from wealtlly (wealtbinees), Form a verb from b,'eath (to breathe). Add ing to breat/,e (breathing).


29 Add in, to Itir (stirring). The bird chirpl to-llay: what yesterday? (chirped or chirpt.) Full-of-mirth (mirthful). Abstract substantive from mirtll-ful (mlrtb-ful-neee), Having-much-thirst (thirat-y). 1 ,tir to-day: what yesterday? (I stirred.) J "i,.: thou -? (atirrest): he -? (atira): 1 have -1 (I have atirred).

(a) What ,partl of .peech are cIIirp? fir? bircli?

Ex. 14.]




30 When i hu itl name seund in a fin~ Iyllable, it i. followed by silent e, unleea it il followed by nd, ld, or gh, gft '. (Exceptions are pint, climb.)

time thine white fine nine
tide pine dine wbine mind
tribe ride a clime kine wine
hind child bide to climb kind
mine line wild bride grind
to wind blind bite chide (with gh)
'fight dight light blight slight
bright nigh tight fright light
plight might high thigh night
ligh wright' 31 After g, ui hal the sound of i i qu = k",.

guile guide guile quite . quire


32 Form an ab.tract lubstantive from white (whitenels).

Ratber-white (whiti.h). To make-white (to whiten). That-wbich-whitens (wbitening). To waah-wbite (to white-wash). Adverb from ,line (finely). Ab.tract lubstantive . from ,line (flne-ne •• ). To make-fineagain (to re-fine). One-who-refines (a refiner). Form a numeral' to mean ten and nine (nine-teen). Form an ordinal numeral from nineteen (nineteenth).

Add ing to pirie, ",hin;, dine (pining, whining, dining).

Having-one's-mlnd-full (mindful), One-who-ride. (a rider). Substantive to exprel. the act Crom to

• Long i i. really a diphtbong, that iI, l1li0 simpl. sound,.

represented in other languagel by .i. .

• In: Wheel-wright.

• Tbat ii, an adjective tbat .spr •• e. number. 03

It is


[Exx. 15, 16.

ride (riding); from climb (climbing). One-whoclimbs (climber). Like-a-child, as adjective (child-

ish). .


33 To make-light (to lighten). To make-bright (to brighten). To produce-fright (to frighten). 1 frighten to-day: what yesterday? (I frightened.) One-who-.lights (a slighter). From the adjective .light form an abstract substantive (slightness). Oceurring-In-the-night (nightly). Full-offright (frightful). Possessing-might (mighty). Abstract substantive from high (hightb f). To maketight (to tighten). 1 grind to-day: what yesterday? (I ground.) In-a-blind-manner (blindly). An abstract substantive from blind (blind-ness). 1 bite to-day: what yesterday? (I bit): 1 have -? (I have bitten). I chide to-day: what yesterday? (I chid): I have -1 (I have ehidden.) One-whobites (a biter). Add ;ng to bite, chide (bit-ing, chid-ing).


(Long i continued.)
- 34 mile file while Iime rime
shine drive hive strive . ripe
wife like side bite blithe
rise ice price thine wide E:nBCIBE 16.

35 To take-oft'-with-a-file (to file). Add ing to .Aine (shin-ing). It ,kine. to-day: what yesterday? (it

. shone.) One-who-drives (a driver). Add jng to drifle (driv-ing). I drive: I have -? (I have driven.) I.trifle: Ihave-? (I have striveD.) I .trifle to-day: what yesterday? (I strove.) Abstract substantive from like (like-Dess). What does like-lg mean? (Looking-like: that is, probable.) Abstract substantive from likely (like-li-hood), One-who-

, More commonly Bpelt height.

Ex. 17.]


bites (a biter). That-which-il-bitten (a bit). Adverb from blithe (blithely). 1"" to- day: what yelterday T (I rose.) I ",e: 1 have -? (I have risen.) Abounding-in-ice i or, consisting-of.ice (icy). Plural of price (prices). More.-wide (wid-er). To make- wide (to widen). Adverb from me (widely). Abstract substantive from ripe (ripe-ness). To grow-ripe (to ripen). Has to ripen any other meaning? (Yes: to make ripe.)

(a) What plUta of speech are ripe? ripen? ripen",? ripely?

LESSON X. (Long i continued.)

36 The diphthongal Bound of i is also represented by y (with or without silent e), ie, ei, ai, "'11, ai, ay, ey, eye.

try my thy by why wry sky fly cry shy Illy rye rye-grull


37 Add ing to try (try-in g). Add ell to cry (eri-eat), What person is thou cri-elt? (The second person.) Add eI to cry (cri-es). What person is erie,? (The third.) Add ed to cry (cried). What tense is cri-ed? (The preterite, or past tense.) Make jly plural (flies). Make an abstract substantive from 81y (slyness): an adverb from 'ly (slily). An abstract substantive from 'hy (shyness). Make 'ky plural

(skies). Make cry plural (crles), .


38 The diphthongal sound of i is also represented in other ways.

[Heigh-ho, the guide will b",y a pie.] EY (middle) height sleight 'heigh-ho

IE (end) die lie pie tie vie hie UJ (middle) guile be-guile guide guile disguise

UY buy

To these add ay (' yell ') and eye.

[Eu. 18, 19.


39 Add ing to die (dy-ing): to lie (Iy-ing). I lie on the grass to-day: what yesterday 7 (I lay on the grass.) Make pie plural (pies). Make laie third person singular (hies). Make Die second person singular (vi-est). Add ing to Die (vy-ing). Without-guile (guile-leis). Form an abstract substantive from guilelell (guileleeenese). Add ing to be-guile (beguiling). Add ing to dilgui.e (disguising). One .. who-disguises (a disguiler). One-who-buys (buyer). Add ing to buy (buy-ing). Make buy seeond singular (buy-est): third singular (buy-s). I buy to-day: what yesterday! (I bought.) What tense il bougAt? (Preterite or past tense.)


Short i.

4;0 (1) be/ore II liflgle COfIlO1llln' :
him in it if is with dim
swim Ipin win lip Ihip lip rib
hit wit kin lin give live liver (2) be/ore CI double conlOn"n' :

dill kill It ill till will

milk lilk ring thing ling

ehink drink wind milt shift

ltifF thick sink wink lift


41 [1IiiJ" Observe, in adding a termination to thOle words that end in a lingle consonant after Ihort i, you must double tlle consonant: 'Mm, lftIim-mirag.]

More-dim (dim-mer). Most-dim (dimmest). Add in8 to 'Pin (spin-ning). I 'Pin: thou -! (apin-nest.) What person is 'Pinnel'? (second lingular.) I ~fI to-day: what yesterday? (I spun.) Abounding-inwit (witty). One-who-hita ~a hitter). I Ait the

Exx. 19, 20.J


wicket to-day: what yesterday? (I hit the wicket yesterday.) 1 swim: thou -? (swimmest.) 1 mim to-day: what yesterday? (I swum or swam.) 1 ,pin to-day: what yesterday? (I spun: less commanly, 1 epan.) Abstract substantive from dim (dim-ness). To make-dim (to dim). One-whowins (a winner). 1 "in to-day: what yesterday t (I won.) Add ing to 'ip (sipping). I lip to-day: what yesterday? (I sipped.) Having-much-sin (sin-ful). Without-sin (sin-less). Abstract substantives from ,inful (sinfulness): from ,in-le88 (sin-less-ness). One-who-gives (a giver). Thinggiven (gift). 1- give to-day:, what yesterday? (I gave.) Add ing to live (living). 1 give: 1 have -, what T (I have given.)


42 Abstract substantive from 8till (stillness). To makestill (to still). Most-still (still-est). One-who-kills (a killer). 1 kill to-day: what yesterday? (I killed.) Abstract substantive from stiff (stiffness) : from thick (thickness). Having-much-mist (mist-y). Abstract substantive from misty (mist-i-ness). Morestiff (stiffer). To make-stiff (to stiffen). Thatwhich-stiffens (stiffening). To make-thick (to thicken). Adjective meaning of-,ilk (silken). 1 ring to-day: what yesterday? (I rang or rung.} 1 ring: 1 have -, what 1 (I have rung.) A thing-sung (a song). 1 sing: thou -? (singest.) What person is singest? (second singular.) 1 sing to-day: what yesterday 1 (I sang or sung.) 1 sing: 1 have -, what? (I have sung.) One-who-sings (a singer). One-who-sings-a-song (a songster). Of what is songBter chiefly said? (of a bird.) The ship ,ink, to-day: what yesterday? (sank or sunk.) 1 ,ink: 1 have -, what? (I have sunk: less commonly, sunken.) Abounding-in-shifts; that is, tricks (shift-y). 1 drink to-day: what yesterday? (I drank.) I drink: I have -, what? (I have drunk.)

[Ex. 21.



(Short i continued.)

hill ill mill

kiss wish bridge



43 Abstract substantive from ''''!ft (swift-ness). In-aswift-manner (swift-Iy). What part of speech is 8J1J!ftly 1 (adverb.) Abounding-in-hills (hill-y). The-state-of-being-hilly (hill-i-nesa), The man-whomanages-a-mill; or owns-a-mill (8 miller). One kU,: two - ? (kisses.) I kill to·day : what yesterday? (I kissed.) One bridge: two -, (bridges.) Full-cf-a-wieb, or -wishes (wish-fu]). Adverb from "'""Ju' (wish-ful-Iy). The art- or busines8-of-a-witch (witch-craft). The art- or business-of-a-king (kingc~ft). How is king-craft generally used! (In a bad aense, for the art of governing for one's own interest.) Abstract substantive from ,ick (sickness). Looking-sick (sick-Iy). To fall- or becomelick (to sicken). I bid: 1 have -, what? (I have bid-den.) I bid to-day: what yesterday? (I bade'.)

(a) What part of speech is - !

Still, in: He ,till, the waves. The waves are 8til'; Sink, - The water runs into the sink. The ship ,i"k,.

SJlJift (and the words derived from it), in: Have you

. aeen a '1II!ft this year? It is called a 'JlJijt from ita 'JlJijt flight. It flies very 'lIIiftly, and is called a .,.,ifi from the ''''iftne81 of its flight.

Willa, in: Such is my ,vi,A; and I lIIi." you would attend to it.

swift king sick

gild witch

LESSON XIV. [Long 0.]

4~ Long 0 (with silent e).

hole hope whole more sore

home drone bone hone atone

forge force rove droll

• Pronounced 6all.

Ex. 22.]

Long ° (before II, tA, and other double con80nants,

of which tbe lut is mOltly d, I, or k.)

knoll roll seroll stroll cold

scold colt bolt folk • gold

bold hold old both loth

ghost most Bloth port ford

pork post sport go no


45 Full-of-hope (hopeful). Without-hope (hopeless). Abstract substantives from Iwpeful, "opele" (hopefulness, hopeleuness). Adverb from IuYpeful, Aopelell (hopefully, hopelessly). Abstract substantive from .ore (eorenese). Adverb from ,ore (aorely). Adjective from home (homely). Abounding-in-bone (bon-y). Abounding-in-atonea (aton-y). One-whoforcea (a forcer). One-who-roves (a rover). Rathercold (cold-iah). Made-.of-gold (gold-en). Abstract substantive from bold (bold-ness), Adverb from bold (bold-Iy). I hold to-day: what yelterday? (I held.) 1 hold: 1 have -, what? (I have held: sometimea, 1 have holden). Full-of-sloth (slothful). Abstract aubstantive from Ilothfol (slothfulness). Adverb from ,'othful (slothfully). More:'old (older). Most-old (old-est: sometimes eld-est), More-bold (bold-er). Most-bold (bold-eat). A-thing-that-rolls (a roll-er). One-who-goes (a go-er). 1 go to-day: what yesterday' (I went.) 1 go: 1 have -, what? (I have gone.)

(a) What part of apeech is --,

Hope, in: 1 entertain no hope. I Aope he will come.

Stone, - They ,tone Stephen: he threw a IIone at Stephen.

Scold, - She is a leold. 1 shall ,cold her. Bolt, - Bolt the door. Fasten ,the bolt.

, Pronounced jok,:


[Ex. 23.

Roll, in: Roll your hoop. Give me a roll.

Sport, - Is this .port or earnest 1 I lhall 'Port my new coat.

Post, - II the po,e come in? I knocked my

head against the po,t. You mUlt

po,t oft' for the doctor.


46 The long sound of 0 is represented in other ways. [Four toalta shOfll themselves at the door.] OA (middle)

loaf coal loap oaf oats
goat boar oar oak roar
road coat coast toast. broach
roast goal oath hoarse
00 (middle) door floor
OU (middle)
soul four course gourd bourn
four fourth mould mourn pour
though dough source moult
OW blow bow crow flow grow
glow know low row show
slow snow stow throw mow
bowl Show or shew. to lOW (seeds).

to sew (with thread).


47 Haviug-mueh-eoap ; or, like-soap (soapy). One loaf: three -, what? (three loaves.) Abstr. subet, from lloarle (boaree-nese), Adv. from I,oarle (hoarse-ly). Withollt soul (soul-lese). Add ing to cou"e (coursing). Having-much-mould (mould-y). Abstr. subst. from mouldy (mould-i-ness), Consisting of dough; or, like-dough (dough-y). I pour: thou -? (thou pour-est.) What person is pour.e,'? (2nd sing.)

Ex. 24.]


Subat. to denote the act from pour (pour-ing). It blOfl1, to-day: what yesterday? (it blew.) It blo",. DOW: it haa -, what? (it has blown.) Abstr. subat. from grOffl (growth). It gro",. to-day: what yelterday? (it grew.) It gro",. now: it haa -, what?

. (it has grown.) I knOffl to-day: what yesterday? (I knew.) I lmo",: I have -, what? (I have known.) Form another adj. from 10'" (low-ly). Abltr. subst. from lo""y (low-li-ness). One-whomows (a mow-er). In-a-slow-manner (slow-ly). Abatr. sublt. from .lOffl (slo-th, for slow-th), I Iflra", to-day: what yesterday 1 (1 threw.) I t/,rOffl:

I have -, what? (1 have thrown.) One-whc-eews (a sew-er). Subst. from 'OffI, mOffl, tflrOffl, to express the act (sow-Ing, throwing, mow-ing).

What part of speech is -1

Cour,e, in: A fair cour.e, and DO favour. To cours, a hare.

Soap, - Give me the .oap. Soap his face.

What part of speech is 'lo",'y?
Short o.
48 not spot hop top stop God
lot pot shot moth lop box
fox ox on cot pop rot [The single consonant at the end is doubl,d before a termination.]


49 God-like (god-ly), Abetr. subst, from godly (god-Ilness). Without a spot (spot-less). Subst. from 'Potle,,, (spotless-ness). Super!. of top (top-most). Add ing to ,top (stop-p-ing): to lop (lop-p-ing). One boe : two -? (box-es.) One fo;e: three -? (three fox-ea.) One oe : two - t (two ox-en.)



[Ex. 25.

Adv. from 'PO'"" (spotless-Iy). A-thing-tbat-stops (a stop-p-er). One-who-makea-pots (a pot~t-er 1). "

(a) What part of speech is --?

ss«, in : J ,hot the bare: here is a "'01 in its leg. Hop, - Try a hop, skip. and jump. How far can you hop?

Boe, - I sball boz your ears. Look into the 60:1:. Stop, - Stop the horae, He has made a dead "op.


The long close Bound of u (chiise) : "and ita sound in flume. [!liT All the words in which u has the sound of u in cAUle are from the Latin, or from languages derived, more or lesa, from the Latin.]

50 The sound of u in cAu,e is a diphthong: nearly ell.

mule mute lure cube duke use tube

51 A nearly similar diphthongal eound is u in bru'. = 00 or fit.

plume brute rude crude

52 The sound of u in brule is also represented in other waya.

[The ttue Ie", moves through the room.]

O·E move prove lose

00 noose soon moon room
coo woo ' tooth looth
goose _
UE blue true glue
OU through wound your youth
group croup rouge route
soup tour
EW Jew yew
U Like-a-mule (mul-ish), Add e,' to lure (lur-eat).
I Ob,e"! that tbi. word I. Cormed from a ,uMtaolive. Exx. 25, 26.J

Adj. from caN (cub-ic '). Like a brute (brut-al, brut-ish). Tllrritory-of-a-duke: Dr, dignity-of-aduke (duke-dom). Adj. from duke (duc-al). What is a duke'. wife callecH (a duch-ees.) Full-of-use (useful). Abstr. subst. from ru~ful (useful. ness). Without-use (use-leis). Abstr. subst. from lllele.! (ueeless-neee), Adverba from rueful, ruele" (useful-Iy, useless-ly). Abstr. lublt. from f'Ulk (rudeness). Add ing to motIe (mov-ing). One-whomoves (a mov-er). Abstr; lubat. from true (tru-th). Full-of-truth (truth-rul). Abstr. subst. from truthful (trutbful-nesl). Adv. from true (tru-ly), Onewho-tours (a tour-ist). One-whe-Icsee (a los-er). Having-room (room-y). Ab8tr. 8ubst. from roomy (room.i-ness). Add ing to coo, woo (coo-ing, wooing). Add ell to coo (coo-est). 1 woo: he -? (he wooe8.) What difference of pronunciation is tbere between rue the verb and rue the substantive 1-ln which i8 the , pronounced like a lIS ?


Short elose sound of" (bull).

54 pull full bush push puss put

55 Do, ou, have sometimes this sound. [It should be good.J


book good


look crook hook

hood wood

would should





56 Having-much.wool i or, like-wool (wool-l-y), Madeof-wool (wool- l-en), Consisting-of. bushes: or, resembling-bushee (bush-y). Add ing to put (putt-ing). Form adjectives from crook, hook (crook-en, hook-ed). Made-of-wood (wood-en). One foot: two - 1 (two feet.) One btuh: two - 1 (two bushes.) One ,[,u,h: two -? (two puebes.) Adv. fromfull (fully). Subst. fromfull (ful-ness),

I This It: i. properly a Greek and Latin terminatloQ.



[Ex. 27.

(a) What part oflpeech is-7

Pu,h, in: To give bim a pu''': to pu,II him down. Look, - His sour look. They look at me.

Pull, Why do you ,,"II me 7 Why did you

give me a pull? '

Book, Did you book my place 7 Is it in the

book ? Book I learning.

Hook, ~ I shall hook the fish. He has taken my hook.


Short sound oru (tub).
rub snub tub rut amut dun
rull aun sbrub up tug hut
rug nut shut bum gulf bulk
burst lung hunt tusk rusk husk EXERCISIi 27.

57 Add ing to rub (rub-b-ing). . Abounding-in-amut (smut-t-y). Rather-dun (dun-n-Ish), Having-bulk (bulk-y). A-thing-that-shuts (a shutter), Havingtusks (tuak-ed). I bur" to-day: what yesterday? (I burst.) I bur": I have -, what 7 (I have burst.) I,IIut to-day: what yesterday 7 (I ahut.) I IiIue:

I have -, what 7 (I have shut.) I ,hut: thou-7 (thou ahuttest.) Abounding-in-ahrubs (shrub-b-y). A-collection-of- ,IIrub,- planted- together (a shrubbery).

What part of apeech ia -- 7

Rub, in: Did he rub the table? He gave hia opponent a rub.

[)un, - He bought a dun horse. There is a dun at the door: I hope he is not come to du" me.

I Thit it a lubltantive u.ed adjectivel1 I II bam, ctII"II, 1ptId., are in barfl t1otw, corfl field, 'plul, IIU1bafldry. Two aubBtantivea I18ed in thi. way are often joined together by a little mark called hllpllefl: al corn· field. The two words may then be considered one compound .ubltanti,ve I book-learn'""

Ex. 28.1



"''I The ,bert Bound of u il a110 represented in other ways.
[Young blood errs sometimes, and needs the birch.]
59 0 come done dove front glove
love monk month none one
ahove some son sponge ton
tongue word work world worse
worth once
OU rough tough touch young scourge
00 blood flood soot
E } before} err earth
I r bird gird third irk mirth
stir sir flr chirp birch
girth thirst shirt birth
Yin myrrh EXERCISE 28.

60 Add ing to come (com-ing). One-who-comes (com-er).

One-who-loves (lov-er). Adj. from lo"e (love-ly), Abstr. subst, from lo"ely (Iove-li-ness). Capableof-being-loved (lov-able). Adj. from monk (monkish). Occurring-every-month; lasting-a-month (month-ly), Btate-of-belng-e-ecn (son-shlp), Resembling-sponge (spong-y). Subst. from rpongy (epcngl-nees), Abounding.in-words (word-y). Resembling - the - world ; or, belonging - to - the - world (world-Iy). Subst. from ",orld..ly ("orId-li-ness). Snbst. from rmAgh (rough-ness). Adv. from rougl' (rough-Iy). Tc-make-rough (to rough-en). Morerough (rough-er). What degree ot' comparison is rougll-er 1 (the comparative.) What is the superlative of rough? (rocgh-est.) Form subst., adv., verb, from tough (tough-nels; tough-ly ; tough-en). Add ing to Icourge (scourg-ing). Abounding-iu-blood (blood-y). Abounding-in-8oot; or, resembling-soot (soot-y). Consisting.of-earth (earth-y). Belongingto-earth, i. e. not to heaven (earth-ly), Made-ofearth (earth-en). Not-belonging-to-earth (uu-earthly). Adj. from irk (irk-some). Subst. from irk.



[Ex. 29.

,ome (irklome-nels). Having-thirst (thirlt-y). Made-of-birch; of-birch (birch-en), What il the meaning' of toughen? (either to grow tough or to make tough.)

W War-,hip il for fflorth-'hip: al a lubst. it properly meanl honour, re8ptct: as a verb, to ,hOff! honour, re'Pect. War,hip now meanl the paying of difline honour.


D;IIyllable,. [A.]

61 W When a end. the last 8yllable but one, it ia generally long: the following are some of the exceptions :,

62 adage agate alum atom ' balance

banish baron cabin canon carol

cavil chapel claret damage damask

fagot famine famish fathom flagon

gamut granite gravel habit hara ..

havoc hazard lather Latin lavish

lazar manor pageant· palace palate

panel parish ravage ravish salad

latin savage shadow Spanish tavern

tariff' travel valet satire Saturn

~atyr ravel


On tl,e meaning.

63 What ia an adage? (a proverb or maxim.) Give an example of an adtlge or proverb (the more haste the lesl speed). What is agate? (a precious stone.) Alum? (a salt acid subetenee.) Atom? (the smallest possible particle.) To carol 1 (to sing.) To cavil? (to pick faults in what il laid.) Claret? (Ii 80rt of wine.) Dama,le? (linen or 8ilk which has a flowerpattern formed in it by a particular arrangement of the threads.) Ftlthom? (a mealure of lix feet, used in measuring depth.) Flagon? (a large vellel of

, • Generally pronounced piJd-jlJnt I but by Perry, Web8ter. and olhel'll, ,a-jlJnt.

Ex. 29.J


drink.) Gamut? (tbe lcale of musical note •. ) Granite? (a very hard rock OT Itone, that has little hard grain' in it.) To har,m? (to weary.) HarJoc? (devastation: the ruin and destruction eaused by an invasion of enemles.) Ha2ard? (risk.) To lath,,? (to form a foam with water and soap. To lath", one's chin, is to cov" tM chin ",ith ,uch a .foam.) Where was Latin spoken 1 (in Italy.) Latin is a diad language: what does that mean? (a language that is no longer th, moth", tongue of any nation.) To laflilh? (to spend recklessly or wastefully.) A lalllar? (a man covered with sores, especially infectious sores; like LasaruB in the parable.) A manor t (certain rights over the lands of a parish i for instance, of killing game on it, and preventing otheTS from doing so.) A paR,ant? (a gaudy show or procession.) The palate? (the roof of the mouth.) What is meant by plea,i"R 'h, palate? (pleasing tht? taste-the palate being supposed to be the organ of taste.) Palace ? (a king's house, or some splendid house, like a king's.) Pa",l? (a Bunk square in a door, wall, &c.) Has panel any other meaning? (it also means the piece of parchment on which the sheriff writes the names of a jury.) To raflish means to • seize by violence' mostly for the purpose of mal. treating; what is the meaning of ravis/ling music, &c.? (music that ,eizes the ear, and so takes pOlle,· .rion of a person's mind and attention; music that is captiflating.) Raflage? (lay waste, plunder.) Salad? Lettuces or other herbs cut up and mixed with a sauce of oil, vinegar, &c.) Satin? (a glossy closely. woven silk stuff") Savage? (wild, uncivilizedhence, brutal, cruel.) What makes any thing cast a "'adorv? (a sbining body, the sun, moon, a candle, &c. j When are the ,harlo"" cast by the Bun the shortest 1 (at twelve o'clock.) When the longest? (at eun-set.) The Spanish coast is the coast of --1 (of Spain.) A tavern? (a public-house.) A tariff? (a paper stating what duty is to be paid on things exported and imported.) To travel? (to take a journey, especially in foreign eountries.) A "alet ? (the man-servant who immediately attends on a rich


[Ex. 30.

man's person.) A ,atirt!? (a poem or discourse that attacks vice and folly in a keen, cutting style.) Saturn? (the name of a Grecian idol or false god. Also the name of one of the plaaets.) What is a fJlanet? (a heavenly body that muves round the sun.) Mention the prlneipal planets (Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mara, Jupiter, Saturn, the Georgium Sidua). A 'dlY" (3 falae god, or half-god, living in woods.) To raDel t (to entangle by twisting together.)

Exn.cIBB 30.

6{ Adj. from atom (a-tom'-ic). Adj. from baron (baronial), Subst. from banish (banishment). Add ing to cavil, carol (cavilling, carolling I). Able-to-be-fathomed (fathomable). N ot- able-to- be-fathomed (unfathomable). Abounding-in-gravel; or, like-gravel (gravelly). Abounding-in-huard (hazardous). Adj. from manor (manorial). Pleasing- the- palate (palatable). Not-palatable (un-palatable). Consisting-of-shadow (shadowy). One-who- travels (traveller I). Adj. from satire (satirical). To disentangle-what-wasravelled (to unravel). What do you mean by saying that any thing ravels out 1 (that the edge of it becomes unwoven.) One-who-eavlls (a cavil~er'.)

65 magic· jalap' radish'
fabric quatrain Thames
quadrant any
water' squalid many I The doubling at the consonant in these words that have the accent on the last syllable is an irregularity that It would be better to get rid of.

• Accented a in the penult is short in words in ie. , Like a in hall.

I Like 0 in not. S/twlJd.rlJn: kwlSd-rilllt: kflllJt-rallt •

• Like short e : but radl'h is often (and better) pronounced rlddish.

Ex. 81.] 83
blijl,'gagelQ menace bllnket halter
herbage purchase jackal
furnace alter' palsy
messuage II appal palter
mortgage angel' balsam paltry
outrage cambric caldron
presage danger chaldron father I
manger falcon rather
palace II falter bravo
aolace halberd •



Magic·' (the pretended art of working wonders by the assistance of evil spirits.) Fabric'? (a building; a manufacture, especially of cloth.) Quatrajn I ? (a stanza of four lines, rhyming altemately.) SqulJdron? (a troop of soldiers, or part of a lIeet; properly drawn up in a square, or some regular form.) Jalap? (a medicine.) Squalid'? (foul, filthy-spoken of a man's person.) Melluage I? (dwelling-house w~ its offices and. premises.) To mortgageU a house or estate? (to borrow money after giving up to your creditor the title-deeds of the house or estate; so that if you do not pay him the interest of the money


10 In the unaccented final syllable age, a is pronounced like e; or, according to Walker, nearly like i.

II These are exceptions to the last rule, the a being long, as in ja,..

But in mortgage it is gen~rally pronounced shorter.

II In the unaccented final 8yl1able ace, the a has nearly the sound of short e. So in purchase, &c, Inf,maace Walker sllys it has nearly the sound of short i: Jonea gives it the sound of short e.

1 Long a, as in ftlte.

I Sound of a in wall. In apptU, jackal, it is the last II that has the broad Bound.

a A sounded nearly like ar in far.

• From the Latin magicua. The Magi were Persian priests, who

were supposed to practise such arta.

I Fabrica, Latin.

I Lat. quatuor; French, quatre,four. 1 From the Lat. ,qualidU8.

• Proncunce _-noiJge.

e The t is not sounded in this word.


[Ex. 8~.

borrowed, be may sell your houle or eltate, and pay himlelf.) To presage"? (to forebode: to foretell.) A ,olacI n ? (a comfort.) To m",acl II? (to threaten.) Cambric? (a lort of muslin), Bal,a",? (any oily Iweet-scented Iub.tanoe that i. healing.) What il the difference between a caldrora and a chaldrtJfl? (a caldron is a large kettle or boiler; a chaldron il a measure of eosle, equal to thirty. six bushela.) A Jalco'lll? (a hawk trained to ehase other blrds.) To Jalter? (to hesitate in one'l speech in a trembling manner.) Ajackal? (a Imall animal, luppoled to ltart prey for the lion.) The l'az,1/? (a disease th. deprivel a limb or side of feeling, and the power of voluJ]t&ry motion.) To paller? (to Ihilt and dodge ·in one's wordl in a tricky way.) A quwant? (the quarter of a circle-used aleo of a cu""d row of houllel; and of an instrument for astronomical purposee.) Brauo? (an exclamation, that means • ""ll do,., /' 'also a man whose trade i. assassination.)


67 Adj. from magic (magic-al). A person who usel magic (a magician). Consisting-oC-water; like-water ( water-y). To Iprinkle-water on plantl (to water them). What iI the meauing of walering a horle? (to give him water to drink.) What i. the meaning of on,', moulA "ater,? (that one long. for a certain food.) Adj. from outrage (outeageous), Add ing to menac, (menee-ing), One-who-purchases (a purchaler). Adj. from ,Ang,ll (angelic). On what day doel the Church call upon us to think of the holy Angell? (on the 29th of September, which is the festival of St. Michael and all Angeli.) What is thi~ day also called? (Michaelmas.) Attended-with-danger (danger-oul). Subst.

10 From the Latin.

u From the Lat. ,olotl_

12 FrDm the French m,_, which itself comel from the Latla fIIlnari.

I Pronounce the I like ID (fawk'n).

• 4ngel i. from a Greek word meaning mI'''"g''', the a"g'" being God'. _".n("". What good tiding' were brought by (,Ing'" to any perIODS menlloned in the Bible t

Ex. 38.]


from dtlngerOfll (dangerousness). To expose-todanger (to endanger any thing). Add ins to appal (appal-l-ing), Adj. from hal,am (balsam-ic). A limb aftlicted-with-the-palsy (a palsied limb). Adj. from falhn (father-Iy). Having-no-father (fatherless). Adj. from ,nany, meaning, containing-manytimes-as-much (mani-fold).


(Words in which a haa the sound of 0 in no',)
68 chap squat wad wander· wash
quarrel squaah wadding. want wasp
quarry swab wallet wanton wast
quallh swaddle wallop warren watch
.. scallop awallow wallow warrant wattle
slabber swamp wan wasNil what
squab swan wand was yacht'
squabble swap EXERCISE 33.


69 Chop? (a cleft from heat or cold.) Has chap any other meaning? (yes; the upper or under part of a beast'a mouth, and, in the plural, of a man's mouth, as a contemptuous name for it.) To chap? (to break into clefts either by heat or by eold.) Chap-fallen' (with the lower chap hanging down; hence, dispirited, creat-fallen.) Qua.h? (to crush; to destroy by squeezing.) Quarry? (stone-pit.) To scallop? (to cut the edge of any thing into rounds.) To .labber? (to let the spittle fall from one's mouth.) Squab? (short and broad.) To .qua.h? (to crush into pulp.) To .quabble? (to dispute peevishly.) To .quat down ? (to cower down close to the ground.) Swab? (a kind of mop.) To 'Jlladdle? (to swathe; roll up

, Pronounced ylSl.



with bandages.) To what is ""addli"g mostly ap~ plied 1 (to wrapping a new-born child in bandages.) A 'wamp? (a boggy plaee.) To ,,,,amp? (to sink any thing into a swamp.) To ""ap? (to exchange one thing forrauother j a vulgar word, often spelt ,,,,op.) Wadding? (soft stuff. used for quilting or stuffing coats, &c.') Wallet? (a traveller's bag or knapsack.) To ",allop? (to boil with noise and bubbling.) To "alio",? (to roll in the mire.) Wan? (pale and haggard.) A ",and? (a small twig or rod; a rod of office.) Wanton? (lustful, and also recklessly playful and gay.) A ",arren? (a kind of park for rabbits.) A tIIarrant? (a writ that gives a man autho ... rity to do something; for instance, to bring a man before a magistrate.) Wa8Bail? (an old name for a riotous drinking-bout.) To wattle 1 (to form by platting twigs; for instance, in making hurdles.) A raeAt? (a small ship; generally one used for pleasuee.)


70 Given-to-quarrelling ( quarrelsome). One-who-quarreis (a quarreller). Add ing to 8quabble (squabbling). Having-tbe-nature-of-a-ewamp (swamp-y) •

. One-who-wanders (8 wanderer). In-a-wanton-manner (wantonly). Abstr. subst. from "anton (wantonness). I wa,/,: he -1 (waeh-ee.) Having-themanner-of-a-weep (wasp-isb), Abetr. subst. from fflaBpi,h (waspish-ness). In-a-waepish-menner (waspieh-ly). What is the meaning of warranting a horse 1 (to assert that it is sound; to guarantee its soundness.) Capable-of-being-warranted, that is, jUltified (warrant-able). What is the keeper-of; a-warren called 1 (a warren-er.) One-who-washes (a wash.er). A-woman-who-washee (a washerwoman).

, Wadd is a lort of black lead.





A i. pronounced nearly like a in father:

1) When it i. followed by an r in the lame .yllable, if this i. not followed by another r, or preceded by a III or 9"' (a) But in an unaccented final .yllable, ar i. pronounced nearly like IIr; and 80 in cutard, &c. (b) SOlllhll1ark ia pronounced aulhlArk; and lOulhward sometimes .. Ihllrd.

2) Before Ih tupfral.d.

S) In cOllltJlau, &0.; and in cn'" .hn'I, for CtJIlIIOI, ./lall flol.

4) Moatly before the n .. lll followed by c or I; lind before" or d.

71 regard (I) bath (2) bask chant
bar path basket clasp
blanch 10 clals
command (3) blast craft
collar (1, a) reprimand bombast dance
custard branch dastard
mustard advance (4) brass disaster
CI rhubarb after cask enchant
':2 forward aghast casket enhance
8 toward alas cast fast
H afterwards answer castle flask
~ ant chaff France
Southwark(l, b) ask chance gaUant
southward (1,6) a88 chandler gasp
ghastly EXERCISE 35.

( Meaning.)

72 To regard? (to look to; generally, either from affection, or a wish to act according to what one sees.) , To '.ave a regardJor one', intere,t,:' what part of speech is regard here? (a substantive.) 'To have a great regardJor a person:' what does regard mean here? (affection.) South"ark? (the town that lies on the southern bank of the Thames, opposite London and Westminster, and may be considered a part of what we call London.) What is the principal magistrate of the borough of Sou,h"ark called r

H Pronounced 6_'rho




(the High Bailiff.) Rhubarb? (a medicine: it is the root of a plant.) Is it the root of the rhubarb that grows in our gardens? (nj): the root of Turkey rhubarb.) How is. a cUltara made 1 (0£ milk and eggs, with lugar, ftavoured with laurel leaves, or bitter· almonds.) Is the' ",a"ard we haTe at table obtained from the plant that grows. in our gardens, and generally goes with cress? (yea: the seed of it is crushed, into a· yellow· :f!.oar or powder, and mixed with water.) Toreprrmand·? (to reprove.): Agha,t? (struck with horrour, as if one had seen a ghost.) To blanch? (to make white by lome change in the thing

itself.) Bomba.t? (empty swelling words.) To cliant? (to repeat pray era or psalms in the peculiar sort of plain-aong that is. used in cathedrals, &c.) Craft haa tw.o meanings.; what are they 1 (cunning, and a man~s trade or buslnese.) Dastard? (ooward.) A di.a.ter? (a mishap. miafortune.) To Mlchont? (to delight; properly, to- captivate, as if by enchantment.) To enhance? (m raise highell; generally spoken of encreasing praise, merit, the price of any thing, &c.) Gallant? (a smart man, attentive to females.) What is gallant 1 (brave, nobly daring.) ahastly? (deadly pale, like a: ghpst..)


73 Without-regard (regard-less), Abstr. subst. from forJlJara (forward-ness). Having-no-path (path-less). Subst. from the verb command, to signify the thing (command-ment). One-who-commanda (commander). What is the principal commander of an army called l' (the commander-in-ehief.) Subst. from to aavance (advance-ment). What does advancement mean 1 (progress, prcmotion.) Add ing to anl",er (answer-ing). Plur, of ass (ase-es), Adj. from bombalt(bombast-ic). Having-many-branches(branch-y). Adj. from brau (braz-en), To-Iet-go-cne'a-bandsafter-having-clasped-them-together (to un-clasp them). Abounding-in-craft (craft-y). One-whodances (a danc-er). Adj. from d,IItara (dasterd-Iy),


Ex. 37 ........ A.]


Subst. from dlutard-lg (dastardU.nel8). Adj. from diuutw (dilaatr-ous). Bubst. from enchant and enAance, to .denote the thing (enchant-ment; enhance-meDt). To-make-fast (to fasten), To undowbat-haa-been-fastened (to un-faeten it). Thatwhich-fasten. (a faatening). Subst. from gallant (gallantry): from gdll4'11t (allO gallantry). Adv. from gallant (gallant-Iy). Abstr. Bubst. fronl ghastly (ghastli-ne88. )


[See remark in Lesson V. 22.]

74 glance jasper master plant sample
glanders lance maatifi' plaster IIhaft
glass laneh nasty prance slander
graft lass pass quaff slant
grant last passover raft stanch
grasp lath passport rafter task
grass mask pastern rascal trance
hasp mass pasty repast vast
janty; ;,. ., mli~t ;1' . I; , EXER,CIU 37. (Meaning.)

75 A glance? (a sudden look.) To glance has two principal meanings; what are they? (to dart a look: to touch lightly, without piercing.) Glandllf"? (a disease in the glands of a horse.) To graft? (to insert a shoot of one tree into the stock of another, that the tree may become of the same kind as the inserted shoot.) Hasp? (a clasp folded over a staple, and fastened as with a padlock.) Janty? (showy, fluttering in manner.) Jasper? (a precious stone of a bright green colour, sometimes clouded with white.) A lance? (a long spear.) To /anch? (to sead violently forward, as a lance from the hand, or a ship into the water.) Is to lanch a ship usually spelt differently? (yel.) How?(launcb.) Lath-? (a thin slip of wood, such a8 is used to support the tiles of a house.) A mtJIk? (the representation of a face, used to cover and disguise a person's own face.)

E2 of-


[Ex. S8.-A.

Mall? (a large lump or quantity.) Has ma" any other meaning 1 (yes; the communion service in the Roman Catholic Church.) Ma,t? (the tall pole or post that supports the sail of a ship.) PtulO"".? (. feast of the Jews.) Of what deliverance did this feast keep up the recollection 1 (the destroying Angel's ptUljng 0"'" the houses of the Israelites. when he killed the firat-born of the Egyptians.) Who is our Passover? (the Lord Jesus Christ; for the Apostle says, • Christ our Passover is slain.') Pallport? (a written permission for a foreigner to travel in a country.) Pa,'"..? (the part oC a horse's leg, between the joint next the foot and the hoof.) Pa"y? (a raised pie.) Prance? (to move in • springing manner, like a high-mettled horse.) To fJUlIff? (to drink off.) Raft? (a frame or fioat, made of planks of timber joined together.) Raf''''? (one of the rooC-timbers, that are let into the main beam.) A rqxut? (a meal.) A ,ample? (a specimen.) A ,Aaft? (a straight rod, pole, or column; as the ,laaft of an arrow, the ,laaft of a cart, the ,laalt of a pillar.) Has ,',aft any other meaning? (yes I' the straight throat, as it were, of a pit.) Slander? (a falle and malicious tale against a person.) To ,lant? (to lean away from a line that is streight upright; or from one that goes on straight before UB.) What is a line that is straight upright called 1 (a perpendicular line.) To ,tancA? (to stop the flowing of blood.) A tremce? (a deep death-like sleep; often one in which the soul sees visions oC the future.)


76 Made-of-glass; or glass-like (glasa-y). To-fill-withglasa (to glaze). One-who-glazes ",indOfl/, (a glazi-er). Having-much·grau (grals-y.) Abstr. sublt. from grallY, gla"y (grass-i-ness; gleas-i-uees). A little-lance, BUCh tu ,urgeo", cut a lIei,. ",itA (a lancet). A party-where-people-wear-maskl (a masquerade). Having-a-great-mul (masl-y; allo malsive). Adj. from Rally (nasti-ly). Abstract aubstantive from ,.",ty (nut-i-nell). To pas. and pass-

Ex. 39.-AI.]


bae~agabt (to pan tmtI re-pass), OaeMwho·pa8sea. by (& passer.by). I pas' to·day : what yeaterday? (1 past '" passed.) To plant*lgain (to re-plant). A placeMwhere-youngMtrees-are--planted (a plantation). Add ing to prance (pranc-ing). Raseal-like (raacal-Iy). Adj. from ,lander (slander-cue), Onewho-slanders (a slander-er), Abstr. subst. from flast (vast-neee), Adv. from vast (vast-Iy).

(a) What is the meaning ot tasking a man's strength? (making even hi. strength find it a hard taBle.)

What is the meaning of, taking a person to task? (finding fault with, or scolding him.)



77 Ai has generally the sound of a infate.

But the following words are exceptions:

plaid 1 wainscot travail

raillery waistcoat


again I against said

captain' curtain mountain

Britain' villaifl



78 Abounding-ie-mountains (mountain-ous). Subst. from fll()untaiflOUs (mounteinoue-ness), One-who-lives-onmountains; or, one-who-lives-emongat-mcunteina (a

1 Ai has here the sound of short a. Plaid rhymes to mad: raillery

to !alary. •

2. A. Iiaa here the loul1d of short B. Pronounced.agell, &0. • Like ahort i. Cap'i .. , &c.

, ·'.Ai (in Britaill) haa here the short sound approaching to II, so common with all the vowels in final unaccented syllables, and is proneuneed exactly like Britoo."-Walker, who, with Smart, gives villai" the BOund of villino

, Pronounced ile, a rhyme to , .. iz..

• Plaater, as it is often spelt; a rhyme to master.

r Plait, • a fold,' should rhyme to mate: not, as some express it, to rhyme to meat.

E 3

[Ex. 40.-AI.

mountain-eer}. The rank-of-a-captain (captain-ship, Or captain-oy). Adj. from villain (villain-ous). Adv. from villainolU ( villainous-Iy). A lubst. from "illainOUI, to express the act or conduct of a villain (villain-y'). Abstr. 8ubat. from villainolll (villainousness).

79 What part of speech is -- ?

Wainscot, in: Shall you flJain,cot this room t . Do you like the ftlain,eot ?

Plaiater, Is the plairter dry? Shall you plaider

the wall this winter?

Plait, Can you plait neatly? The plait, are

too large.

What tense is, she plaited neatly? (the past tense.) What tense is, she plait' neatly? (the pre,ent tense.)


(On the meaning.)

80 What is raillery? (bantering i joking a man about something.) What is ftlain,cot? (the inner wooden covering of a wall.) In wainscoting there are general.ly sunk squares, or more oommonly oblong spaces i what are such spaces called? (panels.) What ill the difference between the word I just used, oblong, and square? (an oblong has four sides, of which each side is of equal length with the side opposite to it, but Dot of equal length with the other two sides.) What is the officer next above a captain 1 (a major.) Next above a major? (a eolonel.) Next above a colonel? (a general.) What is the officer next below a captain? (& lieutenant.) Wext below a lieutenant? (an ensign ill a foot regiment; a cornet in a horse regiment.) What is an aisle? (properly, the space on each side of a church between the pillars and the wall; but also used for the walks up a church between the pews.) What is, to 1Jiait? (to fold linen hy doubling small parts over.)

8 Spelt by Dr, Johnson and some others, villany, villano,""

Ex. 40J .-AU.]


81 Au has regularly the lOund of tJftI in a"l, or a in flltil'.
daughter E:JI:ceptioru.
slaughter· daunt I. jaunt draughts
aught paunch jaunty laugh
naught flaunt haunch
naughty launch gauges
sauce auntl craunch --'
saucer askauut jaundice hautboy'
saucy alkaunce laundry
chaunt laundress cauliflower'
gauut ltaunch' laurel
gauntlet draught laudanum EXBRCISB 401.

82 Form abltract lubstantives from naughty, laucy (naughti-nees, saue-i-nese}. adverbs (naught-i-Iy, lauc-i-Iy). More-Iaucy (ssuc-t-er), Not-daunted (un-daunted). Subst. and adv. from undaunted (undaunted-ness; undaunted-Iy). Not.capable-of-being-daunted (undaunt-able). Subst. from gaunt (gaunt-ness). Subst. from jaunty (jaunt-i-ness). Fit-to-be-laughed-es (laugh-able). Adv. from laughable (laugh-ably}. One-who-laughs (laugh-er), Not-jaundiced (unjaundiced). Is there any other' substantive that nearly resembles laugh? (yes: laughter.) Which is an ab,tract subst. laugh, or laughter'? (laughter.)

9 Thil word il derived from to "ay.

10 In the two firlt of these worda au should (I think) have its regular Bound. In flaullt all the authorities but Perry give it the sound ofa inIal".,..

I In these words (which include nearly all in which au i. followed by II) au hu the Bound of a in lather. Jaullty is also spelt janty, and launch, lanch. [Less. XXV.]

2 Better IIanch.

I Pronounce gage. t Pronounce hOboy.

5 Au bas here the sound of /I in not; colliftowIII', &c.laudaDum,llJdnum. • To anlwer this, try which you can use without a or lhe: 'Ialllhter

is a sign of merriment ;' I a laugh.'

[Ex. 42.-AU.

83 What part of speech is --1

Laugh, in: Don't laugh: a laugh jars against

m';/ present feelings.

Gauge, Howard went about taking the gauge

of human misery. Who can really gauge tbe human heart 1 Slaugh'er, - A fearful ,laughter followed. They ,laug/dered friend and foe.

EXBRCISE 42. (On the meaning.)

84 Auglat? (any-thing.) Naug"" (good for nothing.) How ia the word of the same sound, which means notlting, spelt? (nought.) What is the best sauce? (bunger.) To daunt? (to frighten, to cow.) To flau,,' about? (to flutter about in gay clothes.) What is an aunt? (the sister of one's father, or of one's mother.) What is the meaning of looking askaunt or a,kaunce l' (looking sideways.) Gaunt l' (lean.) Gauntlet l' (an iron glove.) 'What was sometimes done with a gauntlet l' (when a knight wished to give a challenge, he threw down his gauntlet; whoever took it up, accepted the challenge.) A haunt' (a place ta which one often rescrts.) To haunt? (to resort to regularly, or very often.) A jaunt l' (an excursion; that is, an outing.) Jaunty l' (having the air of wishing to show off one's gaiety.) The haunch 1 (hip, thigh.) To launch a ship? (to make it slide from the docks into the water.) The jaundice l' (a disease that makes a man look yellow, and also makes every thing look yellow to him.) What is the meaning of looking upon any thing with a jaundiced eye? (with a prejudiced eye; and so changing tlte colour, 8S it were, of what one looks at.) A laundry? (a walth-house.) A laundress? (a washerwoman.) A draught 7? (the quantity of a drink that one draws off, that is, drinks, at one pull.) What does it mean when I talk of I 'itting in a draught?' (in a place where the

7 Draught cernes from the verb to draw.

Ex. 42.-C.]


wind dra",. in.) A draft on a banker? (a written form, used when one draJII. money out of a bank.) When I speak of 'bea.', of draught,' the 'draullla' of a carriage,' &c.? (beasts for dra",ing; the dra""ng of a carriage, or manner in which it dra"".) What is the game of draught,' (a game played with wooden men: a game of the same kind as chell and backgammon.) Upon what il it played? (upon a draughts-board:) with what? (with draughts-men.) To gauge? (to measure how much a vessel contains: how much any thing contains.) A hautboy? (a sort of flute : also a sort of strawberry.) What is laudaflum? (opium dissolved in syirits of wine.) What do opium and laudanum do? (make a man sleepy and stupid.) Do they do him harm? (yes: they produce a kind of intoxication; and, if taken often, soothe him for a little while, and then make him ",i,erable.) Is it sinful to get into the habit of taking opium or laudanum? (yes: it is a great sin: it is a bad kind of drunkenness.) Is it ever right to take opium or laudanum? (yes: when a doctor gives it, to 'still pain or procure sleep for a sick person.)



85 (1.) C has the sound of k before a, 0, "; before every consonant but h; and at the end of a word.

(2.) C has the sound of , before e and i sounds; that is, before e and i, and t1! (which has the sound of e), and !I, which has the sound of i.

(3.) C hal the sound of ,h before e, i, followed by another vowel (not forming a diphthong with it), and having an accented syllable next before it. (Walker lays before ea, ia, ie, io, iou.r.)

( 4.) C is pronounced like t8ch in "ermicelli, "ioloncello.

46 [Ex. 48.-C.
86 cabal callow canopy carol' cater 7
cabbage calomel cant cares. caterpillar
cabin cambric canv ... ' carousel caterwaul
cabinet camel caper carpet catkin.
cable camlet caprice' carriage cattle
cackle canal capstan carrion cavalcade'
cage cancel' carbine carrot cavalier'
cajole II cancer cannran carve cavalry
caitiff" candle caraway cascide caull8way
calico candy careas. calement or causey
calk 1 canker card castle ExnCISE 43. (0" lIN meaning.)

87 What is a cabal? (a party of men joined together to carry on lome factious delign.) How WBI thi. word formed? (from the first letters of the namee, or rather titles, of lome intriguing ministers 10 of Charles the Second's.) What does to cabbage mean in the langul\ge o£ commcn life? ,(to fflchor steal.) What is a cabin? (a small room or hut i a room in a ship.) A cable? (a great rope in a ship.) A cabinet? (a set of boxes or drawers of curiosities; a private room in which consultations are held by kings and their ministers.) A cabinet-council? (the private council of the king and his minister •• ) A caitiff? (a base villain; a miscreant.) To cajole? (to deceive by flattery.) Caltmdar? (almanac; or list of days, of months, and so on, throughout the year.) Calico? (a stuff made of cotton.) A bird's callOflJ brood? (unftedged.) To calk a .hip? (to atop its leaks.) A dose of calomel? (a medicine prepared from quicksilver.) Cambric? (a kind of fine linen.) A caf1Ull? (a beast of burden in hot sandy countries.) Camlet? (a mixed stuff, now made of wool and Ink.) How did it get the name

11 KI.jille' 11 kIL'.tre 1 kawk I kl1n' .aTl a kln'·vll 'kl.prko'

I kl1r-rlll I kl-rowz 7 ki' ·tlr • kllv·l1l.kILde' I kl1v.I1.ll!re',

10 C-lilFord, A·,bley, B.uckingham, A-rliDgton, L·auderdale.

Ex. 48.-C.]


of ~tJflllet? (it wat formerly made of silk and cllm-el's 1tair: it W88 originally spelt CII'TMlot.) To cllflCel? (to strike out a word or figure.) A callcer? (a kind of eating 801'8.) To candy? (to make into a frosted or cmsted mass, by preserving with sugar.) A CIIIIker ? (a worm or disease that destroys fruit; a disease in trees.) A canopy? (an awning; a Govering spread above people's heads to keep oft'tbe sun.) What are the two meanings of cant? (whining, hypocritical speech; and the slang or jargon of a low class.) Canva"I ? (8 sort of cloth; and a going round to beg for votes.) Caprice? (freak, fancy; the opposite of a settled plan.) To caper? (to dance about.) A caper? (the seed-vessel of the caper-bush, which is used as a pickle; also a leap in dancing.) Ii capstan? (a sort of wheel for drawing up great weights, such 8S the anchor of a ship.) A carbine? (a sort of small gun.) A caravan? (a party traveIling together, in the East: in England, a great covered WaggOD, such as wild beasts are carried in.) Caraway? (a plant, the seeds of which are put into cakes.) Carca8B? (dead body.) To card wool1 (to comb it.) A carol? (a joyous song.) To cares,? (to' bestow marks of affection upon, such as kissing, embracing.) A cargo? (the lading of a shfp.) To carotIS6? (to drink deep; to have a drinking-bout.) Carrion? (a worthless carcass.) What is carved besides meat 7 (stone.) Who carves stone 7 (a sculptor or statuary.) A cascade? (a water-fall.) A ca,ement? (a window opening on hinges.) A castle? (a strong fortified building, that can be defended against. enemies.) What do we mean by saying that in England" every man's house is his castle 7" (that he !Day dwell there in safety, no man having a right to enter it by force.) To caterlllaul? (to make a loud, disagreeable, complaining noise.) Catkins ? (jmperfect flowers resembling cats' -tails, such as some trees have.) A callalier'! (properly, a horseman, a knight: in the civil war.a it was the name of King

I From the Lat. call1.abis, hemp.


[Ex. 44.-C.

Charles's party.) What were the rebels called? (Round-beade.) A cavalcade? (a procession of men on horseback.) What is the meaning of canva"ing a question? (sifting it, examining I it:) of caR"a,,ing for votes? (of going round to enquire and e:x:amine who will vote for me or my friend.)

.. The two ways of pronouncing and spelling CIIUlewllY are thus accounted for: it comes from the French chllrulie (pronounced 'hii-Ia), and should be clluley; but people, knowing it meant a lort of way or pllth, began to write it cllu,e-wIIY. and now it has come to be pronounced CIIUBBWIlY. But CIIUIeY is the ri8ht spelling and pronunciation.


88 To form-cabals (to cabal; the verb being of the same form as the substantive). What are the ministers called, who attend the private meetings of the king'. council? (cabinet-ministers.) One-who - cabals (a caballer), One-who-cackles (a cackler). Add ing to cackle (cackl-ing). To put-in-a-cage (to en-cage). Subst. from cajole, to eX.I?ress the thing (cajolery). One-who-cajoles (a cajoler). One who prints calicoes (a calico-printer). Adj. from cancer (cancerous). 1 candy to-day: what yesterday? (I candi-ed). Adj. from caprice (caprlclous"), One-who-canvasses (a canvasser). Subst, from canvass, to express the doing or act (canvaseing), One-who-is-armed-witha-carbine (a earbineer t.) Substantives from carol, to express the doer and the act (a caroller: carolling). One cares«: two - ? (caresses.) One-who-carousas (a carouser). Adv. from cavalier (cavalierly). What does cavalierly mean? (in a haughty way: pride being a sin that cavaliers were likely to fall into.)

What part of speech is -- ?

Carouse, in: You have had a long caroUse. To carouse is a sin.

Care", - She will care" him with a fond carell.

I Skinner lays, from the notion of wllti"8 hemp: perhapl, from that of IIrllini"8 through coaree can,an.

a KI1-prlsh-t1s.

, J;,. light horee-soldier.

Ex, 45.-CO.]

89 coach coal coarse coast coax cobble cobweb coddle coffee coffer coffin





colic colter combat command commence complain concern conquer contrast contrast


contrive control cool coop cooper cope coping com corner cornice


count countenance counter couple courage court coward coxcomb coy


90 To cobble? (to mend coarsely.) To coddle? (properly to half boil; then to make a person tender by keeping him too warm, and so on.) What is coffee? (the roasted berry of a plant.) In what countries does the coffee-tree grow? (in Arabia; in the West Indies, and in other hot countries.) Crdfer? (strong box: especially for money.) What is a coddling? (an apple that is good for boiling or coddling.) Colic? (a painful disease of the bowels.) To coop up? (to shut up in a narrow spaee.) To cope with any body? (to strive with him for the first place.) The coping of a wall? (the top row of mas(mry, the stones of which are mostly wider than tbose of the lower rows, so as to keep the wet from them.) The cornice ofa room? (a sort of ornamental edging, which projects round the top of the room.) To cODet? (to feel a strong longing for what is not our own.) Colter? (the sbarp iron of a plough, wnich cuts into the earth.) What is the meaning of cOllntenancing a crime? (of giving it one's countenance: of looking on, that is, as if one was not displeased at lt.) What two meanings has counter? (a piece of ivory or bone to count with; and the sort of table or form at which



[Ex. 46. -CO.

goods are examined and sold in shope.) Coy? (ahy, modest.)


91 The-man-who-drives-a-coach (a coach-man). The box of a coach (coach-box). A-horse-that-drawsa-coach (11 coach-horse). What is the mark called that is placed between coach. and horse in coachhorse? (hyphen.) As- black-as-coal (coal- black). What is the place called from which coal, are dug? (a coal-mine, or coal-pit, or colliery'.) The-place-inwhich-coals-are-kept (coal-hole). One-who-worksin-coal-mines (a' collier: altered, probably, from conl-ier), In-a-coarse-manner (coarsely). Abatr. subst. from' coarse (coarseness). A-house-wherecoffee-is-sold (a coffee-house). A-room-where-cofFeeis-drunk (a coffee-room 0). A-pot-in-which-cofFeeis-made (a coffee-pot). One-who-coaxes (a coaxer). The aubetantive that expresses the act from to coaz (coaxing). One-who-coins (a coiner: mostly of one who does it unlawfully). The-act-of-coining (coinage). What does coinage also mean? (the money of a country is called the coiflilge of that country: the money coined at one time is also so called.) Onewho-combats (a combatant). The combat of one man against one enemy (a single combat). Onewho-commands (a commander). Thing-commanded (command, or commandment). Substantive to express' beginning' from commence (commencement). Substantive to express the tking from complain (complaint). One-who-conquers (conqueror). A word derived from conquer that means 'victory,' or • .kat i. gained by victory' (conquest). Capable-of-beingconquered (conquerable). A c6ntra.t (a strikin~ difference, when two things are compared together). In the verb the accent is on the last syllable: what is to contrast? (to compare one thing with another for

• For coalerll'

6 A coffee-room means now a room in inna where those who don't require private apartments take their meals. It is generally fur-

niahed with many little tables. '

Ex. 46.-CO.]


the purpose of calling attention to the striking difference between tbem.) One-who-complains (complainer, or complainant). One-who-contrives (contriver). That-which-is-contrived (a contrivance). One-who-controls (controller). Capable-of- bein~controlled (controllable). In-a-cool-manner (coolly). Abstr. subst. from cool (coolness). A·field-of-corn (a com-field). If you do not write corn-field as one word, what mark do you put between corn and field ? (8 hyphen). How is corn used here? (as an adjective; but it may be considered as forming a compound substantive with field.) A-house-that-standsat-the-corner (a eorner-houqe), Much-given-to-covet (covetous). Abstr. subst, from covetous (covetousness). What does the Bible call covetousness? (idolatry, or the crime of worshipping a false god.) Having-much-courage (courageous). Coward. like [coward-ly), Abstr. subst, from cOFIJardly (cowardliness).

( ) T to r ve: that l~~~:at )~ are botb substantive

a ry p 0 command and verb.

count .

concern .

(b) cool is adjective, substantive, and




92 cuckoo clamber cloud craze
cuddle clammy clover crest
cudgel clatter clown crew
cumber claret clumsy cringe
cunning clay cluster cripple
curry clever cradle crumble
curtain climate crawl crumple
custom cloth cra"at crupper
cutlass clothes 7 crave crutch
7 Pronounced klo:illl.
p 2 [Ex. 47.-C.

EXERCISE 47. (On tlae meaning.)

93 What is a cuckoo laid to do 7 (to suck the egg. oC other birds, and lay her own to be hatched in their place.) Does the cuckoo stay here in the winter, or go to some other country 7 (it goes to some other country.) What are such birds called? (birds of pessage.) To cuddle? (to hug round for the purpose of keeping warm; also to lie snug and warm in one another"s arma.) Cumber? (to clog or embarrass by a weight or obstacle.) To &urry? (to dress leather by beating, rubbing, &c.: to dress a horse's coat by rubbing it with a scratching instrument.) What is the meaning of cu"ying farJour with anybody 7 (to stroke him. as it were, into good humour 'by flattery and mean compliance with his humours.) A cutla,,? (a broad sword.) Clamber? (to climb up with difficulty.) Clammy? (sticky, gluey.) Claret? (a 1I0rt of French wine.) What is the meaning of lilling in cWrJer? (living in abundance and luxury.) How does it get this meaning? (cattle are extremely fond of clover: so that to live in clover, is to live as well alt cattle do in a clorJer-jield.) What is a ellUler ? (berries or fruit crowded together on a common stalk; like ivy-berries, a bunch oC grapes, &c.; also used for bees clinging togetber, people crowding together in knots, &c.) A crest? (a plume of feathers on a helmet.) What is a helmet? (an iron cap. as it were, worn by horae-soldiers: the armour for the head.) What do we mean when we talk of a man's crest on his spoons, and 10 on 1 (it is the ornament which his family have a right to put on their coat of arm,.) What is a coat of arm,? (when there was an order of knights, a knight had a particular ornament or derJice on his shield.) Who determined what device a knight should wear, and so on? (heralds.) What is the knowledge of all this called? (heraldry.) Are there any coat, 01 aTml now? (yes: the family of a gentleman has a right to

Ex. 48.-C.]


use on his seals, carriages, &c., the deflice or coat 'If arm. of his family.} Where are such ri~htll settled 1 (in the Heralds' Offlee.) To cringe? (to fawn and (1I.atter.) A cripple? (a lame peraon.) The crupper? (the strap from the saddle to the horse's tail.) What does CUltom mean besides habit? (a tax paid on goods brought into a country, or sent out of a country, for sale.)


94 Add ing to cuddle (cuddl-in~. Having-the-propertyof-cumbering (cumbersome: and cumbrous). Thatwhich-cumbers (a cumbrance or encumbrance). Adv. from cunning (cunningly). Abstr. subst, from cunning (cunningness). One-who-curries (a currier). The comb-with-which-horses-are-curried (a currycomb), Adj. from cUltom (customary). The-housewhere - the - custom. - are - paid (the custom - house). Adj, from clay (clayey). Adv. and subst. from clever (cleverly, cleverness). Adj. from clmvn (clownish). Adv. and subst, from clo1llnish (clownishly, clownishness), Cloud-like; or, having-manyclouds (cloudy). Abstr. subst. from cloudy (cloudiness): from clumsy (elumsi-neas), Adv. from clum,y (clumsily). Add ing to crave, crumple, crumble (crav-ing, crumpl-ing, crumbl-ing): to cluBter (clustering).

(a) Show that cluster, cloud, cudgel, cripple, are both substantives and verbs.

(b) Show that cunning is both substantive and adjective.



95 CH has. the sounds of tch (or tBch); of sh in words from the French, and of k in words from the Greek, and (sometimes) of lr1ll in choir, chorilter.

F 3

54 [Ex. 49.-CH.
(CH = TCH) (CH=SH) (CH=KW.)
'" ........... ...
chaffer chasten chagrin 7 choir'
challenge chastise chandelier
chaldron chequer charade chorister'
chalice cherish charlatan
chamber child chicane
chamfer chimney chivalry
chancel chirp
chandler chisel (CH=K)
chapel choose or} " - ...
chaplet chuse chamomile chord
charcoal churl chasm e-cho
chariot church chemist choler
chart chum chorus chimera .. The chordl on which you played that pretty thing Take Ii; but there'. DO Ii ID cord, • ali"",.'

EXERCISE 49. (Meaning.)

96 To chaffer? (to haggle in bargaining.) To challenge? (to dare a person to fight one: to call him out.) A ckaldron? (a coal-measure of thirty-six bushels.) A chalice? (a cup i especially that in which the wine is consecrated at the Holy Communion.) To chamf".? (to flute a column i cut channels in stone, &c.) A chancel'? (the eastern part of a Church, where the altar stands.) A chaplet? (a garland.) A chart? (a map i especially of a sea and its eoases.) To chasten? (to correct, to punish for the purpose of amending.) To cha,tise ? (to punish for the purpose of amending.) To ckequer 'l (to divide into little squares of different eolours.) To cheri,h? (to treat tenderly, nurse fondly.) A chi,el? (an instrument for paring or hollowing wood or stone.) Chagrin? (ill-humour,

r Pronounce 'h~een', ,hlJndeleer', .hilrdrd (like the a in jalher); ,hiJr' -IiJliJn, ,hlkain, ,hltlalre, or (and I think better) t,hlflalrs (with Webster and Walker, against Sberidan, Perrr, and Smart).

• Choir is pronounced kwire; chorister 18 best pronounced c/Irliter: but it used to be prnnounced kw&--iller.

• From the Lac. conceUi (a barrier oflattice-work or barB).


vexation.) A claandelier? (a branch for candles; a clustered candlestick.) A charade? (a sort of riddIe; in which the whole word is to be guessed, after something has been told about each syllable, and also about the whole word 10.) A charlatan? (a quack: one who pretends to know, and undertakes to practise an art, of which he has no thorough knowledge.) C',icane? (A lawyer's trick.) Chi-

o fJairy? (the system of knighthood in old times i when gallant knights rode about redressing wrongs.) What were the knightly virtues? (relitPon, loyalty, courtesy, chastity, bravery, self-denial.) A chasm? (a cleft or opening.) A chefllist? (one who understands chemistry i that is, how bodies are changed by heat, by mixing other bodies with them, and so on.) A chorus? (a band of singers: also the verse or verses in a song, where the company join in with the singers.)


97 One-who-challenges (challenger). One-who-drives-achariot (a charioteer). Subst. to express the act from to chalten (chastening). Subst. to express the act or thing from chastise (chastisement). One child: two -1 (ehildren.) Subst. from to choo.e (choice). Adj. from churl (churlish). Adv. and abstr. subst. from churlish (churlish-ly, churlishness). Subst. to express the thing from charlatan (charlatanry). Subst. to express the thing from chicane (chicanery). Adj. from chivalry (chivalrous). What does chitlairoul mean 1 (high-spirited, generous, self-sacrificing, gallant.) To echo-back (to re-echo). Choler? (properly the bile; used for anger.) Chimera? (the Chimera was a fabulous monster i the word is now used for an idle fancy.) Adj. from chimera (chimer-ical). Adj. from choler (choler-Ic), Subst. to express the thing from chemist (chemistry).

10 Thus: my first is an action of fear; my second is a warlike instrument; my whole is the name of a poet. Answer, Shake-speare. (Example given in Smart's Dictionary.)



(a) What part of speech is --?

C halknse, in: I c},alle"ge you. I accept your challenge.

Chagrin, This chagrined me: this filled me

with chagrin.

(b) How is Church used, in: There is now a grievous want of true CIIIJ.rch feeling?



98 1. When d follows a syllable that has the accent, and comes before ia, ie, io, or uaul, eou,. it slides into nearly the sound of j or dd; as soldier (.ol-jer); grandeur (gran·jeur).

2. When ed is added to a word ending in c, ch, Ie, :a:, or i. p, I, II, etl is Bounded very nearly like t: and but a little while ago t was mostly written.

a) Thus: Itript, "'hipt, mi«:I, ,natcht, checkt, mapt, pa,t, not .tripped, "'/Iipped, mi:a:ed, ,natched, c/lecked, lnapped, palled.

arduous dandle

soldier danger

grandeur dangle

verdure dapple

insidious 1· dastard

perfidious daub

hideous dazzle

debauch decamp decry defile

dabble dally damson

delicate demur demure deny

diet discount dislike dispute disregard distrust dolphin

dotage dotard dragon dowry downfall drill drizzle droll dungeon dwarf

EXERCISE 51. (On tile Meaning.)

(difficult.) Grandeur 1 (greatness; subVerdure (greenness: spoken of natural

99 Arduou,' limity.)

I It ia better to give d ita regular sound in this word: itIrid.,.'" (not illrid.ylU): and, probably, in hid,oru.

Ex. 52.-D.]


objects, such as meadows, &c.) /,.,idiOlU? (sly, crafty, treacherous.) Perjidiou,? (hreaking his faith.) Dabble? (to dip and play in water or mud: to fMddle a little with any thing, without any aound knowledge of it; as to dabble in literature.) To dally? (to trifle with.) To do.ndk? (to move a child up and down on one's hands or kneea.) To daflgle? (to hang from, in a loose quivering way.) To dappk? (to streak.) Da,tard? (coward.) To dauk? (to overpower with light.) To debauch? (to corrupt by lewdness or internperance.) A debarAcl,? (a lewd drunken party.) To decamp? (to make off.) To decry? (to cry a thing down; find fault with it.) To defile? (to pollute; to move oft'in file I.). A dejik? (a narrow passage through which soldiers must march in flle.) To demu.r? (to have scruples about a thing.) Demure ? (grave, quiet: of a sort of sly quietness that seems put on.) Diet? (the kind of food one takes, especially as it affects the health.) To disregard? (to pay no attention to any thing.) To discount? (to pay something Ie" than is due because a sum is paid before its time.) To distrust? (not to trust: to have doubts of a person's honesty or good intentlons.) A dolphin? (a large fish, with oblong body and narrow sharp snout.) A dragon? (a sort of great snake that does not really exiat.) Dotag« ? (weakness of mind; los8 of understanding, especially in consequence of old age.) A d6tard? (one whose mind is weakened by age.) DO'IIJry? (the money a wife brings her husband: the money left to a widow.) Dungeon? (prison.) To drill? (to bore a small hole; to train aoldiers.) To d,i.:llel (to fan in small drops.)


100 Abstr. subst, from arduoul (arduousness). Adverbs and substantives from insidious, perjidiou. (in8idiously, insidiousness; perfidiously, perfidiousness,

• ;. e. in a line one after the other.


[Ex. 52.-D.

and allo perfidy). One-who-dabbles (a dabbler). One-who-dallies (a dallier). Add ing to dally (dallying). Adj. from danger (dangerous). Adv. and ahstr. subet, from dangermu (dangerously, dangerousness). Adj. from da,tard (dastardly). Abstr. eubst, from da,tardly (dastardliness). A delicate thing; or, the-state-of-being-delicate (a delicacy; delicacy). Adv. from delicate (delicately). Adv. and abstr. subst, from demure (demurely, demureness). One-who-demure (a demurrer: used also as a law-term for stopping in a cause on a difficult point). Full-of-distrust (distrustful). Add ing to dri/ll/ille (drizzling). One-who-disputes (a disputer). Capable-of-being-disputed (disputable).

(a) What part of speech is '-- ?

Disregard, in: He disregards my advice. Disregard of all advice is presumption and folly.

Distrult, You show distrust of my intentions:

why should you distrust me ?

Dilpute, Why do you dispute? I see no

cause for any dispute.

Defile, The soldiers defile through the dan-

gerous defile.



101 When e and i together meet,

The e come, firlt in -ceive, -eeipt, -ceit t

In ceiling, seignior I, neighbour, seize, and feign' ; } Inveigle I, either, neither, leisure, skein;

Veil, heinous', feint', and in a ,overeign', reign. So reins • the kidney',' and a !lUrse', reins,

Not thOle ",hich fertilize our British plains:

Plebeian • and obeisance", theirs and their,

Neigh, deign lO, and freight I, inveigh', ",ith weight and heir.

I Seen-yllr 'flne I invig'l • Mnlls 7 fante • plebian

• obilance 10 dane I Frate I in-vi

Exx. 53, 54.-EI.] 59

In forfeit, counterfeit, helgb-ho, and sleight', Eight, surfeit', heifer I, nonpareil I, and height.

IIir Of course the words derif7ed from these, and those from which these are derived, are spelt in the same way: thus, ceil (like the firRt syllable of ceiling), heinously, leisurely, deceiver, &c.

(The words in -ceif7e, -ceipt, -ceil, are)

conceive conceit

deceive deceit

receive receipt


EXERCISE 53. (0" the Meaning.)

102 Conceit? (a vain or proud opinion of oneself.) A receipt? (a direction how to make any thing, especiaUy in cookery: also an acknowledgment that a man has rectitled a sum of money.) To feign? (to pretend.) To intleigle 7? (to ensnare a man; to entice him to what is wrong.) Afeint? (a sham attack: a pretence to cover what one is really going to do.) Heinous? (very wicked.) A skein? (a loosely-tied knot of thread or silk.) To deign? (to condescend.) To inf7eigh against a person 1 (to launch out into abuse of him.) The freight of a ship? (the load of goods on board.) Plebeian? (belonging to the lower ranks: low, vulgar.) Obei,ance? (an act of reverence: such as a low bow.) To counterfeit a thing? (to imitate it, with the intention of passing oft' the imitation for the thing imitated.) Sleight? (cunning trick: as in ,leiglit-oj-lIand.) A sUlieil? (sickness caused by over-eating.) A nonpareil? (an apple of unequaUed merit: the word means none",cll ., which is also the name of an apple.)


103 One-who-receives (a receiver). Full-of-deceit (de-

I Slite ' BllrHt I hH-l!r 8 nonpar611.

7 Properly. to veil his sight: to blind him.

• From the French non (not), and poreil (like, equal).


[Ex. 66.

eeit-ful). Adv. and abatr. 8ubst. from deceiiful (deceitfully; deceitfulness). Adj. from leilUre (leisurely). Can you say, he walked leimrely? (Yes.) What part of speech is leilUrely here 1 (an adverb.) Form adv. and abstr, subst. from heinou. (heinously, heinousness ).

(a) What part of speech --1

Forfeit, in: You will forfeit your place. You

must pay the forfeit.

Surfeit. He is surfeited with praise. He has

had a .urfeit of praise.

Counterfeit, - I shall counterfeit sleep. It is s counterfeit sleep. This is Dot. true virtue, but its counterfeit.

LESSON XXXIV. (On ParticipleB.)


104 1. A man, running over the bridge, called to me.

2. A Bleeping beauty.

3. A la'lgliing boy.

4. Thefalli"g snow.

5. Thefallen snow.

6. A boy, IODed by all who knew him, died yesterdsy.

7. An apprentice, cruelly treated by his master, could endure it no longer.


105 In 'falling snow,' what do I call the snow 1 (fillli"g.) When I call it 'falling snow,' do I mean that it "as fallen, or is falling now? (that it i. falling now.) When I 8ay 'fallen mow,' do I mean that it /ao. fallen, or i, falli"g now? (that it hal fallen.) What is falling snow doi"g? (falling.) What hes fallen snow do"e? (it has fallen: it fell at .orne· time before that we are speaking of.) Do the words Jalling and fallen mark different time.? (yes: JaIling marks prellne time, andJallen past time.) I can

Ex. 55.-F.]


speak of "hite snow and falling snow: what part or speech is "hite? (an adjective.) In 'Jalli"g snow' and 'fallen snow,' the words Jailing and fallen are not called adjecti"e, but participle,: let us make out the difference between adjectives and participles. In ' white snow,' is the meaning that it i8 "hite nOrD, or "a8 "hite at 80me former time, or i8 "Aite at a II timea? (' white snow' means snow that iR white at any time.) Then has ",hite any thing to do with tiMe 1 (no.)

(a) Then is Dot one difference between a participle and an adjective this; that a participle is a time-rDord, but an adjective is not a time-rDord? (I suppose 80.) In 'falling snow,' 'Ileepi"g child,' the snow and the child are doing something: in 'a hunted hare,' the hare is lla"i"K 8omethi"g done to it: in '"hite snow,' is the snow spoken of as doi"g any thing, or ha"ing

a"y thing done to it? (no.) .

(b) Then is not another difference between an adjective and a participle this: that a participle marks the doing something, or ha"ing lomet/ling done to one; whereas an adjective denotes merely some quality or property oca thing? (yes.)

(A) One participle ends in ing: it is called the present participle, and marks doing.

A clucking hen: a hen clucking to her chickens.

(8) Another participle ends in ed, sometimes in en or t, This is called the pad participle; because the thing hal generally been done.

(a) Remember that e at the end of a word is dropt

before ing or ed. .

(b) Remember that if a word ends in a single consonant after a short vowel, the consonant is doubled before ing or edt if the word is of only one syllable.

(c) If the word is of more than one syllable, the last consonant is always doubled before ing or ed, if the last syllable has a short vowel, and the accent or G

[Ex •. 56.-F.

stress of the voice i. on that syllable. [See note 5, p.32.]

(d) To understand what this accent or stress of the voice is, take differ and deflr.

In differ more stress is laid on the dif-. In dtflr more stress is laid on the -fer'.

(e) Hence differing is written with one r. deflrring i. written with two ,'s.


(On Participle,.)

106 [Obs.-To find the put participle, try what form you would use with" I have.' You would lay "I have lowd:" .. I have written... LOlled and writtllfl are the paU participles of to low, and to tDI'it&]

Form the present participle of write (writing): of mite (smiting): of recei"e (receiving): of counterfeit (counterfeiting) :, of bid (bidding): of dide (chiding): of confer (conferring, with r doubled): of refer (referring) : of mjfer (suffering: r not doubled).

Form the past participle of mOlle (moved): hate (hated) : report (reported): e:eprell (expressed): add (added): form (formed): change (changed): range (ranged): mjfer (suffered).

(In the following verbs the past participle will not end in ed.)

Form the past participle of bring (brought): think (thought): ,mite (smitten):. freeree (frozen): begin (begun): abide (abode): tllrOfil (thrown): bile (bitten): "ri"e (striven): dra7l1 (drawn).

• Let the pupil tell on which Byllable the accent or ItTen i. in:

ClIIIIfI",Mnd. fII4UtIolent, drUgIl.t, neighbour, dUd,."., dillilt8r, Qmmnu, revAngej'"Z. edter, repr6ve, remdrk, rtJmpart. OhB. The little stroke [']

marks the acceDted syllable. .

Ex. 57.-F.]




107 fable ferret filth fore
fallow fetch finance forge
fellow fickle firkin fortress
felon fiddle flannel frantic
female fillet flurry fritter
fen filter flutter furrow
fender EXE&CIBB 57. (M eanitlg. )

108 A fable , (an instructive story, in which anima" and other thing' are supp'0sed to speak.) What other meanings hasfable? (it means any invented tale that has no truth in it: and it is alao a verb; to invent or tell a 'false tale.) Fallo.",land 1 (land allowed to relt for a time by being left unsown.) What meaning has fallo.", infallo.", deer? (pale red or pale reddish-yellow.) A felon? (one who has committed a .er1 great crime.) What crimes arefelonie,? (murder, rape, house-breaking, wilfully setting houses or property on flre.) What is house-breaking also called? (burglary.) What is • wilfully setting on fire' also called? (arson.) What is a man now called who wilfully sets stacks on fire? (an incendiary.) A fen? (a marsh; flat, boggy land.) Fickle? (given to change his' mind.) Fillet? (& band round the head I.) Why is a fillet of veal so called? (from its being tied round with a band.) Tofilter? (tq strain liquor through something close, for the purpose of clearing it.) Finance? (the revenue or income of a country.) 'What does finance in the singular mean? (the doctrine or knowledge of such matters.) A firkin? (a vessel containing nine gallons.) Toforge 1 (to shape heated metal by hammering it: also to

1 AIBO a band round a column in architecture. 02

[Ex. 58.-F.

make a faue thing, that is to be passed oft' a8 the true thing.) A fortrell? (a strong-hold: a fortified castle.) Frantic ? (outrageously violent or furious.) Afritter? (properly a, small piece: used especially of a small portion of batter fried.) A furrOftl? (a small trench made by the plough.)


109 What is the adj. to fable? (fabulous '.) How i8 lello", used infello",-.erfJanl? (as an adj., but helps to form a compound substantive.) Wbat mark is placed betweenfello", and .ervanl? (hyphen.) Adj. from felon (felonious). Subst. to express the ad (felony). Abstr. subst. from .fickle (fickleness). What is the present participle of jilter? (filtering) : its past participle? (flltered.) Why is the r not doubled? (because the accent is not on the last syllable.) Abounding-in-filth (filthy). Adv. and abstr. subst, from jilt"y (filthily, filthiness). Present and past participle of to .flurry and to .flutter (flurry-ing. durri-ed: flutter-ing, flutter-ed.) Why is the r not doubled? (because the accent is not on the last syllable.) Sight-beforehand (foresight). Thought-beforehand (forethought). To-tell-beforehend (to foretell). Present and past participle of to foretell (foretelling, foretold). To see-beforehand (to foresee). Present and past participles of to fore,ee (foreseeing, foreseen). Act-of-forging (forgery). Does forgery also mean the thing-forged? (yes; for I can say, • this is a forgery.') Present and past participle of to fritter? (frittering, frittered.) Why is the r not doubled? (because the accent is not 011 the last syllable.)

I Lat./abula: adj./abulollll.

Ex. 58.-6.]




110 a) G ia pronounced hard before a, 0; II, the consonants I, r, and at the end of a word.

b) G ia pronounced 10ft, like j (or dlh), before e, ;, y.

But to thia rule there are the following exceptions:

c) G is pronounced hard before er and est, the terminations of the comparative and superlative, as loDger pronounced lon-ger.

tI) G is bard when it is doubled before these vowela [not, however, in words like lUggelt, ezaggerate. which come from the Latin].

e) G is also hard in the list given below, beginning with anger, and in several other worda of rarer occurrence at the beginning of a word or syllable.

f) GH is pronounced like hard g.

g) In the list beginning with cIIou,h, IIh is pronounced likef.

") J n the three words beginning with loulJh, gl is pronounced like ek, and in hiccough like p.

[Obs.-Gaol ia pronounced and often written jail.]



111 craggy trigger conger (eel) gibber
cragged pettifogger eager giddy
dagger shaggy finger gift
dogged boggy forget gig
ragged forgive giggle
rugged anger hunger gild
scraggy auger geese gimblet
stagger beget get gird
swagger begin gewgaw give
03 66 [En. 59,·60.-G.
gizzard agbast cloughf rough
linger ghastly cough Iiough'
monger ghost draught tougb
target gherkin draugbts trough'
tiger enough
together chough' laugh Iough"
laughter hough
shough EXEllCISE 59. (Meaning.)

112 Craggy? cragged? (rocky, rugged.) Dogged? (stupidly obstinate.) S1IJaRger ? (to bluster: to act in a boisterous bullying manner.) Trigger? (the catch, by pulling which a gun is fired.) A pettifogger? (a low attorney, who undertakes dirty businees.) Boggy? (having many bogs : marshy, swampy.) An auger? (a tool to bore holes with.) A gertlgafl '! a gay useless ornament: a bauble.) To gibber'! (to talk inarticulately. A gill%ard? (the strong muscular stomach of a bird.) A target? (the mark used by those who practise archery.) .Ag"cut? (struck with horrour.) Ghastly ? (deadly pale: as pale as a ghost.) A gllerkin? (a small cucumber for pickling.) Clwugh'! (a sea-bird.) Clough? (the clell of a hill: cliff.) Slough? (the calt skin of a snake: also the part that separates from a foul sore.) What is meant by a snake's calting its skin 1 (getting rid of its old akin.)


113 Adv. and abstr. subst, from ragged (raggedly, raggednells): from giddy (giddily. giddiness): from dogged (doggedly, doggedness) : from rugged (ruggedly, ruggedness): from ea!(er (eagerly, eagerness): from rough, tough (roughly, rougbnesa ; toughly, toughness). Abstr. sub st. from ,haggy (shagginess: from gllaltly (ghastliness). Form the comparative

I tchllff ' cldff 'slllft 8Iough,' a miry place,' is pro-

Bounced ,lou. • trlUr. , lough (UJck) a Scotch lake;

h"'lh, the joint of the hind leg in • beut i ,1Io"ll1l, a .ham do,.

Ex. GO.-G.]


from big (bigger): from long, drong (longer, atronger). Is the g pronounced hard or 80ft in theae words? (hard.) Form the superlative from big, long, "rong (biggest, longest, strongest). Form an abstr. subst, from long (leng-th i see p. 2, 21, b) I from ,trong (strength). Form adj., adv., and abstr. aubat. from length (lengthy, lengthily, lengthiness). What sort of length do we call lengthy? (dull, tedious prosing lengtl', in speaking). Adj. from launger (hungrily), Abstr. subst, from to forgive (forgiveness). . Subst. from to gibber, to express the kind of Btuff which those who ~ibber talk (gibberish). One-who-giggles (a giggler). One-who-Iau~hs (a laugher). That-which-girds (girth or girdle). Of what is girth mostly used? (of the saddle-band of a horse: also tbe size of any thing as taken by measuring round it.) A fish-monger is one-wAo-IIlhfoh: form' one-who-sells-cheese' in the same way (a cheese-monger). What mark do you put between cheese and monger? (a hyphen.) Can you form the name of any other dealer in the same way? (an ironmonger.)

a) Form the present and past participles of

Toforgel (forgetting, forgotten) (why is the'

- forgive (forgiving, forgiven) doubled 1)

- ,tagger (staggering, staggered) (why is the

r not doubled 1)

b) Form the present participles of to ""agge" to linger, to hunger, to laugh (swaggering, lingering, hungering, laughing).

[How are you to find out the past tense of a verb? (by thinking what I sho.uld say if I were talking of what I did yesterday.)]

c) Form the perfect or pall tense of to ,wagger (swaggered): to stagger (staggered): to -laugh (laughed): toforget (forgot): toforgilJe (forgave).





114 'In humour, humorous, and humoursome,

171 herb and herbage, humble, honour, hour, In hostler, in an honorable man •

.And hospital, the h s/Iould have no power:

So too the ktter h should ,ilent be'

In heir and heiress, honour, honesty.

But ear, polite h ",ill not much disturb [n humble or in hospital and herb •

.. In Bome pronouDcing dictionaries herb and luwpital are included among the worda whoae initial 11 i. silent: hut the A may be aspirated in theBe and their derivatives without llul ktllloffen" to polite ears; and even in humbk and Aumrmr the sounding of the A i. a fault, if a fault, far less grating than it would be in IuIfr, Ium"" honour, hOdkr."-llmart. r I quite agree with this remark. elUlept as to Aumollr, in wbich, I thiDk, the A should never be Bounded.]

H is also un pronounced (I)afterr.

(2) at the end of a word, after a vowel. (3) and in some other words.

115 rheumatic sirrah (h should be heard in)

rheumatism host

rhubarb shepherd hospitable

ipecacuanha ho.pitality

heritable heritage •

hallelujah Me.Biah


(Words with ai pronounced like a infate.) [See 77, p, 41.]

116 aid aid-de-camp 7

ailment airing

bailiff baize

blain braid

• See also remarka on ch, ,A, UDder e, ,. f aidodi- klIng.

Ex.6J.-AI.] 69
brain fraU maiden lail
chaise gaily maim laint
claim gain maintain I taint
daily gainsay nail tailor
dainty gairish paint trail
dairy grain plaint train
daisy hail praise trait I
fail hailstone rail traitor
fairy jailor} rain-deer or } twain
faith gaol rein-deer wail
lIail lair raisin wain EXERCISB 61.


117 An aid.de.camp? (an officer who attends the commander-ln-chief of an army, to carry his ordera to other officers.) An airing? (a short ride in a carriage, for no object but that of being out in the air.) Bailiff? (an officer who arrests people: the understeward of a manor or estate.) Bai/lle? (a coarse woollen ItUft'.) A blain? (a boil or pustule.) To braid? (to weave together.) Braid? (a sort of woven cord of cotton, &c.) Brain? (the soft white matter in the skull, in which all the nerves terminate: supposed to be the seat of understanding, and of all our sensations, &c.) To brain a man! (to dash his brains out.) A fairy? (a fabulous enchantress of very diminutive size.) FraU? (easily broken: and of a person apt to sin: weak.) To gain,ay? (to ,ay 'gain't a man: to contradict.) Gair"h? (gaudy, glaring.) Lair? (the couch of a boar or wild beaet.) To maim? (to cripple a person by destroying a limb: to deprive any thing of an essential part.) Plainl? (lamentation.) To rail at any body 1 (to use insolent abusive language against him.) Rein-deer? (a deer with large horns, used in Lapland, and other northern countries, to draw sledges through the snow, &c.) To taint? (to infect,

• miln-tine (Walker, Webster). I trio


[Ex. 6t.-AI.

corrupt.) Tt'aill (tract followed by a hunter.) A trait? (a stroke: eapeciaUya stroke in a man's eharacter.) A waif? (property found and claimed by nobody.) To ",ail? (to lament with loud cries or sobe.) A ",ain ~ (a waggon.)


118 Without-aid (aidless). Sick-in-the-brain (brain-sick).

What does brain-lick mean? (disordered in mind.) Without- brains (brain-less). One- who-claims (a claim-er or claim-ant). Adv. and abstr. subst. from dainty (daintily, daintiness). Without-faith (faithless). Full-of-faith (faithful). Adverbs and abstr. substantives fromJaithful,faithlell (faithfully, faithfulneaa t faithlessly, faithlessness). Not-faithful (unfaithful). Abstr. subst. from un-faithful (un-faithful-ness). One-who-gainsays (a gainsayer). A subst, from gain,ay to express the act or thing (gainsaying). One who keeps a jail (jailer or gaoler). Subst. from to maintain to express the act or thing (meiaten-snee), One-who-paints (paint-er), Subst. to express the act or thing (paint-ing). Saint-like (saintly). Abstr. subst. from ,aintly (saintliness). Worthy-of-praise (praise-worthy). Adj. from traitor traitor-ous). Abstr. subst. from frail (frail-nesl or frailty).

(a) Form present participle of gai",ay (gainsaying).

. - train (training).

",ail (wailing). - rail (railing). fail (failing).

(b) Form the past participle of train (trained). ---------- gain (gained).

---------- claim (claimed).

I Many mol" words may be formed than are here given.

Ex. 63.-EO.]




119 Eo is flOt a diphthong, but a combination which represents different simple sound ••

people I surgeon • scutcheon I

sturgeon escutcheon

dudgeon widgeon

gudgeon pigeon

curmudgeon dungeon

luncheon yeoman a puncheon yeomanry truncheon habergeon

geography • geometry theory

leopard I jeopardy


galleon •


120 A leopard? (a spotted wild-beast.) Jeopardy? (danger, peril.) Yeoman? (an independent farmer.) The yeomanry' (the body of independent farmers: also a troop of borse, railed principally out of that elase, and only called out occasionally.) A Iturgeon? (a kind of sea-fish.) Dudgeon? (a sullen feeling of dilsatisfaction.) In what phrase is dudgeon principally used 1 (in • 10 'ake a tiling in dudgeon.') A gudgeon? (a small river-fish.) What kind of perlo", are called gudgeons? (silly people, who are easily eaught.) A curmudgeon? (a miserly, churlish fel-

I Like long i; peep'1. I Like ahort'; leppard,jeppard".

• Like long ii I go-man.

, Eo in an unaccented final syllable is pronounced nearly like ahort II.

• I n these the eo is pronounced nearly like i, according to Walker.

Mr. Smart makes no difference between them and the laat clall; in all of which he gives IJ for the sound of eo.

• In these words the eo are in different syllables: gi-IJgraphy,

thi-/Jrg. 7 Like short IJ; jIJrgl.

• Walker says gallotm; but better g41-ylln.


[Ex. 63.-EO.

low.) A dungeon? (a prison.) A puncheon? (a cask containing 120 gallons.) A truncheon? (a short staff; used cbiefly for a • staff of commend,') Habergeon ? (armour for tbe neck and breast.) Eacutcheon? (the shield on which a person's • coat of arms' is painted or engraved.) What is the meaning of pigeOfling a man? (to .fleece a man; to plunder him at a gaming-table by unfair gambling.) What are pigeon.holea? (the holes of a dove-cot; small arched divisions in a desk or bureau.) Geography (the science that explains the situation or places on the earth's surface, and so on.) Geometry (the science that explains the properties of lines, angles, circles, and other figures.) Theory? (speculation, not practice: plan or ay,tem: rules that must be a little altered in practice, because they are formed on a auppoaition that is not quite found to agree with experience.) Galleon' (a kind of merchant-vessel. used by the Spaniards and other nations.)

a) What are the adjectives of geometry. geograp"Y? (geometrical, geographical.)

b) What is the name of the person who is skilled in geometry or geography respectively? (geometer. geographer. )

c) What is the adj. from theory? (theoretical.) To

what is l/,eoretical opposed 1 (to practical.)

d) What verb means toform-theoriea? (to theorize.)

e) Form the present participle of t/,eorize (theorizing).

f) Having - a - projecting - breast -Iike-a-pigeon (pigeonbreasted.)

(It long) <" in/lite) earnest atealth
121 beacon bear earth atealthy
beam bearer earthen aweat
bean forbear earthly aweaty
beard forawear earthy thread
cheap great feather threat
clean Iwear head threaten
cleave to tear health treachery
cream to wear hearse tread
deal heaven treadle
dream (" in IMr) heavy treas~
ear heart inatead uncleanly
east hearken jealous wealth
tear lead (tile metlll) wealthy
feast (e in met) leaden weapon
gleam abreast learn weather
beap ahead learning yearn
hear already leather zealous
to lead bedatead leaven zealously
lean bread meadow zealot
leap bIeadth measure
mean breakfast pearl (e .Aort)
to read breath peasant dealt
sheath breut pheasant dreamt
spear cleanly pleasant leant
Itream cleanse pleasantry leapt
a tear dead pleasure meant
treacle deadly readily 11. read
treuon deaf readineaa
year . deafen ready
wheat dearth realm
death rehearsal
dread rehearse
endeavour research
earl seamstreaa1
earldom stead
eady steadfast
earn steady
1 Or, ...,.. _0'"11, aempatrea.
R 74

[Ex. 64.-EA.


On tile tlfeaning.

122 A beactml (something railed on an eminence, to be lighted on the approach of an army: allo a light to warn na\'igaton from a dangeronl coaat.) What two very different meaningl baa the verb to cleafJe? (to cling to: to !plit any thing asunder by a Itroke.) What meaninga has the lubltantive deal' (a portion dealt out: pine-timber: the act of dealing cards, or the cards dealt at one time.) To forbear' (to abltain voluntarily.) To forlffJear oneself? (to' take a false oath.) What other word is there that haa the lame meaning? (to perjure' oneself.) What is an Earl? (an English nobleman.) What is an Earr. ",ife called? (a Connte ... ) Give the order of Eng}ish noblemen, beginning with the highest. (Duke, MtWfUu, Earl, I'i.count I, Bartm.) Is II Prince bigher in rank than a Dule' (Yes; but the title Priftce is confined to members of the royal family.) Are the Princer of the royal family also Duke.' (Yes.) Give the titles of the wives of a Duke and the other orders of nobmty. (Duchess, Marchioness,

. Countess, Viscountess, Baroness.) Give the difference between earthen, earthy, earthly. [(1.) EartAen is I mtlde of ear,h" as in • eartlien-",are :' (2.) Earthy is • cOfI,;,ting of earth,' I re.embli7lg earth:' 'as iu

; ·earthy particle,,' • an earthy ta.te.' (3.) • Earthly' is opposed to AetzfJenly: • relating to thi. earth.,] JealOUl' (angry at having Ii rival: suspicious of liaving a rival.) Treachery' (the act of betraying.) A treadle' (the part of a loom on which the weaver treadl.) To yearn' (to feel a longing desire.) TreallOfl? (a great crime againlt a king or state.) What is the polite word for lffJeat' (perspiration.)

2 From the Lat. ~r andjarll1'I, to .wear.

8 Pronounced Vi-count. .

Ex. 64.-EAU, &c.] 7J

a) Give ~ past teaae aad put participle of Cleave (to cliag to) (cleaved, clelwed)

- (to 6plit) (cleft or clove, cleft or cloven)

fear (feared, feared)

feast . (feasted, feasted)

. gleam (gleamed, gleamed)

heap (heaped, heaped) :

. forbear (forbore, forborne)

fot'SWe.. (forswore, forsworn)

clean.. (cleansed, cleansed)

de,Uea. (deafened, deafened)

learn (learnt, leamt)

tear (tore, tom).

h) Give the present participles of leaven, forbear, endeavour, dea/era (leavening, forbearing, endeavouring, deafening).

€) Abstr. substantives flOlP .tu:leanly, jealou (uncleanliness, jealousy; sometimes jealousness). Adv. from jealOlU Uealously). Not-earthly (un-earthly). Adj. from heaven (beaven-Iy), Abstr. subst; from heavenly (heavenliness,. .



123 beau I beauty 2 cheesecake cutaneous
bureau vitreous
flambeau Beelzebub' curious
portmanteau breeches •
breech gorgeous •
outrageous . .

1 This is properly a French ending: it is pronounced like long o. I In tbis word tau is pronounced CUI, or 1$ in tube.

~ The regular sound of ee is long e. BreecAtI is pronounced britche.. The two next words are, according to Walker, tJUlgarlg pronounced chUcafu, britch. It would now be affected, I think, to say ch.eue-cake with long e.

, U Beelubub in prose has generally the short sound of e in beU,"_ Walker.

s cu-tii-nl!-1i8. 6 gorj'us, outraj'lU.


76 [Ex. 65;-EAU, &c.
hideoua' feud- Shrewabury suney
piteous deuce sew
righteoua Europe key
plenteoua ewe'l ley
bounteous dew'
courteoua few convey attorney
beauteoua obey barley
duteous brew I. prey chimney
crew purvey galley
Jew money
jewel valley
atrew ahew II} or show

&" Grey is also spelt gray.

Eu.claB 65.

124 A beau 7 (a amart man.) What is the answering word for a female '! (a belle.) A bureau? (a chest of drawers.) Ajlambeau? (a lighted torch.) A cutBfteOII, I disorder? (a disorder on the skin.) rllreoru I ? (glassy.) A feud '! (a quarrel; oCten an hereditary quarrel.) To 'PU1'fJey '! (to provide stores.) What is an attomey also called f (a aolicitor.) What does corwlemu mean? (polite; well-behaved towarda a person.) What ia the substantive called? (courtesy.) Is courtesy a Christian duty? (yea.) Prove it. (St. Peter says, .. LOfJe II' brethren, be pitiful, be co",teo",.")

tI) Full-of-beauty (beauti-ful: allo beauteous.) Abstr.

7 Walker uys thelle worda are pronounced laV-. ,ntcMoru: but they should, by all means, be pronounced regularly: but n,1ot_. rite-,.., courteotU, court-"...

• Like BIll.

t Take care not to pronounce these words like doll. _, but like

the 10 in tube.

I. Like 00 in too.

II Like long o. The proper Dame SlwBIII.hry is always pronounced 8M_.bury. &111 with a needle rhymes to 110.

U Like yiS in common language; mostly read like ii (or y .. ). I Theile are Crom the Lat. CII'" (akin); IIitraa (glass).

Ex. 66.-IE.]


81lbstaativell aad adverbs from gorgflOU" Aideotu, pile""" rigAleotll, plmIeoru.-Adj. from EUT~ (El1l"OpeaB). Rather grey (greyish).

II) Form the plural of «tturttey, flalley, chimney (attorneys, valleys, chimneys). Why do they flot end in iu? (because the y bas a vowel, not a eonscnant, ~xt before it. See Intred, 62.)

c) What part of speech is prey, in: He seizes his pTey ?

What does the lion prey upon?

d) Form the present and past participle of obey (obeying, obeyed): of ,110", (showing, shown): of 'tTe1D (strewing, strewn).


125 belief' grieve } tieree vie
believe gr~evance yield fiery
brief gnevous
cbief liege friend S sieve ~
fief niece mischief
. field pierce die' mischievous
fiend priest lie handkerchief
fierce reprieve pie
grief siege piebald viewG
tie , EXERCISE 66.

126 Brief? (sbort.) A lawyer's brief? (the ,hort bead. of the case written out for him.) A fond? (a very wicked enemy.) A fief? (a possession held on some feudal tenure.) What does a jeruJal tenure mean! (The feudal times were times when princes

• gave possessions to their retainers, on condition of the retainer's fighting for his lord whenever he required his serviee.) What was the lord called? (the

• The regular sound of Ie is long e or ee.

I In friend tbe ie are pronounced li ke short eo

, J D mouosyUables ie are pronounced like long i: 80 also in pkbald.

~ In these wor.ds ie an pronounced nearly like short i. • iii or I1ftI, like " in tube.


78 [Ex. 66.-10, &c.

liege-lord.) What was the retainer called f (a Vll8lal.) What did the Vll8lal owe to hi, liege-lord f (his support.) What relation to the "ieee i, the penon whose niece she is? (uncle or aunt.) What relation i, a niece's brother to her uncle or aunt f (nephew.) What is a tierce.? (the third part of a pipe.)

a) Adv. and abstr. subst. from brWJ(briefly, briefness) : fromJerce (fiercely, fierceneaa). More-fierce (fiercer). Of what • degree oj comparilOll' is fiercer 'I (of the compantive.) Most-fierce (fiercest). Of what • degree of comparilOll' is fierce,'? (of the superlative.) To-pase-tbrough-e-sieve (to sift). Adv. from mycllietloru (mischievously).

b) Present participle Crom flie, tie, die (vying, tying, dying): Past participle Crom flie, tie, die (vied, tied, died): from lie (lain). Past tense from lie (lay). What must you take care flot to say f (laid.) From what does laid come f (from lay, to,'" dmm.)

c) Ob,.- The J of a word often becomes fI in words derived from it: thus, believe, from beliew : m;lCilievoru, from milclliew : calve, llalve, from cab, llalw. In lillt, from .reve, the fI has becomej.

10, IOU, OA,
127 violet scorpion • various precious'
cushion 1 glorious noxious
faction • ingenious
million.- question copious (0 long)
minion I digestion approach
anxious' boat •
champion 3 bilious 6 Cactious coach
coal 1 cteahill. 2 lNl-yIII: __ gt..

J Tbe i is here pronounced.

• tion, riOfl, are pronounced ,h,," : but if tiorJ hal II or , before it, the i i. sligbtly beard •

• .. are generally two ayJlablee: but (') after t, tI, II, or 10ft c or 6, as oae ayllable: _.,,, ... or -,,,.,"'.: foc-',.. ...

Ex. 67.-0A.] 79
coat loan roach toad
float loath r road toast
goat moan roam uproar
gloat moat roau woad
groan oaf roar
hoard oak roast broad •
hoary oath aoak abroad
hoarse oatmeal aoap groat
load poach aoar
loam reproach tbroat cupboard' BXEKelSB 67.

128 A miUion? (a hundred thousand.) A minion 1 (the mean creature or favorite of a great man.) A eIIamJJion' (the warrior who fights for a party or eause.) A faction? (a party in a state combiuing for bad ends.) Dige'tion? (the POfl1ff or act of dige't~ food.) Where is food dige,ted? (in the stomacb.) What does the stomach do to it T (it divides it, and gets the proper juices out of it, which it carries to the different parts of the body for their support.) If the BtomacA does not do its work properly, what do we suffer from T (indigestion.) When is a man said to have a bad dige.tion? (when his stomach does not do its work well.) What hurts the stomach's power of dige,tiDn'! (giving it too much work by eating too much: or giving it what it cannot digest thoroughly; that is, fJ"",Aole,ome food.) Are raw apples very wholesome food for children' Are they much more wholesome, when they are very unripe T- What is bile'! (a thick, yellow, bitter liquor. that is separated from the liver.) What is bile some-

t', times used for T (cross, angry humour: wrath.) A bilimu person T (one who is Buffering from too much bile.) Copimu I? (plentiful.) N~iow? (hurtful.) To gloat? (to look fondly and over.lovingly at a person.) Loam? (fat, rich soil.) Loat.? (unwilling.) A loa,,? (a thing lent: the lending.) A

, Rhymes to oat". • Sound of CI in call.

I From the Lat. copia, plenty.

, cIb'-blrd.


[Ex. 68.-0A.

moat't (a canal of water round a house for a defence.) Oaf? (a foolish child", dolt.) To fJOtJC"? (to steal game.) What is to potM!la an egg r (to boil it without the shell.) A roach 1 (a small flsh.) To roam? (to ramble about over a wide space.) A roaa horse f (bay, sorrel, or black, with grey 01' white spots interspersed.) To Boar? (to fly aloft: to fly high without the wiogs being seen to mose, ) Woad 1 (a plant -used for dyeing cloth.)


129 Able-to-be-digested (digestible). Abstr. subst. from digeilible (digestibility). No~igestible (indigestible). Abetr. substantives from ingeaioru, copioeu, precioru, ~s, IlOary, "oarBe (ingeniousness, &c.) Adv. from MarIe, copiou., &c. (hoarsely, copiously, &c.) One-wbo-poaches (a poaeher). One-who-hoards (hoarder). A porter-who-earries-eoal (a coal-porter). What mark do you put between coal and porter 1 (a hyphen.) - A heaver-of·coal (a coal-heaver). Fullof-reproaches (reproachful). Adj. from uproar (uproarious). Abatr. sohat. from broad (breadth).

a) What part of speech is -!

Hoard, in : Do not hoard. What a /ward!

Fl«zt. - I .float with the streatn, Your jIoat

went under.

Groan, - I heard a groan. Did you groan?

Reproach, - I reproach you. It is an unjust reproach.

b) Form present-participle of roar, float, poach (roaring, floating, poaching).

c) Form the pall pMticiple of reproach,.float (reproached, floated).

• Soch a child as superstitious people UBed to believe that the miries left instead of the true child.

Ex. 69.-01.]


130 boil creator constable mother
boisterous kingdom convince plover
broider method corrupt pother
broil turbot discomfit shovel
coin troublesome discOmfort sloven
porpoise (6) bomhist dozen smother
tortoise bombard govern stomach
collect honey wonder
(II) affrontl combat Honday worry
among company mongrel wonhip
amongst compare money
caaaock compass monkey bosom'
carol EXBBClsB 69.

131 To broiderl (to ornament with figures in needlework.) A porpoUe? (an unwieldy fish common on our coasts: the aea-hog.) A tortoUe 1 (an animal covered with a hard shell: there are both llUld and sea tortoises.) For what is tortoUe-,IaeU used? (for making ornamental combs, work-boxes, &c.) When the tortoUe raced the Iw.re in the fable, which won the race t why? -- Metlwd'l (way of doing any thing: generally used for a good way, well planned and steadily punued.) A CIIIIOC!c? (a close long garment of black silk, or other stuff, worn by some clergymen under their surplices or gowns '.) A creator! (one who creates; that is, makes out of nothing.) A turbot? (a large «at fish, considered very good eating.) Bomba"? (big swelling words: senseless stuff.) To bombard? (to attack a town with bomba, pronounced bUm",,,; that is, hollow iron balls filled

1 Here the 0 is pronounced Iike e, Compare 69, p. 29.

J Here both 0'& are pronounced like II: the first being nearly like 00

in good. .

, It originally meant an outward dren or cloak.


[Ex. 69.-01.

with gunpowder, and thrown out of a mortar.) A compass? (a circle.) What is the mariner's compas'? (a box c:ontaining the ","gnetic needle.) What is a magnetic needle? (a needle rubbed with a magnet or l0ad6tone.) What does this magnetic needle do? (it always points nearly to the North.) What do' you mean by the pomt8 of the compas.? (the pointe of the heavens, north, east, &c., which are marked on the card to which the magnetic needle is attached.) What are North, East, West, South, called' (the cardinal points; that is, the prineipa! ']»Gints.) What would the point' exactly between North and East be called? (Nerth-Eaat.) If you look at the sun at 1I00n, where will the North. East, West, South, pointe be? (the South before me: the ,North ,behind me: the Eaat on my left hand: the West 'on my right, hand.) Where are these points suppoted to be situated on a map? (tlie North at the top: the South at the bottom: the East on the right hand: the. Weat on the left.) Of what use is tlte ,mariner's ,compass? (sailora steer by it: it enables them always to find ont the North, East, South, Weat, &c., and the intermediate points: 10 that they can always steer in the direction they wish to go.) By what did sailors direct their coune before the mariner'8 eomptns 'Was invented! (by the polar star and other ltars. ) Why is the _rmer's compa" better for steering by than the stara'? (because it can be used in the day. time, and in dark niglatll. when stars are not visible.) What is II paw of compasses? (an instrument fol' 'making a circle with., What is the meaning of contptJSlmg an objecll (accomplishing it: getting round it, aa it were, and catching it.) To di8eomjit 1 (to rout, to conquer.) DroUf{lat? (dryness: dry weather.) To have recourse to any thing? (to go to it and use it, as the best or only thing to help ODe.) A resource? (something we may go to for help or support.)

Ex. 70.-0E, OU.] 83

132 (0 long) carouse lounge rebound
doe chouse louse round
foe cloud lout rouse
hoe clout mound scoundrel
toe compound mountain scour
couch mountebank scout
(00) crouch mouse shout
canoe devour mouth shroud
shoe devout noun slouch
encounter ounce spouse
(0117 in d01l7n) espouse our spout
abound expound out sprout
about flout outer stout
account flounder outermost surround;'
aground foul panunouDt _til
aloud foundling pouch thou
amount fountain pounce thousand
aronnd gout pound trounce
arouse ground pout trout
astound hound profound Touch
avouch hour pronollD vq,Dchsafe
bounce bouse pronounce without
bound impound propound
bounty loud ' proud EXERCISE 70.

133 A mfUIe ?- (a light and rode Indian boat.) To a81ound? (to BltoaUh greatly.) To a~JI? (to affirm; to maintain.) To .e1l'l'0tH1l1 (~chink deep.) A couch? (sogrething to lie upon; light bed, sofa.) To couch? (to repose by lying down: to lie down in secret or in ambush.) To crouch to any body? (to stoop meanly to him.) To encounter? (tb meet boldly and contend with.) To e6pOUle? (to marry: also to

84 [Ex. 70.-0E, OU.

go through a solemn form by which one engage, to

. marry a person: to betroth oneself to a person.) What is to e3pOUle a cause 7 (to flied oneself to it: to take it up and promise or resolve not to desert it.) to ezpmmd? (to ezplain a book.) To jloul? (to jeer.) Tojlouruler? (to struggle in mud.) Afuurulling? (a child deserted by its parents and formd by a stranger.) The gout? (a disease of the legs, &c., accompanied with swelling and inflammation.) To impound? (to put in a pound: as • to impound stray sheep.') To lounge? (to saunter about carelessly and idly.) Paramount? (most eminent or important.) Profound? (deep: deeply-learned.) A ,cout? (a person sent out to spy.) To ,hroud? (to shelter: to wrap up. To trounce? . (to trim a person.) To f1ouch? (to witness: to warrant.) To f1oucAlaJe? (to condescend.) To account for any thing 7 (to give a probable reason for it.)

(a) What part of speech is -- ?

Compound, in: Compountr me thia medicine. What a disagreeable c6mpound I

W Observe the difference of accent; the verb having it on the last syllable; the substantive on the first. So in cOntrast, contrast'; c6Jfftict, conjlict'; and many other dissyllables, which are both

verba and substantives.

b) Having-the-gout (gouty). Abstr. subst. from .tout (stoutness). Adv. from .tout (stoutly). Abstr. Bubat. from gouty (goutiness). One-whose-business-is-tokeep-accounts (an accountant). Liable-to-be-calledto-account (accountable). Abstr. subst. and adv. from loud (loudness, loudly). Adv. from defJoIII (devoutly). Abstr. subst. from deflout (devoutness; but more commonly, devotion).


134 guard catalogue I quill juice
guardian demagogue' quiet pursuit
victual I fatigue
victualler a grotesque' cuirass I' bruise
issueS barangue' cuirassier cruise
ensue' intrigue It guile fruit
cbecquer league 11 beguile recruit
conquer oblique 11 guide
coquet' opaque P guinea build
a coquette pique 1& guitar II biscuit
masquerade plague circuit
tongue nuisance conduit
value vague sluice
ague suit antiquity
distinguish suitable iniquity.
harlequin suitor EXERCISE 71.

135 The "me of a business? (the end, or up-shot oC it.) To have ;8811e? (to have a child, or children.) To ensue? (to Collow something as its consequence: to follow.) A coqveUe? (an airy girl, who tries to catch lovers without any real affection.) A catalogue? (a list of books, furniture, &c.) A demagogue? (a mob-leader, who tries to get a party by persuading the people they are ill-govemed.) Grou'fj1lI! ? (distorted: unnatural.) An harangue ? (a speecb, or oration.) An intrigve? (a plot carried on by several persons: a love-plot: opposed to an honorable connexion.) A league? (a treaty bind-

1 lliffl. I WII'lir. a uh-.h ..

• mom (the u as in tube.) I co-kil.

• c4tallJg. t dimagog. 8 gra-thk'.

• hG""~, I, i,.-trees'. II lees'.

II ob-likll (obkek' according to Jones, Jameson, and Smart).

U II-fJIkl. I' peek. 11 1ttDi-rilu: 1ttDe-rGl-6eer'.

II sit.,.,.'.

86 [Ex. 'lI.-UA, &c.

jng people together: also the persons so bound.) Opaque? (not transparent: what one cannot see through.) Oblique? (not directly forward.) Pique t (petty offence taken: ill-will, &c,) To pique a person 1 (touch him with envy: fret, vex -him, &c.) r ague? (loose, inaccurate: spoken of notions.) A guitar? (a stringed musical instrument.) A cruise 1 (a ship's voyage, to try what it can capture.) A circuit? (properly,' a going round:' a judge's circuit is the set of towns he visit. for the purpose of administering justice.) A cuirall? (a breast-plate.) A cuirusier? (a soldier armed with a breast-plate.) Antiquity? (ancien tness-ancient timee.) Iniquity? (wickedness.)

a) What part of speech is -1

Intrigue, in: He intrigued with the Pretender. The intrigue was discovered.

Plague, - Don't plague me, you abominable plague.

Prove fatigue to be both subst, and verb.

b) A person who intrigues, from to intri~ue (an intriguer). Adv. and abstr, subst. from SUitable (suitably: suitableness). Without-guile (guileless). Present participle offatigue (fatiguing). PaBt participle (fatigued). Having-much-juice (juicy). Past participle of b"u,e (bruised). Full-of-fruit (fruitful), Adv. and abstr. subst, from fruitful (fruitfully, fruitfulness], One-who-builds (a builder). ODe-whoharangues (an haranguer).


( Word. in ",hU:l II letter U fIOt pronounced.)

136 climb benumb subtle victuals

comb debt subtlety Czar

dumb doubt

limb redoubt

numb redoubted

indictment muscle

schedule I schism· yacht'

I ,1IIdduk.

• lillm.

• ,Iot,

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