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F.A.C.E.

T
Basic Electricity and Electronics
Power Supply Regulators
Instructor Guide

Edition 3 91568-10

THIRD EDITION
Third Printing, March 2006
Copyright March, 2003 Lab-Volt Systems, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
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ISBN 0-86657-233-3

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Table of Contents
Section 1 Workstation Inventory and Installation............................................................... 1-1
Inventory of Workstation ........................................................................................................ 1-1
Minimum Computer Requirements.................................................................................... 1-1
Equipment and Supplies..................................................................................................... 1-1
Equipment Installation ............................................................................................................ 1-1
Software Installation ............................................................................................................... 1-1
Section 2 Introduction to F.A.C.E.T. Curriculum ............................................................... 2-1
Getting Started ........................................................................................................................ 2-2
Screen Buttons ........................................................................................................................ 2-3
F.A.C.E.T. Help Screens and Resources................................................................................. 2-4
Internet Access ........................................................................................................................ 2-5
Instructor Annotation Tool...................................................................................................... 2-5
Student Journal........................................................................................................................ 2-5
Assessing Progress .................................................................................................................. 2-6
Real-Number Questions and Answers .................................................................................... 2-8
Recall Values in Text ............................................................................................................ 2-10
Safety .................................................................................................................................... 2-11
Section 3 Courseware ............................................................................................................. 3-1
Unit 1 Circuit Board Familiarization.................................................................................... 3-1
Exercise 1 Circuit Location and Identification .................................................................... 3-2
Exercise 2 Power Supply Regulator Introduction................................................................ 3-7
Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator........................................................................................... 3-13
Exercise 1 Shunt Regulator Operation............................................................................... 3-14
Exercise 2 Line Regulation ................................................................................................ 3-20
Exercise 3 Load Regulation ............................................................................................... 3-24
Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator........................................................................................... 3-35
Exercise 1 Series Regulator Operation .............................................................................. 3-36
Exercise 2 Line Regulation ................................................................................................ 3-40
Exercise 3 Load Regulation ............................................................................................... 3-45

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation................................................................................... 3-57


Exercise 1 Voltage Feedback Regulator Operation ........................................................... 3-58
Exercise 2 Voltage Feedback Load Regulation ................................................................. 3-64
Exercise 3 Active Foldback Current Limiting ................................................................... 3-69
Unit 5 Current Regulator..................................................................................................... 3-79
Exercise 1 Current Regulator Operation ............................................................................ 3-80
Exercise 2 Current Regulator Line Regulation .................................................................. 3-85
Exercise 3 Current Regulator Load Regulation ................................................................. 3-89
Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator ............................................................................................ 3-99
Exercise 1 Regulator Operation & Voltage Regulation................................................... 3-100
Exercise 2 Current Regulation and Power Efficiency...................................................... 3-105
Unit 7 DC to DC Converter................................................................................................ 3-115
Exercise 1 Operating Characteristics ............................................................................... 3-116
Exercise 2 Voltage Regulation and Efficiency ................................................................ 3-120
Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers ................................................. A-1
Appendix B Faults and Circuit Modifications (CMs) .........................................................B-1
Appendix C Board and Courseware Troubleshooting ....................................................... C-1

ii

Introduction
This Instructor Guide is divided into three sections and the appendices. It provides a unit-by-unit
outline of the Fault Assisted Circuits for Electronics Training (F.A.C.E.T) curriculum.
Section 1 Workstation Inventory and Installation contains a list and description of
equipment and materials required for all units in this course of study as well as installation
instructions.
Section 2 Introduction to F.A.C.E.T. Curriculum provides a description of the courseware
structure, instructions on getting started with the multimedia presentation, and an explanation of
student-progress assessment methods.
Section 3 Courseware includes information that enables the instructor to gain a general
understanding of the units within the course.

The unit objective


Unit Fundamentals questions and answers
A list of new terms and words for the unit
Equipment required for the unit
The exercise objectives
Exercise Discussion questions and answers
Exercise Procedure questions and answers
Review questions and answers
CMs and Faults available
Unit Test questions and answers
Troubleshooting questions and answers (where applicable)

Appendices include the questions and answers to the Pretest and Posttest plus additional specific
information on faults and circuit modifications (CMs).
Please complete and return the OWNER REGISTRATION CARD included with the CDROM. This will assist Lab-Volt in ensuring that our customers receive maximum support.

iii

THIS

iv

SECTION 1 WORKSTATION INVENTORY


AND INSTALLATION

THIS

Power Supply Regulators

Section 1 Workstation Inventory and Installation

SECTION 1 WORKSTATION INVENTORY AND INSTALLATION


Inventory of Workstation
Use this section to identify and inventory the items needed.
Minimum Computer Requirements
100% compatible WindowsPC with Windows98 second edition or newer, NT, 2000, Me or XP;
Pentium class CPU, (Pentium II or newer); 126 MB RAM; 10 GB HDD; CD-ROM drive; SVGA
monitor and video card capable of 32-bit color display at 1024 x 768 resolution and sound
capabilities.
Equipment and Supplies
The following equipment and supplies are needed for Power Supply Regulators:
Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
1

Description
F.A.C.E.T. base unit
Multimeter
Oscilloscope, dual trace
POWER SUPPLY REGULATION CIRCUITS circuit board
Student Workbook
Instructor Guide

Equipment Installation
To install the hardware, refer to the Tech-Lab (minimum version 6.x) Installation Guide.

Software Installation
Third Party Application Installation
All applications and files that the courseware launches, or that are required for the course should
be installed before the courseware. Load all third party software according to the manufacturers'
directions. Install this software to the default location and note that location. (Alternatively, you
can install this software to a different location that you designate.) Remember to register all
software as required.
No third-party software is required for this course.
Installation of Courseware and Resources
To install the courseware and resources, refer to the Tech-Lab (minimum version 6.x) and
Gradepoint 2020 (minimum version 6.x) Installation Guide.

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Power Supply Regulators

Section 1 Workstation Inventory and Installation

1-2

SECTION 2 INTRODUCTION TO F.A.C.E.T


CURRICULUM

THIS

Power Supply Regulators

Section 2 Introduction to F.A.C.E.T. Curriculum

SECTION 2 INTRODUCTION TO F.A.C.E.T. CURRICULUM


Overview
F.A.C.E.T. curriculum is multimedia-based courseware. The curriculum gives students hands-on
experience using equipment and software closely associated with industry standards. It provides
students with opportunities for instruction in academic and technical skills.
All courses are activity-driven curricula. Each course consists of several units containing two or
more exercises. Each unit begins with a statement explaining the overall goal of the unit (Unit
Objective). This is followed by Unit Fundamentals. Next is a list of new terms and words then
the equipment required for the unit. The exercises follow the unit material. When students
complete all the exercises, they complete the Troubleshooting section and take the Unit Test.
The exercises consist of an exercise objective, exercise discussion, and exercise procedures. The
Exercise Conclusions section provides the students with a list of their achievements. Every
exercise concludes with Review Questions. Available circuit modifications (CMs) and faults are
listed after the review questions. Additional specific information on CMs and faults is available
in Appendix B.

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Power Supply Regulators

Section 2 Introduction to F.A.C.E.T. Curriculum

Getting Started
Desktop
After the Tech-Lab System is installed, the TechLab icon appears on the desktop.
1. Click on the TechLab icon.
2. The student clicks on LOGON and selects his or her name.
3. The student enters his or her password and clicks on OK. (If he or she is creating a password,
four alphanumeric characters must be entered. The system will ask for the password to be
entered again for verification. Keep a record of the students' passwords.)
4. The previous two steps are repeated until all members of the student team have logged on.
Click on Complete and then Yes.
5. When the Available Courses menu appears, students click on the course name.
6. A window with the name of the course and a list of units for that course appears. Students
click on the unit name. The unit title page appears and the students are ready to begin.
Selecting Other Courses and Exiting the Courseware
1. Clicking on Exit when in a unit returns the student to the list of units for that course.
2. If students wish to select another unit, they click on it.
3. If students wish to exit F.A.C.E.T, they click on the X symbol in the upper right corner.
4. If students wish to select another course, they click on the Course Menu button. The
Available Courses menu screen appears. They may also exit F.A.C.E.T. from this screen by
clicking on the LOGOFF button.

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Power Supply Regulators

Section 2 Introduction to F.A.C.E.T. Curriculum

Screen Buttons
If you click on the F.A.C.E.T. logo on the top right of the unit title page the About screen
appears. It acknowledges the copyright holder(s) of video and/or screen-capture material used in
the topic.
The Menu button calls these menus:
when on an exercise menu screen, it calls the Unit Menu.
when on an exercise screen, it calls the Exercise Menu.
when on a unit screen, it calls the Unit Menu.
The Bookmark button marks the current screen. A student can click on the button at any time in
the lesson. The second time the student clicks on the button, the page displayed when the button
was first clicked will return to the screen. Any bookmarks used during a lesson are not saved
when the student logs out of the lesson.
The Application Launch button opens third-party software.
Click on the Resources button to view a pop-up menu. The pop-up menu includes access to a
calculator, a student journal, new terms and words, a print current screen option, the Lab-Volt
authored Internet Website, and a variety of F.A.C.E.T. help screens.
The Help button aids students with system information. On certain screens the Help button
appears to be depressed. On these screens, clicking on the Help button will access Screen Help
windows (context-sensitive help).
The Internet button opens an Internet browser. Students will have unrestricted access to all
search engines and web sites unless the school administration has restricted this usage.
Use the Exit button to exit the course.
The right arrow button moves you forward to the next screen.
The left arrow button moves you backward to the previous screen.

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Power Supply Regulators

Section 2 Introduction to F.A.C.E.T. Curriculum

F.A.C.E.T. Help Screens and Resources


There are three ways to access F.A.C.E.T. help screens and other resources.
System Help
Students access System Help by clicking on the Help button at the bottom of the screen when the
button does not appear to be depressed. The menu selections access a variety of system help,
navigation, and information windows.
Screen Help
On certain screens, the Help button appears to be depressed. On these screens, clicking on the
Help button will access Screen Help windows. This is information specific to the content of that
particular screen.
Resources
Students click on the Resources button to access the following windows.
Calculator
F.A.C.E.T. 32-Bit Microprocessor Help
F.A.C.E.T. Analog Communications Setup Procedure
F.A.C.E.T. Digital Communications Help
F.A.C.E.T. Electronics and Troubleshooting Help
F.A.C.E.T. Fiber Optic Communications Help
F.A.C.E.T. Math Help
Internet Link
New Terms and Words
Print Current Page
Student Journal

2-4

Power Supply Regulators

Section 2 Introduction to F.A.C.E.T. Curriculum

Internet Access
There are two ways for students to access the Internet:
The Internet button opens an Internet browser. Students have unrestricted access to all search
engines and websites unless the school administration has restricted this usage.
The Resources button pops up a menu that includes access to the Lab-Volt
authored Internet website. If students wish to access this site when they are not in
the lesson, then they must go to http://learning.labvolt.com.
NOTE: The Lab-Volt Internet site does not have content-filtering
software to block access to objectionable or inappropriate
websites.

Instructor Annotation Tool


The annotation tool gives the instructor the ability to add comments or additional information
onscreen. Refer to the Tech-Lab and GradePoint 2020 Installation Guide for detailed
information.

Student Journal
The student journal is an online notebook that each student can access while they are logged into
TechLab. The journal allows students to share notes with other students in their workgroups.
When used in conjunction with GradePoint 2020, the instructor may post messages, review, edit,
or delete any journal note.

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Power Supply Regulators

Section 2 Introduction to F.A.C.E.T. Curriculum

Assessing Progress
Assessment Tools
Student assessment is achieved in several ways:

Exercise questions
Unit tests
Pretest and Posttest
Troubleshooting questions

Exercise and Troubleshooting Questions


Throughout the unit material, exercise discussion, exercise procedure, and troubleshooting
sections there are several types of questions with instant feedback. These questions occur in the
following formats:
Multiple choice
True-false
Real-number entry
In most cases, when your students encounter a question set, they must answer these questions
before continuing. However, there are cases where students may progress to the next screen
without answering the questions. Lab-Volt recommends that you encourage your students to
complete all questions. In this way, students reinforce the material that's presented, verify that
they understand this material, and are empowered to decide if a review of this material is
required.
Review Questions
At the end of each exercise, there are review questions. The student receives feedback with each
entry. Feedback guides the student toward the correct answer.
Unit Tests
A unit test appears at the end of each unit. The test consists of 10 multiple-choice questions with
the option of having feedback. The Tech-Lab System defaults to no feedback, but the instructor
can configure the test so that students receive feedback after taking the test. You can randomize
questions in the unit test. Use the Tech-Lab Global Configurator to make feedback available,
randomize questions, and select other configuration options if desired. Refer to the Tech Lab
Quick-Start Guide for detailed information.

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Power Supply Regulators

Section 2 Introduction to F.A.C.E.T. Curriculum

Pretest and Posttest


Every course includes a pretest and a posttest. These are multiple choice tests. Refer to the Tech
Lab Quick-Start Guide for detailed information on how to record student competency gains.
Grading
Student grades are based on exercise questions, troubleshooting questions, a unit test, and a
posttest. The default weighting value of the unit test and the threshold for passing the unit test
can be adjusted by using the Global Configurator of the Tech-Lab System. Refer to the Tech Lab
Quick-Start Guide for detailed information.
Student Progress and Instructor Feedback
Unit progress is available through the Unit menu. The Progress window allows the instructor and
student to view the percentage of the unit completed, number of sessions, and time spent on that
unit. The Progress window shows whether the Unit Test was completed. If the test was
completed, it indicates whether the student passed based on the scoring criteria.

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Power Supply Regulators

Section 2 Introduction to F.A.C.E.T. Curriculum

Real-Number Questions and Answers


Throughout F.A.C.E.T. courses students may encounter real-number questions such as the one
shown below. Answers to real-number questions are graded correct if they fall within an
acceptable tolerance range.

The computer
saves this input
value so that it can
be recalled for use
in later questions.

The answer to the question posed in the illustration above does not involve a recall value from a
previous question. It appears in the Instructor Guide (IG) as shown in the box below.
The information in the IG tells you where the question is located and the range of acceptable
answers. In this case, the acceptable answers fall within the range of the nominal answer plus or
minus 5 percent tolerance: (15 5%).
e1p1 stands for
Exercise 1 Procedure screen 1
Location: Exercise Procedure page:
se1p1, Question ID: e1p1a
VS =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: V1


Nominal Answer: 15.0
Min/Max Value: (14.25) to (15.75)
Value Calculation: 15.000
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 5
Correct Plus Tolerance = 5

This is the name the computer uses internally


to identify the input value. In this case, 14.5
will be stored under the name V1.
NOTE: The recall value V1 is not the same as
the voltage V1. The recall label does not
appear onscreen.
In this case, the answer to this question is not
based on a value recalled from a previous
question. Therefore, the Value Calculation is
equal to the Nominal Answer.
The word "true" tells you that the tolerance is
calculated as a percent.

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Power Supply Regulators

Section 2 Introduction to F.A.C.E.T. Curriculum

A second example (shown below) illustrates an answer that the computer grades using a value
recalled from a previous question.

When a real-number question is based on a recall value from a previous question, the Min/Max
Value shown in the Instructor Guide is based upon a calculation using the lowest and highest
possible recall value. It represents the theoretical range of answers that could be accepted by the
computer. (It is not the nominal answer plus or minus the tolerance.)
To find the actual range of answers that the computer will accept onscreen, you must use the
actual recall value (14.5 in this example) in your calculations; see below.
Location: Exercise Procedure page:
se1p5, Question ID: e1p5c

Any letter enclosed in "#" signs refers to a


recall value from a previous question.

IT =

Since the value for #V1# is 14.5, the


computer will accept answers in the
following range as correct:

mA

Recall Label for this Question: I1


Nominal Answer: 9.091
*
Min/Max Value: (6.477) to (11.93)
Value Calculation: #V1#/1650*1000
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 25
Correct Plus Tolerance = 25

14.5/1650*1000 25% or
8.79 25% or
6.59 to 10.99
This calculated range is different from the
Min/Max Value shown in the IG, which
was based upon a calculation using the
lowest and highest possible recall value.

NOTE: After four incorrect answers, students will be prompted to press <Ins> to insert the
correct answer if this feature has been enabled in the configuration settings. When the question is
based on a value recalled from a previous question, answers obtained using the Insert key may
not match the nominal answers in this guide.

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Power Supply Regulators

Section 2 Introduction to F.A.C.E.T. Curriculum

Recall Values in Text


Sometimes numbers displayed on screen are values recalled from input on previous screens.
Because these numbers are recall values, they will change for each student.

The value of 10
was recalled
from a previous
screen.
The Instructor Guide lists the recall label in place of a number in this question.

This is a
recall label
for a value
recorded in a
previous
question.

The correct
answer will
depend on the
value the student
recorded in the
previous question.

Location:Exercise Procedure page: se1p11, Question ID: e1p11c


IR2 = VR2/R2
= #V4#/3.3 k
=
mA
Recall Label for this Question: I1
Nominal Answer: 2.818
Min/Max Value: (2.489) to (3.164)
Value Calculation: #V4#/3.3
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 4
Correct Plus Tolerance = 4

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Power Supply Regulators

Section 2 Introduction to F.A.C.E.T. Curriculum

Safety
Safety is everyones responsibility. All must cooperate to create the safest possible working
environment. Students must be reminded of the potential for harm, given common sense safety
rules, and instructed to follow the electrical safety rules.
Any environment can be hazardous when it is unfamiliar. The F.A.C.E.T. computer-based
laboratory may be a new environment to some students. Instruct students in the proper use of the
F.A.C.E.T. equipment and explain what behavior is expected of them in this laboratory. It is up
to the instructor to provide the necessary introduction to the learning environment and the
equipment. This task will prevent injury to both student and equipment.
The voltage and current used in the F.A.C.E.T. Computer-Based Laboratory are, in themselves,
harmless to the normal, healthy person. However, an electrical shock coming as a surprise will
be uncomfortable and may cause a reaction that could create injury. The students should be made
aware of the following electrical safety rules.
1. Turn off the power before working on a circuit.
2. Always confirm that the circuit is wired correctly before turning on the power. If required,
have your instructor check your circuit wiring.
3. Perform the experiments as you are instructed: do not deviate from the documentation.
4. Never touch live wires with your bare hands or with tools.
5. Always hold test leads by their insulated areas.
6. Be aware that some components can become very hot during operation. (However, this is not
a normal condition for your F.A.C.E.T. course equipment.) Always allow time for the
components to cool before proceeding to touch or remove them from the circuit.
7. Do not work without supervision. Be sure someone is nearby to shut off the power and
provide first aid in case of an accident.
8. Remove power cords by the plug, not by pulling on the cord. Check for cracked or broken
insulation on the cord.

2-11

Power Supply Regulators

Section 2 Introduction to F.A.C.E.T. Curriculum

2-12

SECTION 3 COURSEWARE

SECTION 3 COURSEWARE

THIS

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 1 Circuit Board Familiarization

UNIT 1 CIRCUIT BOARD FAMILIARIZATION

UNIT OBJECTIVE
Identify the circuit blocks and major components on the POWER SUPPLY REGULATION
CIRCUITS circuit board.
UNIT FUNDAMENTALS
No Questions
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None
NEW TERMS AND WORDS
integrated circuit (IC) - any electronic device in which active and passive elements are
contained in a single package.
discrete - an individual circuit component, complete in itself, such as a resistor, diode, capacitor,
or transistor, used as an individual and separable circuit element.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
F.A.C.E.T. base unit
Multimeter
POWER SUPPLY REGULATION CIRCUITS circuit board

3-1

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 1 Circuit Board Familiarization

Exercise 1 Circuit Location and Identification


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Be familiar with the functional circuit blocks on the POWER SUPPLY REGULATION
CIRCUITS circuit board. Use the circuit board to locate and identify circuit components.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d5, Question ID: e1d5a
Can a two-post connector simultaneously select both resistive loads (R5 or R6 and R7) on the
SHUNT VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block?
a. yes
b. no
Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d9, Question ID: e1d9a
The variable power supply used to energize the SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit
block has which polarity?
a. positive
b. negative
Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d12, Question ID: e1d12a
On the CURRENT REGULATOR circuit block, maximum load current is required when R3 is
set to its
a. maximum CW position.
b. midpoint position.
c. maximum CCW position.
Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d16, Question ID: e1d16a
The VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block is an improved series voltage
regulator because of
a. a variable voltage reference diode.
b. a passive feedback amplifier.
c. an active feedback amplifier.
d. a variable load resistor.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 1 Circuit Board Familiarization

EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p1, Question ID: e1p1a
1. Refer to your POWER SUPPLY REGULATION CIRCUITS circuit board. VR1 and U1 are
a. discrete devices.
b. IC devices.
c. passive devices.
d. transistors.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p2, Question ID: e1p2a
2. The positive variable supply on your base unit
a. powers your test equipment.
b. powers the DC TO DC CONVERTER circuit block.
c. provides the output voltage of the circuit regulators.
d. provides input voltage for several circuit regulators.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p3, Question ID: e1p3a
3. Which circuit block uses a PNP transistor?
a. CURRENT REGULATOR circuit block
b. VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block
c. Both of the above.
d. None of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p4, Question ID: e1p4a
4. Which circuit block has a transistor labeled Q1 in parallel with the circuit load resistor?
a. SHUNT VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block
b. SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block
c. CURRENT REGULATOR circuit block
d. None of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p5, Question ID: e1p5a
5. On the SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block,
a. R5 is the circuit output load resistor.
b. CR1 is the voltage controlling element of the circuit.
c. Q1 is in series with the circuit output load resistance.
d. Q1 is in parallel with the circuit output load resistance.

3-3

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 1 Circuit Board Familiarization

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p6, Question ID: e1p6a


6. Which circuit block uses an error amplifier?
a. CURRENT REGULATOR circuit block
b. VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block
c. IC REGULATOR circuit block
d. All of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p7, Question ID: e1p7a
7. Which circuit block requires an inductor?
a. IC REGULATION circuit block
b. DC TO DC CONVERTER circuit block
c. VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block
d. None of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p8, Question ID: e1p8a
8. Which circuit block can be configured to regulate output voltage or output current?
a. IC REGULATOR circuit block
b. DC TO DC CONVERTER circuit block
c. VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block
d. None of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p9, Question ID: e1p9a
9. Which circuit block is not energized by the positive variable base unit power source?
a. IC REGULATOR circuit block
b. DC TO DC CONVERTER circuit block
c. VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block
d. CURRENT REGULATOR circuit block
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p10, Question ID: e1p10a
10. To increase the load across Q1 of the SHUNT VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block,
a. remove R6 and R7 from the circuit.
b. set R6 to the maximum CCW position.
c. set R6 to its midpoint.
d. set R6 to the maximum CW position.

3-4

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 1 Circuit Board Familiarization

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions page: se1r1, Question ID: e1r1
1. In all of the circuit blocks, a two-post connector is used to connect the
a. reference voltage.
b. transistors.
c. filter capacitors.
d. dc power source to the regulator input.
Location: Review Questions page: se1r2, Question ID: e1r2
2. The circuit block that uses a 15 Vdc power supply in addition to the positive variable supply
is the
a. SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block.
b. VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block.
c. IC REGULATOR circuit block.
d. CURRENT REGULATOR circuit block.
Location: Review Questions page: se1r3, Question ID: e1r3
3. The circuit that has transistor Q1 in parallel with the load resistance is the
a. SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block.
b. SHUNT VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block.
c. CURRENT REGULATOR circuit block.
d. VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block.
Location: Review Questions page: se1r4, Question ID: e1r4
4. The circuit block that contains a 16-pin DIP IC is the
a. DC TO DC CONVERTER circuit block.
b. SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block.
c. VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block.
d. SHUNT VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block.
Location: Review Questions page: se1r5, Question ID: e1r5
5. The circuit block that contains a three-pin IC is the
a. SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block.
b. VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block.
c. IC REGULATOR circuit block.
d. DC TO DC CONVERTER circuit block.

3-5

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 1 Circuit Board Familiarization

CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

3-6

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 1 Circuit Board Familiarization

Exercise 2 Power Supply Regulator Introduction


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Configure and operate two power supply regulation circuits. Verify results by measuring circuit
voltages.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
No Questions
EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p3, Question ID: e2p3a
4. Does the regulator output voltage change significantly when the load resistance is reduced?
a. Yes, there is a significant change in output voltage.
b. No, the output voltage is very stable.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p4, Question ID: e2p4a
6. Measure the output voltage of your shunt regulator. Did VO change significantly when the
input voltage to the regulator was reduced by 10% (from 10 Vdc to 9 Vdc)?
a. yes
b. no
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p5, Question ID: e2p5a
7. Based on your observations, does the shunt regulator control the output voltage with changes
in line voltage and load resistance?
a. yes
b. no
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p9, Question ID: e2p9a
13. Based on your voltage readings, does the regulator maintain a near constant output voltage as
the load resistance is changed?
a. yes
b. no

3-7

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 1 Circuit Board Familiarization

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p10, Question ID: e2p10a


15. Measure the output voltage of your regulator. Based on your reading, does the IC
REGULATOR circuit block maintain a near constant output voltage as the input voltage is
reduced?
a. yes
b. no
REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions page: se2r1, Question ID: e2r1
1. The value of the line voltage (VI) is set at the
a. output of the dc power supply.
b. output of the regulator.
c. input side of a regulator.
d. Q1 transistor collector terminal.
Location: Review Questions page: se2r2, Question ID: e2r2
2. The positive variable supply for the regulator on your circuit board
a. is hardwired to the regulator.
b. is fixed at 15.0 Vdc.
c. is connected to the regulator circuit with a two-post connector.
d. is a variable supply adjusted by a potentiometer on each circuit block.
Location: Review Questions page: se2r3, Question ID: e2r3
3. The output voltage (VO) is the voltage drop across the
a. load resistance.
b. Q1 control transistor collector and emitter terminals.
c. zener diode in the circuit.
d. program resistor.
Location: Review Questions page: se2r4, Question ID: e2r4
4. Which statement applies to the IC REGULATOR circuit block?
a. Rheostat R2 is used to set the circuit input voltage.
b. R5 is the circuit load resistor.
c. R3 provides short circuit protection.
d. The base unit positive voltage potentiometer is used to adjust the regulator output voltage.

3-8

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 1 Circuit Board Familiarization

Location: Review Questions page: se2r5, Question ID: e2r5


5. The SHUNT REGULATOR and IC REGULATOR circuit blocks compensate for changes in
a. line voltage.
b. load resistance.
c. Both of the above.
d. None of the above.
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

3-9

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 1 Circuit Board Familiarization

UNIT TEST
Depending on configurator settings, these questions may be randomized onscreen.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut1, Question ID: ut1
The POWER SUPPLY REGULATION CIRCUITS circuit board contains
a. six circuit blocks.
b. eight circuit blocks.
c. five circuit blocks.
d. four circuit blocks.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut2, Question ID: ut2
The purpose of a power supply regulation circuit is to
a. provide a constant voltage or current with changes in the load resistance or line
voltage.
b. maintain a constant load resistance.
c. maintain a constant line voltage.
d. prevent load short circuits.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut3, Question ID: ut3
The circuit block that requires a two-post connector to connect the dc power supply to the circuit
is the
a. SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block.
b. VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block.
c. CURRENT REGULATOR circuit block.
d. All of the above.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut4, Question ID: ut4
The circuit block that receives its dc power supply from another circuit block is the
a. SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block.
b. DC TO DC CONVERTER circuit block.
c. CURRENT REGULATOR circuit block.
d. SHUNT VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut5, Question ID: ut5
The CURRENT REGULATOR circuit block contains
a. an NPN transistor.
b. a PNP transistor.
c. three NPN transistors.
d. a negative dc power supply.

3-10

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 1 Circuit Board Familiarization

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut6, Question ID: ut6


The VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block contains a(n)
a. shunt control transistor.
b. error amplifier.
c. IC voltage regulator.
d. PNP series pass transistor.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut7, Question ID: ut7
Parallel resistors R1 and R2 in the SHUNT VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block
a. are the load resistors.
b. limit changes in the line voltage.
c. limit the current to safe values when the output is shorted.
d. set the controlled output voltage value.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut8, Question ID: ut8
If the line (input) voltage of a shunt voltage regulator varies by 10%, the circuit output voltage
a. will not change significantly.
b. will change significantly.
c. must decrease by 10%.
d. must increase by 10%.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut9, Question ID: ut9
If the load resistance of an IC regulator increases by 10%, the circuit output voltage
a. must increase by 10%.
b. must decrease by 10%.
c. will change significantly.
d. will not change significantly.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut10, Question ID: ut10
Transistor Q2 and resistors R3, R4, and R5 in the VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION
circuit block compose the
a. error amplifier circuit.
b. line voltage control circuit.
c. protection circuit.
d. feedback circuit.

3-11

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 1 Circuit Board Familiarization

3-12

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

UNIT 2 SHUNT VOLTAGE REGULATOR

UNIT OBJECTIVE
Describe the operation, line regulation, and load regulation of a shunt voltage regulator.
UNIT FUNDAMENTALS
No Questions
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None
NEW TERMS AND WORDS
shunt voltage regulator - a type of regulator that uses a parallel element to control output voltage
when line voltage or load voltage changes.
line regulation - the ability of a voltage regulator to maintain a constant output voltage for
variations in line voltage.
load regulation - the ability of a voltage regulator to maintain a constant output voltage for
variations in load resistance.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
F.A.C.E.T. base unit
Multimeter
POWER SUPPLY REGULATION CIRCUITS circuit board

3-13

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

Exercise 1 Shunt Regulator Operation


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Describe shunt voltage regulator operation by using a typical voltage regulator circuit. Verify
results with a multimeter.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d4, Question ID: e1d4a
The output voltage (VO) equals
a. VZ.
b. VBE.
c. VZ + VBE.
d. VZ VBE.
Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d7, Question ID: e1d7a
If the current through RS does not change but the load current increases, the current through Q1
will
a. increase.
b. not change.
c. decrease.
Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d10, Question ID: e1d10a
An increase in line voltage
a. has a small effect on VO because IC decreases.
b. has a small effect on VO because IC increases.
c. has a significant effect on VO because IC is constant.
d. has a significant effect on VZ.

3-14

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p3, Question ID: e1p3a
3. Measure the voltage drop across circuit reference diode CR1 (VZ), and enter your value in the
table.
VZ =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VCR1
Nominal Answer: 5.1
Min/Max Value: (4.59) to (5.61)
Value Calculation: 5.100
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p3, Question ID: e1p3c
4. Measure the voltage drop across the base-emitter junction of Q1 (VBE), and enter your value
in the table.
VBE =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VBE
Nominal Answer: 0.7
Min/Max Value: (0.56) to (0.84)
Value Calculation: 0.700
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20

3-15

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p4, Question ID: e1p4a


Based on your table values, calculate the expected output voltage (VO) of your circuit.
VO =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VOC
Nominal Answer: 5.8
*
Min/Max Value: (4.12) to (7.74)
Value Calculation: # VCR1 + VBE #
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p5, Question ID: e1p5a
6. Measure the output voltage of your circuit. Based on your reading, do VZ and VBE determine
the output voltage of your circuit?
a. yes
b. no
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p7, Question ID: e1p7a
8. Measure the output voltage of your circuit. Based on your reading the voltage of the zener
diode
a. has increased.
b. has not changed.
c. has decreased.
d. did not affect the output voltage.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p9, Question ID: e1p9a
11. Based on your VR4 indication, increasing the circuit load (decreasing the resistive value of
the load)
a. reduces the current through Q1.
b. does not affect the current through Q1.
c. increases the current through Q1.

NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and
highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct
value.
3-16

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p10, Question ID: e1p10a


12. Based on your observations, the Q1 collector current is inversely related to the load current.
Does this mean that a load resistance change requires a change in total circuit current (current
through R1 and R2)?
a. yes
b. no
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p11, Question ID: e1p11a
14. Based on the voltage drop indication, total circuit current
a. significantly varies as the load varies.
b. significantly varies because the load voltage varies.
c. is nearly constant since the total circuit current divides between Q1 and the load
resistance.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p12, Question ID: e1p12a
15. Since Q1 and RL are in parallel, the current through R1/R2 is nearly constant
a. because an increase in IRL generates a decrease in IC.
b. because a decrease in IRL generates an increase in IC.
c. All of the above.
d. None of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p14, Question ID: e1p14a
18. As the input voltage of your circuit is varied, the direction of the R1/R2 voltage drop
a. is opposite to that of the input voltage.
b. is identical to that of the input voltage.
c. cannot be determined.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p15, Question ID: e1p15a
19. Based on your observations, if VI increases and VO is constant, then
a. VRS does not change since IC is constant.
b. VRS decreases since IC is decreased.
c. VRS increases since IC is increased.
d. IRL must increase.

3-17

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p16, Question ID: e1p16a


20. Based on your observations, if VI decreases and VO is constant, then
a. VRS does not change since IC is constant.
b. VRS decreases since IC is decreased.
c. VRS increases since IC is increased.
d. IRL must increase.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p18, Question ID: e1p18a
22. Based on the output voltage indication, your circuit no longer regulates the load voltage
because
a. Q1 does not conduct.
b. Q1 cannot share part of the total circuit current.
c. without Q1, the circuit is reduced to a simple series resistive circuit.
d. All of the above.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions page: se1r1, Question ID: e1r1
1. Q1 of your shunt regulator circuit is forward biased. The collector current of Q1 varies due to
a. a change in base current or a change in load resistance.
b. a change in the voltage of the circuit zener diode.
c. Either of the above.
d. None of the above.
Location: Review Questions page: se1r2, Question ID: e1r2
2. If the input voltage to the regulator decreases, Q1 collector current
a. increases.
b. decreases.
c. fluctuates.
d. remains the same.
Location: Review Questions page: se1r3, Question ID: e1r3
3. If the current drawn by the load of a shunt regulator circuit increases,
a. regulating transistor current increases.
b. regulating transistor current may increase or decrease.
c. regulating transistor current decreases.
d. output voltage (VO) increases.

3-18

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

Location: Review Questions page: se1r4, Question ID: e1r4


4. Collector current of Q1 reaches a maximum value when
a. load current decreases to minimum.
b. load current increases to maximum.
c. load resistance decreases to zero.
d. base voltage decreases to zero.
Location: Review Questions page: se1r5, Question ID: e1r5
5. If zener diode CR1 is replaced with a device having a lower voltage,
a. the regulating transistor becomes damaged.
b. VO decreases.
c. VO is unpredictable.
d. VO increases.
CMS AVAILABLE
CM 1 TOGGLE
CM 2 TOGGLE
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

3-19

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

Exercise 2 Line Regulation


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Calculate the percentage of line regulation of a shunt voltage regulator. Obtain the required data
with a multimeter.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
No Questions
EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p2, Question ID: e2p2a
VO(max) =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: VOMAX


Nominal Answer: 5.86
Min/Max Value: (4.981) to (6.739)
Value Calculation: 5.860
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 15
Correct Plus Tolerance = 15
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p3, Question ID: e2p3a
5. Move your multimeter to the circuit output. Measure the minimum output (load) of your
regulator circuit. Enter your reading to two decimal places.
VO(min) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VOMIN
Nominal Answer: 5.83
Min/Max Value: (4.956) to (6.705)
Value Calculation: 5.830
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 15
Correct Plus Tolerance = 15

3-20

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p4, Question ID: e2p4a


6. Using the output voltages you measured, calculate the percentage of line regulation. Enter
your result to two decimal places.
VO(max) = #VOMAX# Vdc
VO(min) = #VOMIN# Vdc
VO(max) VO(min)
% Line Regulation = x 100
VO(min)
=
%
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 0.515
*
Min/Max Value: Value Calculation 30%
Value Calculation: # ( ( VOMAX VOMIN ) / VOMIN ) * 100 #
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 30
Correct Plus Tolerance = 30
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p5, Question ID: e2p5a
7. Based on your results and observations, a low line regulation (such as 0.5%) indicates that a
small change in line voltage should produce
a. a significant change in output voltage.
b. no change in output voltage.
c. a slight change in output voltage.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p8, Question ID: e2p8a
11. Based on your observations, your circuit drops out of regulation at an input voltage of about
a. 10 Vdc.
b. 8 Vdc.
c. 6 Vdc.
d. 4 Vdc.

NOTE: To compensate for tolerance accumulation overflow, Min/Max Values are not shown.
3-21

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p9, Question ID: e2p9a


12. As the input voltage is reduced below a critical value, your circuit no longer maintains a
regulated output voltage. Regulation is lost because.
a. Q1 no longer conducts.
b. Q1 conducts about 50% of the load current.
c. Q1 is saturated (conducts all of the load current).
d. None of the above.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions page: se2r1, Question ID: e2r1
1. On your circuit, the collector current of Q1
a. increases if the line voltage increases.
b. decreases if the line voltage decreases.
c. shares part of the total circuit current.
d. All of the above.
Location: Review Questions page: se2r2, Question ID: e2r2
2. Four regulation circuits are evaluated for a certain application. The unit with the most
effective line regulation is the unit with a line regulation of
a. 0.015%.
b. 0.02%.
c. 0.75%.
d. 1.0%.
Location: Review Questions page: se2r3, Question ID: e2r3
3. As line voltage increases, collector current of a shunt regulator transistor
a. increases.
b. decreases.
c. stays the same.
d. is cut off.
Location: Review Questions page: se2r4, Question ID: e2r4
4. In the shunt regulator circuit you studied, a loss of regulation occurred when the value of the
input voltage
a. exceeded the zener diode voltage.
b. fell below the zener diode voltage.
c. varied.
d. None of the above.

3-22

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

Location: Review Questions page: se2r5, Question ID: e2r5


5. Line regulation is the ability of a regulator circuit to compensate for
a. load changes.
b. source voltage changes.
c. failure of the zener diode.
d. None of the above.
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

3-23

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

Exercise 3 Load Regulation


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Describe and calculate load regulation. Verify results with a multimeter.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
No Questions
EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p2, Question ID: e3p2a
2. Monitor VRS as you vary the circuit load (R6 control) from end to end. Is there a significant
change in VRS?
a. yes
b. no
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p3, Question ID: e3p3a
3. Based on your meter indication, IRS is nearly constant. Since IRS is constant and IRL varies,
which circuit current compensates for the change in load current?
a. Q1 collector current
b. CR1 current
c. Q1 base current
d. None of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p5, Question ID: e3p5a
5. Based on your observations, the Q1 collector current and load current
a. increase together.
b. change in opposite directions.
c. decrease together.
d. Either (a) or (c).

3-24

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p6, Question ID: e3p6a


6. Based on your observations, load variations have little effect on the output voltage because the
currents through Q1 and RL
a. are added to the total circuit current.
b. are subtracted from the total circuit current.
c. do not change the total circuit current.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p7, Question ID: e3p7a
7. Set R6 to its maximum CW position. Measure the minimum output voltage (due to minimum
load resistance). Enter your reading to two decimal places.
VO(min) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VOLOW
Nominal Answer: 5.82
Min/Max Value: (4.947) to (6.693)
Value Calculation: 5.820
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 15
Correct Plus Tolerance = 15
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p7, Question ID: e3p7c
8. Remove R6 and R7 from your circuit by removing the two-post connector (no load
resistance). Measure the maximum output voltage. Enter your reading to two decimal places.
VO(max) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VOHIGH
Nominal Answer: 5.88
Min/Max Value: (4.998) to (6.762)
Value Calculation: 5.880
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 15
Correct Plus Tolerance = 15

3-25

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p8, Question ID: e3p8a


9. Use your measured output voltages to calculate the percentage of load regulation of your
circuit.
VO(min Rload) = VO(min) = #VOLOW# Vdc
VO(max Rload) = VO(max) = #VOHIGH# Vdc
VO(max) VO(min)
% Load Regulation = x x 100
VO(min)
=

Recall Label for this Question: None


Nominal Answer: 1.031
*
Min/Max Value: Value Calculation 10%
Value Calculation: # ( ( VOHIGH VOLOW ) / VOLOW ) * 100 #
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p10, Question ID: e3p10a
11. Observe VO, VR4, and VRS with a voltmeter. Based on your readings
a. Q1 is not conducting.
b. most of the circuit input voltage is dropped across R1 and R2.
c. the low load resistance has caused the regulator to drop out of regulation.
d. All of the above.

NOTE: To compensate for tolerance accumulation overflow, Min/Max Values are not shown.
3-26

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions page: se3r1, Question ID: e3r1
1. Which of the given load regulation figures is expected to generate the smallest load voltage
variation?
a. 0.8%
b. 8%
c. 20%
d. 100%
Location: Review Questions page: se3r2, Question ID: e3r2
2. Load regulation is a measure of the effectiveness of a regulation circuit compensating for
a. changes in the load resistance.
b. power surges.
c. failure of the regulator transistor.
d. None of the above.
Location: Review Questions page: se3r3, Question ID: e3r3
3. In a properly functioning shunt regulator circuit, the current through the series dropping
resistance
a. increases as load current increases.
b. decreases as load current decreases.
c. is less than the transistor current.
d. remains nearly constant as load current increases.
Location: Review Questions page: se3r4, Question ID: e3r4
4. The shunt regulator transistor current is greatest when
a. load current is maximum.
b. no load is connected.
c. load resistance is minimum.
d. load current is half of its maximum value.
Location: Review Questions page: se3r5, Question ID: e3r5
5. If the load current drawn from a shunt regulator increases beyond the maximum value that the
circuit was designed to provide, the
a. regulator transistor may be damaged.
b. zener diode may be damaged.
c. regulator transistor will be cut off.
d. output voltage will increase.

3-27

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

3-28

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

UNIT TEST
Depending on configurator settings, these questions may be randomized onscreen.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut1, Question ID: ut1
In a power supply without a regulator circuit, an increase in load resistance causes the output
voltage to
a. increase.
b. decrease.
c. remain the same.
d. fluctuate.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut2, Question ID: ut2
The output voltage of the circuit shown is approximately equal to the sum of the voltage drops
across
a. CR1 and the parallel combination of R1 and R2.
b. the load resistance (RL) and R4.
c. CR1 and the base-emitter junction of Q1.
d. CR1, R3, and the parallel combination of R1 and R2.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut3, Question ID: ut3
Changing the value of CR1 on the circuit shown to a higher voltage causes the output voltage to
a. decrease.
b. initially increase then resume its former value.
c. fluctuate.
d. increase.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut4, Question ID: ut4
Opening the zener diode circuit causes the regulator circuit to
a. act as a voltage divider.
b. cease regulation.
c. raise the output voltage.
d. All of the above.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut5, Question ID: ut5
An increase in the line voltage of the circuit shown causes Q1 to
a. conduct harder.
b. conduct less.
c. cease conduction.
d. overheat.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut6, Question ID: ut6


When the output load current increases, the
a. Q1 collector voltage decreases.
b. output voltage increases.
c. Q1 collector voltage increases.
d. Q1 base voltage decreases.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut7, Question ID: ut7
When the voltage of a zener diode in a shunt regulator circuit is changed, the change in output
voltage equals
a. twice the amount of zener diode voltage change.
b. half of the amount of zener diode voltage change.
c. the amount of zener diode voltage change.
d. None of the above.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut8, Question ID: ut8
If the line voltage increases, the voltage drop across parallel resistors R1 and R2
a. decreases.
b. increases.
c. remains constant.
d. None of the above.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut9, Question ID: ut9
If the line voltage applied remains constant while load current increases, the voltage drop across
parallel resistors R1 and R2
a. decreases.
b. increases.
c. remains essentially constant.
d. None of the above.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut10, Question ID: ut10
A regulated power supply is specified to control the output between 4.5 Vdc and 5.5 Vdc over a
range of 0-10A. The load regulation of the power supply is
a. 0.02%.
b. 0.2%.
c. 2.0%.
d. 22%.

3-30

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

TROUBLESHOOTING
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba2, Question ID: trba2a
4. Before a circuit fault is introduced, verify that the shunt voltage regulator circuit is working
properly by doing a performance check. Check the load regulation. Remember, you have already
adjusted VI to 10.0 Vdc.
Measure VO (RL = 1.1 k).
VO (RL = 1.1 k) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: M21
Nominal Answer: 5.84
Min/Max Value: (4.672) to (7.008)
Value Calculation: 5.84
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba3, Question ID: trba3a
5. Readjust R6 fully clockwise (CW) so that RL equals 100.
Measure VO (RL = 100).
VO (RL = 100) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 5.84
*
Min/Max Value: (4.485) to (7.288)
Value Calculation: # M21 #
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 4
Correct Plus Tolerance = 4
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba4, Question ID: trba4
7. The faulty component is
a. Q1 (shorted base-collector junction).
b. Q1 (shorted base-emitter junction).
c. CR1 (short between cathode and anode).
d. Q1 (open circuit to base).

NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and
highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct
value.
3-31

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb2, Question ID: trbb2a


4. Before a circuit fault is introduced, verify that the shunt voltage regulator circuit is working
properly by doing a performance check. Check the load regulation. Remember, you have already
adjusted VI to 10.0 Vdc.
Measure VO (RL = 1.1 k).
VO (RL = 1.1 k) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: M23
Nominal Answer: 5.84
Min/Max Value: (4.672) to (7.008)
Value Calculation: 5.84
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb3, Question ID: trbb3a
5. Readjust R6 fully clockwise (CW) so that RL equals 100.
Measure VO (RL = 100).
VO (RL = 100) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 5.84
*
Min/Max Value: (4.485) to (7.288)
Value Calculation: # M23 #
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 4
Correct Plus Tolerance = 4
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb4, Question ID: trbb4
7. The faulty component is
a. Q1 (shorted base-collector junction).
b. Q1 (shorted base-emitter junction).
c. CR1 (short between cathode and anode).
d. Q1 (open circuit to base).

NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and
highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct
value.
3-32

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
Fault 1
Fault 2

3-33

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 2 Shunt Voltage Regulator

3-34

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

UNIT 3 SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR

UNIT OBJECTIVE
Describe the operation, line regulation, and load regulation of a series voltage-regulating circuit.
UNIT FUNDAMENTALS
No Questions
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None
NEW TERMS AND WORDS
series regulator - a voltage-regulating circuit that uses a series pass transistor.
pass transistor - a name commonly applied to a series regulating element because all output
current must pass through this device.
bleeder resistor - a resistor that is connected across a circuit to provide a minimum circuit load.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
F.A.C.E.T. base unit
Multimeter
POWER SUPPLY REGULATION CIRCUITS circuit board

3-35

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

Exercise 1 Series Regulator Operation


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Describe series voltage regulator operation. Verify results with a multimeter.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion Page: se1d3, Question ID: e1d3a
If VBE is 0.7 Vdc and VRL is 5.8 Vdc, then
a. VCE of Q1 must equal 6.5 Vdc.
b. VCR1 must equal 6.5 Vdc.
c. VI must equal 6.5 Vdc.
d. VI must equal 5.1 Vdc.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p2, Question ID: e1p2a
2. Measure the voltage across CR1, and enter your value in the table.
VZ =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VCR1
Nominal Answer: 5.1
Min/Max Value: (4.335) to (5.865)
Value Calculation: 5.100
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 15
Correct Plus Tolerance = 15
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p2, Question ID: e1p2c
3. Measure the voltage across VBE of Q1, and enter your value in the table.
VBE =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VBE
Nominal Answer: 0.592
Min/Max Value: (.503) to (.6808)
Value Calculation: 0.592
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 15
Correct Plus Tolerance = 15
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p3, Question ID: e1p3a
4. Based on the table, the output voltage of your circuit equals
a. #VCR1# Vdc.
b. #VBE# Vdc.
c. # VCR1 + VBE # Vdc.
d. # VCR1 VBE # Vdc.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p4, Question ID: e1p4a
6. CM 9 is activated to electrically replace CR1 of your circuit. Based on your meter indication,
the decrease in output voltage is caused by
a. an increase in the value of the zener diode.
b. a decrease in the value of the zener diode.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p5, Question ID: e1p5a


7. Toggle CM 9 by clicking on <CM> to determine the change of output voltage, VBE, and VZ.
Based on your observations, the change in output voltage is primarily due to the change in
a. VBE.
b. VZ.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p7, Question ID: e1p7a
9. Measure the voltage drops across the R2/R3 parallel network, Q1 (VCE), and R4 (in parallel
with R7). The sum of these voltages
a. is not related to the circuit input voltage.
b. is essentially equal to the circuit input voltage.
c. indicates a series circuit relationship with the circuit input voltage.
d. Both (b) and (c) apply.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions Page: se1r1, Question ID: e1r1
1. A series voltage regulator
a. uses a pass transistor in shunt with the load.
b. uses a pass transistor in series with the load.
c. cannot regulate output voltage if load current changes.
d. conducts less as load current increases.
Location: Review Questions Page: se1r2, Question ID: e1r2
2. When the zener diode voltage of a series voltage regulator is reduced, the circuit output
voltage
a. increases.
b. does not change.
c. decreases.
d. first decreases then increases.
Location: Review Questions Page: se1r3, Question ID: e1r3
3. The initial output voltage of a series voltage regulator equals
a. VI VZ.
b. VZ + VBE.
c. VZ VBE.
d. VZ.

3-38

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

Location: Review Questions Page: se1r4, Question ID: e1r4


4. On the SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block, the regulating transistor
a. is in series with the circuit load.
b. is in series with the circuit input voltage.
c. conducts all of the load current.
d. All of the above.
Location: Review Questions Page: se1r5, Question ID: e1r5
5. On the SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block,
a. VI = VR2 + VCE + VRL.
b. VRL = VZ VBE.
c. VI = VR3 + VCE + VRL.
d. All of the above.
CMS AVAILABLE
CM 9 TOGGLE
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

3-39

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

Exercise 2 Line Regulation


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Calculate the percentage of line regulation for a series voltage regulator. Verify results with a
multimeter.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion Page: se2d5, Question ID: e2d5a
A decrease in line voltage
a. requires an increase in pass transistor voltage (VCE).
b. does not affect pass transistor voltage.
c. requires a decrease in pass transistor voltage.

3-40

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p2, Question ID: e2p2a
2. Measure the output voltage of your circuit, and enter the value in the table. Be precise.
(Line Voltage at 10 Vdc) VO =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VL1
Nominal Answer: 4.43
Min/Max Value: (3.11) to (5.759)
Value Calculation: 4.430
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 30
Correct Plus Tolerance = 30
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p2, Question ID: e2p2c
3. Reduce the line voltage of your circuit to 6.0 Vdc. Be precise. Measure the new output
voltage of your circuit. Enter your value in the table.
(Line Voltage at 6 Vdc) VO =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VL2
Nominal Answer: 4.38
Min/Max Value: (3.066) to (5.704)
Value Calculation: 4.380
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 30
Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

3-41

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p3, Question ID: e2p3a


4. Based on your data, compute the percentage of line regulation of your circuit.
VO at 10V line VO at 6V line
% Line Regulation = x 100
VO at 6V line
=
%
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 1.14
*
Min/Max Value: Value Calculation 10%
Value Calculation: # ( ( VL1 VL2 ) / VL2 ) * 100 #
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p4, Question ID: e2p4a
5. Based on your data, is there a significant change in output voltage as the line voltage is varied
between 6V and 10V?
a. yes
b. no
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p6, Question ID: e2p6a
7. Based on your observations, output voltage regulation occurs because pass transistor voltage
drop (VCE)
a. decreases as line voltage increases
b. increases as line voltage decreases.
c. opposes the change in line voltage.
d. aids the change in line voltage.

NOTE: To compensate for tolerance accumulation overflow, Min/Max Values are not shown.
3-42

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r1, Question ID: e2r1
1. In this circuit, the input voltage increases from 7 Vdc to 10 Vdc. As a result,
a. VCE and IC increase.
b. VCE and IC do not change.
c. VCE and IC decrease.
d. the output voltage increases by 3V.
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r2, Question ID: e2r2
2. In a series voltage regulator, a change in line voltage generates a substantial change in
a. the zener diode voltage.
b. the base-emitter voltage of Q1.
c. load current.
d. None of the above.
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r3, Question ID: e2r3
3. Effective line regulation protects against
a. normal power line variations.
b. input resistor failure.
c. failure of the zener diode.
d. changes in load resistance.
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r4, Question ID: e2r4
4. If a faulty zener diode allowed the base voltage of the regulating transistor to vary,
a. line voltage regulation would be improved.
b. line voltage regulation would be less effective.
c. line voltage regulation would not be affected.
d. VO would decrease.
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r5, Question ID: e2r5
5. An increase in line voltage causes the largest voltage increase across which of the following
circuit components?
a. CR1
b. R2 and R3
c. Q1
d. R7

3-43

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

3-44

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

Exercise 3 Load Regulation


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Calculate the percentage of load regulation of your circuit. Verify results with a multimeter.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion Page: se3d3, Question ID: e3d3a
An increase in load resistance (decreased load current) causes a small increase in load voltage
and
a. an increase in VCE.
b. no change in the conduction of Q1.
c. a decrease in VCE.
d. no change in VCE.
Location: Exercise Discussion Page: se3d4, Question ID: e3d4a
A decrease in load resistance (increased load current) causes a small decrease in load voltage and
a. an increase in VCE.
b. no change in the conduction of Q1.
c. a decrease in VCE.
d. no change in VCE.

3-45

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p2, Question ID: e3p2a
2. Measure the no load output voltage (VONL = VR4) of your circuit. Enter your reading with 2
decimal places; for example, 4.12.
VONL =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VONL
Nominal Answer: 4.60
Min/Max Value: (3.68) to (5.52)
Value Calculation: 4.600
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p4, Question ID: e3p4a
VOFL =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: VOFL


Nominal Answer: 4.40
Min/Max Value: (3.52) to (5.28)
Value Calculation: 4.400
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20

3-46

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p5, Question ID: e3p5a


VO at no load VO at full load
% Load Regulation = x 100
VO at full load
=
%
Recall Label for this Question: 00
Nominal Answer: # 4.55
*
Min/Max Value: Value Calculation 10%
Value Calculation: # ( ( ( VONL VOFL ) / VOFL ) * 100 )#
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p6, Question ID: e3p6a
6. If your circuit load resistance is decreased to a very low value, will your circuit maintain its
voltage regulation?
a. yes
b. no
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p8, Question ID: e3p8a
8. Measure the voltage drop (VCE) across the pass transistor. Based on your voltmeter
indication,
a. Q1 is no longer in conduction.
b. Q1 is at maximum conduction.
c. Q1 is a short circuit (0).
d. IB of Q1 is reduced to zero.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p9, Question ID: e3p9a
9. Measure VRS (R1//R2). Compare your voltage to that of the circuit input voltage (10 Vdc).
Based on your comparison,
a. Q1 is not saturated.
b. the circuit output is overloaded.
c. minimum load current flows.
d. All of the above.

NOTE: To compensate for tolerance accumulation overflow, Min/Max Values are not shown.
3-47

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p10, Question ID: e3p10a


10. Measure the base-emitter junction of Q1 (the emitter is negative with respect to the base).
Based on your reading, the output overload
a. causes Q1 to become reverse biased.
b. has little effect on base-emitter voltage.
c. reduces the base current to zero.
d. None of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p11, Question ID: e3p11a
11. Measure the voltage drop across the zener diode (CR1). Based on your voltage indication, the
output overload
a. does not affect the zener diode.
b. drops the zener diode out of regulation.
c. forces excessive current through the zener diode.
d. None of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p12, Question ID: e3p12a
12. Based on your observations, an output circuit overload condition
a. forces Q1 into cutoff.
b. has no effect on circuit operation.
c. drops the circuit out of regulation.
d. All of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p13, Question ID: e3p13a
13. Pass transistor Q1 dissipates power in the form of heat. The amount of power (in watts)
dissipated by Q1
a. equals the load current multiplied by the load voltage.
b. equals the total circuit current multiplied by the input voltage.
c. equals the Q1 collector current multiplied by the voltage drop (VCE) across Q1.
d. cannot be determined without a wattmeter.

3-48

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions Page: se3r1, Question ID: e3r1
1. If the output voltage of your regulator circuit varies between 5V and 4.8V, the load regulation
is about
a. 0.042%.
b. 0.42%.
c. 4.2%.
d. None of the above.
Location: Review Questions Page: se3r2, Question ID: e3r2
2. When the load resistance connected to a series voltage regulator decreases, the output voltage
a. increases very slightly.
b. decreases very slightly.
c. stays exactly the same.
d. decreases substantially.
Location: Review Questions Page: se3r3, Question ID: e3r3
3. On the SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block, a decrease in the value of load
resistance causes the Q1 base-emitter voltage to
a. increase.
b. decrease.
c. remain the same.
d. fluctuate.
Location: Review Questions Page: se3r4, Question ID: e3r4
4. On the SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block, a low value of load resistance (or a
short circuit) causes the conduction of the pass transistor to
a. decrease to nearly zero.
b. increase to a high value.
c. increase until the transistor is destroyed.
d. stay the same.
Location: Review Questions Page: se3r5, Question ID: e3r5
5. On the SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR circuit block, the series pass transistor can
regulate the load voltage because
a. VCE adds to or subtracts from the circuit input voltage.
b. Q1 conduction varies as the load is changed.
c. Q1 is not operated in its saturated mode.
d. All of the above.

3-49

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

3-50

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

UNIT TEST
Depending on configurator settings, these questions may be randomized onscreen.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut1, Question ID: ut1
The output voltage of the series regulator shown is approximately equal to the zener voltage of
CR1 less the voltage across the
a. emitter-collector of Q1.
b. emitter-base of Q1.
c. load resistance.
d. series resistors.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut2, Question ID: ut2
The conduction of this regulating transistor is controlled by the
a. base-emitter forward bias.
b. breakdown value of CR1.
c. load resistance.
d. series dropping resistor.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut3, Question ID: ut3
Changing CR1 to a lower zener voltage causes the output voltage to
a. decrease.
b. increase.
c. decrease initially then return to its former value.
d. increase initially then return to its former value.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut4, Question ID: ut4
The main purpose of parallel resistors R2 and R3 is to
a. reduce the collector voltage of Q1.
b. allow regulator operation over a wide range of load current.
c. protect Q1 against damage under short circuit conditions.
d. increase available bias current for CR1.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut5, Question ID: ut5
With an increase in line voltage (VI), a series voltage regulator
a. pass transistor overheats.
b. decreases conduction of the pass transistor.
c. turns off the pass transistor.
d. increases conduction of the pass transistor.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

Location: Unit Test Page: sut6, Question ID: ut6


Increasing the base-emitter forward bias of the pass transistor
a. causes the resistance of the transistor to increase.
b. causes the resistance of the transistor to decrease.
c. causes no change in transistor resistance.
d. causes only a decrease in transistor conduction.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut7, Question ID: ut7
If the zener voltage of CR1 is changed, the change in output voltage equals
a. half of the change in zener voltage.
b. twice the change in zener voltage.
c. the change in zener voltage.
d. None of the above.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut8, Question ID: ut8
A series voltage regulator cannot compensate for
a. moderate line voltage variations.
b. moderate load fluctuations.
c. output short circuits.
d. moderate line and load variations.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut9, Question ID: ut9
A bleeder resistor is connected across the output terminals of a regulator circuit to
a. protect the pass transistor from an output short circuit.
b. reduce pass transistor power dissipation.
c. establish pass transistor base bias voltage.
d. provide a minimum load current for the regulator.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut10, Question ID: ut10
A small voltage increase at the output of a series regulator circuit could indicate that the
a. line voltage increased.
b. load current decreased slightly.
c. load resistance increased.
d. All of the above.

3-52

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

TROUBLESHOOTING
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba2, Question ID: trba2a
3. Before a circuit fault is introduced, verify that the series voltage regulator is working properly
by doing a performance check. Check the load regulation. Remember, you have already adjusted
VI to 10.0 Vdc.
Measure VO (RL = 120).
VO (RL = 120) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: m25
Nominal Answer: 4.43
Min/Max Value: (3.544) to (5.316)
Value Calculation: 4.430
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba3, Question ID: trba3a
4. Remove the two-post connector at R7 (RL = 10 k).
Measure VO (RL = 10 k).
VO (RL = 10 k) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 4.43
*
Min/Max Value: (3.4) to (5.5)
Value Calculation: #m25#
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 4
Correct Plus Tolerance = 4
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba4, Question ID: trba4
6. The faulty component is
a. Q1 (shorted base-collector junction).
b. Q1 (open base-emitter junction).
c. CR1 (open circuit to ground).
d. R1 (open circuit to VI).

NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and
highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct
value.
3-53

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb2, Question ID: trbb2a


3. Before a circuit fault is introduced, verify that the series voltage regulator is working properly
by doing a performance check. Check the load regulation. Remember, you have already adjusted
VI to 10.0 Vdc.
Measure VO (RL = 120).
VO (RL = 120) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: m27
Nominal Answer: 4.43
Min/Max Value: (3.544) to (5.316)
Value Calculation: 4.430
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb3, Question ID: trbb3a
4. Remove the two-post connector at R7 (RL = 10 k).
Measure VO (RL = 10 k).
VO (RL = 10 k) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 4.43
*
Min/Max Value: (3.4) to (5.5)
Value Calculation: #m27#
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 4
Correct Plus Tolerance = 4

NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and
highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct
value.
3-54

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb4, Question ID: trbb4


6. The faulty component is
a. Q1 (shorted base-collector junction).
b. Q1 (open base-emitter junction).
c. CR1 (open circuit to ground).
d. R1 (open circuit to VI).
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
Fault 5
Fault 6

3-55

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 3 Series Voltage Regulator

3-56

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

UNIT 4 VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION

UNIT OBJECTIVE
Demonstrate the operation of a voltage feedback regulator circuit that uses active foldback
current limiting.
UNIT FUNDAMENTALS
Location: Unit Fundamentals Page: sf4, Question ID: f4a
The purpose of the feedback (error) amplifier is to
a. reduce the load regulating ability of the regulator.
b. reduce the line regulating ability of the regulator.
c. control the conduction of the pass transistor.
d. multiply the value of the circuit reference voltage.
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None
NEW TERMS AND WORDS
foldback - a protective circuit that reduces output current and voltage below peak levels under
overload conditions.
feedback - a signal coupled from the output of a circuit back to input.
current-sensing resistor - a resistor that develops a voltage drop that is proportional to the load
current.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
F.A.C.E.T. base unit
Multimeter
POWER SUPPLY REGULATION CIRCUITS circuit board

3-57

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

Exercise 1 Voltage Feedback Regulator Operation


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Demonstrate the operation of a voltage feedback regulator. Verify results with a multimeter.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion Page: se1d3, Question ID: e1d3a
Current flows through R1 (collector current of Q3) when
a. VBE of Q3 is about 0.7 Vdc.
b. Q3 is reverse biased.
c. the feedback voltage exceeds VCR1 by less than one diode drop.
d. All of the above.
Location: Exercise Discussion Page: se1d8, Question ID: e1d8a
Adjusting the output voltage potentiometer (R7) of the VOLTAGE FEEDBACK
REGULATION circuit block
a. varies the conduction of the error amplifier (Q3).
b. determines the initial voltage drop (VCE) of the pass transistor.
c. has essentially no effect on the circuit reference voltage.
d. All of the above.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p2, Question ID: e1p2a
2. Use your voltmeter to monitor the voltage drop across CR1 as you vary R7 (output voltage
adjust) from end to end. Based on your observations, the zener diode voltage
a. does not significantly change.
b. provides a stable circuit reference voltage.
c. Both of the above.
d. None of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p3, Question ID: e1p3a
3. Adjust the R7 control to its approximate midpoint. Measure the base voltage (VB) of Q3 (with
respect to circuit common), and compare it to the zener diode voltage. Based on your
comparison,
a. Q3 conducts because VB is about one diode drop greater than the zener diode voltage.
b. Q3 does not conduct since VB is about one diode drop greater than the zener diode voltage.
c. Q3 is reverse biased.
d. VZ and VB equal each other.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p4, Question ID: e1p4a
4. Monitor VCE of the pass transistor (Q1) as you vary R7 (output voltage control) from end to
end. VCE varies
a. to maintain a constant output voltage.
b. because R7 affects the conduction of Q3, the pass transistor driver.
c. because the base current of the pass transistor is directly controlled by the setting of R7.
d. because R7 affects the circuit reference voltage.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p5, Question ID: e1p5a
5. As you adjust R7 in a CW direction, the circuit output voltage increases. VO increases
because
a. the circuit reference voltage increases.
b. the circuit reference voltage decreases.
c. VCE decreases, IB of Q1 increases, and IC of Q3 decreases.
d. VCE increases, IB of Q1 decreases, and IC of Q3 increases.

3-59

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p6, Question ID: e1p6a


6. As you adjust R7 in a CCW direction, the circuit output voltage decreases. VO decreases
because
a. the circuit reference voltage increases.
b. the circuit reference voltage decreases.
c. VCE decreases, IB of Q1 increases, and IC of Q3 decreases.
d. VCE increases, IB of Q1 decreases, and IC of Q3 increases.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p8, Question ID: e1p8a
VCE =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: VCE


Nominal Answer: 4.8
Min/Max Value: (3.84) to (5.76)
Value Calculation: 4.800
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p10, Question ID: e1p10a
10. Again monitor VCE of the pass transistor. Compare your reading to that observed with a 10V
line voltage (# VCE # Vdc). Does VCE change as the line voltage is reduced?
a. Yes, VCE decreases as the line voltage is decreased.
b. Yes, VCE increases as the line voltage is decreased.
c. No, VCE is essentially constant as the line voltage is decreased.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p11, Question ID: e1p11a
11. Based on your observations of circuit performance, a change in circuit input voltage and a
change in output voltage
a. requires a change of pass transistor voltage drop.
b. have no effect on the pass transistor voltage drop.
c. requires a change in the circuit reference voltage.
d. must oppose each other.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p13, Question ID: e1p13a
13. CM 6 is activated to prevent Q3 conduction. Note your voltmeter response as you increase
the positive variable supply (circuit input) voltage. Is your circuit in regulation?
a. yes
b. no

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p14, Question ID: e1p14a


14. Based on your observations, the circuit output voltage increases because
a. Q1, the pass transistor, is saturated (low VCE).
b. the pass transistor base current is no longer controlled.
c. Q3 does not affect the pass transistor base current.
d. All of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p17, Question ID: e1p17a
17. Based on your observations, can your regulator compensate (maintain a constant output
voltage) for changes in the circuit reference voltage?
a. yes
b. no
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p18, Question ID: e1p18a
18. The reference voltage of your circuit is increased by CM 4.Does the output voltage of your
circuit increase by approximately the same amount of your reference voltage change.
a. yes
b. no

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions Page: se1r1, Question ID: e1r1
1. To vary the conduction of the series pass transistor, the error amplifier
a. varies the circuit reference voltage.
b. controls the base current of the pass transistor.
c. varies the circuit output voltage.
d. varies the circuit input voltage.
Location: Review Questions Page: se1r2, Question ID: e1r2
2. If the output voltage of the VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block increases,
conduction (collector current) through the error amplifier transistor (Q3)
a. increases.
b. does not change.
c. decreases.
d. oscillates.
Location: Review Questions Page: se1r3, Question ID: e1r3
3. If the output voltage of the VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block decreases,
conduction (collector current) through the error amplifier transistor (Q3)
a. increases.
b. does not change.
c. decreases.
d. oscillates.
Location: Review Questions Page: se1r4, Question ID: e1r4
4. The voltage feedback regulator is a type of
a. series regulator.
b. shunt regulator.
c. current regulator.
d. None of the above.
Location: Review Questions Page: se1r5, Question ID: e1r5
5. A change in line voltage (circuit input voltage)
a. generates an equivalent voltage change in the circuit reference voltage.
b. does not affect pass transistor base current.
c. affects only the collector current of the error amplifier.
d. is offset by a change in the pass transistor voltage drop.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

CMS AVAILABLE
CM 6 TOGGLE
CM 6
CM 4
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

3-63

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

Exercise 2 Voltage Feedback Load Regulation


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Determine the load regulation of a voltage feedback regulator by using measured values. Verify
results with a multimeter.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion Page: se2d3, Question ID: e2d3a
In your voltage feedback regulator, the circuit load current flows through the
a. Q3 control circuit.
b. Q1 pass transistor.
c. Both of the above.
d. None of the above.
Location: Exercise Discussion Page: se2d6, Question ID: e2d6a
An increase in circuit load (decrease in the resistance of R10)
a. decreases VF.
b. does not affect VF.
c. increases VF.
d. does not affect VCE of Q1.
Location: Exercise Discussion Page: se2d7, Question ID: e2d7a
A decrease in circuit load (increase in the resistance of R10)
a. generates a decrease in VF.
b. does not affect VF.
c. generates an increase in VF.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p3, Question ID: e2p3a
VB =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: VBQ3


Nominal Answer: 4.0
Min/Max Value: (3.4) to (4.6)
Value Calculation: 4.000
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 15
Correct Plus Tolerance = 15
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p4, Question ID: e2p4a
VCE =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: VCEQ1


Nominal Answer: 4.64
Min/Max Value: (4.408) to (4.872)
Value Calculation: 4.640
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 5
Correct Plus Tolerance = 5
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p6, Question ID: e2p6a
7. Measure VO of your circuit. Compare your reading to the initial circuit output voltage of 5.00
Vdc. Does an increase in the circuit load (step 6) increase or decrease the circuit output voltage?
a. decrease
b. increase
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p7, Question ID: e2p7a
8. Use 5.00 Vdc (the initial load output voltage) and your present reading to calculate the
percentage of regulation of your circuit.
% Load Regulation =
%
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 0.6
Min/Max Value: (0.48) to (0.72)
Value Calculation: 0.600
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20

3-65

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p8, Question ID: e2p8a


9. Based on your load regulation calculation, does the feedback voltage regulator circuit exhibit
better output voltage control than an emitter follower (1% to 4%) type of series regulator?
a. yes
b. no
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p9, Question ID: e2p9a
10. Use your voltmeter to measure the base voltage of Q3 (not the base-emitter voltage) with
respect to circuit common. Compare your reading #VBQ3# Vdc, the base voltage with minimum
circuit load resistance. Your comparison indicates that Q3 conduction has
a. increased.
b. not changed.
c. decreased.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p10, Question ID: e2p10a
11. Measure VCE of Q1 and compare your reading to #VCEQ1# Vdc, the pass transistor voltage
drop at minimum circuit load. Based on your reading, the pass transistor conduction has
a. increased.
b. not changed.
c. decreased.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p11, Question ID: e2p11a
12. As the load resistance decreased (load current increased), VCE of Q1
a. increased in order to decrease the load voltage.
b. did not change in order to maintain a nearly constant load voltage.
c. decreased in order to increase the load voltage.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r1, Question ID: e2r1
1. As the load resistance of the VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block is varied,
a. the circuit reference voltage compensates the base current of the pass transistor.
b. the voltage drop across the pass transistor is altered but pass conduction does not change.
c. load voltage and load current remain exactly constant.
d. None of the above.
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r2, Question ID: e2r2
2. An increase in circuit output voltage causes the base voltage of an error amplifier to
a. increase.
b. decrease.
c. remain unchanged.
d. decrease and then increase.
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r3, Question ID: e2r3
3. Increasing the circuit load resistance causes the voltage drop across a pass transistor to
a. increase.
b. remain the same.
c. decrease.
d. oscillate.
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r4, Question ID: e2r4
4. On the VOLTAGE FEEDBACK REGULATION circuit block, load current is decreased when
the
a. error amplifier is cut off.
b. pass transistor is saturated.
c. Q3 error amplifier collector current (IC3) increases.
d. Q1 base current (IB1) increases.
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r5, Question ID: e2r5
5. CM 4 is activated to increase the value of CR1 to about 5.1 Vdc. Within design limits, this
circuit value change
a. prevents output voltage regulation from occurring.
b. has little effect on output voltage regulation.
c. allows a load change to significantly vary output voltage.
d. All of the above.

3-67

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

CMS AVAILABLE
CM 4 TOGGLE
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

3-68

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

Exercise 3 Active Foldback Current Limiting


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Demonstrate the foldback current limiting protection circuit of a series voltage feedback
regulator. Verify results with a multimeter.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion Page: se3d5, Question ID: e3d5a
Transistor Q2 conducts. As a result,
a. pass transistor conduction increases.
b. pass transistor conduction decreases.
c. output voltage increases because Q2 adds to load current.
d. output current increases because Q2 adds to load voltage.
EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p3, Question ID: e3p3a
3. Use your voltmeter to measure the base-emitter voltage of Q2. Based on your reading (and its
polarity), Q2 is
a. forward biased and conducting.
b. reverse biased and not conducting.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p4, Question ID: e3p4a
5. Based on your output voltage (load voltage), is your circuit in its normal mode or overload
mode of operation?
a. overload
b. normal
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p5, Question ID: e3p5a
6. Based on your circuit performance, should Q2 be in conduction or at cutoff?
a. at cutoff
b. in conduction

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p5, Question ID: e3p5c


7. Measure the base-emitter voltage of Q2. Based on the voltage and its polarity, Q2 is
a. at cutoff (reverse biased).
b. in conduction (forward biased).
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p6, Question ID: e3p6a
8. In step 4 of this procedure, you decreased the circuit load resistance until the load voltage
dropped off (about 4 Vdc). Due to this change, Q1
a. was not affected but Q2 conduction decreased.
b. conduction decreased but Q2 was not affected.
c. conduction decreased and Q2 conduction decreased.
d. conduction decreased and Q2 conduction increased.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p7, Question ID: e3p7a
10. Based on your circuit performance and observations, an overload condition
a. causes Q2 to become forward biased and bleed base current away from the pass transistor.
b. increases VCE of Q1 and decreases the conduction of Q1.
c. forces the output voltage and current to fold back.
d. All of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p8, Question ID: e3p8a
11. When your circuit is in overload, does the power dissipation of the pass transistor increase or
decrease?
a. increases
b. decreases
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p9, Question ID: e3p9a
13. Based on VCE of the pass transistor, Q1 is
a. saturated.
b. near cutoff.
c. cut off.
d. None of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p10, Question ID: e3p10a
11. Measure VCE of Q2 (the emitter of Q2 is negative with respect to the collector of Q2). Based
on your readings, Q2
a. is near saturation.
b. is near cutoff.
c. bleeds most of the Q1 base current.
d. Both (a) and (c).

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p11, Question ID: e3p11a


15. Based on your observations, a severe circuit output overload
a. drives Q1 near cutoff.
b. maximizes Q2 conduction.
c. minimizes Q1 conduction.
d. All of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se3p12, Question ID: e3p12a
16. Based on your observation, the Q2 foldback protection transistor
a. is forward biased for specified circuit loads.
b. is reverse biased for low to moderate circuit overload conditions.
c. is forward biased for severe current overload conditions.
d. All of the above.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions Page: se3r1, Question ID: e3r1
1. With a severe output overload,
a. pass transistor base current decreases and VCE increases.
b. output (load) voltage and current increase.
c. foldback protection transistor base current decreases.
d. All of the above.
Location: Review Questions Page: se3r2, Question ID: e3r2
2. When load current is decreased, the voltage drop across R5
a. increases.
b. fluctuates.
c. decreases.
d. remains constant.
Location: Review Questions Page: se3r3, Question ID: e3r3
3. During normal voltage regulator operation, foldback transistor Q2 is
a. conducting.
b. cut off.
c. forward biased.
d. maintaining the output voltage.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

Location: Review Questions Page: se3r4, Question ID: e3r4


4. In a voltage feedback regulator, the specified value of the maximum allowable load is
exceeded. The output voltage
a. is held constant despite increasing load current.
b. reduces to zero.
c. gradually decreases.
d. decreases sharply.
Location: Review Questions Page: se3r5, Question ID: e3r5
5. When foldback transistor Q2 becomes active, the voltage across
a. R4 cuts off Q2.
b. R3 exceeds the voltage across R5 by about 0.6 Vdc.
c. R5 is reduced.
d. R5 exceeds the voltage across R3 by about 0.6 Vdc.
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

3-72

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

UNIT TEST
Depending on configurator settings, these questions may be randomized onscreen.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut1, Question ID: ut1
During normal operation, the pass transistor (Q1) current is primarily affected by
a. Q1 base-emitter voltage.
b. the breakdown value of CR1.
c. load resistance.
d. resistor R5.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut2, Question ID: ut2
Changing zener CR1 to a higher voltage value causes the output voltage to
a. increase.
b. increase as current decreases.
c. decrease.
d. become unregulated.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut3, Question ID: ut3
Increasing the value of R8 in the output voltage feedback driver string causes the circuit
reference voltage to
a. increase.
b. decrease.
c. remain the same.
d. None of the above.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut4, Question ID: ut4
Under normal load conditions, load resistance decreases. The base current of the pass transistor
(Q1)
a. forces an overload condition.
b. increases.
c. decreases.
d. is essentially constant.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut5, Question ID: ut5
If the error amplifier base circuit shown above opens,
a. the circuit cannot regulate output voltage.
b. output voltage decreases.
c. no pass transistor base current can flow.
d. no current can flow through the zener reference diode.

3-73

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

Location: Unit Test Page: sut6, Question ID: ut6


A feedback voltage regulator with a foldback current limiting circuit can compensate for
a. overcurrent conditions.
b. load resistance variations.
c. output short circuits.
d. All of the above.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut7, Question ID: ut7
During normal operation of a feedback voltage regulator circuit, the load resistance increases.
The output voltage should be
a. much higher.
b. much lower.
c. slightly lower.
d. unchanged.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut8, Question ID: ut8
The current limiting foldback circuit is
a. a passive protection circuit.
b. an active protection circuit.
c. an inactive protection circuit.
d. an accurate type of voltage regulator.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut9, Question ID: ut9
The values of R3, R4, and R5 determine the
a. maximum output current.
b. regulator output voltage.
c. regulator accuracy.
d. regulator reference voltage.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut10, Question ID: ut10
Once the initial output voltage of your voltage regulator is set, variations of load resistance cause
a. a variation in the base current of the error amplifier.
b. a variation in the conduction of the error amplifier.
c. the pass transistor VCE voltage to change.
d. All of the above.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

TROUBLESHOOTING
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba2, Question ID: trba2a
5. Before a circuit fault is introduced, verify that the voltage feedback regulation circuit is
working properly by doing a performance check. Check the load regulation. Remember, you
have already adjusted VI to 10.0 Vdc.
Measure VO (RL = 1.1 k ).
VO (RL = 1.1 k ) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: M29
Nominal Answer: 5.0
Min/Max Value: (4) to (6)
Value Calculation: 5.000
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba3, Question ID: trba3a
6. Adjust R10 to its approximate midpoint (RL = 600).
Measure VO (RL = 600).
VO (RL = 600) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: M22
Nominal Answer: 5.0
*
Min/Max Value: (3.84) to (6.24)
Value Calculation: #M29#
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 4
Correct Plus Tolerance = 4
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba4, Question ID: trba4
8. The faulty component is
a. Q1 (shorted base-emitter junction).
b. Q3 (open base-collector junction).
c. CR1 (Low resistance across the cathode and anode).
d. Q2 (shorted base-emitter junction).

NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and
highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct
value.
3-75

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb2, Question ID: trbb2a


5. Before a circuit fault is introduced, verify that the voltage feedback regulation circuit is
working properly by doing a performance check. Check the load regulation. Remember, you
have already adjusted VI to 10.0 Vdc.
Measure VO (RL = 1.1 k).
VO (RL = 1.1 k) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: M31
Nominal Answer: 5.0
Min/Max Value: (4) to (6)
Value Calculation: 5.000
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb3, Question ID: trbb3a
6. Adjust R10 to its approximate midpoint (RL = 600).
Measure VO (RL = 600).
VO (RL = 600) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 5.0
*
Min/Max Value: (3.84) to (6.24)
Value Calculation: #M31#
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 4
Correct Plus Tolerance = 4
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb4, Question ID: trbb4
8. The faulty component is
a. Q1 (shorted base-emitter junction).
b. Q3 (open base-collector junction).
c. CR1 (Low resistance across the cathode and anode).
d. Q2 (shorted base-emitter junction).

NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and
highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct
value.
3-76

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
Fault 3
Fault 4

3-77

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 4 Voltage Feedback Regulation

3-78

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

UNIT 5 CURRENT REGULATOR

UNIT OBJECTIVE
Demonstrate the operation of a current regulator.
UNIT FUNDAMENTALS
No Questions
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None
NEW TERMS AND WORDS
current source - a power source whose output is stated in terms of current. A current source
provides a fixed value of current independent of the load.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
F.A.C.E.T. base unit
Multimeter
POWER SUPPLY REGULATION CIRCUITS circuit board

3-79

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

Exercise 1 Current Regulator Operation


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Demonstrate the operation of a transistor current regulator. Verify results with a multimeter.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d5, Question ID: e1d5a
If VCR1 equals 3.3 Vdc and VBE equals 0.6 Vdc, then a constant current of 8.8 mA requires that
R1 equal
a. 31.
b. 3068.
c. 306.8.
d. 30.7.
EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p2, Question ID: e1p2a
2. Use a voltmeter to measure VCR1 of your circuit.
VCR1 =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VCR1
Nominal Answer: 3.3
Min/Max Value: (2.805) to (3.795)
Value Calculation: 3.300
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 15
Correct Plus Tolerance = 15
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p3, Question ID: e1p3a
VBE =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: VBE


Nominal Answer: 0.67
Min/Max Value: (0.603) to (0.737)
Value Calculation: 0.670
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10
3-80

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p4, Question ID: e1p4a


4. Based on your data, the voltage across R1 is
a. #VCR1# Vdc.
b. #VBE# Vdc.
c. #VCR1# Vdc + #VBE# Vdc.
d. #VCR1# Vdc #VBE# Vdc.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p6, Question ID: e1p6a
6. Use your voltmeter to measure the base-collector (VBC) voltage of Q1. Based on your reading
and the polarity indication, the base-collector junction is
a. reverse biased, as it should be.
b. zero biased because Q1 is active.
c. forward biased.
d. forward biased because Q1 is active.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p8, Question ID: e1p8a
8. Based on your observations,
a. VBC increases as load resistance decreases.
b. VBC decreases as load resistance increases.
c. excessive load resistance causes the base-collector junction of Q1 to become forward biased.
d. All of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p10, Question ID: e1p10a
IR1 =

mA

Recall Label for this Question: IR1


Nominal Answer: 9.0
Min/Max Value: (7.65) to (10.35)
Value Calculation: 9.000
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 15
Correct Plus Tolerance = 15

3-81

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p11, Question ID: e1p11a


IR4 =

mA

Recall Label for this Question: IR4


Nominal Answer: 9.0
Min/Max Value: (7.65) to (10.35)
Value Calculation: 9.000
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 15
Correct Plus Tolerance = 15
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p12, Question ID: e1p12a
12. Based on your current calculations, is the current set by R1 about the same as the output
current (IR3 or IR4) of your circuit?
a. Yes, the set current and output current are about the same.
b. No, the set current does not equal the output current due to the offsetting base current of Q1.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p14, Question ID: e1p14a
14. Based on your observations, the CM
a. caused an increase in the value of R1 because load current decreased.
b. had no effect on the value of R1 because load current and the value of R1 are not related.
c. caused a decrease in the value of R1 because load current increased.
d. had no effect on the value of R1 because Q1 isolates the input side of the circuit from the load
side.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p16, Question ID: e1p16a
16. Based on your circuit performance,
a. the set current of your circuit has increased.
b. the circuit reference voltage has increased.
c. the base-emitter voltage of Q1 is essentially constant.
d. All of the above.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions page: se1r1, Question ID: e1r1
1. On the CURRENT REGULATOR circuit block, a change in the value of R1 causes a change
in
a. the load (IR3) current.
b. the Q1 collector emitter voltage.
c. load (VR3) voltage.
d. All of the above.
Location: Review Questions page: se1r2, Question ID: e1r2
2. The CURRENT REGULATOR circuit block is designed to provide
a. a constant load voltage.
b. a constant load current.
c. All of the above.
d. None of the above.
Location: Review Questions page: se1r3, Question ID: e1r3
3. Zener diode CR1 maintains a constant voltage drop across
a. the Q1 base-collector junction (VBC).
b. the load resistance (RL).
c. the Q1 emitter and collector terminals (VCE).
d. R1 and the base-emitter (VBE) junction of Q1.
Location: Review Questions page: se1r4, Question ID: e1r4
4. Within design limits, the load current of the CURRENT REGULATOR circuit block
a. depends on the value of load resistance.
b. is maximum if Q1 is near saturation.
c. is not affected by the value of load resistance.
d. is minimum if Q1 is near cutoff.
Location: Review Questions page: se1r5, Question ID: e1r5
5. In a transistor current regulator, the load resistance becomes too great; therefore, the
a. transistor becomes saturated.
b. transistor becomes cut off.
c. collector voltage decreases.
d. base-emitter junction becomes reverse biased.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

CMS AVAILABLE
CM 17 TOGGLE
CM 16 TOGGLE
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

3-84

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

Exercise 2 Current Regulator Line Regulation


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Calculate the percentage of current regulator line regulation. Verify results with a multimeter.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion page: se2d4, Question ID: e2d4a
If the circuit line voltage (VI) increases, IK
a. increases because VCR1 increases slightly.
b. remains constant because VCR1 does not change.
c. decreases because VCR1 decreases slightly.
Location: Exercise Discussion page: se2d5, Question ID: e2d5a
If the circuit line voltage (VI) decreases, IK
a. increases because VCR1 increases slightly.
b. remains constant because VCR1 does not change.
c. decreases because VCR1 decreases slightly.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p4, Question ID: e2p4a
IL(max) =

mA

Recall Label for this Question: ILMX


Nominal Answer: 9.1
Min/Max Value: (7.28) to (10.92)
Value Calculation: 9.1
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p5, Question ID: e2p5a
IL(min) =

mA

Recall Label for this Question: ILMN


Nominal Answer: 8.6
Min/Max Value: (7.31) to (9.89)
Value Calculation: 8.6
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 15
Correct Plus Tolerance = 15
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p6, Question ID: e2p6a
IL(max) IL(min)
% Line Regulation = x 100
IL(min)
=
%
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 5.814
*
Min/Max Value: Value Calculation 5%
Value Calculation: # ( ( ILMX ILMN ) / ILMN ) * 100 #
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 5
Correct Plus Tolerance = 5

NOTE: To compensate for tolerance accumulation overflow, Min/Max Values are not shown.
3-86

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p7, Question ID: e2p7a


Based on your observations,
a. the zener diode voltage tends to increase as the line voltage is increased.
b. line voltage has no effect on the voltage of the zener diode.
c. the zener diode voltage tends to decrease as the line voltage is decreased.
d. Both (a) and (c) apply.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p8, Question ID: e2p8a
10. Monitor VBE of Q1 at a line voltage of 10 Vdc (the current setting) and then at 8 Vdc. Based
on your observations, VBE
a. shows a significant change in value as the line voltage is varied.
b. is essentially constant as line voltage is varied.
c. cancels the change in line voltage.
d. None of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p9, Question ID: e2p9a
11. Based on your circuit performance and observations, a line voltage change causes a load
current change because
a. the change in VCR1 is compensated by a change of VBE.
b. VR1 is not altered by a change of line voltage.
c. VR1, altered by the line voltage change, essentially sets the circuit load current.
d. All of the above.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions page: se2r1, Question ID: e2r1
1. On the CURRENT REGULATOR circuit block, the base current of Q1
a. equals the circuit load current.
b. equals the current through R1.
c. is much less than the load current.
d. provides the proper zener diode current.
Location: Review Questions page: se2r2, Question ID: e2r2
2. To measure the line regulation of a current regulator,
a. vary the circuit load resistance between specified limits.
b. maintain a constant load resistance and vary the line voltage between specified limits.
c. maintain a constant line voltage and vary the load resistance between specified limits.
d. vary the line voltage and the load resistance between specified limits.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

Location: Review Questions page: se2r3, Question ID: e2r3


3. When the line voltage of a current regulator is increased, the load voltage increases because
the load current
a. does not change.
b. increases.
c. decreases.
d. decreases, then increases above its original value.
Location: Review Questions page: se2r4, Question ID: e2r4
4. Line regulation of your circuit is primarily determined by the change of
a. VCE of Q1.
b. VBE of Q1.
c. VR1.
d. VCR1.
Location: Review Questions page: se2r5, Question ID: e2r5
5. When the line voltage to your current regulator is increased,
a. VBE of Q1 is essentially constant.
b. VCR1 increases.
c. the circuit load current and voltage increase.
d. All of the above.
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

Exercise 3 Current Regulator Load Regulation


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Calculate the percentage of load regulation of a current regulator. Verify results with a
multimeter.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion page: se3d5, Question ID: e3d5a
Within the regulating range of the circuit, a change in load resistance causes a change in the
a. R2 current.
b. zener diode voltage.
c. voltage across R1.
d. circuit input voltage.
EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p4, Question ID: e3p4a
IL(min) =

mA

Recall Label for this Question: ILMIN


Nominal Answer: 9.0
Min/Max Value: (7.65) to (10.35)
Value Calculation: 9.000
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 15
Correct Plus Tolerance = 15
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p5, Question ID: e3p5a
IL(max) =

mA

Recall Label for this Question: ILMAX


Nominal Answer: 9.0
Min/Max Value: (7.65) to (10.35)
Value Calculation: 9.000
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 15
Correct Plus Tolerance = 15

3-89

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p6, Question ID: e3p6a


6. Based on the load regulation formula, the load regulation of your circuit is
a. less than 1%.
b. 5%.
c. 50%.
d. 100%.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p7, Question ID: e3p7a
7. Set R3 to the minimum test load position (where VCE is 2.0 Vdc). Then move your voltmeter
across the base-collector junction of Q1. Based on your reading, the base-collector junction of
Q1 is
a. forward biased.
b. not biased.
c. reverse biased.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p8, Question ID: e3p8a
8. As you monitor VBC, set R3 to its maximum CW position. Based on your observation, the
base-collector junction
a. remains forward biased.
b. is not biased.
c. remains reverse biased.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p9, Question ID: e3p9a
9. Based on your observations, the specified range of load resistance (R3 setting)
a. places Q1 in and out of saturation.
b. maintains Q1 in its active operating region.
c. places Q1 in and out of cutoff.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p10, Question ID: e3p10a
10. Your circuit maintains current regulation because Q1
a. is placed in and out of saturation.
b. operation is between saturation and cutoff.
c. is placed in and out of cutoff.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p12, Question ID: e3p12a
12. Monitor your voltage reading as you set R3 to its maximum CW position. Based on your
observation, the base voltage
a. is essentially constant.
b. varies with the change of load resistance.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p14, Question ID: e3p14a


14. Monitor your voltage reading as you set R3 to its maximum CW position. Based on your
observation, the base-emitter voltage
a. is nearly constant.
b. varies significantly.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p15, Question ID: e3p15a
15. Based on your observations, a change in load resistance does not significantly affect load
current because
a. VB of Q1 is essentially constant.
b. Q1 remains in its active region.
c. the change of VBE is not significant.
d. All of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p18, Question ID: e3p18a
18. Based on your observation, your circuit maintains current regulation
a. over the entire R3 setting range.
b. between the minimum load resistance setting (maximum CW position of R3) and about
50% of the R3 load setting.
c. Between the 50% load setting and the maximum resistance load setting (maximum CCW
position of R3).
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p19, Question ID: e3p19a
19. As the load resistance of your circuit is increased above a critical value, current regulation is
lost because
a. the base-collector junction of Q1 is no longer reverse biased.
b. Q1 remains in its active region.
c. the increase of load voltage increases the voltage across the collector-emitter of Q1.
d. All of the above.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions page: se3r1, Question ID: e3r1
1. As you vary the circuit load resistance of the current regulator, the base-collector junction
reverse bias of Q1
a. increases as the load resistance increases.
b. does not change.
c. decreases as the load resistance is decreased.
d. decreases as the load resistance is increased.
Location: Review Questions page: se3r2, Question ID: e3r2l
2. To maintain load current regulation, Q1 must be
a. in the saturation region.
b. at cutoff.
c. in its active region.
d. in conduction.
Location: Review Questions page: se3r3, Question ID: e3r3
3. As the load resistance of a current regulation circuit is varied, the load voltage changes
because load current
a. varies.
b. increases.
c. is essentially constant.
d. decreases.
Location: Review Questions page: se3r4, Question ID: e3r4
4. A current regulator has a load current of 49.7 mA with a 10 k load resistance and a load
current of 50 mA with a 1 k load resistance. What is the percentage of calculated load
regulation?
a. 1.6%
b. 1.0%
c. 0.16%
d. 0.6%

3-92

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

Location: Review Questions page: se3r5, Question ID: e3r5


5. Load regulation in your circuit is not perfect because an increase of load resistance causes
a. an increase in load voltage.
b. a decrease in VCE and VBC.
c. a small decrease in VR1.
d. All of the above.
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

UNIT TEST
Depending on configurator settings, these questions may be randomized onscreen.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut1, Question ID: ut1
A current regulator maintains a constant
a. load (output) current.
b. load resistance.
c. input current.
d. reference voltage.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut2, Question ID: ut2
Transistor Q1 acts as a(n)
a. input resistance.
b. shunt transistor.
c. constant current source.
d. reference voltage circuit.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut3, Question ID: ut3
Transistor Q1
a. is in parallel with the load.
b. controls the load voltage.
c. is in series with the load.
d. controls the current through CR1.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut4, Question ID: ut4
If the line voltage (VI) to a current regulator increases, load
a. current decreases significantly.
b. current remains at a constant level.
c. current increases significantly.
d. voltage increases significantly.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut5, Question ID: ut5
Increasing the zener diode voltage causes an increase in
a. output current.
b. the voltage drop of R1.
c. output voltage.
d. All of the above.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut6, Question ID: ut6


In this circuit, an increase in load resistance causes the
a. base voltage to increase.
b. collector (output) voltage to increase.
c. emitter voltage to increase and the base voltage to decrease.
d. the voltage drop across R1 to increase.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut7, Question ID: ut7
The voltage drop across R1 (VR1) equals
a. VCR1 + VBE.
b. VBE.
c. VCR1 VBE.
d. VCR1.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut8, Question ID: ut8
If the load resistance of a current regulator is reduced to 0 (a short circuit), the circuit
a. output current essentially equals the constant current value.
b. will be damaged due to excessive output current.
c. transistor is in cutoff.
d. transistor is in saturation.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut9, Question ID: ut9
Current regulator A has a line regulation percentage of 1.5%, and current regulator B has a line
regulation percentage of 0.5% for the same line voltage change and load resistance. The line
current regulation ability of
a. regulator A is better than that of regulator B.
b. regulators A and B is about the same.
c. regulator B is better than that of regulator A.
d. regulators A and B is very poor.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut10, Question ID: ut10
A current regulator can maintain a fairly constant current output if Q1 is
a. saturated.
b. in its active region.
c. at cutoff.
d. None of the above because the state of Q1 is not important.

3-95

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

TROUBLESHOOTING
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba2, Question ID: trba2a
Measure VO (RL = 100).
VO (RL = 100) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 0.99
Min/Max Value: (0.792) to (1.188)
Value Calculation: 0.990
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba3, Question ID: trba3a
Measure VO (RL = 600).
VO (RL = 600) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 0.98
Min/Max Value: (0.784) to (1.176)
Value Calculation: 0.980
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba4, Question ID: trba4
7. The faulty component is
a. Q1 (open base-emitter junction).
b. Q1 (open base-collector junction).
c. CR1 (open circuit to the anode).
d. R1 (shorted).

3-96

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb2, Question ID: trbb2a


Measure VO (RL = 100).
VO (RL = 100) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 0.99
Min/Max Value: (0.792) to (1.188)
Value Calculation: 0.990
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb3, Question ID: trbb3a
Measure VO (RL = 600).
VO (RL = 600) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 0.98
Min/Max Value: (0.784) to (1.176)
Value Calculation: 0.980
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 20
Correct Plus Tolerance = 20
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb4, Question ID: trbb4
7. The faulty component is
a. Q1 (open base-emitter junction).
b. Q1 (open base-collector junction).
c. CR1 (open circuit to the anode).
d. R1 (shorted).
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
Fault 10
Fault 11

3-97

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 5 Current Regulator

3-98

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

UNIT 6 THREE-PIN IC REGULATOR

UNIT OBJECTIVE
Demonstrate the operation of an adjustable three-pin integrated circuit power supply regulator.
UNIT FUNDAMENTALS
Location: Unit Fundamentals page: sf5, Question ID: f5a
Based on your general knowledge of series pass feedback voltage regulators, the op amp (series
pass base drive current) output drive current
a. increases when VO decreases.
b. remains constant when VO is constant.
c. decreases when VO increases.
d. All of the above.
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None
NEW TERMS AND WORDS
integrated circuit (IC) - any electronic device in which passive and active elements are
contained in a single package.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
F.A.C.E.T. base unit
Multimeter
POWER SUPPLY REGULATION CIRCUITS circuit board

3-99

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

Exercise 1 Regulator Operation & Voltage Regulation


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Demonstrate and measure the voltage regulation of a three-pin IC regulator. Verify results with a
multimeter.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d4, Question ID: e1d4a
R3 can generate a constant current through R2 because
a. VR3 is a constant voltage.
b. the VADJ output is a constant current.
c. R2 is variable.
d. VO is variable.
Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d5, Question ID: e1d5a
Adjusting R2 (changing the resistance of R2)
a. varies the programming voltage of the LM317.
b. does not affect the value of programming current.
c. has no effect on the regulated output voltage.
d. All of the above.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p3, Question ID: e1p3a
3. Measure VR3 with your voltmeter.
VR3 =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VR3
Nominal Answer: 1.25
Min/Max Value: (1.125) to (1.375)
Value Calculation: 1.250
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p3, Question ID: e1p3c
4. Measure VR2 with your voltmeter.
VR2 =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VR2
Nominal Answer: 3.75
Min/Max Value: (3.375) to (4.125)
Value Calculation: 3.750
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p4, Question ID: e1p4a
5. Does the sum of VR3 and VR2 equal the set value of the circuit output voltage?
a. yes
b. no
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p5, Question ID: e1p5a
6. Use your voltmeter to monitor VR3 as you vary R2 from end to end. Why is VR3 essentially
constant?
a. The circuit output voltage does not change.
b. VR3 is equal to the IC reference voltage.
c. The current through R2 does not change.
d. The circuit line voltage does not change.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p6, Question ID: e1p6a


7. Use your voltmeter to monitor VR2 as you vary R2 from end to end. Why does VR2 change?
a. The circuit output voltage does not change.
b. The constant programming current flows through R2.
c. The current through R2 changes.
d. The circuit line voltage does not change.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p8, Question ID: e1p8a
9. Monitor your circuit output voltage as you disconnect R5 from your circuit. Based on the
change in output voltage, the IC regulator has
a. excellent load voltage regulation.
b. poor load voltage regulation.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p11, Question ID: e1p11a
12. Measure the output voltage of your circuit. Based on your reading, the IC regulator has
a. excellent line voltage regulation.
b. poor line voltage regulation.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p13, Question ID: e1p13a
14. Measure VCE. Based on your reading, the IC regulator will drop out of regulation if the
operating voltage across the internal series pass transistor is about
a. 10 Vdc.
b. 5 Vdc.
c. 1.6 Vdc.
d. None of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p15, Question ID: e1p15a
16. Measure the output voltage of your circuit. Your reading indicates that the
a. output voltage approximately equals the value of the IC reference voltage.
b. voltage drop across R2 is essentially zero since the resistance of R2 is near 0.
c. output voltage approximately equals the voltage drop across R3.
d. All of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p17, Question ID: e1p17a
18. Monitor your circuit output voltage. Based on your reading, VO is approximately 0V because
a. VD is a negative voltage.
b. VR3 is a positive voltage.
c. VD is used to offset or cancel VR3.
d. All of the above.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p20, Question ID: e1p20a


21. Monitor your circuit output voltage. Based on your reading, VO is approximately 3.6V
because
a. VD is a negative voltage.
b. VR3 is a positive voltage.
c. the output voltage is reduced by an amount equal to VD.
d. All of the above.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions page: se1r1, Question ID: e1r1
1. On this circuit, an increase in the value of R3 will cause the regulator output voltage to
a. increase.
b. remain the same.
c. decrease.
d. increase or decrease.
Location: Review Questions page: se1r2, Question ID: e1r2
2. The value of the program resistor (R3)
a. sets the programming current (IP).
b. sets the IC regulator reference voltage drop (VREF).
c. adjusts the output voltage to a specific value.
d. improves the IC regulator transient response.
Location: Review Questions page: se1r3, Question ID: e1r3
3. Potentiometer R2
a. determines the output voltage range.
b. provides a load resistance for an IC voltage regulator.
c. sets the programming current (IP).
d. sets the output voltage to a specific value.
Location: Review Questions page: se1r4, Question ID: e1r4
4. The voltage drop across R3
a. always equals the drop across R5.
b. varies with the input voltage.
c. equals the constant voltage of the IC regulator (VREF).
d. determines the set value of VO.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

Location: Review Questions page: se1r5, Question ID: e1r5


5. If an IC regulator drops out of regulation,
a. the voltage drop across the regulator (VCE) may be lower than about 1.5 Vdc.
b. line voltage may be too low for proper operation.
c. the load current may be excessive.
d. All of the above.
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

Exercise 2 Current Regulation and Power Efficiency


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Demonstrate three-pin IC current regulation and determine IC power dissipation. Verify results
with a multimeter.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion page: se2d4, Question ID: e2d4a
In this circuit,
a. the constant current value (IK) is 10 mA.
b. load current remains essentially constant as RL is varied.
c. load voltage can vary between 0 Vdc and 5 Vdc.
d. All of the above.
EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p2, Question ID: e2p2a
2. Based on the circuit configuration, which resistor serves as the circuit output load?
a. R1
b. R2
c. R3
d. R5
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p3, Question ID: e2p3a
3. To determine the constant current output of your circuit (also the load current), use
a. VR1/R1.
b. VR2/R2.
c. VR3/R3.
d. VO/(R3 + R2).

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p4, Question ID: e2p4a


4. Monitor VR3 as you vary R2 from end to end. Based on your observations,
a. load current varies with load resistance change.
b. load current is essentially constant and is not affected by variations in load resistance.
c. constant circuit current varies directly with load resistance.
d. constant circuit current varies inversely with load resistance.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p5, Question ID: e2p5a
5. Monitor VR2 as you vary R2 from end to end. VR2 varies because
a. the circuit is defective.
b. IR3 varies.
c. IR2 varies.
d. the resistance of R2 varies.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p7, Question ID: e2p7a
7. Move your voltmeter to the circuit input voltage. Adjust this voltage to 8.0 Vdc. Move your
voltmeter back across R2. Based on your reading, the drop in line voltage
a. reduces the circuit load current.
b. has essentially no effect on the circuit load current.
c. increases the circuit load current.
d. increases the IC reference voltage.
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p9, Question ID: e2p9a
10. Measure the voltage drop (a positive value) across R1.
VR1 =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: VR1
Nominal Answer: 0.322
Min/Max Value: ( .29 ) to ( .354)
Value Calculation: 0.322
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10

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Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p10, Question ID: e2p10a


11. Based on the voltage drop across R1, #VR1# Vdc, what is the total input power of your
circuit?
PT =
W
Recall Label for this Question: PT
Nominal Answer: 0.179
Min/Max Value: ( .161) to ( .197)
Value Calculation: 0.179
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p11, Question ID: e2p11a
12. Use the constant current value of your circuit and VR2 to determine the power dissipated by
the load (PR2).
PR2 =
W
Recall Label for this Question: P2
Nominal Answer: 0.083
Min/Max Value: (0.0747) to (0.0913)
Value Calculation: .083
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p12, Question ID: e2p12a
13. Based on a total circuit input power of #PT#W and a load power of # P2 * 1 #W. What is the
power efficiency of your circuit?
%PE = (PR2/PT) x 100
a. 150%
b. 100%
c. # ( P2 / PT ) * 100 #%
d. 25%
Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p13, Question ID: e2p13a
14. Your circuit generates a nearly constant output current. As a result, the power delivered from
the circuit source voltage
a. increases as the load resistance is increased.
b. is essentially constant as the load resistance is varied.
c. decreases as the load resistance is decreased.
d. drops to zero when the load resistance dissipation drops to zero wattage.

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Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions page: se2r1, Question ID: e2r1
1. In the current regulator configuration, VR3
a. varies with load changes.
b. is essentially constant.
c. equals VR2.
d. varies with line voltage changes.
Location: Review Questions page: se2r2, Question ID: e2r2
2. In the IC current regulator circuit, the load current is
a. set by diodes CR2 and CR3.
b. half of the input current.
c. essentially the same as the program current.
d. determined by the value of the load resistance.
Location: Review Questions page: se2r3, Question ID: e2r3
3. The program resistor (R3)
a. controls the internal reference voltage.
b. limits the output current.
c. sets the value of the load current.
d. protects the device from output shorts.
Location: Review Questions page: se2r4, Question ID: e2r4
4. When a three-pin IC current regulator is operated within specification limits, a change in
a. line voltage or load resistance does not change the load current.
b. the line voltage changes the load current.
c. the load resistance changes the load current.
d. the value of the program resistor does not change the load current.
Location: Review Questions page: se2r5, Question ID: e2r5
5. The power efficiency of your IC regulator is expressed as a per centage and relates the
a. power dissipated by the load and programming resistor.
b. power dissipated by the IC and the load resistor.
c. total power delivered to the circuit and the power dissipated by the load.
d. power dissipated between the input and output resistors.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

UNIT TEST
Depending on configurator settings, these questions may be randomized onscreen.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut1, Question ID: ut1
A three-pin IC power supply regulator can be used
a. to regulate the input voltage to the regulator.
b. to control load voltage and current simultaneously.
c. to control load voltage or current.
d. All of the above.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut2, Question ID: ut2
The program resistor of a three-pin IC power supply connects between the
a. OUT and ADJ pins of the IC.
b. OUT and IN pins of the IC.
c. IN and ADJ pins of the IC.
d. ADJ pin of the IC and ground.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut3, Question ID: ut3
The reference voltage drop (VREF) within a three-pin IC regulator
a. varies with the load.
b. is constant.
c. depends on the value of the program resistor.
d. depends on the current or voltage control.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut4, Question ID: ut4
Press the HELP button to view the schematic. The voltage drop across the program resistor
(VR3) in this circuit always equals the
a. load voltage drop.
b. voltage drop across R1.
c. voltage drop across the IC.
d. reference voltage drop (VREF) of the IC regulator.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut5, Question ID: ut5
Press the HELP button to view the schematic. When this three-pin IC regulator controls load
voltage,
a. R5 is used as the load.
b. R2 is used as the load.
c. R3 is used as the load.
d. R3 sets the output voltage.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut6, Question ID: ut6


Press the HELP button to view the schematic. When this three-pin IC regulator controls load
current,
a. R5 is used as the load.
b. R2 is used as the load.
c. R3 is used as the load.
d. R2 sets the load current.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut7, Question ID: ut7
Press the HELP button to view the schematic. The CR2, CR3, R4, and 15.0 Vdc power supply
circuit
a. provides short circuit protection to the three-pin IC regulator.
b. provides a constant reference voltage (VREF) for the regulator.
c. permits regulation of output voltages higher than the input voltage.
d. permits setting the controlled output voltage near 0 Vdc.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut8, Question ID: ut8
When a three-pin IC regulator is used as a constant voltage regulator, the
a. load current decreases with an increase in the load resistance.
b. program current is constant.
c. current through the IC regulator equals the sum of the load and program currents.
d. All of the above.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut9, Question ID: ut9
When a three-pin IC regulator is used as a constant current regulator, the
a. output voltage increases with an increase in load resistance.
b. load current essentially equals the current through the regulator.
c. value of R3 sets the load current.
d. All of the above.
Location: Unit Test Question page: sut10, Question ID: ut10
If the input power to a three-pin IC regulator is 50 mW, and the power consumed by the load is
20 mW, the power efficiency is
%PE = (Pload/Pline) x 100
a. 40%.
b. 60%.
c. 250%.
d. 66%.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

TROUBLESHOOTING
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba2, Question ID: trba2a
5. Before a circuit fault is introduced, verify that the IC regulator is working properly by doing a
performance check. Check the load regulation. Remember, you have already adjusted VI to 8.0
Vdc. Measure VO (No load - R5 not connected).
VO (No load) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: m37
Nominal Answer: 3.0
Min/Max Value: (2.85) to (3.15)
Value Calculation: 3.
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 5
Correct Plus Tolerance = 5
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba3, Question ID: trba3a
6. Using a two-post connector, connect R5 into the circuit so that RL equals 100.
Measure VO (RL = 100).
VO (RL = 100) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 3.0
*
Min/Max Value: (2.736) to (3.276)
Value Calculation: #m37#
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 4
Correct Plus Tolerance = 4
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba4, Question ID: trba4
8. The faulty component is
a. R1 (shorted).
b. ADJ pin (shorted to ground).
c. CR1 (open circuit to the anode).
d. rheostat R2 (open connection to R3).

NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and
highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct
value.
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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb2, Question ID: trbb2a


5. Before a circuit fault is introduced, verify that the IC regulator is working properly by doing a
performance check. Check the load regulation. Remember, you have already adjusted VI to 8.0
Vdc. Measure VO (No load - R5 not connected).
VO (No load) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: m39
Nominal Answer: 3.0
Min/Max Value: (2.85) to (3.15)
Value Calculation: 3.0
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 5
Correct Plus Tolerance = 5
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb3, Question ID: trbb3a
6. Using a two-post connector, connect R5 into the circuit so that RL equals 100.
Measure VO (RL = 100).
VO (RL = 100) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 3.0
*
Min/Max Value: (2.736) to (3.276)
Value Calculation: #m39#
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 4
Correct Plus Tolerance = 4
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb4, Question ID: trbb4
8. The faulty component is
a. R1 (shorted).
b. ADJ pin (shorted to ground).
c. CR1 (open circuit to the anode).
d. rheostat R2 (open connection to R3).

NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and
highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct
value.
3-113

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 6 Three-Pin IC Regulator

CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
Fault 7
Fault 8

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

UNIT 7 DC TO DC CONVERTER

UNIT OBJECTIVE
Demonstrate the operation of an IC switching regulator configured as a dc to dc converter.
UNIT FUNDAMENTALS
Location: Unit Fundamentals Page: sf6, Question ID: f6a
In this circuit,
a. C1 maintains load voltage and, in turn, is charged by the energy stored by L1.
b. CR1 is reverse biased when Q1 is on.
c. CR1 is forward biased when Q1 is off.
d. All of the above.
CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None
NEW TERMS AND WORDS
pulses - abrupt changes in voltage or current.
duty cycle - the amount of time a device operates as opposed to its idle time; the ratio of time on
to total time.
ripple - a slight variation in the output voltage of a power supply related in frequency or input
power frequency.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
F.A.C.E.T. base unit
Multimeter
Oscilloscope, dual trace
POWER SUPPLY REGULATION CIRCUITS circuit board

3-115

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

Exercise 1 Operating Characteristics


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Demonstrate the operating characteristics of a dc to dc converter. Verify results with an
oscilloscope.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion Page: se1d3, Question ID: e1d3a
If the on duty cycle of the free-running oscillator waveform were increased, the transistor switch
would
a. conduct for a longer interval of time.
b. not be affected.
c. conduct for a shorter interval of time.
d. not conduct at all.
EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p4, Question ID: e1p4a
5. The reference and feedback voltage are about the same because the
a. circuit is not operating properly.
b. circuit is operating properly.
c. reference voltage is connected to the INPUT() of the IC.
d. IC input voltage is about 1.2 Vdc.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p5, Question ID: e1p5a
VO =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: CVO


Nominal Answer: 10.0
Min/Max Value: (9) to (11)
Value Calculation: 10.000
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p6, Question ID: e1p6a


7. Use your voltmeter to measure the output voltage of your DC-to-DC Converter. Based on your
reading, can the output voltage be calculated accurately?
a. yes
b. no
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p7, Question ID: e1p7a
8. CM 20 is activated to alter the ohmic value of R3. Based on the output voltage change of your
circuit, R3
a. decreased.
b. and the reference voltage decreased.
c. increased.
d. and the reference voltage increased.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p9, Question ID: e1p9a
10. Based on your waveform, diode CR1 is reverse biased when the U1 switching transistor is
a. on, or saturated.
b. off, or nonconducting.
c. on, or nonconducting.
d. off, or saturated.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p10, Question ID: e1p10a
11. Move channel 1 of your oscilloscope to the TIMING test point of your DC TO DC
CONVERTER circuit block. The free-running oscillator frequency is about
a. 100 kHz.
b. 50 kHz.
c. 25 kHz.
d. 60 or 50 Hz.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se1p12, Question ID: e1p12a
13. Based on the relationship of the waveforms,
a. the transistor is on when the ramp is above the reference line.
b. the transistor is off when the ramp is below the reference line.
c. Both of the above.
d. None of the above.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions Page: se1r1, Question ID: e1r1
1. CM 19 is activated to increase the value of R4. This change causes a(n)
a. decrease in output voltage.
b. increase in output voltage.
c. change in the IC reference voltage.
d. increase in the IC input (VCC) voltage.
Location: Review Questions Page: se1r2, Question ID: e1r2
2. In the dc to dc converter, the voltage drop across divider resistor R3 (VR3) is essentially equal
to the
a. voltage drop across the load resistor.
b. input voltage.
c. reference voltage (VREF).
d. voltage drop across inductor L1.
Location: Review Questions Page: se1r3, Question ID: e1r3
3. When the internal IC transistor switch of U1 is on,
a. the collector voltage is slightly higher than VO, and L1 discharges.
b. the collector voltage is slightly above O Vdc (at saturation), and L1 becomes charged.
c. VO is higher than the set regulated value.
d. the oscillator signal is ramping down (logic 0).
Location: Review Questions Page: se1r4, Question ID: e1r4
4. During the ramp up duration above the reference line of the timing signal, the IC transistor
switch of a dc to dc converter is
a. saturated.
b. in its active region.
c. cut off.
d. oscillating.
Location: Review Questions Page: se1r5, Question ID: e1r5
5. During the ramp down duration below the reference line of the timing signal, the IC transistor
switch of a dc converter is
a. saturated.
b. in its active region.
c. cut off.
d. oscillating.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

CMS AVAILABLE
CM 20 TOGGLE
CM 19 TOGGLE
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

3-119

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

Exercise 2 Voltage Regulation and Efficiency


EXERCISE OBJECTIVE
Demonstrate regulation and power efficiency of a dc to dc converter. Verify results with a
voltmeter and an oscilloscope.
EXERCISE DISCUSSION
Location: Exercise Discussion Page: se2d4, Question ID: e2d4a
If the output voltage of a dc to dc converter varies above and below its nominal set point,
a. VREF will vary.
b. VR3 (feedback voltage) will remain constant.
c. Q1 on time will remain the same.
d. Q1 duty cycle will vary.
EXERCISE PROCEDURE
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p2, Question ID: e2p2a
VO =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: VO


Nominal Answer: 9.9
Min/Max Value: (8.91) to (10.89)
Value Calculation: 9.900
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p4, Question ID: e2p4a
5. Based on the change of circuit output voltage from #VO# Vdc, the dc to dc converter
a. does not possess good load regulation.
b. possesses excellent load regulation.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p8, Question ID: e2p8a


9. Based on your circuit waveforms, one complete regulation period corresponds to about
a. 200 ms.
b. 20 ms.
c. 2 ms.
d. 1 ms.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p9, Question ID: e2p9a
10. Based on your waveforms, the internal switching transistor of IC U1 has a boost (charging)
phase interval of about
a. 100% of the total regulation cycle.
b. 50% of the total regulation cycle.
c. 25% of the total regulation cycle.
d. 1% of the total regulation cycle.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p10, Question ID: e2p10a
11. Based on your waveforms, the internal switching transistor of IC U1 switches at
a. a higher frequency than the actual output ripple frequency.
b. the same frequency as the actual output ripple frequency.
c. a lower frequency than the actual ripple frequency.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p11, Question ID: e2p11a
12. Based on your waveforms, the interval during which U1 is not switching corresponds to
a. an initial output voltage greater than the desired output voltage.
b. the interval in which the circuit inductor does not contribute energy to the output.
c. a decreasing output voltage.
d. All of the above.
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p13, Question ID: e2p13a
16. Based on your observation of the output voltage change versus input voltage change, does
the dc to dc converter possess good line voltage regulation?
a. yes
b. no

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p15, Question ID: e2p15a


II = VR1 /R1 =

mA

Recall Label for this Question: IT


Nominal Answer: 79.1
Min/Max Value: (71.19) to (87.01)
Value Calculation: 79.100
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p16, Question ID: e2p16a
PI = IT x VCC =

mW

Recall Label for this Question: PIN


Nominal Answer: 316.0
Min/Max Value: (284.4) to (347.6)
Value Calculation: 316.000
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p17, Question ID: e2p17a
PO = (VRL x VRL)/RL =

mW

Recall Label for this Question: POUT


Nominal Answer: 194.0
Min/Max Value: (174.6) to (213.4)
Value Calculation: 194.000
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 10
Correct Plus Tolerance = 10
Location: Exercise Procedure Page: se2p18, Question ID: e2p18a
20. Based on a typical 30% power efficiency for a series pass regulator, your dc to dc converter
a. is much more efficient.
b. has about the same power efficiency.
c. is much less efficient.
d. has 100% power efficiency.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r1, Question ID: e2r1
1. If the circuit load of a dc to dc converter is increased (load resistance decreased), the amount
of energy switched by the IC must
a. decrease.
b. increase.
c. remain the same.
d. be inverted.
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r2, Question ID: e2r2
2. Energy from L1 adds to the circuit load voltage when
a. VREF is less than VR3.
b. VO is greater than VREF.
c. VREF is greater than VR3.
d. VR4 equals VR3.
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r3, Question ID: e2r3
3. When VI decreases, VO is maintained constant by the comparator
a. decreasing the duty cycle of the transistor switch.
b. maintaining a constant output.
c. increasing the duty cycle of the transistor switch.
d. turning off the transistor switch.
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r4, Question ID: e2r4
4. The power efficiency of a dc to dc converter using an IC switching regulator is high because
a. the transistor switch has a low resistance.
b. the oscillator uses little power.
c. of the compact size of the IC.
d. the transistor switch consumes little power when switching very rapidly between
saturation or cutoff.
Location: Review Questions Page: se2r5, Question ID: e2r5
5. The slight ac variation in the output voltage is called
a. impedance.
b. inductive reactance.
c. ripple.
d. capacitive reactance.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
None

3-124

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

UNIT TEST
Depending on configurator settings, these questions may be randomized onscreen.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut1, Question ID: ut1
An IC switching regulator configured as a dc to dc converter can regulate an output voltage
a. higher than the input voltage.
b. lower than the input voltage.
c. of opposite polarity to the input voltage.
d. All of the above.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut2, Question ID: ut2
The transistor in a dc to dc converter
a. is switched rapidly between saturation and cutoff.
b. is operated in the linear region.
c. is operated at an on/off frequency equal to the oscillator frequency.
d. protects the circuit from short circuits.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut3, Question ID: ut3
The set value of the output voltage in a dc to dc converter is determined by the
a. oscillator frequency.
b. duty cycle.
c. ratio of the voltage divider resistors.
d. reference voltage value.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut4, Question ID: ut4
When the transistor switch is off during normal operation of a dc to dc converter,
a. the collector voltage is slightly higher than VO, and the inductor discharges through the
diode.
b. the collector voltage is slightly above O Vdc (at saturation), and the inductor becomes
charged.
c. there is no current flow through the diode.
d. the comparator and oscillator outputs are both logic 1.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut5, Question ID: ut5
Within the switching regulator IC, the duty cycle of the transistor switch is controlled by
a. the comparator circuit.
b. the oscillator circuit.
c. feedback voltage.
d. the reference voltage.

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Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

Location: Unit Test Page: sut6, Question ID: ut6


When the controlled output voltage of a dc to dc converter decreases due to a momentary load
change, the transistor switch duty cycle
a. increases.
b. increases temporarily and then returns to the original value.
c. decreases.
d. decreases temporarily and then returns to the original value.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut7, Question ID: ut7
When the controlled output voltage of a dc to dc converter increases due to an increase in the line
voltage, the transistor switch duty cycle
a. increases.
b. increases temporarily and then returns to the original value.
c. decreases.
d. decreases temporarily and then returns to the original value.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut8, Question ID: ut8
If the output voltage of a dc to dc converter is above the initial set value,
a. the internal IC oscillator turns off.
b. the transistor switching action continues.
c. the transistor switch turns off.
d. feedback voltage decreases.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut9, Question ID: ut9
The output load power of a dc to dc converter equals
a. VI x IRL.
b. VO2/R5.
c. VO2/(R4 + R3).
d. VO/IRL.
Location: Unit Test Page: sut10, Question ID: ut10
Ripple in the output voltage of a dc to dc converter is caused primarily by
a. changes in the load resistance.
b. changes in the line voltage.
c. the transistor switch turning rapidly on and off.
d. variations in the reference voltage.

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Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

TROUBLESHOOTING
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba4, Question ID: trba4a
5. Before a circuit fault is introduced, verify that the dc to dc converter is working properly by
doing a performance check. Check the load regulation. Remember, you have already adjusted
VCC to 4.0 Vdc.
Measure VO (RL = 1 k).
VO (RL = k) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: M41
Nominal Answer: 10.05
Min/Max Value: (7.538) to (12.56)
Value Calculation: 10.050
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 25
Correct Plus Tolerance = 25
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba5, Question ID: trba5a
6. Using a two-post connector, connect R6 into the circuit so that RL equals 500
Measure VO (RL = 500).
VO (RL = 500) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 10.05
*
Min/Max Value: (7.24) to (13.06)
Value Calculation: #M41#
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 4
Correct Plus Tolerance = 4
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba6, Question ID: trba6
8. The faulty component is
a. VREF (shorted to ground).
b. CR1 (open anode-cathode junction).
c. U1 pin 12, timing (shorted to ground).
d. R3 (open connection to ground).

NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and
highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct
value.
3-127

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb4, Question ID: trbb4a


5. Before a circuit fault is introduced, verify that the dc to dc converter is working properly by
doing a performance check. Check the load regulation. Remember, you have already adjusted
VCC to 4.0 Vdc.
Measure VO (RL = 1 k).
VO (RL = k) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: M43
Nominal Answer: 10.05
Min/Max Value: (7.538) to (12.56)
Value Calculation: 10.050
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 25
Correct Plus Tolerance = 25
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb5, Question ID: trbb5a
6. Using a two-post connector, connect R6 into the circuit so that RL equals 500
Measure VO (RL = 500).
VO (RL = 500) =
Vdc
Recall Label for this Question: None
Nominal Answer: 10.05
*
Min/Max Value: (7.24) to (13.06)
Value Calculation: #M43#
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 4
Correct Plus Tolerance = 4
Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb6, Question ID: trbb6
8. The faulty component is
a. VREF (shorted to ground).
b. CR1 (open anode-cathode junction).
c. U1 pin 12, timing (shorted to ground).
d. R3 (open connection to ground).

NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and
highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct
value.
3-128

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

CMS AVAILABLE
None
FAULTS AVAILABLE
Fault 9
Fault 12

3-129

Power Supply Regulators

Unit 7 DC to DC Converter

3-130

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

APPENDIX A PRETEST AND POSTTEST QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


Depending on configurator settings, these questions may be randomized onscreen.
PRETEST
1. The purpose of a power supply regulation circuit is to
a. maintain a constant load resistance.
b. provide a constant output voltage (VO) or load current (IL) with changes to the load
resistance (RL) or line voltage (VA).
c. maintain a constant line voltage.
d. prevent load short circuits.
2. Line regulation is the ability of a regulator circuit to compensate for
a. load (RL) changes.
b. failure of the regulator reference voltage.
c. input voltage (VA) changes.
d. None of the above.
3. Load regulation is a measure of the effectiveness of a regulation circuit compensating for
a. power surges.
b. changes in the load resistance (RL).
c. failure of the regulator transistor.
d. None of the above.
4. The output voltage (VO) is the voltage drop across the
a. power supply regulator.
b. power supply regulator and load resistance.
c. reference voltage.
d. load resistance (RL).
5. If a power supply did not have a regulator circuit, an increase in the load resistance would
cause the output voltage to
a. decrease.
b. remain the same.
c. fluctuate.
d. increase.
6. Four regulation circuits are evaluated for a certain application. The regulator with the most
effective line regulation is the one with a line regulation specification of
a. 0.02 percent
b. 0.75 percent
c. 0.015 percent
d. 1.0 percent

A-1

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

7. In a properly functioning shunt regulator circuit, the current through the series dropping
resistors
a. increases as load current increases.
b. remains nearly constant as load current increases.
c. decreases as load current increases.
d. is less than the transistor current.
8. A shunt regulator is designed to maintain nearly constant load voltage for changes in
a. transistor current.
b. zener voltage.
c. line (input) voltage or load resistance.
d. None of the above.
9. In a shunt regulator circuit, a change of line voltage or load current causes a change in base
current. Base current change forces a change in
a. collector current.
b. line voltage.
c. output voltage.
d. None of the above.
10. The total current through a shunt regulator approximately equals the sum of the current
through the transistor and
a. the circuit load resistance.
b. line voltage.
c. zener diode.
d. None of the above.
11. Typically, line regulation is determined with load resistance
a. at zero.
b. at various levels.
c. held constant.
d. None of the above.
12. Typically, load regulation is determined with the line voltage
a. at zero.
b. held constant.
c. at various levels.
d. None of the above.
13. A series regulator
a. uses a pass transistor in series with the load.
b. uses a pass transistor in parallel with the load.
c. cannot regulate the output voltage if load current changes.
d. conducts less as the load current increases.

A-2

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

14. Effective line regulation protects against


a. input resistor failure.
b. failure of the zener diode.
c. changes in load resistance.
d. normal power line voltage variations.
15. In a series voltage regulator circuit, a bleeder resistor is used to maintain a
a. minimum circuit load current.
b. maximum circuit load current.
c. minimum line voltage.
d. None of the above.
16. When the load resistance connected to a series voltage regulator decreases, the output voltage
a. increases.
b. stays about the same.
c. decreases.
d. decreases no more than 1.5 Vdc.
17. When the zener diode voltage of a series voltage regulator is reduced, the circuit output
voltage
a. increases.
b. does not change.
c. decreases.
d. first decreases then increases.
18. In a series voltage regulator, a change in line voltage generates a substantial change in
a. the zener diode voltage.
b. the base-emitter voltage of the pass transistor.
c. load current.
d. None of the above.
19. A series voltage regulator cannot control the output voltage for
a. output short circuits.
b. moderate line voltage variations.
c. moderate load fluctuations.
d. moderate line and load variations.
20. The voltage feedback regulator is a type of
a. shunt regulator.
b. series regulator.
c. current regulator.
d. None of the above.

A-3

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

21. A characteristic of the voltage feedback regulator is the


a. ease of adjusting the output voltage value.
b. ease of output current adjustment.
c. elimination of a reference voltage.
d. use of complementary transistors.
22. During normal operation of a feedback voltage regulator circuit, the load resistance increases.
The output voltage should be
a. much higher.
b. unchanged.
c. much lower.
d. slightly lower, then resume its normal level.
23. A foldback limiting circuit is a(n)
a. passive protection circuit.
b. active protection circuit.
c. inactive protection circuit.
d. accurate type of voltage regulator.
24. In a voltage feedback regulation circuit the purpose of the feedback (error) amplifier is to
a. reduce the load regulating ability of the regulator.
b. reduce the line regulating ability of the regulator.
c. control the conduction of the pass transistor.
d. multiply the value of the circuit reference voltage.
25. In voltage feedback regulator operation, a change in line voltage (circuit input voltage),
a. generates an equivalent voltage change in the circuit reference voltage.
b. does not affect pass transistor base current.
c. affects only the collector current of the error amplifier.
d. is offset by a change in the pass transistor voltage drop.
26. In active foldback current limiting with a severe output overload,
a. pass transistor base current decreases and VCE increases.
b. output (load) voltage and current increase.
c. foldback protection transistor base current decreases.
d. All of the above.
27. Increasing load resistance causes a voltage feedback regulator to
a. decrease load current.
b. decrease output voltage.
c. increase load current.
d. increase output voltage.

A-4

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

28. A current regulator maintains a constant


a. load resistance.
b. input current.
c. load (output) current.
d. reference voltage.
29. The current regulator is a type of
a. series and shunt regulator.
b. series regulator.
c. shunt regulator.
d. None of the above.
30. If the line voltage to a current regulator increases,
a. load current decreases significantly
b. load current increases significantly.
c. load voltage increases significantly.
d. load current remains at a constant level.
31. In a transistor circuit regulator, the load resistance becomes too great; therefore, the
a. transistor becomes saturated.
b. transistor becomes cut off.
c. collector voltage decreases.
d. base-emitter junction becomes reverse biased.
32. If the load resistance of a current regulator is reduced to 0 ohms (a short circuit), the circuit
a. output current essentially equals the constant current value.
b. will be damaged due to excessive output current.
c. transistor is in cutoff.
d. transistor is in saturation.
33. A 3-pin IC power supply regulator can be used
a. to regulate the input voltage to the regulator.
b. to simultaneously control load voltage and current.
c. to control load voltage or current.
d. All of the above.
34. For good IC voltage regulator control, the difference between the input voltage (VA) and the
set output voltage (VO) should never be less than
a. 1.0 Vdc
b. 3.0 Vdc
c. 1.2 Vdc
d. 2.5 Vdc

A-5

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

35. If the input power to a 3-pin IC regulator is 50 mW and the power consumed by the load is
20 mW, the power efficiency is
NOTE: Power Efficiency(%) = (POUT/PIN) x 100
a. 60 percent.
b. 40 percent.
c. 250 percent.
d. 66 percent.
36. The reference voltage drop within a 3-pin IC regulator
a. varies with the load.
b. is constant.
c. depends on the value of the program resistor.
d. depends on current or voltage control.
37. An Integrated Circuit (IC) is any electronic device in which passive and active elements are
a. explosive.
b. contained in a single package.
c. not functioning.
d. None of the above.
38. An IC switching regulator, dc to dc converter can be configured to
a. regulate an output voltage higher than the input voltage.
b. regulate an output voltage lower than the input voltage.
c. regulate an output voltage with the opposite polarity of the input voltage.
d. All of the above.
39. The IC switching regulator converts the dc input into
a. sinewaves.
b. high frequency sine waves.
c. very low frequency pulses.
d. high frequency ac pulses.
40. The slight ac variation in the output voltage (VO) of a dc to dc converter is called
a. impedance.
b. inductive reactance.
c. ripple.
d. capacitive reactance.
41. In general, dc to dc converter circuits control a transistor switch that is used to charge a(n)
_________ with energy.
a. capacitor.
b. inductor.
c. resistor.
d. diode.

A-6

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

42. The set value of the output voltage in a dc to dc converter is determined by the
a. oscillator frequency.
b. duty cycle.
c. ratio of the voltage divider resistors.
d. reference voltage value.
43. The power efficiency of a dc to dc converter using an IC switching regulator is high because
a. the transistor switch has a low resistance.
b. the transistor switch consumes little power when switching very rapidly between
saturation and cutoff.
c. the oscillator uses little power.
d. of the compact size of the IC.
44. During the ramp up duration above the reference line of the timing signal, the IC transistor
switch of a dc to dc converter is
a. saturated.
b. in its active region.
c. cut off.
d. oscillating.
45. Ripple in the output voltage of a dc to dc converter is caused primarily by
a. changes in the load resistance.
b. changes in the line voltage.
c. the transistor switch rapidly turning on and off.
d. variations in the reference voltage.
46. To efficiently troubleshoot a regulator problem, you should use
a. imagination and individual initiative.
b. knowledge of the circuit.
c. logical procedures.
d. All of the above.
47. The first step in the troubleshooting flowchart is to
a. make performance checks.
b. analyze the symptoms of the problem.
c. make a visual inspection.
d. isolate and repair the faulty circuit componen
48. The objective to reviewing the performance check data is to
a. prove that the fault does not exist.
b. determine the faulty circuit component.
c. be able to make a good assumption on the possible fault.
d. help you eliminate the symptoms of the fault.

A-7

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

49. A measured value that is not exactly the same as the nominal value but is within the specified
tolerance limits
a. indicates a fault in the circuit.
b. is considered a normal reading.
c. indicates that a circuit component is beginning to break down.
d. is considered normal only if it is less than the nominal value.
50. When the fault is determined and the faulty component is repaired or replaced, the next step
in troubleshooting is to
a. do a performance check to test the regulator for proper operation.
b. put the power supply regulator back into operation.
c. make a visual inspection and put the regulator back into operation.
d. put the regulator back into operation and make sure that there are no symptoms of
improper operation.

A-8

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

POSTTEST
1. A shunt regulator is designed to maintain nearly constant load voltage for changes in
a. transistor current.
b. zener voltage.
c. line (input) voltage or load resistance.
d. None of the above.
2. Typically, load regulation is determined with the line voltage
a. at zero.
b. held constant.
c. at various levels.
d. None of the above.
3. When the load resistance connected to a series voltage regulator decreases, the output voltage
a. increases.
b. stays about the same.
c. decreases nor more than 2.2 Vdc.
d. decreases no more than 1.5 Vdc.
4. The total current through a shunt regulator approximately equals the sum of the current
through the transistor and
a. the circuit load resistance.
b. line voltage.
c. zener diode.
d. None of the above.
5. Four regulation circuits are evaluated for a certain application. The regulator with the most
effective line regulation is the one with a line regulation specification of
a. 0.02 percent
b. 0.75 percent
c. 0.015 percent
d. 1.0 percent
6. Effective line regulation protects against
a. input resistor failure.
b. failure of the zener diode.
c. changes in load resistance.
d. normal power line voltage variations.
7. Load regulation is a measure of the effectiveness of a regulation circuit compensating for
a. power surges.
b. changes in the load resistance (RL).
c. failure of the regulator transistor.
d. None of the above.

A-9

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

8. In a properly functioning shunt regulator circuit, the current through the series dropping
resistors
a. increases as load current increases.
b. remains nearly constant as load current increases.
c. decreases as load current increases.
d. is less than the transistor current.
9. When the zener diode voltage of a series voltage regulator is reduced, the circuit output
voltage
a. increases.
b. does not change.
c. decreases.
d. first decreases then increases.
10. The output voltage (VO) is the voltage drop across the
a. power supply regulator.
b. power supply regulator and load resistance.
c. reference voltage.
d. load resistance (RL).
11. Typically, line regulation is determined with load resistance
a. at zero.
b. at various levels.
c. held constant.
d. None of the above.
12. In a shunt regulator circuit, a change of line voltage or load current causes a change in base
current. Base current change forces a change in
a. collector current.
b. emitter current.
c. output voltage.
d. None of the above.
13. Line regulation is the ability of a regulator circuit to compensate for
a. load (RL) changes.
b. failure of the regulator reference voltage.
c. input voltage (VA) changes.
d. None of the above.
14. A series regulator
a. uses a pass transistor in series with the load.
b. uses a pass transistor in parallel with the load.
c. cannot regulate the output voltage if load current changes.
d. conducts less as the load current increases.

A-10

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

15. If a power supply did not have a regulator circuit, an increase in the load resistance would
cause the output voltage to
a. decrease.
b. remain the same.
c. fluctuate.
d. increase.
16. In a series voltage regulator, a change in line voltage generates a substantial change in
a. the zener diode voltage.
b. the base-emitter voltage of the pass transistor.
c. load current.
d. None of the above.
17. In a series voltage regulator circuit, a bleeder resistor is used to maintain a
a. minimum circuit load current.
b. maximum circuit load current.
c. minimum line voltage.
d. None of the above.
18. The purpose of a power supply regulation circuit is to
a. maintain a constant load resistance.
b. provide a constant output voltage VO) or load current (IL) with changes to the load
resistance (RL) or line voltage (VA).
c. maintain a constant line voltage.
d. prevent load short circuits.
19. A foldback limiting circuit is a(n)
a. passive protection circuit.
b. active protection circuit.
c. inactive protection circuit.
d. accurate type of voltage regulator.
20. Increasing load resistance causes a voltage feedback regulator to
a. decrease load current.
b. decrease output voltage.
c. increase load current.
d. increase output voltage.
21. If the load resistance of a current regulator is reduced to 0 ohms (a short circuit), the circuit
a. output current essentially equals the constant current value.
b. will be damaged due to excessive output current.
c. transistor is in cutoff.
d. transistor is in saturation.

A-11

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

22. A series voltage regulator cannot control the output voltage for
a. output short circuits.
b. moderate line voltage variations.
c. moderate load fluctuations.
d. moderate line and load variations.
23. In a voltage feedback regulation circuit the purpose of the feedback (error) amplifier is to
a. reduce the load regulating ability of the regulator.
b. reduce the line regulating ability of the regulator.
c. control the conduction of the pass transistor.
d. multiply the value of the circuit reference voltage.
24. A current regulator maintains a constant
a. load resistance.
b. input current.
c. load (output) current.
d. reference voltage.
25. The voltage feedback regulator is a type of
a. shunt regulator.
b. series regulator.
c. current regulator.
d. None of the above.
26. In active foldback current limiting with a severe output overload,
a. pass transistor base current decreases and VCE increases.
b. output (load) voltage and current increase.
c. foldback protection transistor base current decreases.
d. All of the above.
27. A 3-pin IC power supply regulator can be used
a. to regulate the input voltage to the regulator.
b. to simultaneously control load voltage and current.
c. to control load voltage or current.
d. All of the above.
28. In voltage feedback regulator operation, a change in line voltage (circuit input voltage),
a. generates an equivalent voltage change in the circuit reference voltage.
b. does not affect pass transistor base current.
c. affects only the collector current of the error amplifier.
d. is offset by a change in the pass transistor voltage drop.

A-12

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

29. The current regulator is a type of


a. series and shunt regulator.
b. series regulator.
c. shunt regulator.
d. None of the above.
30. A characteristic of the voltage feedback regulator is the
a. ease of adjusting the output voltage value.
b. ease of output current adjustment.
c. elimination of a reference voltage.
d. use of complementary transistors.
31. In a transistor circuit regulator, the load resistance becomes too great; therefore, the
a. transistor becomes saturated.
b. transistor becomes cut off.
c. collector voltage decreases.
d. base-emitter junction becomes reverse biased.
32. During normal operation of a feedback voltage regulator circuit, the load resistance increases.
The output voltage should be
a. much higher.
b. slightly higher, then resume its normal level.
c. much lower.
d. slightly lower, then resume its normal level.
33. If the input power to a 3-pin IC regulator is 50 mW and the power consumed by the load is
20 mW, the power efficiency is
NOTE: Power Efficiency(%) = (POUT/PIN) x 100
a.
b.
c.
d.

60 percent.
40 percent.
250 percent.
66 percent.

34. If the line voltage to a current regulator increases,


a. load current decreases significantly
b. load current increases significantly.
c. load voltage increases significantly.
d. load current remains at a constant level.
35. The IC switching regulator converts the dc input into
a. sinewaves.
b. high frequency sine waves.
c. very low frequency pulses.
d. high frequency ac pulses.

A-13

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

36. In general, dc to dc converter circuits control a transistor switch that is used to charge a(n)
_________ with energy.
a. capacitor.
b. inductor.
c. resistor.
d. diode.
37. For good IC voltage regulator control, the difference between the input voltage (VA) and the
set output voltage (VO) should never be less than
a. 1.0 Vdc
b. 3.0 Vdc
c. 1.2 Vdc
d. 2.5 Vdc
38. An Integrated Circuit (IC) is any electronic device in which passive and active elements are
a. explosive.
b. contained in a single package.
c. not functioning.
d. None of the above.
39. The power efficiency of a dc to dc converter using an IC switching regulator is high because
a. the transistor switch has a low resistance.
b. the transistor switch consumes little power when switching very rapidly between
saturation and cutoff.
c. the oscillator uses little power.
d. of the compact size of the IC.
40. An IC switching regulator, dc to dc converter can be configured to
a. regulate an output voltage higher than the input voltage.
b. regulate an output voltage lower than the input voltage
c. regulate an output voltage with the opposite polarity of the input voltage.
d. All of the above.
41. During the ramp up duration of the timing signal, the IC transistor switch of a dc to dc
converter is
a. saturated.
b. in its active region.
c. cut off.
d. oscillating.
42. The reference voltage drop within a 3-pin IC regulator
a. varies with the load.
b. is constant.
c. depends on the value of the program resistor.
d. depends on current or voltage control.

A-14

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

43. To efficiently troubleshoot a regulator problem, you should use


a. imagination and individual initiative.
b. knowledge of the circuit.
c. logical procedures.
d. All of the above.
44. The slight ac variation in the output voltage (VO) of a dc to dc converter is called
a. impedance.
b. inductive reactance.
c. ripple.
d. capacitive reactance.
45. A measured value that is not exactly the same as the nominal value but is within the specified
tolerance limits
a. indicates a fault in the circuit.
b. is considered a normal reading.
c. indicates that a circuit component is beginning to break down.
d. is considered normal only if it is less than the nominal value.
46. Ripple in the output voltage of a dc to dc converter is caused primarily by
a. changes in the load resistance.
b. changes in the line voltage.
c. the transistor switch rapidly turning on and off.
d. variations in the reference voltage.
47. When the fault is determined and the faulty component is repaired or replaced, the next step
in troubleshooting is to
a. do a performance check to test the regulator for proper operation.
b. put the power supply regulator back into operation.
c. make a visual inspection and put the regulator back into operation.
d. put the regulator back into operation and make sure that there are no symptoms of
improper operation.
48. The set value of the output voltage in a dc to dc converter is determined by the
a. oscillator frequency.
b. duty cycle.
c. ratio of the voltage divider resistors.
d. reference voltage value.
49. The objective to reviewing the performance check data is to
a. prove that the fault does not exist.
b. determine the faulty circuit component.
c. be able to make a good assumption on the possible fault.
d. help you eliminate the symptoms of the fault.

A-15

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix A Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

50. The first step in the troubleshooting flow chart is to


a. make performance checks.
b. analyze the symptoms of the problem.
c. make a visual inspection.
d. isolate and repair the faulty circuit component.

A-16

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix B Faults and Circuit Modifications (CMs)

APPENDIX B FAULTS AND CIRCUIT MODIFICATIONS (CMS)


CM

FAULT

ACTION

SCHEMATIC
SWITCH NO.
21
22

1
2

23

24
25
26
27

4
5
6
7

28
29

8
9

30
31
32

10
11
12

2
4

2
4

5
6

5
6

7
8

7
8

16

16

17
18
19
20

17
18
19
20

opens Q1 base
shorts Q1 basecollector junction
shorts CR1 with
100
opens Q3 collector
opens R1
opens Q1 base
shorts VR1 pin ADJ
to ground through
10
opens R2
shorts U1 pin
TIMING to ground
through 100
opens CR1
opens Q1 emitter
opens circuit at
grounded end of R3
CR1 zener voltage
= 6.1
opens CR1
CR1 zener voltage
= 5.1
R3 = 820
opens circuit
between Q3-base
and R7 wiper
R8 = 12 k
shorts CR1 with
100
CR1 zener voltage
= 3.3
CR1 zener voltage
= 5.1
R1 = 470
R1 = 180
R4 = 103 k
R3 = 12 k

B-1

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix B Faults and Circuit Modifications (CMs)

B-2

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix C Board and Courseware Troubleshooting

APPENDIX C BOARD AND COURSEWARE TROUBLESHOOTING


Circuit Board Problems
The F.A.C.E.T. equipment is carefully designed, manufactured, and tested to assure long,
reliable life. If you suspect a genuine failure in the equipment, the following steps should be
followed to trace a problem.
A. ALWAYS insert the board into a base unit before attempting to use an ohmmeter for
troubleshooting. The schematic diagrams imprinted on the boards are modified by the
absence of base unit switch connections; therefore, ohmmeter checks will produce erroneous
results with disconnected boards. Do not apply power to the base unit when you perform
resistance checks.
B. Information describing fault switch functions is provided in Appendix B in this instructor
guide.
Courseware Problems
The F.A.C.E.T. courseware has been written to meet carefully selected objectives. All exercises
have been tested for accuracy, and information presented in discussions has been reviewed for
technical content. Tolerances have been computed for all procedure and review question answers
to assure that responses are not invalidated by component or instrument errors.
Nevertheless, you or your students may discover mistakes or experience difficulty in using our
publications. We appreciate your comments and assure you that we will weigh them carefully in
our ongoing product improvement efforts.
As we address courseware problems, we will post corrections for download from our web site,
www.labvolt.com. Select the customer support tab, and then choose product line: F.A.C.E.T.
Select a course, select from a list of symptoms that have been addressed, and follow the
instructions.

C-1

Power Supply Regulators

Appendix C Board and Courseware Troubleshooting

We will do our best to help you resolve problems if you call the number below. However, for
best results, and to avoid confusion, we prefer that you write with a description of the problem.
If you write, please include the following information:

Your name, title, mailing address, and telephone number (please include the best time to
reach you).
Publication title and number.
Page number(s), and step and/or figure number(s) of affected material.
Complete description of the problem encountered and any additional information that may
help us solve the problem.

Send your courseware comments to:


techsupport@labvolt.com
Lab-Volt Systems
P.O. Box 686
Farmingdale, NJ 07727
ATTN: Technical Support
If you prefer to telephone regarding hardware or courseware problems, call us between 9:00 AM
and 4:30 PM (Eastern time) at: (800) 522-4436 or (888)-LAB-VOLT.

C-2

THIS
THIS