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i
J
X
1925
Atlas of the World
and
Gazetteer
Containing

NEW MAPS OF THE PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD


AND SEPARATE MAPS OF EACH AMERICAN STATE AND TERRITORY
THE CANADIAN PROVINCES, ETC.. ETC.

ACCOMPANIED BY INDIVIDUAL INDEXES OF EACH STATE. PROVINCE. ETC.


A DESCRIPTIVE GAZETTEER OF THE PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES OF THE
WORLD. AND FOURTEEN GEOGRAPHICAL CROSS-WORD PUZZLES

FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY


NEW YORK AND LONDON
1925
CONTENTS
MAPS
.byssinia
^den
Afghanistan

iuLmV.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.
Uaska
STATISTICAL G AZETTEER OF THE WORLD
This alphabetical of grand divisions, countries, states, colonial posses-
list
sions, etc., gives area, population and capital or seat of government. The
mother country of colonial possessions is indicated by Italic abbreviations en-
closed within parentheses.
ABBREVIATIONS
British or British Empire
Dan._
Domin.
Dutch
Ft.
Ger.
Gr.
I.
Is.
It.
Jap.
L. of N,

^land.
.. . ,

STATISTICAL GAZETTEER OF THE WORLD


Country Area Population Capital
(Sq. MUes)
Belize (Br. Honduras) 8,598
. . 45,317 Belize
Bermuda Islands (Br.). 19 .. 22,000 Hamilton
Bhutan 20,000 250,000 Punakha
Bokhara 79,440 3,000,000 Bokhara
Bolivia 514,155 2,889,970 La Paz
Borneo (British) 31,106 208,183 Sandakan
Borneo (Dutch) 212,737 1,625,453
BrazU 3,275,510 30,635,605 Rio de Janeiro
British Columbia, Canada 355,855 523,369 Victoria
British Honduras (Belize) 8,598 45,317 BeUze
British Isles 121,633 47,307,601
Brunei (Br.) 4,000 25,454 Brunei
Bulgaria 40,656 4,861,439 Sofia
Burma (Br.) 230,839 13,205,564
California, U.S.A 158,297 3,426,861 Sacramento
Cambodia.Fr.Indo-China 45.000 1.634,252 Pnom-Penh
CameToon(Br.&Fr.Mand.) 191,300 2,541.871 Buea
Canada, Domin. of (Br.) 3,729,665 8,769,489 Ottawa
CanalZone (t/.<S.A.).... 502 22,858 Balboa
Canary Islands (Sp.) .... 3,342 506,414
Cape Breton Island, N. S. 3,975 131,495
Cape of Good Hope, U. of
So. Africa 276,966 2,781,185 Cape Town
Cape Verde Is. (Port.).... 1,480 149,793 Porto Praya
Caroline Is. (Jap. Mand.) 560 39,000
Caucasia (i? us. regiori).. 181,173 13,500,000
Cayman Islands (Br.)... 89 5,253 Georgetown
Celebes (Dutch) 72,070 3,089,263 Menado
Central America 212,998 5,634,652
Ceylon (Br.) 25,481 4,504,283 Colombo
Channel Islands ( U. K.). 75 89,614
Chile 289,829 3,754,723 Santiago
China, Chinese Rep 1,532,420 302,110,000 Peking
Chinese RepubUc 4,277, 170 320,650,000
Chosen [Korea] (Jap.). . 84,738 17,284,207 Seoul
Colombia 440,846 5,855,077 Bogota
Colorado, U.S.A 103,948 939,629 Denver
Congo, Belgian 909,654 15,500.000 LeopoldviUe
Connecticut, U.S.A 4,965 1,380,631 Hartford
Costa Rica 23,000 476,581 San Jose
Crete, Greece 3,330 310,400
Cuba 44,215 2,889,004 Havana
Curacao (Dufc^) 210 32,709 Willemstad
Cyprus (Br.) 3,584 310,808 Nicosia
Czecho-Slovakia 54,264 13,595,816 Prague
Dahomey (Fr.) 42,460 841,705 Porto Novo
Dalmatia, J u g o-S 1 a v i a
(region) 5,090 621,503
Danzig, Free City of
(L.ofN.) 794 330,252 Danzig
Delaware, U.S.A 2,370 223,003 Dover
Denmark 16,609 3,267,831 Copenhagen
Dist. of Columbia, U.S.A. 70 437,571
Dominica (Br.) 305 37,059 Roseau
Dominican Republic 19,332 897,405 Santo Domingo
East India Islands
East Indies, Dutch 683,000 49,l'6V,047 Batavia
Ecuador 116,000 2,000,000 Quito
Egypt 350,000 12,710,000 Cairo
England, U.K 58,340 35,678,530 London
Eritrea 45,800 450,000 Asmara
Esthonia 23,160 1,750,000 Reval
Europe 3,879,000 400,000,000
Europe, Southeastern
Falkland Islands (Br.) . . 6,500 3,240 Port Stanley
Faroe Islands (Dan.) 540 21,364 Thomshawn
Federal Territory, Aus-
tralia (Br.) 940 2,572
FederatedMalaySt.(Br.) 27,506 1,037,000
....

STATISTICAL GAZETTEER OF THE WORLD


Country Area Population
(Sq. MUes)
Fiji Islands (Br.) 7,083
Finland...... 149,586
Fiume (It.) , 8
Florida, U.S.A 58,668
Formosa [Taiwan] (Jap.). 13,944
France 212,659
Franz Josef Land
French Equatorial Africa 982,049
French Soudan 617,600
French West Africa 1,800,566
Galapagos Is. (jE'cuador).. 2,400
Gambia (Br.) 4,500
Georgia (Rus.Sov. Rep.). 25,760
Georgia, U.S.A 59,265
Germany 183,381
Gibraltar (Br.) 2
Gold Coast (Br.) 80,000
Greece 41,933
Greenland (Dan.) 826,000
Grenada (Br.) 133
Guadeloupe (Fr.) 722
Guam ( C7.,S.^.) 225
Guatemala 48,290
Guiana, British 89,500
Guiana, Dutch 46,060
Guiana, French 32,000
Guinea, French 95,218
Guinea, Portuguese 13,940
Haiti 10,204
Hawaii ( U.S.A.) 6,449
Hejaz 170,000
Holland (Netherlands).... 15,760
Honduras 44,275
Honduras, Br. (BeUze).. 8,598
Hong Kong (Br.) 391
Hungary 35,654
Iceland 39,709
Idaho, U.S.A 83,888
Ifni(<Sp.) 965
Illinois, U.S.A 56,665
India and Dependencies. 1 ,802,629
Indiana, U.S.A 36,354
Indo-China, French 256,000
Iowa, U.S.A 56,147
Irak [Mesopotamia] (Br.
Mand.) 143,250
Ireland, Northern, U. K. 8,613
Irish Free State (Br.). . . 23,973
Isle of Man, U. K 227
Italy 117,982
Ivory Coast (Fr.) 121,976
Jamaica (Br.) 4,207
Japan 148,756
Java (Dutch) 48,857
Jugo-Slavia 95,628
Kansas, U.S.A 82,158
Karafutu [Sakhalin] (Jap.) 13,253
Kentucky, U.S.A 40,598
Kenya (Br.) 245,060
lOiiva 24,310
Korea [Chosen] (Jap.)... 84,738
Labrador (Br.) 120,000
Latvia 24,440
Leeward Islands (Br.) . . 715
Liberia 40,000
Liechtenstein 65
Lithuania 31,700
Louisiana, U.S.A. 48,506
Luxemburgooo.o... .. . .. 998
.. ..

STATISTICAL GAZETTEER OF THE. WORLD

Country Area Population Capital


(Sq. Miles)
Macao {Port.) 4 74,866
Madagascar (Fr.) 228,000 3,512,690 Tananarive
Madeira Islands (Port.) . 314 170,000 Funchal
Madura (Dutch) 1,700 1,600,000
Maine, U.S.A 33,040 768,014 Augusta
Malta (Br.) 118 224,500 Valetta
]\ I anchuria, Chinese Rep. 363,610 12,740,000 Mukden
Manitoba, Canada 251,832 610,118 Winnipeg
Mariana Islands (Jap. Mand.) 250 10,000
MarshaU Islands {Jap. Mand.) 150 16,500
Martinique (Fr.) 385 193,000 Fort de France
Marj'land, U.S.A 12,327 1,449,661 Annapolis
Massachusetts, U.S.A.... 8,266 3,852,356 Boston
Mauretania (Fr.) 347,400 261,532
Memel -
1,057 140,746
Mesopotamia [Irak] {Br.
Mand.) 143,250 2,849,282 Bagdad
Mexico. 767,198 15,501,684 Mexico
Michigan, U.S.A 57,980 3,668,412 Lansing
Midway Island ( U.S.A.)
Minnesota, U.S.A 84,682 2,387,125 St." Paul'"
Miquelon {Fr.) 83 443 St. Pierre
Mississippi, U.S.A 46,865 1,790,618 Jackson
Missouri, U.S.A 69,420 3,404,055 Jefferson City
Molucca Islands (Dute/i). 22,781 392,784
Monaco 8 22,956 Monaco
Mongolia, Chinese Rep... 1,367,600 1,800,000 Urga
Montana, U.S.A 146,997 548,889 Helena
Montserrat (Br.) 32 12,120 Plymouth
Morocco, French Zone. . 231,500 5.400,000 Fez
Morocco, Spanish Zone . 8,665 620,000 Tetuan
Mozambique (Port. E.
Africa) 428,132 3,120,000 LourencoMarques
Natal, Union of So. Africa 35,284 1,194,043
Nebraska, U.S.A 77,520 1,296,372 Lincoln
Nepal 54,000 5,000,000 Khatmandu
Netherlands [Holland].... 15,760 6,841,155 Hague
Nevada, U.S.A 110,690 77,407 Carson City
New Britain Archipelago
{Australia Mand.) . . 18,200 188,000
New Brunswick, Canada 27,985 387,876 Fredericton
New Caledonia (Fr.) .... 7,650 50,600 Noumea
Newfoundland {Br.) 42,734 263,683 St.Johns
New Guinea {Br. Mand.) 70,000 110,000 Port Moresby
New Guinea {Dutch) .... 121,339 Unknown
New Hampshire, U.S.A.. 9,341 443,083 Concord
New Hebrides Islands
{Br. & Fr.) 5,500 60,000
New Jersey, U.S.A 8,224 3,155,900 Trenton
New Mexico, U.S.A 122,634 360,350 Santa Fe
New South Wales, Aus-
tralia 310,700 2,009,763 Sydney
New York, U.S.A 49,204 10,385,227 AJbany
New Zealand, Dominion
of (Br.) 104,751 1,218,913 Wellington
Nicaragua 49,200 638,119 Managua
Nigeria (Br.) 336,000 16,500,000 Lagos
Niger Territory (Fr.). . . 347,400 1,083,827 Niamey
North America 9,323,000 145,000,000
North Carolina, U.S.A.... 52,426 2,559,123 Raleigh
North Dakola, U.S.A.. . 70,837 646,872 Bismarck
Northern Rhodesia (Br.). 291,000 931,500 Livingstone
Northern Territory, Aus-
tralia 523,620 3,870
Northwest Territories,
Canada 18,481 6,684
Norway 124.964 2,646,306 Oslo (Christiania)
Nova Scotia, Canada. ... n .Ht^ 523,837 Halifax
Nyasaland (Br.) .,,...,. 39,573 1,200,000 Zomba
...... .

STATISTICAL GAZETTEER OF THE WORLD


Country Area Population Capital
(Sq. Miles)
Ohio, U.S.A 41,010 5,759,394 Columbus
Oklahoma, U.S.A 70,057 2,028,283 Oklahoma City
Oman 82,000 500,000 Mask at
Ontario, Canada 407,202 2,933,662 Toronto
Orange Free State, U. of
So. Africa 50,389 628,360 Bloemfontein
Oregon, U.S.A 96,699 783,389 Salem
Palestine (Br. Mand.) . . 9,000 761,796 Jerusalem
Panama 32,380 401,428 Panama
Papua Territory [New
Guinea] {Br.) 90,540 251,000 Port Moresby
Paraguay 97,722 630,000 Asuncion
Pelew Islands (Jap. Mand.) 560 3,200
Pemba Island (Br.) 380 83,109
Pennsylvania, U.S.A 45,126 8,720,017 Harrisburg
Persia 628,000 9,500,000 Teheran
Peru 709,871 4,569,752 Lima
Philippine Islands( U.S.A.) 114,400 10,350,640 Manila
Poland 150,207 27,778,068 Warsaw
Porto Rico ( U.S.A.) .... 3,435 1,299,809 San Juan
Portugal 35,490 5,957,985 Lisbon
Portuguese East Africa
(JNIozambique) 428,132 3,120,000 Lourenfo Marques
Prince Edward Island,
Canada 2,184 88,615 Charlottetown
Quebec, Canada 706,834 2,361,199 Quebec
Queensland, Australia. . 670,500 757,634 Brisbane
Rhode Island, U.S.A 1,218 604,397 Providence
Rhodesia (Br.) 440,000 1,741,500
Rio de Ore (Sp.) 109,200 800 Villa Cisneros
Rio Muni (Sp.) 9,470 89,130 Santa Isabel
Rumania 122,282 17,393,149 Bukharest
Russia 1,488,240 93,387,923 Moscow
Sakhalin [Karafutu ] (Jap.) 13,253 105,765
Salvador 13,183 1,500,000 San Salvador
Samoa ( N.Z.Mand.) 1,250 37,000
Samoa. (U.S.A.) 102 8,056
San Marino 38 12,027 San Marino
Sarawak (Br.) 42,000 600,000 Kuching
Sarre (L. of iV.) 751 657,870
Saskatchewan, Canada. 251,700 757,510 Regina
Scotland, U. K 30,405 4,882,288 Edinburgh
Senegal (Fr.) 74,112 1,225,523 St. Louis
Shetland Islands (Br.).. 551 25,520
Siam 198,900 9,121,000 Bangkok
Siberia, Russia 4,831,882 10,377,900
Sierra Leone (Br.) 31,000 1,400,000 Freetown
Sinkiang, Chinese Rep. 550,340 . 2,000,000 Urumchi
Society Islands (Fr.) 700 28,000 Papeete
Solomon Islands (Austra-
lia Mand.) 3,800 17,000
Solomon Islands (Br.) 11,000
. . 150,000
Somali Coast, French 5,790 208,000 Djibouti
Somaliland, British 68,000 300,000 Berbera
Somaliland, Italian 139,430 650,000 Mogdishu
South America 6,889,000 50,000,000
South Austraha, Australia 330,070 495,336 Adelaide
South Carolina, U.S.A. 30,989. 1,683,724 Columbia
South Dakota, U.S.A. . 77,615. 636,547 Pierre
Southern Rhodesia (Br.) 149,000 810,000 Salisbury
South Georgia (Br.) 1,000 1,000
Southwest Africa ( U. So.
Africa Mand.) 322,400 237,237 Windhoek
Spain 194,783 20,783,844 Madrid
Spitzbergen (Norway) .25,000 . 300
St. Croix Island, Virgin
Is. (U.S. A.) 84 14,901
St. Helena Island (Br.) . 47 3,747
. .

STATISTICAL GAZETTEER OF THE WORLD


Country Area Population Capital
(Sq. Miles)
St.John Island, Virgin Is.
{U.S.A) 32 959
St. Lucia (Br.) 233 51,505 Castries
St. Pierre Island (Fr.)... 10 4,209
Straits Settlements (Br.) 1,600 821,000 Singapore
St. Thomas Island, Virgin
Is.(U.S.A.) 33 10,191
St.Vincent (Br.) 150 44,447 Kingstown
Sumatra ( Dutch) 160,736 5,848,872
Swaziland (Br.) 6,678 100,000 Embabaan
Sweden 173,035 5,903,762 Stockholm
Switzerland 15,976 3,880,320 Bern
Syria (Fr. Mand.) 60,000 3,000,000
Taiwan [Formosa] (Jap.) 13,944 3,654,398 Taiwan
Tanganyika Territory (Br.
Mand.) 365,000 4,000,000 Dar-es-Salaam
Tasmania (Br.) 26,215 213,877 Hobart
Tennessee, U.S. A 42,022 2,337,885 Nashville
Texas, U.S. A 265,896 4,663,228 Austin
Tibet, Chinese Rep 463,000 2,000,000
Timor (Porf.) 7,.330 377,815
Timor Archipelago (Dwic/i) 17,098 1,146,657
Tobago (Br.) 114 12,465
Togo (Br. & Fr. Mand.). 33,700 1,032,088 Lome
Tongking, French Indo-
Chma 46,400 6,119,720
Transvaal, Union of So.
Africa 110,450 2,085,837 Pretoria
Trinidad (Br.) 1,863 391,279 Port of Spain
TripoU(7<.) 406,000 1,000,000 Tripoli
Tunis (Fr.) 50,000 2,093,939 Tunis
Turkestan (Rus. Sov. Rep.) 420,807 6,684,400
Turkey 174,900 8,000,000 Angora
Uganda (Br.) 109,119 3,361,000 Entebbe
Ukraine (Rus. Sov. Rep.) 174,510 26,001,802 Kief
Union of South Africa (
Br.) 473,089 6,922,813 Cape Town
United States of America 3,026,791 105,710,620 Washington
Upper Volta, French W.
Africa 154,400 2,973,951 Ouaga-dougou
Uruguay 72,153 1,494,953 Montevideo
Utah,U.S.A 84,990 449,396 Salt Lake City
Venezuela 398,594 2,411,952 Caracas
Vermont, U.S.A 9,564 352,428 Montpelier
Victoria, Australia 87,884 1,531,529 Melbourne
Virgin Islands (U.S.A) . 132 26,051 St.Thomas
Virginia, U.S.A 42,627 2,309,187 Richmond
Wales, U.K 7,466 2,206,712
Walfisch Bay (Br.) 430 4,398
Washington, U.S.A 69,127 1,356,621 Olympia
Weihaiwei (Br.) 285 147,177
West Africa, French 1,800,566 12,283,962 Dakar
Western Australia, Aus-
tralia 975,920 332,213 Perth
West Indies 85,699 8,132,795
West Virginia, U.S.A. . . 24,170 1,463,701 Charleston
Windward Islands (Br.) . 519 178,000
Wisconsin, U.S.A 56,066 2,632,067 Madison
World 196,872,000 1,700,000,000
Wyoming, U.S.A 97,914 194,402 Cheyenne
Yap (Zap. Mand.) 79 8,613
207.07b 4.162 Dawson
Yukon, Canada
113,624 Zanzibar
Zanzibar, (Br.) 640
THE WORLD
GALL'S STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
COLONIAL POSSESSIONS
Ur,Ued Statr.s

British Empire

France
Port Eliiabeth

E ,4

::^'

"?

de 20 East 40= from BO^Greenwieh 80" lOO" 120° 140" 160° 180°
4 longitude West longitude East i3 from Greenwich 10"

Map of Africa, Pages 58-61; Asia, 44-43.

12
st^^*;*
15
Map of E:nglana, Pages 14-15; Ireland, lS-19; AA'ales. 14-15.

16
17
Map of England, Pages 14-15; Scotland, 16-17; Wales, 14-15.

18
19
map of England. Pages 14-15; France, 22-23; Germany, 24-25.

20
21
•^s^i^:^ f/,^.^^i(lS;z'iU::i^|^'^°r IR Effi,»^ER^

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VerdonrYlNKBRIElIRBYs/ ,-'^ ^'^^^^^-^


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'A,
t

'.Earbezleiii VNontroFX / / -UH, , I / )

Etang de Carca

BoVgerac y+^Sarlal

FRANCE SCALE OF MILES


.Oahors
100 120
Eailroads
20 40
—-o~ — •
60
Canals
80
-=— — EUmg de Parent!,

Submarine Cables •

Important Tramways " " '^


CapUalB of Departments ®
Size of type indicates re!ative ^1
importance of places
Gljor^^--,^^^^ Santander
Uanes^

J PaiiWJ \^-

Hammond'! 8x11 M&p of France Pamph


Copyright by C. 8. Hammond

map of Belgium. Pages 20-21; England, 14-15; Germany, 34-2.'; Italy, 36-37

JVctherlands, 20-31;
22
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..<
[i.mtorgr^-t*

m/tis:
tuttC"
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1(1,, ^*<""°7yjf |6V,!>{SjB3nV^ « !w 5>

n^loien'

rconnes-sj..
Frejue

'C.Camarat

'Haeres

A
£" ^ AT S ^J
4 Longitude F East 6 from O" Greenwich Strait of Bmifaeia '

LPonbou
Spain, 39; S^vitzerland, as.

23
'Islands ^^-^^
\!^W~~) r^ '\'\ /— "Auricb

FehrKeUin

S \ ^v^i£horn^Q8/deIegen Span'
1

J J^
>H |i
27
22° 28" F
The B altic States
ESTHONIA, LATVIA ''W
and
LITHUANIA

Capitals of Countries ..©


E1<-vations io English Feet.sooo
Railroads.—<— Canals.—

'^lap of Finland, Page 29; Germany. 24-25; Poland, 31 ; Russia, 32.

30
Map of Czecho-SIovakia, Page 38; Gerniaiiy, 24-25; Latvia, 30; Lithuania, 30; Rumania. 41-
aussia, 32. '

31
K

'*'vJ
"« INNER O" ,

/ nV ^"^Ip"'! V^'i'^'f y?r)' a TX/„„,,;°"«,iiJ^-<t—Cl<:jii>"°i''"° °\6 n i^


."oljof
(J
lofAzof,

Ptavropol

L ^ c a:

RUSSIA, UKRAINE
and the •/
J^
NEW BALTIC STATES KURD: STAN
C.S.HJ

Map of Asia. Pages 44-45; Esthonia, 30; Finland, 29; Latvia, 30; Lithuania, 30; Poland,
31: Rumania, 41.
32
Map of Austria, Pases 34-35; Czeclio-SIovakia, 38; JuguNluvia, 42; Rumania, 41.

33
} I [
' ivi e, (iu • / -
^ basse'' J" xhmxQ: c. ,^Stt^ '

, , f ~f ' "*"

/LIEC^H L iL I ^rlon
^ linta-Ungenfeld Z oW™ / ^^, ,
^ .^ ^-^ . ' > " .ireii.
Switzerland, 28.

35
Map of Afrion, Xorthcrn I
i>vitieerlainl, US.

37
awoaatasnOQQ d«'^«^wawc;fca6tas;a

^sgs'hl -Hsssgl .^iiiio.

c/> wai-Mcib tsa

^l-f^-^T-J-i^V'"

Map of Afrion, Vortliern Part, Pases 58-50; France, •^2-2',]

39
24° F 2r.° G 26°
R««VJ.33'^""''^"^^^^' C^echo.Slo.akia.38; HMn^ary. 33; Jugoslavia. 4.= Poland, 31 ;

41
Bulgaria, 43; Greece, 40; Hungary, 33; Italy,
Map of Albania. Page 40; Austria, 34-.%;
36-37; Rumania, 41.
42
^

Principal Railroads -a—


Projected Railroads _-o--

Map of Africa, Pages 58-61; Europe, 13-13; Oceania, 56-57.


Cast Ct

45
of Greece. Page 40; Persia, 4S-4!).
Map
46
J?^o \lloanduz
/Bum/ 8i4«k»«A
Pea* o
/
,/

""IT

P JP

Sidid
.J

l>»»*'«-..^'^M«dr«!

47
Greenwich E
Map ot AfsUanistan, Pages 48-49; Baluchistan, 48-49; China, 54-55.

SO
im^
Map of China, Pages 54-55; Oceania, 56-57.

52
-ntrrDUmen SIra t

Greenwich T

53
Capital of Courrtry Jf. Treats Porta.
Capital o/ Province ,9 Railroads .

^yfr^-"^ SOUTH
Proposed Railroads^
''\^^ CHINA SEA Submarine Cable»_.
Buuiuml,! 1 1 TI Kip of CbIii>,J>pui ud Eoru
Oo p Tritj" bj C.B. Hammond t Co, M.T.
^„_.
H. Loneitudt 120 Ea«t from I Greenwich 126 130 K 136 L

55
Map of Asia, Pages 44-45.

56
57
Has Ufernlf
ABadir-IgfrW:

British
French
Italian

Coloni
Railroads Canals i

Size of type indicates relative importance of places

ascensionC 10° West D


Map of Africa, Central and Southern Part, Pages 60-61; Asia, 44-45; Europe, 12-13.

58
59
p^ LongitiuU 3l> Ltst I-i'' fvoii

Map of AfrU-a. >«i(Iutii I'art, I'ag

60
CENTRAL AND
SOUTHERN AFRICA
/ . BarrmioaL

>1? >.C'%iW

'

(Cf.)

-EQU*TO : -,
rr
/l.\

it«^«ii%El=^D) ADO KV^N.-Ftyv^S^


/ PuM i.t/'s'5Cuenta\ \ J I

^
IB

iK\

ri CNORTHEKN PART) . JS^'^y^^^^^^


'^'^'''^^^'^'^^
SCAi£ Of MU-ES

SO 100 200 300 (00 SO

Bailroads
Submarine Cables
Size of type indicates relative
aspea^ance of places

Capyritlit hj aa.H»wimwnl * C».


LDE»!tn<teE 'Bfest of I
63
rl

a Is

Ci

Map of South America, Northern Part, Pages 62-63.

64
65
Map of Asia, Pases 44-45; South America, 62-65.
a?
^ U E w

/ " 1 .s

Tu';, ,,
""-^it^-Ho

..^'•( •''-'.. li / ~«e;

HutchTrtapn

City(

; "Lubbock

UNITED STATES
SCALE OF MILES
501» 200

G Capitals of C^uyitries
Capitals of States and Provinces ®
69
Map of Alaska, Page 88; Greenland, 66; United States, 68-69.

70
71
3Ian of Maine, Pace 105; Quebec, T3-75.

72
of ^laiiu-, Xfw Hriiiis« ick, 7'2; \'«>^%fi>iiiifllan«l, New Hamsiiliirc, 115;
York. S; Oiitari 7K-7>S; \ eriiiont, l.'tl.

73
Map of Maine, Page 105; Xew Brunswick, 72; IVewfoundland, 72; New Hamspliire, Hi
°^^A. '1-^-3--^—':
'"*
.^. "'^ "^
^ 11?^/': ^ '^ ^
j Southern Part, 7S; Quebec, 73-75

n
Ohio. 121; Ontario, Northern Part. 76-
Map of Miol.ij.an. Page lOS; New York. 118;
Pennsylvania, 124; Uuebec. 4.i-t5.

72,
F 92 G 80° H 88° J

MANITOBA
ScmlB of Ml lei

Itailroadt __^_^_
Capitui of Province -fe

Size of type indicates relative


Importance of places

'
Lonsilude D West 96° from E Green

Map of Minnesota. PiitSf 109; North Dakota, 120; Northwest Territories, 70-71; Ontario,
7«-78; Saslcatchewan, NO.

79
litelc DumWei "^
\ J'^

^ "^ fhVDebden ptnega; }o V < b fC

Xort. DaUota. 1.0; Xort.wes.


Ma.Uo.a. ,.; .Xo.tana. 11.;
Map o. AIl.e.ta. Pa.e 81,
Territortes, 70-71.
80
ve I
Durlingvllle

- Optiv KelJ
SOarmangiij

110°

11'" C 116 D lir L..g fc.iuJ. in "»" r •" —


B
I

Pa^e 82; Montana, .1.; North.ve.t Territories. 70-7..


Map of British tolu.nl.ia.
Saskatchewan, 80.

81
Alberta. 81; Idaho. 98; Montana. 112; Northwest Territories.
Map of Alaska. Pa«e 88;
70-71; Washington, 1S3.
82
" l!

Mil! ^^ t\^lM^#%
Map of Mexico, Page 83; South America, 62-65.

84

g
s
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Map of Central A Page 84; South America, Xorthern Part, 62-63; United States, 68-69.

85
3Ijii» of \\ est Indies, I'jige 85.
Map of Asia, Pages 44-45; BritLsh Columbia, 82; Yukon, 7U
CL, l^FultOQ fo Hacklebl!TE*«^ I
AV"'"""' ATbertvilleH Collintville/ "".^ C^j^lSl^

I / ''fe^^' -k"^P- Houston


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A
G UL F 0\f MEXIC O ^, ,... „
SS^ B Longitude 87" West C from 80° Greenwich D
Map of Florida, Page 96; Georgia, 07; Mississippi, 110; Tennessee, 128.

90
Map of raiifornia. Page S'.i
Itah, 130.
/4
.Epps

92 Grfepwlcb D
-LJ
«-««- i«4; Mississippi. 110; MissouH.lll, Oklahoma. 122; Tennessee.
^>xa«! ^^J:'"'""'*' 128;

92
A 124 B v:a c
PART OF
SOUTH EASTEHN
CAI.IFORNIA "
^"^" '«-' ^e.,ra.ka. 113; Nev. Mexico. 117; Oklahoma.
w/omfng."?^";' 122; Utah. 130

94
TI5 a N V T^_s_U J 3 a o

°;S

Map of Massachusetts, Page 107; New York, 118; Rhode Island, 125.

95
3Iap o€ Alabama, Page 00; Georgia, 9T.

96
'•««« »«' Florida. 96; North Carolina. 119;
»oL'«^JrS«' South Carolina. 126;

97
Map of British Columbia, Page 82; Montana, 112; Nevada, 114; Orei^on, 123; Utah, 130;
Washington, 133; Wyoming, 136.

98
B »' C 80 30 U 86- L 85^0 F Hi U
iafce J/ich/oan y MV yil^. ./d.., H t \L^'-- G I T~~T~
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^ ^
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87° C Ungiiud. 80°3O'

Map of Illinois, Page 99; Kentucky, 103; Michigan, 108; Ohio, 121.

100
Map of Illinois, Pase 99; Minne«>ota, >j Missouri, 111; Nebraska, 13; South Dakota, 127;
Wisconsin, ISj.
101
Map of Colorado, Pag;e 94; Missouri, 111; IVeliraska, 113; Oklahoma, 122

102
Map of Illinois, PaKe »y; Indiana. lOO Missouri. Ill; Ohio,
Tennessoe, L2»; Virginia, 132; West Virginia. 134.

103
Page 92; Mississippi. 110; Texas, 129.
Map of Arkansas,

104
lp^4f 4 .r^'fer,;- '^
w Cfo»Viii£ s^/- A^^v I,

J. B.
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»coLVn;"r35: OntaHoTrG-TS; Uue„ee. 73-75;

108
NOKTHKASTEKM PART
OF MINNESOTA

Mapof Iowa, Page 101; Manitoba, 79; North Dakota, 120; Ontario, 76-78; Soutli Dakota, 127;
Wisconsin, 135.
109
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Scale of Miles

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91° Longitude
111
Map of Alberfa, Page 81; British Columbia, 82; Idaho. 98; Xorth Dakota, 120;
Satikatche^van, 80; South Dakota, 127; Wyoming, 136.

112
Map of C oloradr Page 94; lo^va, 101; KanH.-t-s. 102; Missouri, 111; South Dakota, 127;
Wyoming 136.
,

113
NEW HAMPSHIRE

=^!'->:S=:i^^l>'r'|>,li?;„„„,, SalU^ry 1)^„„, Joe Canterbufe Farming^ »VV 1


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Map o£ Maine, Page 105; Ma-ssaohnsettis, 107; Uueltec, 7^-75; A'ermont, 131.

115
NEW JERSEY

f "JS^

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Map of Delaware, Page 106; New York, 118; Pennsylvania. i:J4.

116
I I'M
^^^^^:m''Su^J:k^rV^;:Zl!^^' ^e. aer«e^. 1X«; Ontario. r«.78;

118
Kor;. ^'*^'^-' ^-^- 7»' Minnesota. 109; Montana. IT.; Sa^kat.l,iiewan, SO; South
120
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V^linfa/134!'"'*'

121
Map of Arkansas, '"fee
Pace 92-
•*-. Colorado, «.
rntn^^^r. -^
Texas, 129. 94; Kansas, 103-; M issoiiri. 111; Mew .Mexico, 117;

122
Map of Dcliuvare. PaRe 10«; Maryland, 10«: New Jersey, 116; New York, 118; Ohio, itil;
West Virginia, 134.

124
Slap of Georgia, Page 97; Xortli Carolina, 119,

126
Nap of Iowa, Pajfe 101 Minnesota. 109;
W.U^nTTaef^'*''"^'^' Montana. 11.; Nebraska. 113; North Dakota. 120

127
Map of Alabama, Page 90; Arkansas, 93; Georgia, 97; Kentucky, 103; Mississippi, 110;
Missouri, 111; Aorth Carolina, 119; Virginia, 132.
128
.4,Fa\u
I
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Map of Arizona, Page 91 ; Colorado, Idaho, 98; ]Vevada, 114; Wyoming, 136.

130
73 LongltuJe B

Map of MasHachuHetts, Page 107; New HampNhire, 115; New York, 118; Quebec, 73-75.

131
^Mjt
Map of Kentucky, Page 103; Maryland, 106; Xorth Carolina, 119; Tennessee, 128: West
Vir^^mia, 134.

132
^

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= UD(!lliule C
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Page Iowa, 101; Michigan, lOK; Minnt^^ota, l(


Map of Illinois. 9l>;

135
136
.

INDEX OF PRINCIPAL CITIES OF WORLD


(Exclusive of United States of America)

WITH POPULATION FIGURES FROM LATEST CENSUS REPORTS


AS EXPLAINED ON PAGE 3

The name of the place is followed by the name of the country or state, the population, the index references and the
plate number. The index references indicate the location of the place on the accompanying maps; these references
show the point on the map at which lines will converge if drawn to connect the respective marginal letters upon top and
bottom and the numerals on either side of map. Places known under ditieient names or by various spellings of the same
name in different forms have, to some extent, been inserted in parenthesis. Capitals of countries and states are desig-
nated by asterisks*. Populations of cities including suburbs are designated by daggers!. Index of cities and towns
of United States of America will be found on pages 142 to 159, inclusive. .

Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), Ger- Bhopal, India, 55,054 C4 Chemnitz, Germany, 307,074 E 3 24


many, 145,933 B 3 Bialystok (Bielostok, Byelostok), Chengtu (Chingtu), China, 422,-
Aarhuus. Denmark, 74,256 F 8 Poland, 76,971 J 4 516 E4 54
Aberdeen, Scotland, 158,969 F 2 Bielefeld, Germany, 79,280 C2 Chcrson(Kherson), Ukr., 65,0()0..F 6 32
Adana, Turkey, 60,000 E4 Bilbao, Spain, 112,819 E 1 Chinkiang (Chingkiang), China,
Adelaide, *So. Aus., 39,562; Bin-Dinh (Binh-Dinh), Fr. Indo- 477.591 H4 55
t25S,218 E7 China, 74,440 H4 Chita, Siberia, 79,200 H 2 45
Agra, India, 185,946 C3 Birkenhead, England, 145,592. .C.3 Christiania (Oslo), 'Norway,
Agram (Zagreb), Jugo-Slavia, Birmingham, England, 919,438... E 4 258,341 G7 27
79,038 D2 Blackburn, England, 126,630. .. .D 3 Chungking, China, 1,011,597. .F. . 5 54
Ahmadabad, India,274,202 B 4 Blagoveschensk, Siberia, 62,500. .J 2 Cienfuegos, Cuba, 37,241 C 2 86
Ahmednuggar, India, 216,800.. .B 5
. Bochum, Germany. 143,217 B 3 Clermont-Ferrand, Fr., 82,577. .E . 4 23
Aintab, Turkey, 74,000 F 4 Bogota, 'Colombia, 160,000 C3 Coblenz (Koblenz),Ger.,56,108...B 3 24
Ajmir (Ajmere), India, 114,196. .B 3 Bokhara, Bokhara, 75,000 F 1 Cologne (Koln), Ger., 642,899. .B . 3 24
Aleppo, Syria, 250,000 F 4 Bologna, Italy, 189,770 C2 Colombo, 'Cevlon, 211,274 C7 51
Alessandria, Italy, 78,159 B2 Bolton, England, 1 78,678 D3 Concepci6n, Chile, 64,074 C 5 64
Alexandria, Egypt, 444,617 L 2 Bombay, India, 1,172,953 B 5 Constantine, Algeria, 78,220 G 1 58
Algiers, 'AlReria, 206,595 F 1 Bonn, Germany, 91,456 .B 3 Constantinople (Stamboul), Tui-
Allahabad, India, 155,970 D3 Bordeaux, France, 267,409 4 key, 1,000,000 B2 46
Altona, Germany, 170,371 C2 Bournemouth, England, 91,770. .E 6 Copenhagen, 'Denmark, 581,344 G9 27
Amiens, France, 92,780 2D Bradford, England, 285,979 E 3 Cordoba, Argentina, 135,000 D4 64
Amoy, China, 400,000 H6 Braila, Rumania, 65,911 J 4 Cordova (Cordoba),Spain,73,710.D4 39
Amr.tsar, India, 160,409 B2 Brantfotd, Ontario, 29,440 D4 Cork, Irish Free State, 76,673 . . . C 5 19
Amsterdam, Netherlands, 642,- Bratislava (Pressburg), Czecho- Coventry, England, 128,205 E4 15
162 F3 slovakia, 73,459 F4 Crefeld (Krefeld), Ger., 125,351. .B 3 24
Ancona, Italy, 68,430 D3 Bremen, Germany, 288,812 C2 Cronstadt (Kronstadt), Russia,
Anderlecht, Belgium, 64,137 D6 Brescia, Italy, 89,622 C2 60,000 F3 32
Angers, France, 86,158 C 3 Breslau, Germany, 531,662 G3 Croydon, England, 190,877 F S IS
Antwerp. Belgium, 333,882 5 D Brest, France, 73,960 A 2 Czernowitz (Cernauti, Czerno-
Arnhem, Netherlands, 70,714.. .G 4
. Brest I.itovsk, Poland, 52,000. . . K 5 vitz), Rumania, 87.128 HI 41
Astrakhan, Russia, 149,000 J 6 Brighton, England, 142,427 G6
Asuncion, 'Paraguay, 99,836. ... F 3 Brisbane, •Queensland, 42,636, Dacca, India, 117,304 F 3 50
Athens, 'Greece, 300,701 E6 t209,699 F6 Daman (Port.), India, 57,000.... B 4 51
Auckland, 'NewZealand,157,757.H7 Bristol, England, 377,061 D5 Damascus, Syria, 250,000 F 6 46
AuKsburg, Germany, 155,693 .... D 4 Brunn (Brno), Czecho Slovakia, Danzig, 'Free City of Danzig (L.
221,422 E 3 ofN.),330,252 HI 25
Bagdad, Mesopotamia, 250,000. .K 6 Brunswick (Braunschweig), Ger- Darbhangah, India, 62,628 E 3 50
Bahia, Brazil, 348,130 K6 many, 104,143 D2 Darmstadt, Germany, 83,1 19. . . .C 4 24
Bahia Blanca, Argentina, 37,735 E 5 Brusa (Broussa),Turkey,l 10,000 B 2 Debreczen, Hungary, 103,288. . . . F 2 33
Baku, Azerbaijan, 237,000 J 7 Brussels, 'Belgium, t684,870. . .E
6 . Delhi, 'India, 303,149 C 3 50
Bangalore (Bangalur), India, Budapest(Buda-Pest,Budapesth), Derby, England, 129,836 E 4 14
238,111 C6 •Hungary, 1.184,616 ..D2 Devenport, England, 81,678 C 6 15
Bangkok(Bankok),*Siam,630,000 G 4 Buenos Aires, 'Argentina, Dijon, France, 78,578 F 3 23
Banyuwangi, Java, 86,000 B 4 1,692.327 E4 Domfront, France, 108,500 C 2 22
Barcelona, Spain, 710,335 H2 Bukharest (Bucharest, Bucuresti) Dortmund, Germany, 296,872 . . . B 3 24
Bareli (Bareillv), India, 131,208.. D3 •Rumania, 308,987 HS Dresden, Germany, 539,854 F 3 25
Bari (Bari del Puglie), Italy, .... Burnley, England, 103,175 D3 Dublin, 'Irish Free State, 309,272 E 3 19
103,670 F4 Duisburg, Germany, 243,686 B 3 24
Barmen. Germany, 158,644 B 3 Cadiz, Spain, 76,818 C4 Diinaburg (Dvinsk), Latvia,
Barnaul, Siberia, 61,330 G2 Cagliari, Italv, 61,175 B 5 90,000 E4 30
Baroda, India, 94,742 B4 Cairo, •Egypt, 790,939 M3 Dundee, Scotland, 168,217 F 3 17
Barrow (Barrow-in-Furness), Eng- Calais, France, 73,001 D1 Dunedin. New Zealand, 72,255.. .H 8 57
land, 74,254 C2 Calcutta, India, 11,263,292 E4 Durazzo (Drac),'Albania,73,400 A 2 40
Basel (Bale, Basle), Switzerland, Calgary, Alberta, 63,305 E 7 Durban, Natal, 140,324 F 6 60
135,976 Dl Calicut, India, 81,995 C6 Diisseldorf. Germany, 409,614 B 3
. . . 24
Batavia, 'Java, 234,697 A4 . Campinas, Brazil, 68,000 H2
Beirut (Beirout, Beyrout), Syria, Canton, China, 1,367,680 G6 Edinburgh. 'Scotland, 420,281 . . .E 4 17
180,000 E6 Cape Town, 'Cape of Good Hope, Edmonton, 'Alberta, 58,821 F 4 81
Belfast, •Northern Ireland, 206,558 C7 Ekaterinburg (Yekaterinburg),
393,000 E2 Caracas, 'Venezuela, 92,212 D1 Russia, 51,000 L 4 32
Belgrade (Beograd, Bi6grad), Cardiff, Wales, 200,262 DS Ekaterinodar (Yekaterinodar),
•Jugo-Slavia, 89,876 H3 Cartagena, Spain. 96,891 F 4 Russia, 71,000 H7 32
Benares, India, 199,493 D3 Cassel (Kassel), Ger.. 162,695.... C 3 Ekaterinoslaf (Yekaterinoslav),
Berdltchef, Ukraine, 62,100 E 6 Catania, Italy, 217,389 E 6 Ukraine, 157,000 G6 32
Bergen, Norway, 91,081 E 6 Cawnpur, India. 213,044 D3 Elberfeld, Germany, 157,342 B 3 24
Berlin, 'Germany, 1,904,650. Changchau. China, 303,247 H6 Elizavetgrad (Yelisavetgrad),
t3,800,000 E 2 Changsha, China, 271,903 G5 Ukraine, 61,488 F 6 32
Bern (Berne), •Switzerland, Chaochau, China, 876,450 G6 Elizavetpol (Yelisavetpol), Azer-
103,700 D3 CharlottenSurg, Ger., 327,433. .E 2 . baiian, 63,400 J 7 32
Bhagatpur, India, 68,833 £3 CheUabinsk, Russia, 45,000 M5 Erfurt, Germany J130,136 D3 24

139
140 INDEX OF PRINCIPAL CITIES OF THE WORLD
Erzerum, Armenia, 80,000 H3 47 Huddersfield, England, 110,120. .E 3 Liegnitz, Germany, 70,365 F 3 2S
Essen, Germany, 443,3 12 B 3 24 Hukau, China, 618,888 H5 Lienkiang, China, 222.008 I 5 55
Hull (Kingston-upon-Hull), Eng., Lille (Lisle), France, 200,952 El 23
Fachan (Fatshan), China,4S0,000 G 6 54 287,013 F 3 Lima, 'Peru, 176,467 B6 62
Faizabad (Fyzabad), India, 75,- Hyderabad (Bombay), India, Limoges, France, 90,187 4 D 22
035 D3 50 75,952 A 3 Linden, Germany, 83,045 C2 24
Farukhabad, India, 59,647 D3 50 Hyderabad (Hyderabad), India, Linz, Austria, 94,072 F 3 35
Ferrara, Italy, 102,550 C 2 36 404,225 CS Lisbon, 'Portugal, 489,667 B 3 39
Fez, Morocco, 62,693 E 2 58 Liverpool, England, 803,118 D3 14
Flensburg, Germany, 60,926 CI 24 Ibadan, Nigeria, 175,000 F 7 Lodz, Poland, 451,813 E6 31
Florence, Italy, 232.860 C3 36 Indore, India, 92,993 C4 London, 'England, 4,483,249,
Foggia, Italy, 79,213 E4 37 Ipswich, England, 79,383 H4 17,476,168 F5 IS
Frankfort-on-Main,Ger.,425,221..C 3 24 Irkutsk, Siberia, 129,700 H2 London, Ontario, 60,959 C5 78
Frankfort-on-Oder,Ger.,66,133. .F 2 . 25 Ispahan, Persia, 80,000 C2 Lorca, Spain, 74,696 F 4 39
Fredericksberg,Denmark,104,815 G 9 27 Ixelles, Belgium, 72,991 D6 Lubeck, Germay, 1 1 2, 1 70 2 D 24
Fredericton, *New Brunswick, Lublin, Poland, 99,917 H6 31
8,114 B3 72 Lucca, Italy, 79,110 C3 36
Freiburg, Germany, 88,136. .C 4 24 Jabalpur (Jubbulpore), India, Lucknow, India, 243,553 D3 50
Fuchau (Foochow),
. .

China,
. .

100,651 D4 Ludw.gshafen, Germany, 92,002 4 D 24


1,491,143 H5 55 Jaipur, India, 120,196 C 3 Lugansk, Ukraine, 21,000 G6 32
D4 24 Jassv, Rumania, 76,120 J 2 Lyon, France, 561,592 F 4 23
Furth, Germany, 67,923
Jehol (Chengte), China, 260,000. H 2
Galatz, Rumania, 73,512 41 Jerez de laFrontera,Spain,67,076.C 3
J 4 E Macao, (Port.), China, 78,627.. .G 6 54
Jerusalem, 'Palestine, 64,000. 7 .

Gateshead, England, 124,514. .E 2 . . 14


Jodhpur, India, 73,480 B
. . .

3
Madras, India, 522,951 D6 51
Gaya, India, 67,759 E4 50
Johannesburg, Transva.il,284,191 E 6 Madrid, 'Spain, 751.352 E 2 39
Geneva, Switzerland, *L. of N. Madura, India, 138,894 C7 51
171,000 B4 28 Jokjokarta, Java, 79,567 A 4
Joppa (Yafa), Palestine, 50,000. .E 6 Madgeburg, Germany, 285,711.. .D 2 24
Genoa, Italy, 300,139 B 2 36 Mainz (Mayence), Ger., 108,513 D 4 . 24
Georgetown (Penang), Straits Malaga, Spain, 150,584 D4 39
Settlements, 90,000 A3 56 Kabul (Cabul), 'Afghanistan, Malmo, Sweden, 113,558 H9 27
Germiston, Transvaal, 42,218 E6 60 150,000 F 2 Manaos, Brazil, 80,931 F 4 63
Ghent (Gand), Belgium, 165,910. C 5 21 Kagoshima, Japan, 102,396 J 8 Manchester, England, 730,551. . .E 3 14
Gij6n, Spain, 57,573 D1 39 Kaifong, China, 972,391 H4 Mandalay, Burma, 147,429 G 3 45
Glasgow, Scotland, 1 ,034,069 .... 4 D 17 Kalgan, China, 62,979 H2 Manila, 'Phil. 285,306
Is., B 2 56
Gomel, Russia, 47,000 F 5 32 Kanazawa, Japan, 129,320 MS Mannheim, Germany, 231,425... D4 24
Gorlitz, Germany, 80,613 F 3 25 Karachi (Currachee), India, Marakesh (Morocco), Morocco,
Gottenborg (Goteborg), Sweden, 215,781 A4 87,800 D2 58
202,366 8 27 Karlsruhe, Germany, 137,577. .C 4. . Marash, Turkey, 65,000 F 4
Granada, Spain, 103,368 E 4 39 Kasan (Kazan), Russia, 195,300.. J 4 Marsala, Italy, 37,015 D6
Gratz (Graz), Austria, 157,644.. .G 5 35 Kashgar, Sinkiang, 60,000 F 2 Marseille, France, 586,341 F 5
Great Grimsby (Grimsby), Eng., Kerbela, Mesopotamia, 65,000. J 6 . . Mecca, 'Heiaz, 80,000 E 3
82.329 F 3 14 Kerman, Persia, 70,000 D2 Mechlin, Belgium, 60,1 18 E 5
Greenock, Scotland, 81.120 D4 17 Kertch, Russia, 55,883 G6 Medellin, Colombia, 79,146 B 2
Greenwich, England, 95.968 G5 15 Kharkof, Ukraine, 206,000 6 G Merrut, India, 122,567 C3
Grenoble, France, 77,409 G4 23 Khatmandu (Katmandu), Nepal Melbourne, 'Victoria, 103,269,
Grodno, Poland, 64,100 Ki 31 80,000 D3 t784,000 E7
Groningen, Netherlands, 89,895. J 1 20 Kiaochau (Jap.), China 621,135.. I 3 Mendoza, Argentina, 65,000 D4
Grusswardein (Nagy Vdrad), Kief 'Ukraine 323,000 ES Mferida, Mexico, 62,447 H4
Rumania, 64.169 D2 41 Kiel, Germany, 206,361 CI Merthyr Tydfil, Wales, 80,161. . .C S
Guadalajara, Mexico, 119,468.. .. D 4 83 Kyoto, Japan, 591,305 L 6 Meshed, Persia, 70,000 D1
Guayaquil, Ecuador, 93.851 A 4 62 Kishenef, Rumania, 114,100 L 2 Messina, Italy, 150,000 E 5
Gwalior (Lashkar), India, 80,750 C 3 50 Kiungchau, China, 586,870.. . .H 4 . . Metz, France, 62,3 11 G2
Klausenburg (Kolozsvar, Cluj), Mexico, 'Mexico, 1,080,000 F 4
Haarlem, Netherlands. 76.853 E . . . . 3 20 Rumania, 60,808 E 3 Middlesbrough, England, 131,103F 2
Hagen, Germany, 93.310 B 3 24 Kobe, Japan, 608,628 L 6 Milan, Italy, 663,059 B2
Hague ('s Gravenhage), 'Nether- Kokand, Turkestan, 118,854 G 1 Minsk, Russia, 104,000 E S
lands, 353.286 D3 20 Kolhapur, India, 48,122 B 5 Modena, Italy, 70,416 C2
Hakodate, Japan, 144.740 3 53 Konigsberg, Germany, 264,502.. .J 1 Molenbeek (Molenbeek-St. Jean),
Halifax, England, 99,129 E 3 14 Kostroma, Russia, 43,000 H4 Belgium, 66.813 D6
Hahfax, 'Nova Scotia, 58,372 . . . E 4 72 Kovno, 'Lithuania, 80,000 C4 Monastir (Bitolia), Jugo-Slavia,
Halle,Germany, 183.768 E 3 24 Krakow, (Cracow), Poland, 59.856 J 6
Hamburg, Germany, 996,645.... D2 24 176,463 F 7 Monterey. Mexico, 75,528 F 3
Hamilton, Ontario, 114,151 D4 78 Krasnoyarsk. Siberia. 87,500. .G 2. . Montevideo, 'Uruguay, 361,950.. F 5
Hangchau (Hangchow), China Kremenchug, Ukraine. 63,000. .F 6 . Montpellier, France, 81,548 E 5
729,948 H4 55 Kursk, Ukraine, 75,000 S G Montreal, Quebec, 618,506 E 5
Hankau (Hankow), China, Kutais, Georgia, 53,900 7 H Moscow (Moskva), 'Russia,
289,804 H4 55 Kyoto, Japan, 591,305 L 6 1,050,011 G4
Hanley, England, 66.255 D3 14 Mosul, Mesopotamia, 60,000 J 4
Hanoi (Kesho), 'French Indo- Mukden, Manchuria, 250,000.... I 2
China, 109.500 H3 45 Lagos, 'Nigeria, 33400 F 7 Mulhouse, France, 99,226 G3
Hanover, (Hannover) ,Germany, Lahore, India 279.558 B 2 Mulheim-on-Ruhr, Germany,
313.837 C2 24 Lancha China, 368.608 E 3 127,642 B 3
Hanyang, China, 456.3 12 G4 54 La Paz, via, 107,252 D7 Multan, India. 86,251 B 2
135,000.... F 4
Harbin, Manchuria, 365.000 J 1 55 La Plat Argentina,
„ ,
Munich (Munchen),Ger..645,654. D 4
Harburg, Germany, 65.940 C2 24 Lausanne, Switzerland, 68,533. .C 3 .
Munster, Germany, 100,729 B 3
Hastings, England, 66.496 G6 15 Leeds, England, 458,320 E 3 Murcia, Spain, 141,175 F4
Havana, 'Cuba, 363.506 B 2 86 Leghorn, Italy, 105,335 C3 Mysore, India, 83,932 C 6
Havre (Le Havre), Fr., 163.374. .C 2 22 Leicester, England, 234,190 F4
Heidelberg, Germany, 59,824 .... C 4 24 Leiden, Netherlands, 65,635 3 D H7
Helsingfors, 'Finland, 188,922. .E 5 29 Leipzig, Germany, 608,273 E 3 Nagasaki, Japan, 176,554
H6dmez6 VAsdrhely, Hungary,
.

Leith, Scotland, 81.654 E4 Nagoya, Japan, 429,990 M6


E 33 Le Mans, FrP.nce, 71,783 D 3 Nagpur, India, 149,522 C4
60,854 3
H5
Homs, Syria, 60,000 F S 47 Ler^berK, Poland, 206,113 K8 Nanchang, China, 899,539
Hong Kong (Br.), China, 16,520, Leningrad, Russia. 705,000 F 3 Nancv, France, 113,226 G2
Nanking (Nankin), China,
t625,166 G6 54 Leon, Mexico. 57,722 ..E4
902,441 H4
Honolulu, 'Hawaii, 81.900 1- 1 Libau (Libava), Latvia, 51,583... B 3
50 L.6ge. Belsium, 165,117 F 6 Nanning, China, 300,000 F 6
Howrah, India, 157,594 ....V.V.'.Ei I
INDEX OF PRINCIPAL CITIES OP THE WORLD 141
Nintes, France, 183,704 C3 Rawalpindi. India. 97,4.Si B 2 Tabriz, Persia, 200,000 B 1 48
Naples, Italy, 697,917 E 4 Reading, England, 92,274 F 5 Taganrog, Russia, 62,000 6 G 32
New Arad, 63,166 C3 Reggio nell'Emilie, Italy, 73,349 C 2 Taiyuen, Chma, 222,887 G3 54
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, Regma, 'Saskatchewan, 34,432. .G 7 lananarivo (Antananarivo),
274,955 E 1 Reims (Rheims), France, 76,645 F 2 'Madagascar, 63,1 15 14 61
New Guatemala, 'Guatemala, Rennes, France, 82,241 C2 Taranto, Italy. 50.914 F4 37
125,000 B 2 Reval (Tallinn), 'Esthonia, Tashkend. Turkestan, 271,665... F 2 44
Newport, England, 92,369 DS 69,000 ; D2 Teheran. 'Persia. 220,000 01 48
Nice, France, 155,839 G5 Riga, 'Latvia, 245,000 D3 Temesvar ( lemisoara), Ru-
Niigata, Japan, 92,130 N5 Rio de Jineiro, 'Brazil, 1,157,873J 8 mania, 72,223 4 41
Nikolaief, Ukraine, 99,000 F6 Rome, 'Italy, 590,960 D4 Tengchau, China, 277,865 1 3 55
Nimes, France, 82,774 F S Rosario, Argentina, 250,000 E 4
Ningpo, China, 2,172,320 5 Rostock, Germany, 67,120
Tientsin, Chma, 838,629 H3 55
1 E 1 Tiflis, Georgia, 346.766 17 32
Nizhni-Novgorod, Russia, 99,800.J 4 Rostof, Russia, 123,000 H6 Tokushima, Japan, 68,463
Northampton, England, 90,923 F
L 7 53
. . 4 Rotterdam, Netherlands,510,538.E 4 Tokyo ( Tokio), 'Japan,2,173,162 N 6 53
Norwich, England, 120,653 H4 Roubaix, France, 113,265 E 1 Tomsk, Siberia, 116,664 G2 45
Nottingham, England, 262,658.. .E 4 Rouen, France. 123,712 D2 Toronto, 'Ontario, 521,893 E 4 78
Novorossisk, Russia, 16.897 G 7 'loulon, France, 106.331 G5 23
Niirnberg (Nuremberg), Ger- Saarbriicken, Germany,
many, 355,223 D4
Sarre, Toulouse, France, 175,434 DS 22
105,089 . B4 Tourcoing, France, 78.600 El 23
Saharanpur, India, 62.850 C3 Tours, France, 75,096 D3 22
Oberhausen, Germany, 99,082. . .B 3 Saigon, Fr. Indo-China, 64,845.. .H 4
Saint Denis, France, 76,358
Irichinopoli, India, 119,521 C6 51
Odessa, Ukraine, 500,000 F 6 E 2 Trieste, Italy, 179.599 E 2 36
Offenbach, Germany, 76,809 C 4 Saint Etienne, F"rance. 167.967.. .F 4 Tripoli, 'Tripoli (It.), 75,000. . . .H 2 58
Oldham, England, 145,001 E St. John, New Brunswick, 47,166 3 D Tsaritsyn, Russia, 65,900
3 J 6 32
Omsk. Siberia, 135.800 F 2 Salem, India, 52,217 C6 Tsin, China, 186,036 F 4 54
Saloniki (Salonica), Gr., 170,195. F 3
Oporto, Portugal, 203,981 B 2 Tsinan, China, 621,039 3 H 55
Oran, Algeria, 141,156 El Samara, Russia, 95.000 K5 Tsmgtau (Chingtao, Tsingtao),
Orel, Russia. 82,000 G5 Samarang, Java, 106,852 B 4 China, 308,738 13 55
Orenburg, Russia, 74,000 L 5 Samarkand, Turkestan, 89.697.. .F 1 Tucuman, Argentina. 100,000 D3 64
Orleans. France, 76.645 D3 San Luis Potosi. Mexico. 70,000.. E 3 Tula, Russia. 125,000 G5 32
Osaka. Japan. 1,252,972 L 6 San Salvador, 'Salvador, 80,756 2 A Tunis, 'Tunis, 170,381 HI 58
Oslo, 'Norway 258,341 G7 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Turin, Italy, 427,106 A2 36
Osnabruck, Germany, 85,705 C2 Islands (Sp.), 63,649 B 3 Tver, Russia, 59,300 G4 32
Ottawa. Ontario, 'Canada, Santander, Spain, 72,469 El
107,843 J 2 Santiago, 'Chile, 507,296 4 D
Oxford, England, 57,052 E5 Santiago de Cuba, Cuba,62,083. .E 4 Ufa. Russia. 58.000 L 5 32
Santos, Brazil, 70,000 H2 Utrecht, Netherlands, 140,189. . .F 3 20
Padang, Sumatra. 47,607 A 4 Sao Paulo, Brazil, 504,300 H2
Padua, Italy, 105,135 C2 Sapporo, Japan, 102,571 02 Valencia, Spain, 243,783 3 G 39
Paisley. Scotland, 84,837 D4 Saragossa, (Zaragoza), Spain, Valladolid, Spain, 76,791 2 D 39
Palembang, Sumatra, 61,000 A 4 141,350 F2 Valparaiso, Chile, 182,242 C4 64
Palermo, Italy, 345,891 D5 Saratof, Russia, 198,000 H5 Vancouver, Br. Columbia,117,217 J 13 82
Palma, Spain, 77,418 H3 Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, 25,739 D 5
Venice, Italy, 168.039 2 D 36
Panama, 'Panama, 61,369 D3 Schaerbeek, Belgium, 82,480.... E6 Verona, Italy, 79,213 C2 36
Faoting, China, 406,886 G3 Sendai, Japan, 122.720 O4 Victoria, 'Br. Columbia,38,727...J14 82
Para (Belem), Brazil, 250,000.. . .H4 Seoul (Keijo). 'Chosen, 302,686.. 5 G Vienna (Wien), 'Austria, 1,841,-
Paris, 'France, 2,906.472 E 2 Sevastopol (Sebastopol), Russia,
326 H3 35
Patna, India, 120.109 E 3 68,000 .F 7 Vilna, Poland, 168,000 L
B2 3 31
Pavia. Italy. 40.729 Seville, Spain, 205,527 D4 Vitebsk, Russia, 81,000 F 4 32
Peking. 'China. 1,300,000 G3 Shanghai, China, 1,538,500 I 4
Vladikavkas, Russia, 76.225 H 7 32
Pensa (Penza), Russia, 64,000. . .H 5 Shaohing, China, 300,000 H5 Vladivostok. Siberia. 91.464 J 2 45
Perm. Russia, 47,000 L 4 Sheffield, England, 490,724 E 3 Voronezh, Russia, 65,000 GS 32
Pernambuco (Recife), Brazil, Shimonoseki, Japan, 58,240 J 6
216,484 KS Sholapur, India, 61,345 C5
Perth, 'West. Australia, 64,174, Siangtan, China, 300,000 G5 Walsall, England. 96.964 E 4 IS
tl55,129 B7 Simferopol, Russia, 62.000 F 7 Warsaw. 'Poland, 931,176 F S 31
Perugia. Italy. 70,227 D3 Singan, China, 1.000,000 F 4 Wellington, 'New Zealand,
Peshawar, India, 93.884 B 2 Singapore, Straits Settlements, 107,488 H8 57
Petrograd, Russia, 705.000 F 3 193,089 A3 Wenchau, China, 1.738,994 H5 55
Pforzheim, Germany, 73,839 C 4 Sivas, Turkey, 65.000 F3 West Bromwich, Eng., 73,761.. .D . 4 15
Piraeus, Greece, 133,482 F 6 Skutari(Scutari),Turkev,100,000 B 2 West Hartlepool, Eng., 68,689. F . . 2 14
Pisa, Italy, 67,285 C3 Smolensk, Russia, 49,3()0 F 5 Wiesbaden, Germany, 97,786. .C . . 3 24
Plauen. Germany, 105,639 E 3 Smyrna, Turkey, 375,000 A3 Windsor, Ontario, 38,591 B 5 78
Plymouth, England, 209.857 . . . .C 6 Sofia, 'Bulgaria. 154.431 B 3 Winnipeg, 'Manitoba, 179,087... D 5 79
Plzen (Pilsen), Czecho-Slovakia, Southampton, England. 160.997.. E 6
Wolverhampton, England,
88,447 B3 South Shields. England. 116.667 E2 102,373 D4 14
Pnom-Penh, French Indo-China, Spandau. Germany, 96,300 E 2
54,621 H4 Spezia, Italy, 38,294 B 2 Wuchang, China, 597,967 H4 54
Poltava, Ukraine, 59,000 F 6 Srinagar, India, 141,631 B 2 Wuchau. China, 348,220 G6 54
Poona. (Puna), India, 176.671 B 5 Stettin, Germany. 233,255 F 2
.

Port-au-Prince. 'Haiti. 120,000. .D3


. .

Stockholm, 'Sweden, 419,429,


Wuhu, China, 235,550 H4 55
Porto Alegre. Brazil. 150.343 .G 4
. . t475,000 L 7 Wurzburg, Germany, 87,055 D4 24
Port Said, Egypt, 91.090 M2 Stockport. England, 123.315 E 3
Portsmouth, England, 247,343 .F 6 . Strasbourg, France, 166.767 H2 Yaroslaf, Russia, 72,000 G 4 32
Pozen (Poznan), Poland, 156,691. B 5 Stuttgart, Germany, 311,250 C4
Potsdam. Germany, 59,614 E 2 Subotica (Maria Theresiopel), Yenping (Yanphing), China,
Prague (Praha), 'Czecho-Slo- Jugo-SIavia, 94,610 G2 196,163 HS 55
vakia, 676,476 C2 Suchau, China, 1,027,091 1 4 Yokohama, Japan, 422,942 N6 53
Preston, England, 1 17.426 3 D Sunderland, England, 159,100... E 2 .
York, England, 84,052 F 3 14
Puebia, Mexico, 120,000 F 4 Surabaya, Java. 160,801 B 4
Surakarta.Java, 137,882 A 4 Yunnan, China, 275,374 E6 54
Quebec, 'Quebec, 95,193 G4 Surat. India. 118,299 B 4
Quito, 'Ecuador, 70,000 B 4 Swansea, Wales, 157,561 B 5 Zhitomir, Ukraine, 80,787 E 5 32
Sydney, 'New South Wales,
Rangoon, Burma, 339,527 G4 104,182, t897,640 F 7 Zurich, Switzerland, 207,161 G2 28
Ravenna, Italy, 74,161 D2 Szegedin, Hungary, 109,896 3 D Zwickau, Germany, 69,189 E 3 24
INDEX OF CITIES AND TOWNS OF UNITED STATES
1920 CENSUS
The following list names in alphabetical order approximately all places in the United States having one thousand or
more inhabitants and some of smaller size, locally important. Ihe index references enclosed in parentheses, indicate
location of city or village on the accompanying maps. The numerals at the extreme right of column are the 1920 census
figures or recent official estimates of population. = Population of township. Capitals of States are in capital letters.

ALABAMA
INDEX OF UNITED STATES
CALIFORNIA,
144
. . .

INDEX OF UNITED STATES 145

ElTingh:un(D4)..
ILLINOIS, Cont'd

Belleville (C5).... 24,823


Bellewood (E2) . . 1,881
.

Belvidere(I)l).... 7.804
Bement(D4) 1,663
Benld(C4) 3,316
Benton (DS) 7,101
Berwyn(E2) 14,150
Bloornington
(D3) 28,725
Blue Island (E2)..l 1,424
Bradley (E2) 2,128
Braid wood (D2) 1,297 .

Breese (C5) 2,399


Bridgeport (ES)... 2,229
Brookfteld (E2) . . . 3,589
Brooklyn (B5) 1,685
Brookport (D6) .. 1,098
Buckner(D6) 1,827
Bushnell(B3) 2,716
Cairo (C6) 15,203
CambridKe(B2)... 1,335
Canton (C3) 10,927
Caroondale (C6) 6,267 . .

CarlinviUe (C4) 5,212. . .

Carlyle(CS) 2,027
Carmi (D5) 2,667
Carpentersville
(Dl) 1,036
Carriers Mills
(D6) 2,343
Carrollton (B4) 2,020
Carterville (D6) 3,404
Carthape (A3; 2,129
Casey (E4) 2,189
Central City (C5).. 1,248
Centralia(C5).... 12.491
Champaign (D3) .15.873
Charleston (D4) 6,615 .

Chatsworth(D3).. 1.087
Chenoa(D3) 1,311
Cherry (C2) 1.265
Chester (C6> 2.904
Chicago (E2).. 2,701,705
Chicago Heights
(E2) 19,653
-'
Chillicothe(C3)... 1
Chrisman (E4).. . . 1,101
Christopher (C6).. 3,830
Cicero (E2) 44.995
Clinton (D3) 5
Coal City (D2).... 1,744
Colchester (B3) 1,387
CollinsviUe (C5) 9,753
Columbia (B5).. 1,592
Crystallake(Dl) 2,249
Cuba(B3) 1,484
Dallas City (A3) . . 1,140
Danville (E3) 33.776
Decatur (C4) 43,81"
DeKalb(D2) 7,87
DeIavan(C3) 1,19
Depue(C2) 2,525
DesPlaines(El).. 3,451
Divemon(C4).... 2,382
Dixon (C2) 8,191
Dolton (E2) 2.076
Dorrisville(D6)... 1,740
Downers Grove
(D2) 3,543
Dundee (Dl) 4,100
Duquoin(C5) 7,285
Dwight (D2) 2,255
Earlville (C2) 1,012
East Alton (B5)... 1,669
East Dubuque
(Bl) 1,163
East Dundee (Dl). 1,303
East Moline(B2).. 8,675
East Peoria (C3) . . 2,214
East Saint Louis
(,B5) 66,767
Edwardsville (CS). 5,336
146 INDEX OF UNITED STATES
Loogootee (C7) 2,335 Vincennes(.\7)...17,160 Forest City (Dl).. 2,145 Osceola (D3) 2,684
INDIANA, C<mt'd
Lowell (B2)
. .

1,197
.

Wabash (E3) 9,872 Fort Dodge (C2).. 19,347 Oskaloosa (E3) ... 9,427
Clmton(B5) 10.962 Madison (F7) 6,711 Wa!kerton(D2)... 1,033 Fort Madison Ottumwa(E4) 23,003
Columbia City Marion (E3) 23,747 Warren (F3) 1,520 (F4) 12,066 Parkersburg (E2) 1,108
(F2) 3,499 Martinsville (D6) . 4,895 Warsaw (E2) 5,478 Garner (Dl) 1,311 Pella(E3) 3,338
Columbus (E6) .. . 8,990 Mecca (B5) 1,200 Washington (B7).. 8,743 Olenwood (B3) .. 3,862 Perry (03) . 5,642
Connersville (F5) 9,901 Michigan City
. Waterloo (02) ... . 1,172 Greene (E2) 1,375 Pocahontas (C2) 1,302 . .

Converse (E3) 1,049 (Bl) 19,457 W. Lafayette (C4) 3,830 Greenfield (C3) .. . 1,707 Redoak(B3) 5,578
Corydon (D8) 1,785 Middletown(F4).. 1,273 W. Terre Haute(A6)4,310 Orinnell(E3) 5,362 Reinbeck (E2) . 1,415 . . .

Covington (B4) .. . 1,945 Mishawaka(Dl) .15,195 Whiting (Bl) 10,145 Oriswold(B3) 1,264 Remsen(A2) 1,144
Crawfordsville Mitchell (C7) 3,025 Williamsport (B4). 1,088 Orundy Cen. (E2). 1,749 Rock Rapids (A 1). 2,172
(C4) 10,139 Monon(C3) 1,357 Winamac(C2) 1,684 Guthrie Cen. (C3). 1,727 Rock Valley (Al).. 1,347
Crothersville (E7). 1,131 Montezuma (B5).. 1,178 Winchester (04) . . 4,021 Outtenberg (F2) 1,666 Rockwell City. .

Crown Point (B2) 3,232 Monticello(C3)... 2,536


. Winslow(B8) 1,140 Hamburg (B4) 2,017 (C2) 2,039
Culver (D2) 1,080 Montpelier(F3)... 2,297 Worthington (C6). 1,853 Hampton (D3).... 2,992 Rolfe(C2) 1,031
Danville (C5) 1,729 Mooresville (DS).. 1,781 Harlan (B3) 2,821 Sac City (B2) 2,630
Decatur (G3) 4,762 Morocco (B3) 1,064 IOWA Hartley (Bl) 1,306 Sanborn (Bl)
1,497
Delphi (C3) 2,087 Mt. Vernon (A9) . 5,284 . Ackley (D2) . .1,529
. . . . Hawarden(Al)... 2,491 Seymour (D4) ...
1,746 .

Dugger(B6) 1,679 Muncie(F2) 36,524 Adel(C3) 1,445 Holstein(B2) 1,248 Sheffield (D2)
1,106
Dunkirk (F4) 2,532 Nappanee (D2) 2,678
. . . Akron (A2) 1,324 Humboldt (C2) .. . 2,232 Sheldon (Bl).....
3,488
E. Chicago (Bl)... 35,967 National Military Albia(E3) 5,067 Humeston (D4) . . Shenandoah (B4).. 5,255
1,214
Eaton (F4) 1,214 Home(E3) 2,300 .'>ilgona(Cl) 3,724 Idagrove(B2) 2,020 Sibley (Bl).,..... 1,803
Edinburg(D6).... 2,376 New Albany .\lta(B2) 1,290 Independence (F2) 3,672 Sidney (B4)...... 1,154
Elkhart (El) 24,277 (E8) 22,992 Ames(D2) 6,270 Indianola(D.?).... 3,628 Sigourney(E3) .. 2,210 .

Elwood(E4) 10,790 Newburg (B9) . . . 1,295


. Anamosa(F2) 2,881 Iowa City (F3)....l 1,2 67 Sioux Center (.Al) 1,387 .

Evansville(AS)...85,264 Newcastle (F5) . . 14,458 . Anita (C3) 1,236 Iowa Falls (D2) . 3,954 Sioux City (A2).... 7 1,227
.

Ewing(D7) 1,000 New Harmony Atlantic (B3) 5,329 Jefferson (C2) 3,416 Spencer (CI) 4.599
Fairmount(E4)... 2,155 (A8) 1,126 Audubon (C3) ... . 2,108 Jewell (D2) 1,090 Spirit Lake (Bl) 1,701 .

Farmersburg (A6). 1,141 New Haven (G2).. 1,237 Avoca(B3) 1,482 Keokuk (F4) 14,423 Storm Lake (B2). 3,658
Flora (D3) 1,441 Noblesville (E4) .. 4,758 Bedford (C4) 2,073 Knoxville (D3) ... 3,523 Story City (D2)... 1,591
Fort Branch (A8) . 1,339 No. Judson (C2) .. 1,189 Belle Plaine (E3) . 3,887 Lake City (C2) ... 2,110 Strawberry Point
Fortville (E5) 1,213 North Manchester Bellevue(G2)..,.. 1,663 Lake Mills (Dl)... 1,529 (F2) 1,101
Fort Wayne (F2) .86,549 (E2) 2,711 Belraond(D2).... 1,797 Lamoni(D4) 1,787 Stuart (C3) 1,716
Fowler (B3) 1,442 No. Vernon (E6) 3,084 . . Bettendorf (03)... 2,178 Lansing (Fl) 1,447 Sumner (E2) 1,511
Frankfort (C4)....l 1,585 Notre Dame (Dl). 1,200 Bloomfield (E4)... 2,064 Laporte City (E2). 1,443 Tabor (B4) 1,186
Franklin (D6) 4,909 Oakland City (B8) 2,270 Boone (D2)... ...12,451 Lehigh (C2) 1,090 Tama(E3) 2,601
Frenchlick (C7) .. 1,980 Orleans (C7) 1,408 Brighton (F3) ... . 1,014 Lemars(A2) 4,683 Tipton (F3) 2,142
Garrett (F2) 4,796 Osgood (F6) 1,093 Britt(Dl) 1,619 Leno.t(C4) 1,197 Toledo (E2) 1,604
Gaiy(Bl) 55,378 Owensville(A8)... 1,239 Brooklyn (E3).... 1,533 Leon(D4) 2,193 Traer(E2) 1,329
Gas City (E3) ... , 2,870 Paoli(C7) 1,520 Burlington (F4)... 24,057 Logan (B3) 1,637 Vallyjct. (D3).... 3,631,
Goodland(B3).... 1,120 Pendleton (E4) .. 1,244 . Bu.xton(E3) 4,300 Lyons (03) 5,000 Villisca(B4) 2,111
Goshen (El) 9,525 Peru(D3) 12,410 Carroll (C2) 4,254 McGregor (F2) .. . 1,289 Vinton (E2) 3,381
Greencastle (C5) . . 3,780 Petersburg (B7)... 2,367 Cascade (021 1,249 Madrid (D3) 1,783 Wapello (F3) 1,480
Greenfield (E5) .. . 4,168 Pierceton(E2).... 1,018 Cedar Falls (E2).. 6,316 Malvern (B4) 1,195 Washington (F3) 4,697 .

Greensburg (F6) . 5,345 Plainfield (D5).... 1,373


. Cedar Rapids Manchester (F2) . 3,111 Waterloo (E2).... 36,230
,

GreentowQ (E4)... 1,163 Plymouth (D2) 4,338


. . . (F3^ 45,566 Manly (Dl) 1,476 Waukon(Fl) 2,359
Greenwood (D5) . 1,907 Portland (04)
. 5,958 Centerville(E4)... 8,486 Manning (B3) 1,863 Waverly (E2) 3,352
Hagerstown(F5)... 1,238 Princeton (A8).... 7,132 Chariton (D3) .. 5,175
. . Manilla (B3) 1,142 Webster City (D2) 5,657
Hammond (Bl) ..36,004 Redkey(F4) 1,386 Charles City (El) . 7,350 Manson(C2) 1,409 W. Burlington (F4) 1,212
Harmony (B6).. .. 1,200 Remington (B3) . 1,044 Cherokee (B2) ... 5,824 . Mapleton(B2).... 1,367 West Liberty (F3). 1,834
Hartford Cy. (F4). 6,183 Rensselaer (B3) 2,912 Cincinnati (D4)... 1,301 Maquoketa (02) . 3,626 West Union (F2) . . 1,777
.

Hessville(Bl).... 1,480 Richmond (G.5)... 26,765 Clarinda(B4;..... 4,511 Marcus (B2) 1,091 Whatcheer(E3;... 1,626
Hobart(Bl) 3,450 Ridgeville (04) . . 1,042 . Clarion (D2) 2,826 . Marengo (E3) 2,048 Williamsburg (E3) 1,251
Hope(E6) 1,183 Rising Sun (07).., 1,411 Clear Lake (Dl) 2,804 . Marion (F2) 4,138 Wiltonjct. (F3)... 1,178
Howell (A9) 2,100 Rochester (D2) .. . 3,720 Clinton (0.3) .24,151 Marshalltown Winterset(C3).... 2,906
Huntingburg (B8). 3,261 Rockport(B9).... 2,581 Colfa.x(D3) 2,504 (E2) 15,731 Woodbine (B3) .. 1,463 .

Huntington (E3) .14,000 Rockville(B5).... 1,968 Coon Rapids (C3) 1,328 Mason City (Dl).. 20,065
Hymera(B6) 1,599 Rushville(F5).,,. 5,498 Corning fC4) .... 1,840
,

. Melcher(D3) 1,582
KANSAS
Indiana Harbor St. Paul (E6) . . . 1,400
. . Correctionville Missouri Valley .\bilene(E3) 4,895
(Bl) 9,000 Salem (D7) 2,836 (B2) 1,016 (B3) 3,985 Alma(F2) 789
INDIANAPOLIS Scottsburg(E7).., 1,609 Corydon (D4) ... 1,867 . Montezuma (E3).. 1,273 Altoona(G4) 1,016
(D5) 314,194 Seymour (E7) 7,348 Council Bluffs Monticello (F2) . 2,257 Anthony (D4)
, 2.740
Tasonville(B6).... 4,461 Shelbum(B6) 1,814 (B3) 36,162 Moulton(E4) 1,387 .\rcadia(H4) 1,175
Jasper (C8) 2.539 Shelbyville(ES)... 9,701 Cresco(El) 3,195 Mount Ayr (C4) 1,738 Arkansas City
.

Jeilersonville Sheridan (D4) ... 1,761 , Creston(C3) 8,034 Mt. Pleasant (F4). 3,987 (F4) 11,253
(E8) 10,098 Shirley (E5) 1,079 Davenport (03).. .56,727 Mt. Vernon (F3) . 1,466 Arma(H4)
. 2,180
Jonesboro (E4) ... 1,429 Shoals (C7) 1,034 Decorah(Fl) 4,039 .Muscatine (F3)... 16,068 Ashland (04) 1,147
Kendallville(F2).. 5.273 South Bend (Dl) .70,983 Denison(B2) 3,581 Mystic (E4) 2,796 Atchison (02) 12,630
Kentland(B3) 1,283 South Whitley (E2).l, 074 DES MOINES Nashua (E2). ,, .. 1,317 Augusta (E4) 4,219
Knightstown (E5) 1,918 Spencer (C6) 2,066 (D3) 126.468 Nevada (D2) 2,668 Baldwin City (0,3) 1,137
Knox(C2) 1,577 Sullivan (B6) 4,489 DeWitt(03) 1,849 New Hampton Baxter Sprs.(H 5) 3,608 .

Kokomo(D3) 30,067 Summitville(E4).. 1,001 Dows(D2) 1,145 (El) 2,539 Belle Plaine (E4)... 839
Ladoga (C5) 1,010 Syracuse (E2) 1,171 Dubuque (02) 39,141 New London (F4) 1,144 Belleville (E2).... 2,254
.

LaFayette(C4)...22,486 Tell City (C9) .... 4,086 Dunlap(B3) 1,455 New Sharon (E3).. 1,084 Beloit(D2) 3,315
Lagrange (Fl).... 1,610 Terre Haute (B6). 66,083 Dyersville (02) . . . 1,933 Newton (D3) 6,627 Blue Rapids (F2).. 1,534
Lapel (E4) 1,079 Thomtown(C4) .. 1,432 Eaglegrove (D2) . . 4,433 Nora Springs (El). 1,055 Bonner Sprs. (02). 1,626
Laporte(Cl) 15,158 Tipton (E4) 4,507 Eldon(E4) 2,091 Northwood(Dl).. 1,597 Bucklin (04) 835
Lawrenceburg Tolleston(Bl).... 1,000 Eldora(D2) 3,189 Oakland (B3) 1,188 Burlingame (03) . 1,330
(G6) 3,466 Union City (04) .. 3,406 Elkader(F2) 1,223 Odebolt(B2) 1,445 Burlington (03)... 2,236
Lebanon (C4) 6,257 Universal (A5).... 1,570 Emmetsburg (CI) 2,762 0elwein(E2) 7,455 Caldwell (E4) 2,191
Liberty (F5)...,,, 1,292 Upland (F3) 1,301 Estherville(Cl)... 4.699 0gden(C2) 1,451 Caney (F5) 3,427
Ligonier(E2)..... 2,037 Valparaiso (B2).... 6,518 Fairfield (F3) .... 5,948 Onawa(A2) 2,256 CedarVale(F4)... 1,044
Linton (B6) 5,856 Veedersburg (B4) 1,580 Farminpton (F4)... 1,086 Orange City (A2).. 1,632 Chanute(G4) 10,286
Logansport (D3) .21.626
. Vevay(F7) 1,175 Fayette (F2) 1.085 Osage (El) 2.878 Cherokee (H4).... 1,091
..
.

148 INDEX OF UNITED STATES


"3,280Winslow(B4) MASSACHUSETTS E. Taunton (E3) 900 Medfield(E2).... "3,595
MAINE, Cont'd
Winterport (B4) .."1,433 E. Walpole(E2)... 900
. .

Medford(E2) 39,038
Machias(D4) "2,152 Winthrop(.A4)... "1,90." Abington (E2) ."5,787 E.We>Tiiouth(F2). 4,000
. . Medway(E2) "2,956
Machiasport (D4) "l.in Wiscasset(B5).... "1,192 Acton (E2) "2,162 Edgartown(F4)... "1,190 Melrose (E2) 18,204
Madawaska (CI).. "1,933 Yarmouth (A5) .. ."2,216 Acushnet(F3).... "3.075 Erving(Cl) "1,295 Merrick (B2) 1,300
Madison (B4) 3,729 Yarmouthville .'^dams(Al) "12,967 Essex (Fl) "1,47 Merrimac(El)...."2,173
Mapleton(C2)... "1,128 (A5) 1,600 .'Vgawam (B2) . ."5,023 .Everett.(E2) 40,120 Methuen(El). .."15,189
MareHill(C2)... "1,783 York Village (A5) . 1,100 Amesbury (El).. "10,036 Fairhaven (F3) ."7,291 MiddIeboro(F3).. "8,453
. .

Mechanic Falls Amherst (C2).. .. "5,550 Fall River (E3) 120,485 Middleton (El)... "1,195
. .

(A4) "1,614 MARYLAND Andover(El).. .. "8,268 Falmouth (F3)... "3,500 Milford(D2).... "13,471
Mexico (A4) "3,242 Arlington (E2).. ."18,665 FiskdaIe(C2) 1,200 Millbury (D2) "5,653
Mi!lbridge(D4)... "1,196 Aberdeen (F2) 1,067 Ariington Heights Fitchburg(Dl)... 41,029 Millis(E2) "1,485
Millinocket(C3).. "4,528 ANNAPOLIS (E2) 2,200 Florence (B2) 2,400 Millville (D2) 2,224
Milltown(D3).. 1,000 . . (E3) 11,214 Ashbumham (Dl) "2,012 Foxboro(E2) "4,136 Milton (E2) "9,382
Milo(B3) "2 Arlington (E2).. .. 1,000 Ashland (E2) "2,287 Framingham (E2)"17,033 Mittineague (B2) 3,000 .

Monmouth (B4) "1,372 . Baltimore (E2) .733,826 Athol (CI) "9,792 Franklin (E2) "6,497 Monson(C2) "4,826
Monson(B3) "1,079 Barton (B4) 765 Attleboro(E3).... 19,731 Gardner (CI).. ."16,9 Montague (Bl). .."7,675
.

Monticello(D2)... "1,268 Belair(Fl) 1,091 Auburn (D2) "3,891 Georgetown (Fl).. "2,004 Nahant(F2) "1,318
Mt. Desert (C4)... "1,49 Berlin (H4) 1,366 Aubumdale (E2) 2,500 Gilbertville (C2) . 2,250 Nantucket (G4).. "2,797
. .

New Gloucester Boonsboro(Cl)... 1,044 Avon(E2) "2,176 Globe Village (C2). 2,300 Natick (E2) "10,907
(A5) "1.384 Brunswick (C2).... 3,905 Ayer(Dl) "3,052 Gloucester (Fl).. 22.947 Needham(E2)....^,012
Newport (B4) .. "1,709 . Cambridge (F3)... 7,467 Baldwinsville (CI) 1,700 Grafton (D2) "6 Needham Heights
Norridgewock Capitol Heights Barnstable (G3)... "4,836 Graniteville (El)... 1,200 (E2) 1,700
(B4) "1,532 (E3) 1,194 Barre(C2) "3,357 Great Barrington New Bedford
North Anson (B4). 1,200 Catonsville (E2) . . 4,500 Bedford (El) "1,362 (.42) 6,315 (E3) 121,217
No. Berwick (A5) ."1,652 Center\'ille(F2).. . 1,765 Belchertown (B2) "2,058 Greenfield (Bl). ."15,462 Newbury (Fl) "1,303
Norway (A4) 2,208 Chestertown (F2) . 2,537 Bellingham(D2).."2,102 Groton(Dl) "2,185 Newburyport
Oakland (B4).... "2,473 Cockeysville (E2) . 1,500 Belmont (E2).... "10,749 Groveland(Fl)..."2,650 (Fl) 15,618
Old Orchard (A5) "1,164 Crisfield(G5) 4,116 Beverly (Fl) 22,561 Hadley (B2) "2,784 Newton (E2) 46,054
OIdtown(C4) 6,956 Cumberland CC4) 29,837 Beverly Farms Hamilton (Fl).. ."1,631 Newton Center .

Orono(C4) "3,133 Deal Island (G4) . 2,000 (Fl) 950 Hanover (F2) "2,575 (E2) 6,000
Orrin?ton(C4)...."l,174 Delmar (G4) 1,291 Billerica(El) "3,646 Hanson (F2) "1,900 Newton Highlands
Parsonsfield(A5).. "1,062 Denton (G3) 1,570 Blackstone(E2)... "4,299 Hardwick(C2).... "3,085 (E2) 3,000
Patten (C3) "1,498 Easton (F3) 3,442 Bondsville (C2) 1.750 Harvard (Dl)
. . . "2,546 Newton Lower Falls
Pembroke (D4) "1,168
. . Eastport(F3) 1,500 BOSTON (F2)... 748,060 Harwick(G3) "1.846 (E2) 1,200
Perry (D4) "1,146 Eckhart Mines Bourne (F3) "2,530 Hatfield (B2) ... "2,651 Newton Upper Falls
.

Pittsfield (B4). 2,146


. . . (C4) 1,700 Braintree(F2)... "10,580 Haverhill (El).. .53,884 (E2) . 2,500
Poland (A4) "1,399 Elkton(Gl) 2,660 Bridgewater(F3).. "8,438 Haydenville(B2).. 1,100 Newtonville(E2).. 6,200
Portland (A5).... 69,272 Ellicott City (E2) . 1,246 Brockton (E2).... 66,254 Hingham(F2)...."5,604 Norfolk (E2) "1,159
PresqueIsle(C2).. 3,452 Emmitsburg(Dl). 940 Brookfield(C2)..."2,216 Hinsdale (A2) .. . "1,065 No. Abington (F2) 2,800
Princeton (D3) "1,091 Federalsburg (G3). 1,288 Brookline(E2)... "37,748 Holbrook(F2)... "3,161 No. Adams (Al) .22,282
Randolph (B4).... "1,145 Frederick (D2).. .. 11,066 Byfield (Fl) 880 Holden(D2) "2,970 Northampton
Richmond (B4)... "1,724 Frostburg (B4) .. 6,017 . Cambridge (E2).. 109,694 Holliston (E2) . "2,707
. (B2)
. 21.951
Rockland (B4).... 8,109 Hagerstown (CI). .28,064 Canton (E2) "5,945 Holyoke(B2) 60,203 No. Andover (El) ."6,265
Rockport (B4) ."1,774
. . Hamilton (E2).... 1,500 Chatham (G3).. ."1,737 Hopedale(D2).... "2,777 No. Attleboro (E3)"9,238
.

Rumford (A4) . 7,016


. . . Hancock (Bl) 972 Chelmsford (El).. "5 ,682 Hopkinton(E2).. "2,289 Northboro(D2)... "1.753
Saco(AS) 6,817 Havre de Grace Chelsea (E2) 43,184 Housatonic (A2) 2,200 Northbridge (D2)"10,174
. .

St. Agatha (CI) .."1,669 (Fl) 4,377 Cherry Valley Hudson (D2) ... . "7,607 North Brookfield
St. Albans (B4)... "1,207 Hurlock(G3) 1,075 (D2) 1,200 Hull(F2) "1.771 (C2) "2,610
St. George (B4) "1,654 HyattsviUe (E3)
. . . . 2,675 Cheshire (A 1).... "1,476 Huntington (B2) "1,425 North Chelmsford
Sanford(A5). ..."10,691 KiUmiller (B4) . . . 1,044 Chester (B2) "1,302 Hyannis(G3) 2,000 (El) 1,700
SaDgerville(B3)..." 1,246 Laurel (E2) 2,239 Chicopee(B2) 36,214 Indian Orchard No. Cohasset (F2). 1,400
Scarboro(A5).... "1,832 Lonaconing (C4) . 2,054 Chicopee Falls (C2) 7,500 North Dartmouth
Searsport(C4).... "1,373 Midland (B4) 910 (B2) 8,500 Ipswich (Fl) "6,201 (F3) 900
Shennan (C3) . "1,131
. . Mt. Rainier (E3). . 2,462 Cliftondale (E2) .3,500 Jefferson (D2) ....
. . 900 No. Dighton (E3) 900 .

Skowhegan(B4).. "5,981 Mt. Savage (C4) . . 3,600 Clinton (D2).... "12,979 Kingston (F3) "2,505 No. Easton (E2) .. 3,200
Solon (B4) "1,054 Northeast (Gl) .. . 1,112 Cochituate(E2)... 1,300 Lakeville (F3) "1,419 Northfield(Cl)..."1.77S
So. Berwick (A5)... 2,955 Oakland (A4) 1,225 Cohasset(F2) "2,639 Lancaster (D2) .."2,461 No. Grafton (D2) 2,000
. .

South Paris (A4) 1,793 Oxford (F3)


. 998 Colerain(Bl) "1,607 Lanesville (Fl) .. 1,000 North Leominster .

So. Portland (A5).. 9,254 Pikesville(E2).... UOO CoUinsville (El).. 1,200 Lawrence (El).... 94,2 70 (Dl) 900
So. Windham (A5) 1,200 Pocomoke City Concord (E2).. "6,461 Lee(.A2)
. . "4,085 No. Plymouth (F3). 900
Springvale(A5)... 2,300 (G4) 2,444 Concord Jet. (E2) 1,850 Leeds (B2) . 1,100 No. Scituate (F2) 1,100 .

Standish(A5) "1,735 Port Deposit (Fl). 1,090 Dalton(A2) "3,752 Leicester (D2) .. "3,635 No. Wobum (El)
. 2,000 .

Stockton Springs Princess Anne Danvers(Fl).. ."11,108 Lenox (A2)


. "2,691 Norton (E3) "2,374
(C4) 1,175 (G4) 968 Danversport (Fl) 1,000 Leominster (Dl) 19,744 Norwell(F2) . "1.348
.

Stonington(C4)... "1,353 Reisterstown (E2) 1,000 Dartmouth (E3) "6,493 Le.xington (E2)
. . ."6,350 Norwood (E2)... "12,627
. .

Sullivan (C4) "1,132 Relay (E2) 1,000 Dedham(E2).... "10,792 Lincoln (E2) "1,042 Oak Bluffs (F4)... "1,047
Tenants Har.(B5). 1,700 Rockville(D2).... 1,145 Deerfield(Bl)... "2,803 Linwood(D2) 1,400 Onset (F3) 1 .600

Thomaston (B4) "2,019 St. Michaels (F3)..


. 1,347 Dennis (G3) "1,536 Littleton (Dl).... "1,277 Orange (CI) "5 393-
Topsham(B5)...."2,102 Salisbury (G4).... 7,553 Dighton(E3).... "2,574 Longmeadow(B2). "2,618 0.xford(D2) "3.820
Tremont(C4) "1,029 Savage (E2) 1,000 Douglass (D2).... "2,181 Lowell (El) 112,759 Palmer (C2) "9.896
Turner (A4) "1,382 Snow Hill (H4) ... 1,684 Dracut(El) "5,280 Ludlow (C2) "7,470 Peabody(Fl).... "19,552
Union (B4) "1,133 Sparrows Point Dudley (D2) "3,701 Luenburg(Dl).. "1,634 Pembroke (F2) ..."1,358
Vassalboro(B4)... "1,936 (F2) 4,800 Duxbury (F2) "1,533 Lvnn(F2) 99,148 Pepperell(Dl)... "2,468
Vanburen (CI). ..."4,594 Takoma Park (D3) 3,168 E. Braintree (E2).. 1,200 Maiden (E2) 49,103 Pittsfield (A2).... 41, 763
Vinalhaven(C4).. "1,965 Texas (E2) 1,000 East Bridgewater Manchaug(D2).. 1,600 Plainville (E2) "1,365
.

VValdoboro(B4)... "2,426 Thurmont (Dl).. . 1,074 (F2) "3,486 Manchester (Fl).. "2,466 Pl>-mouth(F3).... 13,045
Wallagrass (CI). .."1,144 Towson (E2) 3,700 E. Dedham (E2) 3,800 Mansfield (E2)... "6,255 Provincetown (G2)"4,246
. .

Wan-en (B4) "1,500 Union Bridge (Dl) 1,082 E. Douglass (D2).. 1,500 Marblehead (Fl) "7,324 Quincy(E2) . 47,876
Washburn (C2) .. 1,870 Western Port
. Easthampton(B2)"ll,261 Marion (F3) "1.288 Randolph (F2).... "4,756
Waterville(B4)... 13,351 (B4) 3,971 E. Lexington (E2) . 840 Marlboro (D2).... 15,028 Raynham (E3) "1,695
W'ells(A5) "1,943 Westminster (El). 3,521 East Milton (E2).. 2,000 Marshfield(F2).... "1,379 Reading (El) "7,439
Westbrook(AS)... 9.453 Westport (E2) . . . 1,000 E. Pepperell(Dl) 2,400 Matupoisett (F3)."l,277 Rehobotb(E3)...."2,065
Waton(A4) "2,505 Williamsport (CI) 1,615 E.Saugus(F2).... 960 Maynard(D2)... "7.086 Revere (F2) 28.823
iSb INDEX OF UNITED STATES
MINNESOTA, Cont'd
.. .

INDEX OF tJNITEt) StATfiS 151

MONTANA, Cont'd Loup City (E3) .

Marysville(D3)... 2,000
Miles City (L3) . 7,937 .

Missoula (B3) 12,


Mondak(Ml) 400
Moore (G3) 355
Philipsburg (C3) 1,724 .

Plains (B2) 452


Plenty wood (Ml) .
Poison (B2) 1,132
Poplar (LI) 1,1S2
RedLodw(G4)... 4,515
Roundup (113) 2,434
Sandcoulcc (E2) . 1,000
Scobey (LI) 1,170
Shelby (Dl) 537
Sheridan (D4) 538
Sidney (M2) 1,400
Stanford (G2) 300
Stevcnsville (B3).. 744
Stockett (F2) 1,100
Terry (L3) 794
Three Forks (E3).. 1,071
Townsend (E3) ... 897
Troy(Al) 763
Twin Bridges (D4) 755
Valier(Dl) 613
Virginia City
(E4) 342
Walkerville (D3).. .2,391
Whitcflsh(Bl) 2,867
Whitehall (D4) ... 629
White Sulphur
Springs (F3).... 574
Wibaux (M3) 61
Wolfpoint (LI) 2,098

NEBRASKA
Ainsworth (E2) . . . 1,508
Albion (F3) 1,978
Alliance (A2) 4,591
Alma(E4) 1,058
Ashland (H3) 1,725
Auburn (J4) 2,863
Aurora (F4) 2,962
Bayard (A3) 2,127
Beatrice (H4) 9,664
Blair (H3) 2,702
Bloomfield(G2)... 1,431
Bridgeport (A3)... 1,235
Brokenbow (E3) . . 2,567
Cambridge (D4) . . 1,042
Central City (F3). 2,410
Chadron(B2) 4,412
Collegeview(H4).. 2,249
Columbus (G3) .. . 5,410
Cozad(D4) 1,293
Crawford (A2) 1,646
Creighton (F2).... 1,446
Crete (G4) 2,445
David City (G3) . . 2,216
Dundee (H3) 1,023
Fairbury(G4) 5,454
Falls City (J4) .... 4,930
Fremont (H3) 9,605
Friend (G4) 1,263
Fullerton (F3) 1,595
Geneva (G4) 1,768
Genoa (G3) 1,069
Gering(A3) 2,508
Gordon (B2) 1,581
Gothenburg (E4).. 1,754
Grand Island (F4) 13,947
Hartington (G2) . . 1,467
Hastings (F4) 11,647
Havelock(H4).... 3,602
Hebron (G4) 1,513
Holdrege (E4) .... 3,108
Humboldt a4).... 1,277
Kearney (E4) 7,702
Kimball (A3) 1,620
Lexington (E4) ... 2,327
LINCOLN (H4).. 54,948
.. . . . . . . .

1S2 INDEX OF UNITED STATES


3,039 Sandoval (C3) .... Castleton(G3)... 1,595 Gouvemeur (El) . 4,143
NEW JERSEY, Cont'd Verona (D2) 2,673
Vineland (CS) .... 6,799 San Juan (C4) Catskill(F3) 4,728 Gowanda(B3)....
Cattaraugus (B3) 1,347 Granville (G2)....
3,024
New Durham Waldwick(Dl)... 1,296 SanMarcial(B4)..
Cazenovia (E3) 1,683 Greene (E3) 1,297
(D2) 4,100 Wallington (D2) . 5,715
. San Rafael (A3)... .

Cedarhurst(Bl) 2,838 Green Island (G3). 4.411


New Providence Wanaque(Dl).... 2,916 Santa Cruz (D3) . . .

Washington (C2).. 3,341 SANTA FE(C3) 7,236 Center Moriches Greenport(Cl)... 3,122
(D2) 1,203 .

Newton (CI) 4,125 Weehawken (D2) .13,488 Santa Rita (B6)... 1,900 (CI) 1,100 Greenwich (G2)... 2,384
1,140 Groton(D3) 2,235
No. Arlington Westfield(D2).... 9,063 Santa Rosa (E4) .. 1,093 Champlain (Gl) .

Silver City (A6)... 2,662 Charlotte (C2).... 2,302 Hamburg


(B3).... 3,185
(D2) 1,767 W.Hoboken(D2). 40,074 1,505
North Paterson West New York Socorro (C4) 1,256 Chateaugay(Gl).. 1,291 Hamilton (E3)....
(D2) 1,300 (D2) 29,926 Springer (E2) 915 Chatham (G3).... 2,710 Hammondsport
Taos(D2) 1,800 Chester (Al) 1,049 (C3) 1.060
North Plainfield W. Orange (D2)... 15,573
(D2) 6,916 W. Paterson (D2) 1,1 Texico(F4) 381 Clayton (El) 1 Hampton Bays(C2)l,000
Nutley(D2) 9,42' Westville (B4) .... 2,380 Tierra Amarilla (E4) 1,326
Clifton Sorings Handcock
OceanCity(CS)... 2,512 Westwood (D2) . . 2,597 (C2) 1,628 Harrison (Bl) 1,500
990 (C3)..:
Wharton (C2) Tome(C4) 2,877 1,270 Hastings upon Clinton (E2)
Ocean Grove 1,(

(D3) 3,100 Wildwood (C5) Tucumcari(F3)...


. . . 2,790 2,528 Hudson (Bl)... 5,526
3,117 Clyde (D2)
Orange (D2) 33,268 Williamstown (C4) Tularosa(C5) 1,600 2,410 Haverstraw (Al).. 5,226 1,096 Cobleskill(F3)....
0.x{ord(C2) 2,600 Woodbine (C5) Tyrone (A6)
. . . 1,406 1,000 Hempstead (Bl) 3,500 Coeymans (G3)....
6,382 . .

Palisades Park Woodbridge (D2) Vallecitos(C2).... 620 Cohoes(G3)


4,500 22,987 Herkimer (F2) 10,453
2,633 Woodbury (B4)... Vaughn (D4) Cold Spring (G4)
5,801 1,433 Hicksville (Bl) ... 3,000 .
(D2)
Palmyra (B3) 2,500 Woodridge (D2) 1,923 Wagonmound (E3) . 875 Cooperstown (E3).. 2,725 Highland (F4) ... .
2,000 .

Park Ridge (El) 1,481 Woodstown (B4)


.
1,589 Zuni(A3) 1,600 Corinth (G2)
,
2,576 Highland Fall:
63,841 Wrightstown (C3) 5,288 Coming (C3) 15,820 (Al) 2,588
Passaic (D2)
Paterson (D2)... 135,875 Cornwall (F4) NEW YORK
1,755 Hillbum(Al) 1,112
Paulsboro (B4) .. 4,352
NEW MEXICO
Adams (E2) 1,557 Cornwall-on-the- Holley(B2) 1,625
Penns Grove (B4) . 6,060 Abiguiu (C2) 500 Addison (C3) 1,699 Hudson(Bl)... 2,240 Homer (D3) 2,356
Perth Amboy Alamogordo (C6).. 2,363 Akron (B2) 1,960 Cortland (D3) .... 13,294 Honeoye Falls
(D3) 41,707 Albuquerque (G3).. 113,344 Co.xsackie ALBANY
(G3) 2,121 (C3) 1,107 . . .

Phillipsburg (B2) 16,923 (C3)..


. 15,157 Albion (B2) 4,683 Croton-on-Hudson Hoosick Falls
3,385 Anton Chico Alexandria Bay (Bl) 2,286 (G3) 4,896
Pitman (B4)
Plainfield (D2).... 27,700 (D3) 850 (El) 1,649 Cuba (B3) 1,611 Homell(C3) 15,025
PleasantviUe (C5) 5,887 Artesia(E6) . 1,115 Allegany (B3) 1,350 Danneraora (Gl) . 2,623 Horseheads (D3) 2,078 . .

Point Pleasant Aztec (A2) 489 Amenia(G4) 1,200 Dansville(C3).... 4,631 Hudson (G3) 11,745
1,575 Belen(C4) 1,306 Amityville(Bl)... 3,265 Delhi (F3) 1,669 Hudson Falls
Beach (D3)
Pompton Lakes Bernalillo (C3).... 770 Amsterdam (F3).. 33,542 Depew(B3) 5,850 (G2) 5,761
2,008 Bland (C3) 620 Andover(C3) 1,132 DeDosit(E3) 1,943 Huntington (Bl).. 5,000
(D2)
2,205 Angelica (C3) 972 De.xter(Dl) 1,164 I!ion(E2) 10,169
Port Norris (B5) . 1,350 Carlsbad (E6)
.

Princeton (C3) .... 5,917 Clayton (F2) 2,157 Angola (A3) 1,367 Dobbs Ferrv (Al) 4,401 Inwood(Bl) 2,000 .

Prospect Park (D2) 4.292 Clovis(F4) 4,904 Antwerp (El) 1,012 Dolgeville (F2) ... 3,448 Irvington(Bl).... 2,701
11,042 Columbus (B7) .. 2,110 Arcade (B3) 1,609 Dundee (D3) 1,143 Islip(Bl). .... 2,300 .

Rahway(D2) .

2,090 Dawson (E2) 4,000 Athens (G3) 1,844 Dunkirk (A3) 19,336 Ithaca (D3; 17,004
Ramsey (Dl)
Raritan(C2) 4,557 Deming(B6) 3,212 Attica (B3) 2,015 East Aurora (B3).. 3,703 Jamestown (A3) ...38,917
Red Bank (D3) .. . 9,251 Dona Ana (C6) ... 750 Auburn (D3) 36,192 East Hampton Johnson City (F3) 8,587
Ridgefield (E2) 1,560 East Las Vegas Ausable Forks (CI) 2,100 Johnstown (F2) . 10,908 .

(E3) 4,304 (Gl) 1,500 EastIslip(B2).... 1,300 Jordan (C2) 1,012


Ridgefieid Park
(E2) 8,575 Espanola (C3) Avoca(C3) 1,019 East Rochester Katonah(Bl) 1,500
Ridgewood (D2) 7,580 Estancia (D4) Avon(C3) 2,585 (C2) 3,901 Keeseville(Gl)... 1,524
Riverside (B3) . 1,077 Farmington(A2).. Babylon (Bl) 2,523 East Rockaway Kenmore (B3) 3,160 . . . .

2,341 Fierro (A6) Bainbridge(E3)... 1,259 (B2) 2,005 Kingston (F4).... 26,688
Riverton (B3) . .

Rockaway (D2) 2,655 Fort Bayard (A6) Baldwin (Bl) 3,000 East Syracuse Lackawanna (B3). 17,918
Roosevelt (D2) 8,049 Fort Sumner (E4) Baldwinsville (D2) 3 (E2) 4,106 Lake Placid (Gl).. 2,099
Roselle(D2) 5,737 Fruitland(A2).... BallstonSpa(G2).. 4,103 Eastwood (D2) 2,194 Lancaster (B3).... 6,059
Roselle Park (D2) 5,438 Gallup (A3) 3,920 Batavia(B2) 13,541 Eaton (E3) 1,200 Larchmont (Bl).. 2,468
Rumson(D3) 1,658 Gardiner (E2) 970 Bath(G3) 4,795 EUenville (F4) . . . 3,116 La Salle (A2) 3,813 .

Rutherford (D2) . 9,497 Hillsboro (B6) ....


.
600 Bav Shore (Bl)... 3,400 Elmira(D3) 45,393 Lawrence (Bl) 2,861
7,435 Hope (E6) 430 Beacon (Bl) 10,996 Elmira Heights Leroy(B3) 4,203
Salem (B4)
5,000 Tsleta(C4) 1.000 Belmont (C3) 1,021 (D3) 4, Liberty (F4) 2,459
SayreviUe (D3) . .

5,423 Femes (C3) 525


^.. Binghampton (E3) 66,800 Elmsford(Bl).... 1,535 Lindenhurst (Bl) . 1,800
Secaucus (D2) . .

6,718 Laguna(B4).. ,000 Blasdell(B3) 1,401 Endicott(E3) 9,500 Little Falls (F2)... 13,029
Somerville (C2) .

3,969 Bolivar (B3) 1,146 Fairport(C2) 4,626 Little Valley (B3) . 1,253
South Amboy Lascruces (C6) -- .

2,742 Liverpool (D2) .


-

3 ,902 Boonville (E2) 1914 Falconer (A3) 1,831


7,897 Las Vegas (D3)
. .
(D3) ... . . .

South Boundbrook Lincoln (D5) 1,100 Brewster (Bl) 859 Farmingdale(Bl). 2,091 Livingston Manor
1,302 Lordsburg (A6) ,325 BriarcliS Manor Fayetteville (D3) . 1,584 (G3) 1,000
(C2)
Magdalena (B4) . 1,867 (Bl) 1,027 Floral Park (B2) . 2,097 Lockport(B2)....21,308
South Orange .

7,274 Manzano (C4) 650 Bridgehampton Fonda (F2) 1,208 Lowville(E2)..... 3,127
(D2)
1,900 (CI) 1,500 Forks (B3) 3,300 Lynbrook(Bl).... 4,371
South River (D3).. 6,596 Mesilla(C6)
Spring Lake Beach Mogollon(A5) 900 Brighton (C2) 1,000 Fort Edward (G2). 3,871 Lyons (D2) 4,253
(E3) 1,009 Mora (D3) 1,400 Brockport (C2) . 2,980 Fort Plain (F3) . . 2,747 McGraw (D3) . .
. .
1,032 . . .

Stanhope (C2).... 1,031 Mountainair (C4) . 577 Brockton (A3) 1,383 Frankfort (E2).... 4,198 Malone(Fl) 7,556
Summit (D2) 10,174 Parkview (C2) ... 980 Bron.xville (B2) 3,055 Franklmville (B3) 2,015 Mamaroneck (Bl). 6,571
. . .

Sussex (CI) 1,318 Pecos (D3) 540 Brooklyn (B2) .2,018,356 Fredonia (A3) .... 6,051 Manchester (C2) . 1,418
890 Buffalo (B3) 506,775 Freeport (Bl) 8,599 Manhasset(B2)... 1,050
Swedesboro (B4) . 1,838 Penasco(D2) .

5,650 Peralta(C4) 570 Caledonia (C3) ... 1,170 Friendship (B3).. 1,026 Manlius(D3) 1,296
Tenafly(E2) ,

Pinos Altos (A6) .. 1,100 Cambridge (G2)... 1,559 Fulton (D2) 13,043 Massena(Fl) 5,993
Toms River (D4) . 2,200 "

Totowa (D2) 1 Portales(F4) 1,154 Camden (E2) 1,941 Garden City (B2) . 2,420 Mattituck (CI) .
TRENTON Puerto de Luma Canaioharie(F3).. 2,415 Gamerville(Al)... 1,300
(C3) 119,289 (E4) i.lOO Canandaigua (C3). 7,356 Geneseo(C3) 2,157
Tuckerton(D4).. 1,106 Questa(D2) .
650 Canastota (E2) . 3,995 Geneva (D3) 14,648 . .

Union (D2) 21,739 Ranches of Taos Canisteo(C3) 2,201 Glasco(F3) 1,600


Union (D2)....... 1,900 (D2) 400 Canton (El) 2,631 Glen Cove (Bl).. 8,664
Upper Montclair Raton (E2) 5,544 Cape Vincent (Dl) 913 Glens Falls (G2) .16,638 .

(D2) 1 Roswell (E5) 7,033 Carthage (E2) ... 4,320 Gloversville (F2).. 22,075 .

2,193 Roy(E3) 564 Castile (B3) ...... 1.013 Cioshen(Al) 2.843


VenUior(CS)
. , . .. ..
.. . .. .

153
INDEX OP UNITED STATES
Jervis(Al)... 10,171 Victor (C3) 945 Hertford (Fl) 1,704 Crosby (Al) 1,147
NEW YORK, Cont'd Port Port Washington Walden (F4) 5,493 Hickory (A2) 5,076 Devils Lake (F2).. 5,140
Millbrook (G4) .1,096 (Bl)
. .
3,200 Walton (E3) 3,598 Highpoint(B2).. .14,302 Dickinson (B4)... 4,122
1,200 Potsdam (Fl) 4,039 Wappingers Falls James City (F2)... 1,200 Edgeley (F4) 803
Milton (F4)
Mmeola(Bl) 3,016 Poughkeepsie (G4) 3,235 Kemersville(Bl). 1,219 Ellendale (F4) 1,334 . . . .

Mineville(Gl).... 2,000 (G4) 35,000 Warrensburg Kings Mountain Enderlin(G4) 1,919


Mohawk (F3) 2.919 Pulaski (D2) 1,895 (G2) 2,200 (A2) 2,800 Fairmount (H5)... 706
Monroe (Al) 1,527 Randolph (B3).... 1,310 Warsaw (B3) .... 3,622 Kinston (E2) 9,771 Fargo (H4) 21,961
2,093 Warwick (Al) 2,420 Lagrange (E2) 1,399 Fessenden (E3) ... 731
Monticello (F4) . . 2,330 Ravena (G3) . . . . .

Rensselaer (G3)... 10,823 Waterford (G3) . 2,637 Laurinburg (C3) 2,643 GlenuUin (C4) 87S
Montour Falls . . . .

(D3) 1,560 Rhinebeck(G4)... 1,397 Waterloo (D3).... 3,809 LeaksviUe (CI) 1,606 Grafton (G2) . 2,512
.

Moravia (D3) 1,331 Richfield Springs Watertown(D2)..31,28S Lenoir (A2) 3,718 Grand Forks (G3) 14,010 .

Moriah(Gl) 1,300 (E3) 1,388 Waterville (E3) 1,255 Lexington (B2)


. . 5,254 Hankinson(G4)... 1,477
. . . .

Mt. Kisco(Bl) ... 3,944 Ripley (A3) 1,000 Watervliet (G3) 16,073 Lincolnton(A2)... 3,390 Harvey (D3)
. .
1,590
3,312 Riverhead(Cl)... 2,800 Watkins(D3) 2,785 Littleton (Dl) 1,010 Hatton(G3) 828
Mt. Morris (C3) .

Mt. Vernon (Bl).. 42,726 Rochester (C2) .295.750 Waverly (D3) 5,270 Louisburg(Dl).... 1,954 Hebron (B4) 1,374
Naples (C3) 1,148 Rockville Center Wayland (C3) 1,790 Lumberton (D3) . 2,691 Hillsboro(H3).... 1,183
. . . . .

Newark (C2) 6,964 (Bl) 6,262 Webster (C3) 1,247 Madison (Bl) 1,247 Jamestown (F4).. 6,627 .

New Berlin (E3)... 1.070 Rome(E2) 26,341 Weedsport(D2)... 1,379 Marion (C4) 1,784 Kenmare (B2) 1,446
Newburgh (F4) . J0^66 Roosevelt (B2).... 1,000 Wellsville(C3).... 4,996 Maxton (C3) .... 1,397 Lakota (F2)
. .
959 .

New Hartford Roscoe(F4) 1,000 West Carthage Mayodan (Bl).. 1,886 Lamoure (F4) ,014
(E2) 1,621 Roseton(F4) 2,004 (E2) 1,666 Mocksville(B2).. 1,146 Langdon (F2). 1,228
New Hyde Park Roslyn(Bl) 2,500 Westfield (A3) 3,413 Monroe (B3) 4,084 Lariraore (G3) .... 1,089
(B2) 1,000 Rouses Point (Gl) 1,700 West Haverstraw Mooresville (B2) 4,315 Lidgerwood (G4) 1,065
New Paltz (F4) . 1,056 Rye(Bl)
. . 5,308 (Al) 2,018 MoreheadCity (F3)2,958 Linton (D4) 1,011
New Rochelle Sag Harbor (CI) . 2,993 West Point (A 1)
. 1,200 Morganton (A2) .. 2,867 Lisbon (04)
.
1,855
(Bl) 36,213 St. Johnsville Whitehall (G2) ... 5,258 Mountairy (Bl)... 4,752 Mandan(D4)
.
4,336
New York (F3) 2,469 White Plains
,
Mount Olive (D2) 2,297 Marmarth (A4) 1,318 . . .

(Bl) 5,620,048 St. Regis tails (Bl) 21,031 Newbern(E2)....12,198 Mayville (03) . 1,218 . . .

New York Mills (Fl) 1,500 Whitesboro (E2)


,
3,038 Newton (A2) . 3,021 Minot(C2)
.
10,476
(E2) 2,600 Salamanca CB3>. 9,276 Williamsville (B3). 1,753 No.Wilkesboro(Al) 2,363 Mott(B4)
,
723
Niagara Falls Salem (G2) 1,083 Wolcott(D2) 1,186 Oxford (Dl) 3,606 NewRockford(E3)2,lll
(A2) 50,760 Saranac Lake Worcester (F3) .. 1,500 Plymouth (F2).... 1,847 Northwood (G3)
Norfolk (El) 1,600 (Fl).... 5,174 Yonkers(Al).... 100,176 RALEIGH
,
(D2).. 24,418
No. Collins (B3) . 1,158 Saratoga Springs Yorktown Heights Ramseur(C2) 1,014
North Pelham (G2) ,13,181 (Bl) 1,250 Randleman (B2) . 1,967 .

(B2) 2,385 Saugerties (F3) . 4,013 Yorkville (E2) . . . 1,512 Red Springs (C3).. 1,018
. , .

Northport(Bl)... 1,977 Sayville(Bl) 3,200 Reidsville (CI) ... 5,333


North Tarrytown Scarsdale (B2) .... 3,506 Roanoke Rapids
NOETH CAROLINA
(Bl) 5,927 Schenectady (F3). 88,723 (El) 3,369
North Tonawanda Schuylerville (G2) 1,625 Albemarle (B2) .. . 2,691 Rockingham (C2)
.
2,509 .

(B2) 15,482 Scotia (F3) 4,358 Ashboro(C2) 2,559 Rockymount


Northvme(F2).... 1,190 Sea Cliff (Bl) 2 Ashville(B4) " 28,504 (E2) 12,742
Norwich (E3) 8,268 Seneca Falls (D3) 6,389 Ayden(E2) .
1,673 Roxboro(Dl) 1,651
Norwood (Fl) Sherburne (E3) .. 1,104 Beaufort (F3)
.
2,^" Rutherfordton
Nunda(C3) 1,152 SherrilUE2) 1,761 Belhaven (F2) . . . 1,816 .(C4) 1,693
Nyack(Bl) 4,444 Shortsville (C3) .. 1,300 Belmont (B2) 2,941 Salisbury (B2).... 13,884
Oakfield(B2) 1,422 Sidney (E3) 2,670 Bessemer City (A2) 2,176 Sanford (C2) 2,977
Ogdensburg(El).. 14,609 Silvercreek(A3)... 3,260 Burlington (CI)... 5,952 Scotland Neck
01ean(B3) 20,506 Silver Springs (B3) 1,155 Canton (B4) 2,584 (El) 2,061
Oneida (E2) 10,541 Skaneateles (D3).. 1,635 Caroleen (A2) . 1,. Selma(D2)
. . 1,601 .

Oneonta(E3) 11,58 Sloan (B3) 1,791 Chadboum (D3) 1,121 Shelby (A2) 3,609
. .

Oriskany (E3) . 1,101 Sloatsburg


. . (Al) .. 1,150
.
ChapelhiU (C2) . . 1,483 Smithfield (D2)
. . . 1,895 .

Oriskany Falls (E3). 1,0 14 Sodus(C2) 1,329 Charlotte (B2).... 46,338 Southport (D4) . . 1,664 .

Ossining(Bl) 10,739 Solvay (D2) 7,352 Cherryville (A2) .. 1,884 Spencer (B2) 2,510
Oswego (D2) 23,626 Southampton (CI) 2,891 Clayton (D2) 1,423 Spray (CI) 1,250
Oswego Falls (D 2). 1,014 South Glens Falls Cliffside(A2) 1,000 Spring Hope (D2). 1,221
Owego(D3) 4,147 (G2) 2,158 Clinton (D3) 2,110 Statesville (B2) 7,895 . . .

Oxford (E3) 1,590 South Nyack (Bl). 1,799 Concord (B2) 9,903 Tarboro(E2) 4,568
Oyster Bay (Bl) ..3 Southold(Cl) 1,600 Cooleemee(B2).... 2,000 Thomasville (B2). 5,676
Painted Post (C3) 2,170 Spring Valley . Dallas (A2) 1,397 Troy(C2) 1,102
Palmyra (C2) 2 (Al) 3,818 Davidson (B2) 1,156 Wadesboro (B3) 2,648 .

Patchogue(Cl)... 4,031 Springville (B3) .. 2,331 Dunn(D2) 2,805 Wake Forest (D2). 1.425
Pawling (04) 1,032 Stamford (F3) .... 947 Durham (C2) 21,719 Washington (F2).. 6,314
Pearl River (Al) 1,500 Stillwater (G3).... 1,041 E. Durham (D2)
. .
1,500 Waynesville(B4).. 1,942 . .

Peekskill(Bl) 15,! Suffem(Al) 3,154 East Spencer (B2). 2,239 Weldon (El) 1,872
Pelham (B2). 1,056 Syracuse (D3)... 17 1,7 17 Edenton (Fl) 2,777 W. Durham (Dl).. 2,000
Pelham Manor Tarrytown (Bl)... 5,807 Elizabeth City Whiteville(D3).... 1,664
(Bl) 1,754 Ticonderoga (G2) . 2,102 (Fl) 8,925 Williamston(E2).. .

PennYan(C3).., 4,51" Tomkms Cove Enfield (El) 1,648 Wilmington (D3).. 33,372 .

Perry (C3) 4,717 (Al) 1,200 Farmville(E2)... 1,780 Wilson (D2) 10,612 .

Phelps (D3) 1,200 Tonawanda (B2) .10,068 Fayetteville (D2)


,
8,877 Winston-Salem .

Philmont(G3) .. 1,919 Troy(G3) 72,013 Forest City (A2) 2,312 (Bl) 48,395 .

1,747 Trumansburg (D3) 1,011 Gastonia (CI) .12,871


Phoenix (D2)....
Piermont (Al)
,

1,600 Tuckahoe(Bl).... 3,509 Gibsonville (CI) .


. . ,
1,302
. . .

.
NORTH DAKOTA
Pine Plains (G4) 1,600 TupperLake(Fl). 2,508 Goldsboro (D2) .11,296 Ashley (E4) . 1,009
Pittsford (C2) . 1,328 Tuxedo Park (Al) 2,000 Graham (CI)
. , .
2,336 Beach (A4) 1,106
Plattsburg(Gl). 10,909 Unadilla(E3) 1,157 Greensboro (CI).. 19,861 BISMARCK (D4) 7,122
Pleasantville(Bl). 3,590 Union (D3) 3,303 Greenville (E2) .. 5,772 Bottineau (D2) .. 1,172 . .

Port Byron (D2) 1,035 Utica(E2) . 91,156 Hamlet (C3)


.
3,808 Cando(E2) 1,111
Port Chester (Bl). 16,573 Valatie(G3) 1,301 Henderson (Dl)... 5,222 Carrington(E3)... 1,420
Port Ewen (F4) 1,600 Valley Stream
. . . Hendersonville Casselton(G4).... 1,538
PortHenry (Gl).. 2,183 (Bl) 2,800 (B4) 3,720 Cavalier (G2) 819
Port Jefferson (Bl) 2,800 Verplanck (Bl) 1,000 Henrietta (A2)..
. . . 1,856 Cooperstown (F3). 1,112 . .
154 INDEX OF UNITED STATES
OnfO Cnnf^A
.... .
. ... . .. .

156 INDEX OF UNITED STATES


PENNA., Cont'd Mt. Joy (E3)
2,192 Pitcaim(B3) 5,738 South Greensburg Westmont (B3) .. 1,976 .

Mt. Oliver (A3)


.. . 5,575 Pittsburgh (B3) .588,343 (B3) 2,188 W. Newton (B3) 2.645 . .

Littlestown CD4) . (F3)


1,552 Mount Penn
1,370 Pittston(F2) 18,497 South Renovo (D2) 1,291 W. Pittston (F2) 6,968 . .

Lock Haven (D2) Mt. Pleasant (B3). 5,862 Plains (F2)


8,557 1,175 South Waveriy W.Reading (E3).. 2,921
Locustdale(E3).. Mt. Union (D3)
. 1,000 4,744 Plymouth (E2) . 16,500
. (El) . . 1,251 West View (A3)
. 2,797 . .

Locust Gap (E3) . Muncy(E2)


. 1,700 2,054 Point Marion (B4) 1,607, Southwest Greens- W. Wyoming (F2) 1,938
Lopez (E2) Munhali(B3) 1,250 6,418 Polk(B2) 2,762 burg (B3) 2,538 WestYork(E4)... 3,320
Lost Creek (E3)... Myerstown (E3) 1,500 2,385 Portage (C3) . 4,804 South Williamsport
. Wheatland (A2)... 1.742
Luzerne (F2) Nanticoke(E2)... 22,614 Port Allegany
5,998 (E2) 4,341 Whitaker(B3).. .. 1,881
Lykens(E3) 2,880 Nanty01o(C3) .. 5,028 (C2) 2,356 Spangler (C3) 3,035 White Haven (F2). 1,402
Lyndora(B3) 1,500 Narberth (F4) . 3,704 Port Carbon (E3)
. 2,882 Spring City (F3) 2,944 White Mills (F2).. 1,450
McAdoo(F3) 4,674 Natrona (B 3) 4,000 Port Keimedy Springdale (B3) 2,929 Wickboro(B3).... 2,775
.

McDonald (A3) .. 2,751 Nazareth (F3) 4,288 (F3). . . 1,000 Spring Garden- Wisconisco(E3)... 2,100
McKeesport (B3) 46,781 Nescopeck (E2) 1,638 Port Perry (B3) . 1,050 (A3) 1,100 Wilcox (C2)
. 1,050
McKees Rocks Nesquehoning Portvue (B3) 2,538 Spring Grove
. . . Wilkes-Barre (F2) 73,833
(A3) 16,713 (F3) 2,000 Pottstown (F3) .17,431 (E4) 1,115 Wilkinsburg (B3) 24.403 .

McSherrytown New Bethlehem Pottsville(E3).. .21,876 Star Junction (B3) 1,500 Williamsburg (C3) 1,872
(D4) 1,800 (B3) 1,662 Prospect Park State College (D3). 2,405 Williamsport (D2). 36, 198
Madera (C3) 1,200 New Brighton (F4) 2,536 Steelton(E3) 13,428 WiUiamstown (E3) 2,878
.

Mahanoy City (A3) 9,361 Punxsutawney Stoneboro (A2) 1,405 Wilmerding (B3).. 6.441
. . .

(E3) 15,599 Newcastle (A2) ..44,938 (C3) . 10,311 Stroudsburg(F3).. 5,278 Wilson (B3) 3,243
Mahanoy Plane New Cumberland Quakertown (F3) 4,391 Sturgeon (A3) . 1,200 Winburne (C3)... 1.250
.

(E3) 2,000 (D3) 1,577 Ramey(C3) 1,093 Sugar Notch (F2). 2,612 Windber(C3) 9,462
Maltby(F2) 1,200 New Eagle (B 3).. 1,572 Rankin (B3) 7,301
. Summit Hill (F3).. 5,499 Winton(F2) 7,582
Malvern (F3).... 1,286 New Holland (E4) 1,453 Rathmel(C2) 1,000 Sunbury (E3) 15,721 Womelsdorf (E3).. 1,331
Mammoth (B3) 1,000 New Hope (F3) .. . 1,093 Reading (F3).... 107,784 Susquehanna (F2). 3,764 Woodlawn(A3).... 12,495
.

Manheim (E3).. 2,712 New Kensington


. Red Lion (E4) 3,198 Swarthmore(F4).. 2,350 Wrightsville (E4) 1,943
Manor (B3) 1,077 (B3) 11,987 Renovo(D2) 5,877 Swissvale (B3) ...10,908 Wyoming (F2).... 3,582
Mansfield (E2)... 1,609 New Philadelphia Republic (B4) 1,000 Swoyers(F2) 1,400 Wyomissing(E3).. 2.062
Marcus Hook (F3) 2,537 Reynoldsville (C2) 4,116 Swoyersville (F2) . 6 876 Yatesboro (B3) . 1.200 . .

(F4) 5,324 Newport (D3) 1,972 Ridgwav (C2) 6.037 Sykesville (C2) ... 2,507 York(E4) 47.512
Marianna (A3).. 1,124 Newtown (03).... 1,703 Ridley Park (F4) . 2,313 Tamaqua(F3) .12,363 Youngsville (B2) . 1,611
Marienville (B2) 2,000 Newville(D3) 1,482 Roaring Spr. (C3) 2,379 Tarentum (B3) 8,925 Youngwood (B3)
. . . 2,275
. .

Marietta (E3) . .\,735 Noblestown (A3)


. 1,000 Robesonia (E3) . . 1,203 Taylor (F2)
. . 9,876 Yukon (B3) 1,000
Marion Heights Norristown (F3) ..32,319 Rochester (A3) ... 6,957 Throop(F2) 6,672 Zelienopls (A3) 1,870 . . .

(E3) 1,874 Northampton (F3) 9,349 Rockwood (B4) 1,362 Tidioute(E2) 1,063
Mars(B3; 1,226 Northampton Roscoe(B3)
.

1,480 Titusville(B2).... 8,432


. .

ISLAIVD RHODE
Marysville(D3).. 1,877 Heights (F3) ... 3,791 Rosemont(F3) ... 1,000 Towanda(E2) 4,269 AIlenton(C3) 700
Masontown (B4) 1,525 North Belle Vernon Rossiter(C3) 1,500 Tower City (E3) 2,324 Anthony (B2) . 2,200
.

Matamoras (G2) 1,535 (A3) 2,705 Roulette (C2) 1,500 Trafford (B3) 2,895 Apponaug (C2) . . 1,300 .

Mauch Chunk North Braddock Roya!ton(E3) 1,156 Trainer (F4) 1,367 Arctic (B2) 4,000
(F3) 3,666 (B3) 14,928 Royersford(F3)... 3,278 Tremont (E3) 2,015 Arlington (C2) ... 2,500
Mayfield (F2) . 3,832 North Catasauqua
. . . Sagamore (B3).... 2,100 Treveskyn (A3) 2,500 Ashaway (A4) . 700
Meadville (A2) 14,568 . (F3) . 2,321 St. Clair (B3) 6,585 1 revorton (E3) . 1,400 Ashton(Cl) . 2.000
Mechanicsburg North Charleroi St. Clair (E3) 6,495 Troy(E2) 1,419 Auburn (C2) 970
(E3) 4,688 (B3) 1,931 St. Marj-s(C2).... 6,967 Tunkhannock Barrington (C2) ."3,897
Media (F4) 4,109 North East (Bl) .. 3,481 Saltsburg(B3).... 1,01 (E2) 1,736 Block Island (B5) 900 .

Mercer (A2) 1.932 Northumberland Saxton(C3). 1.165 Turtle Creek (B3) 8,138 Bristol (D2) "11,375
Mercersburg (D4). 1,603 (E3) 4,061 Sayre(E2) 8,078 Tyrone (C3) 9,084 Centerdale(Cn... 3,000
Meyersdale (C4) 3,716 North Wales (F3)
. . 2.041 Scalp Level (C3).. 1,690 Union City (B2).. 3,850 Center\'ille(B2)... 2.500
.

Middletown(E3).. 5,920 North York (E3) 2,239 Schuylkill Haven . Uniontown (B4).. 15,692 Central Falls (CI) .24. 174
Midland (A3).... 5,452 Norwood Sta. (F4) 2,353 (E3) 5,437 Upland (F4) 2,486 Charlestown (B4) . "759
Mifflinburg (D3) 1,744 0akdale(A3) 1,611 Scottdale (B3) .... 5.768 Vanderbilt (B3). ,183 Chepachet (Al) .. 1,200
Millersburg (E3) 2,936 Oakmont(B3) 4.512 Scranton(F2) ..137,783 Vandergrift (B3) 9,531 Coventry (B 2)... "5,670
Millersville (E3) 1,350 Oil City (B2) 21,274 Selinsgrove (E3) .. 1,937 Verona (B3) 3,938 Cranston (C2).... 29,407
Millhall (D2) 1,238 01dforge(F2) 12,237 Sellersville(F3)... 1,739 Versailles (B3)... 1,936 Crompton (B3) . 1,800 . .

Millsboro(B4).... 1,000 Oliver (B4) 1,000 Sewickley(A3).... 4,955 Vintondale(C3).. 2.053 Cumberland.. .."10,077 .

Millvale(B3) 8,031 CHyphant(F2).... 10,236 Shaft (E3) 1,600 Wall(B3) 2,426 East Greenwich
Milroy(D3) 1,500 Oneida (E3) 1,200 Shamokin (E3). .21,204 Walnutport(F3).. . 1,051 (C3) "3,290
Milton (E2) 8,638 Orwigsburg (E3) . 1,985 Sharon (.\2) . 21,747 Walston(B3) 1,200 East Providence
Miners Mills (F2) . 4,365 Osceola Mills Sharon Hill (F4) . 1.780 Wanamie(E2).... 1,500 (C2) "21,793
Minersville (E3) .. 7,845 (C3) 2,512 Sharpsburg (B3) 8,921 Warren (B2) .14,272 Exeter (B3)
. "1,031
Mkiooka (F2) 3,000 Oxford (F4) 2,093 Sharpsville (A2) 4,674 Warrior Run (F2) . 1,387 Fiskeville(C2)....
. . 900
Mohnton(E3) 1,640 Palmerton (F3) ... 7 Sheffield (C2) 1,525 Washington (A3).. 2 1,480 Foster (A 1) "905
Monaca(A3) 3,838 Palmyra (E3) 3,646 Shenandoah (E3).. 24, 726 Watsontown (E2) 2,153 Georgiaville(Bl). 1,000.

Monessen(B3)....18,179 Palo Alto (E3) ... . 1,667 Sheppton(E3) 1,000 Wayne (F3) 3.000 Greenville (Bl).. 990
Monongahela (.\3) Parkers Landing Shickshinny(E2).. 2.289 Waynesboro (D4) 9,720 Greystone(Bl).. 800.

Montgomery (E2). 1,798 (B2) 1, Shillington(E3)... 2,175 Waynesburg (A4) . 3,332 Harris%allp(Al)., 2,200
Montoursville Parksburg (F4) . . 2,543 Shinglehouse . (C2). 1,169 Weatherly (F3) . 2,356 Hills Grove
. (C2) . 1,200
(E2) 1,949 Parnassus (B3) ... 3,816 Shippensburg (D3) 4,372 Webster (B3) 1,000 Hope (B2) 850
Montrose (F2)..., 1,661 Parsons (F2) 5,628 Silver Creek (F3).. 2,512 Wellsboro (D2) . . 3.452 Hope Valley (A3). . 1.450
Moon Run (A3) . 1,000 Patton(C3) 3,628 Simpson (F2) 1,800 Wesleyville(Bl).. 1,457 Hopkinton(A4)..."2,316
Moores(F4) 1,400 Peckville (F2) 3,975 Siverlv(B2) 1.616 West Brownsville Howard (C2) 900
Moosic(F2) 4,364 Peely(F2) 1.387 Slatington (F3) 4,014 (.\3) . 1,900 Jamestown (C4) ."1,633
. .

Morgan (A3) 1,500 PenArgyI(F3). 4,096 Smethport (C2) .. 1,568 W. Chester (F4)... 11,7 17 Lakewood (C2) ... 650
Morris Run (E2) . 1,600 Penbrook(E3)..
. 2,072 Somerset (B3) 3,121 West Conshohocken Little Compton
Morrisville (03) 3,639 Pennsburg (F3)
. 1,404 Souderton (F3) . 3,125 (F3) . 2,331 (D3) "1,389
Mortan(F4) 1,212 PennsSta. (B3). 1.019 South Allentown West Easton (F3) 1,408 Lonsdale (CI) .... 4,000 .

Mt. Braddock Perkasie(F3)... 3,150 (F3) 2,549 W. Fairview (D3) 1,800 L>Tnansville (CI) 700.

(B4) 1,000 Philadelphia South Brownsville Westfield (D2).... 1,303 Manville (CI) 4,700
Mt. Carmel(E3)..17,469 (F4) 1,823,779 (B4) 4,675 Westgrove (F4)... 1,152 Middletown (D3) "2,094
_.
.

Mt. Holly Springs Philipsburg (C3) . 3,900 South Connellsville . W. Hazelton (E3) 5,854 Narragansett Pier .

(D3) 1,109 Pha'nix\'ille (F3) .10,484 (B2) 2,196 W. Homestead (B3) 3,435 (C4) "1,250
Mt.Jewett(C2)... 1,494 Pinegrove (E3) ... 1,778 Southfork (C3)... 4,239 W. Middlesex (A2) 1,340 Natidt(C2)...... 2.400
. .. ..
. ... . . .. . .

INDEX OF UNITED STATES 157

B. I., Cont'd Kingstree (H4) ... 2,074 Lennox (H4) 1,074 Lenoir City (F4) 4,210 Canadian (B2) 2,187
Lake City (H4) .. 1,606 Madison (G4) 4,144 Lewisburg (D4) 2,711 Canyon (A2) 1,618
Newport (C4) 30.255 Lancaster (F2)
3,032 Menno(G4)
. . 918 Lexington (B4). 1,792 Carthage (E3) 1 ,366
No. Scituate (R2) 1.050 Laagley(DS)
1,400 Milbank(H2) 2,215 Livingston (E3). 1,215 Center (E4) 1,838
No. Tiverton (D3). 1,650 Latta(J3) Miller (E3)
1,079 1,478 McKenzie (B3) 630 Chico(D3) 1,200
Norwood (C2) 650 Laurens (C3) 4,629 Mitchell (F4) 8,478 McMinnville (E4). 2^814 Childress (B2)
PascoaK(Al) 3,000 Leesville (D4) 5,003
1,216 Mobridge(D2) 3,517 Manchester (E4).. 1,114 lChilllcothe(C2)... 1,351
Pawtucket(Cl) ..64.248 Liberty (B2) 1,705 Parker (G4) 1,288 Martin (B3) 2,837 Cisco (C3) ' 7,422
Peace Dale (B4)... 1,550 Lockhart(E2) 1,000 Parkston(G4) 1,230 Maryville (G4) 3,739 Clarendon (B2) ..
. . . 2,456
Phenix (B2) 3,000 McColl(H2) PIERRE
.

2,129 (D3).. 3,209 Memphis (A4)... 162 ,351 Clarksville (E3) 3,386
Phmipsdale(Cl).. 700 Manning (G4) 2,022 Plankinton (F4). 803 Milan (B4)
. .

2,057 Cleburne (D3) 12,820


PonUac(152) 1,900
Marion (J3) 3,892 Platte (F4) 1,242 Monterey (E3).... 1,445 Clifton (D4) 1,327
Portsmouth (n3).. "2,590 Mcggett(G6) 1,000 Rapid City (A3) 5,777 Morristown (G3) . 5,875 Coleman (C4) 2,868
PROVIDENCE Moultrieville(H6). 1,011 Redfield (F3) . . 2,755 Mt. Pleasant (C4). 2,093 Colorado (B,3) 1,766
(CI) 237.595
Mt. Pleasant (H6).. 1,575 Salem (G4) 1,187 Murfreesboro (D4) 5,367 Columbus (D5) 2,000
Richmond "1.301
Muliins(J3) 2,379 Scotland (G4) NASHVILLE
River Point (C2) 3,500 Newberry (D3)
. .
1,234 Comanche (C4) 3,524
.. 5,894 Sioux Falls (H4).. 25,202 (D3) 118,342 Commerce (E3) 3,842
Riverside (C2).... 2,000 New Brookland Sisseton(G2)
990
1,431 Newborn (A3) 1,767 Conroe (E4).. 858
.
Saylesville(Cl)... (E4) 1,793 Speariish (A3) . 1,254 . . Newport (G4) 2,753 Cooper (E3) 2,563
Slatersville(Bl)... 1,850
North Augusta Springfield (F5).... 719 North Chattanooga Corpus Christ!
Smithfield(Bl)... "3,199 (D5) 1,742 Sturgis(A3) 1,250 (E4) 2,196 (D6) 10,522
Thornton (C2).... 900 Orangeburg (F4) . 7,290 Tripp (G4) 970 Oakdale(F3) 1,552 Corsicana (D3) ... 1 1 ,356
Tiverton (D3).... "3,894 Pelzer(C2) 5,500 Tyndall(G4) 1,405 Obion (A3) 1,376 Cotulla(C5) 1,058
Valley Falls (CI) . 5,000 Piedmont (B2).... 4,000, Vermilion (G5)... 2,590 Paris (B3) 4,730 Crockett (E4) 3,061
Wakefield (B4) ... 2,750 Rockhill (E2) 8,809lWagner (F4) 1,236 Pulaski (C4) 2,780 Crowell(C3) 1,175
Warren (D2) "7,841
Matthews |Watertown (G3). . 9,400 Ripley (A4)
St. 2,070 Cuero(D5) 3,671
Warwick (C2) ."13,481
. .
(F4) 1,780 Waubay(G2) 979 Rockwood (F4) . . 4,652 Dalhart(Al)
Washington (B2).. 660
. 2,676
W. Barrin?toQ (D2) 900
Seneca (B2) 1,460 Webster (G2) l,f Rogersville(G3)... 1,402 Dallas (D3) 158.976
Spartanburg (C2). 22,638 Wessington St. Elmo (E4) 3,890 Dayton (E4) 2,000
Westerly (A4) .."9,952
. .
Summerville (G5) 2,550 Spring (F3) . . 1,618 Shelbyville (D4) . 2,912 Decatur (D3) 2,205
W. Warwick (C2) "15,461 Sumter (G4) 9,508 Winner (E4) 2,000 Soddy(E4) 1,200 DeLeon(C3) 3,302
Wickford (C3) 1,050
. . . .
Timmonsville (H3) 1.860 Woonsocket Somerville (A4) . 1,106 Del Rio (B5)
. . 10,589
Woonsocket (CI). .43,496 Union (D2) 6,141 (F4) 1,368 South Fulton (A3). 1,650 Denison(D3) 17,065
Walhalla (A2) 2,< Yankton (G5) . 5,024 So. Pittsburg (E4) 2,356 Denton (D3) 7,626
SOUTH CAROLINA Walterboro (F6) .. 1,853
.

Sparta (E4) 1,517 Desdemona (C3) 3,008


Abbeville (C3).... 4,57C Westminster (A2) 1,847 TENNESSEE Spring City (E4) 1,001 Detroit (E3)
. . 2,000
. .

Aiken (D4) 4,103 Whitmire(D2)..,. 1,955 Alcoa (G4) 3,358 Springfield (C3).. 3 Donna (C6) 1,579
Allendale (E5) ... . 1,893 Williamston (B2).. 2,322 Altonpark (E4) . . 3,020 Sweetwater (F4) 1,972 Dublin (C3) 3,229
Anderson (B3).... 10,570 Winnsboro(E3)... 1,822 Athens (F4) 2,580 Tiptonville (A3).., 1,050 Eagle Lake (D.S) 2,017 . .

Andrews (J5) 1,968 Woodruff (C2).... 2,396 Binghamton (A4). 1,673 Tracy City (E4).. 2,669 Eagle Pass (B5).... 5,765
Bamberg (E5) ... 2,210 . York (El) 2,731 Bolivar (B4) 1,031 Trenton (A4) 2,75 Eastland (C3) 9,368
Barnwell (E5) 1,903 Bristol (H3) 8,047 Tullahoma(E4)... 3,479 Edna(D5)
Batesburg (E4) . 2,848. .
SOUTH DAKOTA Brownsville (A4) . 3,062 Union Citv(B3).. 4,412 Edinburg (C6)
1,700
1,406 . . .

Beaufort (F7) 2,831 Aberdeen (F2).... 14,537 Chattanooga (E4) 57,895 Waverly(C3) 1,054 ElCampo(D5). .. 1,766
Belton(B2) 1.78G Alexandria (G4).. 965 Clarksville(C3)... 8,110 Winchester (D 4) . 2,230 Electra(C2)
. 4,744
Bennettsville (H2) 3,197 Arlington (G3).. . 1,011 Cleveland (F4).... 6,522 Elgin(D4) 1,630
Bishopville (G3) . 2,090 Armour (F4) 1,045 Clinton (G3) 1,409 TEXAS El Paso (A6) 77,560
Blacksburg(Dl).. 1,512 Bellefourche (A3) 1,616 Coal Creek (F3)... 1,204 Abilene (C3) 10,274 Ennis (D3) 7,224
Blackville (E5) ... 1,421 Beresford(H4)... 1,519 Columbia (D4) 5,526 Alba(E3) 1,352 Falfurrias(C6).... 1,600
Branchville (F5) . 1,814 Bowdle(E2)
. Cookeville (E3) 2,395 Albany (C3) 1,469 Farmersville (D3) 2,167 .

Buffalo (D2) 1,200 Bridgewater (G4) 976 Copper Hill (F4) 1,102 Alice (C6).... Ferris (D3) 1,586
Camden (F3) 3,930 Britton(G2) 1,105 Covington (A4) 3,410 Alvarado(D3) 1,284 Floresville (C3) 1,518 . . .

Charleston (H6)... 67,957 Brookings (H3) .. 3,924 Dayton (E4)


. 1,701 Alvin(ES) 1,519 Forney (D3) 1 ,345
Cheraw(H2) 3,150 Canton (H4) 2,225 Dickson (C3) 2,263 Alvord(D3) 1,376 Ft. Stockton (A4) 1,297 .

Chester (E2) 5,557 Centerville (H4) .. 1,104 Dresden (B3) 1,007 Amarillo(A2) 15,494 Ft. Worth (D3).. 106,482
Clifton (D2) 4,500 Chamberlain (E4). 1,303 Dunlap(E4) 1,465 Angleton(E5) 1,043 Franklin (D4) 1,131
Clinton (D3) 3,767 Clark (G3) 1,392 Dyer (A3) 1,250 Anson (C3) 1,425 Fredericksburg
Clover (El) 1,608 Clearlake(H3).... 835 Dyersburg (A3) 6,444 . . Aransas Pass (D6). 1,569 (C4) 2,900
COLUMBIA Dallas (E4) 705 East Chattanooga Arlington (D3).... 3,031 Freeport(E5) 1,798
(F4) 37,524 Dead wood (A3) . . 2,403 (E4) 4,720 Athens (E3) 3,176 Gainesville (D3) 8,648 . .

Converse (Dl) 1,000 Dell Rapids (H4). 1,677 Elizabethton(H5). 2,749 Atlanta (E3) 1,469 Galveston (E5) .44,255 . .

Conway (J 4) 1,969 Desmet (G3) .... 1,035 Englewood(F4)... 1,271 AUSTIN (D4).... 34,876 Gatesville (D4) 2,499 . . .

Cowpens(D2) 1,284 Edgemont (A4) . Erwin(H3)1,254 2,965 Baird(C3) 1,902 Georgetown (D4) 2,871 .

Darlington (H3) .. 4,669 Egan (H4) 569 Etowah (F4) 2,516 Ballinger (C4) . . 2,767 Giddings (D4)
. . 1 ,650
Denmark (E5).... 1,254 Elkpoint (H5) 1,470 Fayetteville (D4) . 3,629 Bartlett (D4) . . 1,731 Gilmer (E3) 2,268
Dillon (J3) 2,205 Elkton(H3) 872 Franklin (D4) 3,123 Bastrop (D4) 1,828 Glen Rose (D,3) .. 1,400 .

Easley (B2) 3,568 Eureka (E2) 1,200 Gallatin (D3) 2,757 Bay City (D5) . . 3,454 Goldthwaite (C4) 1,214 .

Eau Claire (F4) .. 2,566 Flandreau (H3)


. 1,929 Greeneville (H3).. 3,775
. Beaumont (E4)... 40,422 Goliad (D5) 2,100
Edgefield (C4) 1,865 Freeman (G4).. 894 Greenfield (B3) .. 1,474
. . Beeville (D5) 3,063 Gonzales (D5) 3,128
Edisto Island Garretson (H4) . 715 Halls (A4) 1,400 Belton(D4) 5,098 Gorman (C3) 3,200
(G6) 3,500 Geddes(F4) 695 Harriman (F4) 4,019 Big Spring (B3) .. 4,273 Graham (C3)
. 2,544
Enoree(D2) 2,000 Gettysburg (E2) 951 HartsviUe (D3). .. 1,023 Bonham(D3) 6,008 Granbury (D3) 1,364 . . .

Florence (H3) 10,968 Gregory (E4) 1,067 Henderson (B4).. 1,181 . Bowie (C3) 3,179 Grand Saline (E3). 1,528
Fort Mill (Fl).... 1,946 Groton (F2) 1,273 Humboldt (A4) .. 3,913 Brackettville (B5). 1,800 Grand View (D3).. 1,084
Fountain Inn Hartford (G4) ... 677 Huntingdon (B4).. 1,121 Brady (C4) 2,197 Granger (D4) 1,944
(C2) 1,100 Highmore (E3). 1,022 Jackson (B4)
. . 18,860 Breckenridge(C3). 1,846 Grayburg(E4).... 1,406
Gaffney(Dl) 5,065 Hot Springs (A4) 2,141 Jefferson City (G3) 1,414
. Brehara (D4) 5,066 Greenville (E3)... 12,384
Georgetown (J5) 4,579 . . Howard (G3) 1,325 Jellico(F3) 1,878 Bridgeport (C3)... 1,872 Groesbeck (D4).. 1,522
Graniteville(D4).. 2,500 Huron (F3) 8,302 Johnson City (H3) 12,442 Brownsville (D7).. 11,791 Groveton (E4).. 1,103 .

Greenville (C2)... 23,127 Ipswich (E2) 909 Kingsport (H3) 5,692 . . Brown wood (C4).. 8,223 Hallettsville (D5) 1,444
Greenwood (C3) .. 8,703 Kimball (F4) 713 Knoxville(G4).... 77,818 Bryan (D4) 6,307 Hamilton (C4) 2,018
Greer (C2) 2,292 Lake Preston (G3). 1,008 Lafollette(G3).... 3,056 Caldwell (D4) 1,689 Hamlin (B3) 1,633
HartsviUe (0.3) 3,624 . . . Lead (A3) 5,013 Lawrenceburg (C4) 2,461 Calvert (D4) 2,099 Harlingen (D6) . 1,784 . .

Honeapath (B3) 1,900 . Lemmon (B2) 1,126 Lebanon (D3) 4.084 Cameron (D4) ... . 4,298 Haskell (C3) 2,300
..
.. ,

158 INDEX OP UNITED STATES


Polytechnec (D3) 4,338 UTAH Georgia (B4) "1.075 East Falls Church
TEXAS, Cont'd
Port Arthur (F5).. 22, 251
.

Graniteville (C2).. 1,076 (E2) 3,


2,741 Port Lavaca (D5). 1,213
American Fork Hardwick(C2).... 1,550 East Radford (B3) 2,
Hearne (D4) 2,763 Hartford (C.^)
2,600 Quanah(C2) (C3) "4,739 Emporia (E4)
Hempstead (E4) . . 3,691 1,
16,205 Beaver
(B5) 1,827 Highgate(Bl) "1,528 Falls Church (E2)
Henderson (E3)... 2,273 Ranger (C3) 1, .

Richmond (E5) 1,273


Bingham Canyon IslandPond (Dl). 1,837 Farmville (D3) ... 2,
Henrietta (C3).... 2,563 .. .

(B3) 2,676 Ludlow (B4)


1,732 F'ortress Monroe
Hereford (A2) ... 1,696 Rio Grande (C6)
. 2,700 . .

Bountiful (C3).... 2,063 Lyndonville (Dl).. 1,878 (F4)


Hico(D4) 1,635 Rockdale (D4) 2,323 2,
Brigham(C2) 5,282 Middlebury (A2).. 1,993 Franklin (E4)
HilIsboro(D4).... 6,952 Rockport(D5).... 1,545 2,
Castlegate(D4)... 1,120 Montgomery (Bl)."l,721 Fredericksburg
Hondo (C5) 2,500 Rockwall (D3).... 1,388
Cedar City (A6)... 2,462 MONTPELIER
Honey Grove (E3). 2,642 Rogers (D4) 1,256 (E2) 5,
Ephraim(C4) 2,287 (C2) 7,125 Fries (A4)
Houston (E5).. ..138,276 Rosebud (D4) 1,516 2,
Eureka (B4) 3,608 Morrisville(Bl)... 1,707 Front Royal (D2) .
Houston Hts. (ES) 6,984 Rosenberg (E5) .. 1,279 . 1,
Fairview(C4) 1,423 New Haven (A2).." 1,001 Galax (B4)
Hubbard (D4) ... 2,072 Rotan(B3) . 1,000
Farmington(B3).. 1,170 Newport (CI)
1,

Humble (E5) 3,000 Royyjaty(D3).. 1,289 4,976 Graham (A3) 2,


Fillmore (BS) 1,490 Northfield (B2) .. 1,916 Hampton (F3)....
Huntsville (E4) .4,689 Runge(D5)
. . 1,070 .
-
6,
Fountain Green North Troy (CI).. Harrisonburg (C2)
Iowa Park (C3) .. 2,041 Rusk(E4) . 2,348
1,169 Norwich (C3),
1,0 S,

1,350 Sabinal(C5) 1,458 (C4) ,092, Jlopewell (E3).... 1,


Italy (D3) (

Grantsville (B3).. 1,213 Orleans (CI) 1,358 Lawrenceville


Itasca (D3) 1,599 San Angelo (B4) 10,050 . .

Heber(C3) 1,931 Pawlet(A4) "1,413 (E4)


Jacksboro(C3).... 1,373 San Antonio 1,
161,379 Helper (D4) 1,606 Poultney (A3) 1,371 Leesburg (El) ...
Jacksonville (E4).. 3,723 (C5) . . . . . 1,
Huntington (C4).. 1,285 Pownal(A5) "1,599 Lexington (C3)
Jefferson (E3) . .2,549 San Augustine
. .
. . . 2,

Kaufman(D3).... 2,501 (E4) 1,268 Hyrum(C2) 1,858 Proctor (A3) 2,692 Luray(D2) 1,
Lehi (C3) 3,078 Randolph (B3).. .. 1,819 Lynchburg (C3)... 30,
Kemp(E3) 1,500 San Benito (D6).. 5,070
Lewiston (C2) 1,645 Richford(Bl)
Kenedy (D5) 2,015 San Marcos (D4).. 4,527
. . .
1,995 Manassas (E2) 1,

Kerrville (C4) . .2,353


. San Saba (C4)
. ... 2,011 .
Logan (C2) 9,439 Rochester (B3) .. ."1,397 Marion (C2) 3,
1,298 Santa Anna (C4) 1,407 Manti(C4) 2,412 Royalton (B3) "1,469 Martinsville (B4). 4,
Killeen(D4) . . . . .

4,770 Saratoga (E4) 1,300 Midvale(B3) 2,209 Rutland (B3) 14,954 Narrows (B3) 1,
KingsviUe (D6) . . .

1,165 Schulenburg
Milford(B5) 1,308 St. Albans (Al) 7,588 National Soldiers
Kirbyville (F4) . . .
. . .

(D5) 1,246
Monroe (B5) 1,719 St. Johnsbury (D2) 7,164 Hoaie (F3) .... 3,
Ladonia (E3) 1,713
Moroni (C4) 1,355 Saxtons River Newport News
La Grange (D5)... 1,669 Sealy(D5) 1,700
Lamesa(A3) 1,188 Seguin(D5) 3,631 Mt. Pleasant (B4) 1,000 (F4) 35,
(C4) 2,415 Shaftsbury (AS)... "1,534 Norfolk (F4) 115
Lampasas (D4) . 2,107 Seymour (C3)
. . 2,121
Lancaster (D3) .. 1,190 Sherman (D3)
. 15,031 Murray (C3) 4,584 Shelburne(A2).... "997 Norton (B2) 3
22,710 Shiner (D5) 1,300 Nephi(C4) 2,603 Sheldon (Bl) "1,473 Onancock (G3) ...
Laredo (C6) 1,

Leonard (D3) 1,382 Sinton(D5) 1,058 Ogden(C2) 32,804 So. Royalton (B3) 1,100 . Penniman (F3) ... 2,

1,645 Smithville (D5) 3,204 Panguitch (B6) 1,473 Springfield (C4)...


. .
5,283 Petersburg (E3)... 30
Llano (C4) . . .

Lockhart(DS).... 3,731 Snyder (B3) 2,179 Park City fC3).... 3,393 Swanton(Al) 1,371 Phoebus (F3) 3
Longview (E3) 5,713 Somerville(D4).. 1,879 .
Parowan(B6) 1,640 Vergennes (A2) .. 1,609 . Pinners (1^4) 1

1,093 Sourlake(E4) 3,032 Payson(C3) 3,031 WartJngford (A4) ."1,581 Pocahontas (A3) 2
Lott(D4) . .

4,051 Stamford (C3) ... 3,704 Pleasant Grove Waterbury (B2)... 1,515 Port Norfolk (F4) 1
Lubbock (B3) .
.

1,400 (C3) 1,682 W.Rutland (A3).. "3,391 Portsmouth (F4)..54,


Lufkin(E4) 4,878 Stanton (B3)
1,502 Stephenville (D3) . 3,891 Price (D4) 2,364 White River Junc- Pulaski (A3) 5,
Luling(D5)
1,194 Stockdale(D5).. .. 1,250
Providence (C2) . 1,132 tion (C3) 2.500 Radford (B3) 4,
'Lyra(C3)
McAllen(C6) 5,331 Strawn(C3) 2,457 Prove (C3) 10,303 Williamstowa RICHMOND
Richfield (C5) 3,262 (B2) "1,526 (E3) 171
McGregor (D4) .. 2,081 Sulphur Sprs. (E3) 5,558
.

McKinney(D3)... 6,677 Sweet Water (B3) 4,307 .


Richmond (C2) .. 1,396 Windsor (C4) 3,061 Roanoke (B3). . . .50
St.George (A6).... 2,215 Winooski (Al) 4,932 Rockvmount (C4)
Mabank(E3) 1,700 Taylor (D4) 5,965 1
Salina(C5) 1,451 Woodstock (B3)... 1,252 Salem (B3) 4
Madisonville (E4). 1,079 Teague(D4) 3,306
Magnolia (E4).... 4,080 Temple (D4) 11,033 SALT LAKE Saltville (C2) 2,
CITY (B3).... 118,110 Schoolfield (C4) ..3,
Marfa(A6) 3,553 Terrell (D3) 8,349
Sandy (C3) 1,208
VntGINIA
Marlin(D4) 4,310 Texarkana(E3).. .11,480 Shenandoah (D2) . 1,
Smithfield (C2) 2,421 Abingdon (B2).... 2,532
. .
Smithfield (F4) ..
Marshall (E3) ... .14,271 Texas City (E5)... 2,509
.
. 1,

3,105 Thurber(C3) 4,500 Spanish Fork (C3). 4,036 Alexandria (E2)... 18,060 So. Boston (D4)...
Mart (D4) Springville(C3).. 3,010 AltaVista (C3) ...
4,

Mason (C4) 1,200 Timpson(E4) 1,526 .


1,206 . So. Norfolk (F4) .. 7.
Sunnyside (D4) 2,072 Appalachia (Bl).. 2,036 Staunton (C2)....
Memphis (B2) ... 2,839 Toyah(B6) . 1,052 . .
10,
Tooele (B3) 3,602 Arlington (F2).... 1,000 Suffolk (F4)
Mercedes (D6).... 3,414 Trinity (E4) 1,363 9,
1,810 Troup (E3)
Vernal (E3> 1,309 Ashland (E3) 1,299 Tazewell (CI)....
Merkel(B3) 1,258 1,

3.482 Tulia(B2) Wellsville(C2).... 1,298 Basic (D2) 2,21? Toano(F3)


Mexia(D4) 1,189 1,

Midland (B4) 1,795 Tyler (E3) 12,085 Bedford City (C3). 3,24 J Victoria (D3) 1,

Mineola(E3) 2,299 Uvalde (C5) 3,885 VERMONT Berkley (F4) 5,200 Vinton (C3) 2,

Mineral Wells (C3) 1.' ~


Van Alstyne(D3).. 1,588 Arlington (A4).... "1,370 Berry ville (El) 1,138 . . Warrenton (E2).. . 1,

Mission (C6) 3, Velasco(E5) 1,500 Barnet(C2) "1,685 Bigstone Gap (B2) 3,009 Waverly(E3) 1,

Mt. Pleasant (E3). 4,099 Vernon (C2) 5,14 Barre(C2) 10,008 Blacksburg (B3).. 1.095 Waynesboro (C2) . 1,

Mt. Vernon (E3) 1,212 Victoria (D5)


. . 5,957 Barton (CI) 1,187 Blackstone (D3) .. 1,497 West Norfolk (F4). 1,

Nacogdoches (E4) 3,546 Waco(D4) 38,500 Bellows Falls (C4). 4,860 BristoKBI) 6,729 Y/estpoint (F3) ... 1

Navasota(E4).... 5,060 Walnut Sprs. (D3). 1,449 Bennington (A5) 7,230 Buenavista (C3) .. 3,911
. . Williamsburg (F3) 2,

New Braunfels Waxahachie (D3) . 7,958 Bethel (B3) "1,782 Cape Charles (F3) 2,517 Winchester (Dl).. 6,

(C5) 3,590 Weatherford (C3) 5,203 . Brandon (A3) 1,631 Charlottesville Woodstock (D2) . . 1,

Newcastle (C3) .. 1,452 Wellington (B2)... 1


. Brattleboro (B5) . 7,324 (D2)
. 10,688 Wytheville(B4)... 2,
NLTOn(D5) 1.124 West (D4) 1,629 Bristol (A2) 1,251 Chase City (D4) .. 1,646
Nocona(D3) 1,422 Wharton (E5) 2,346 Burlington (A2)... 22,779 Chatham (C4) ... 1,171 .
WASHINGTON
01ney(C3) 1,164 Whitesboro (D3).. 1,810 Castleton (A3). ..."1,919 Chincoteague Aberdeen (B2).... 15,
Orange (F4) 9,212 Whitewright Charlotte (A2).. .."1,160 Island (G3) 1,418 Anacortes (CI) ... 5,
Paducah(B2) 1,357 (D3) 1,666 Chelsea (C3) "1,087 Christiansburg (B3) 1,64 Arlington (Dl) 1,

Palacios(D5) 1,335 Wichita Falls Danville (C2).... "1,494 Clarendon (E2) .. 2,300 . Auburn (C2) 3,

Palestine (E4)....l 1,039 (C3) 40,079 Dorset (A4) "1,226 Clifton Forge (C3). 6,164 Bellingham(Cl)..25,
"
Paris (E3) 15,040 Wills Point (E3)... 1 Enosburg Falls Colonial Beach (E2) 1,093 Blaine (CI) 2,

Pearsall(C5) 2,161 Winnsboro(E3)... 2,184 (Bl) 1,236 Covington (B3) 5,623 . . . Bremerton (C2).. . 8,

Pecos (B6) 1,445 Winters (C3) 1,509 Essex Jet. (A2).... 1,410 Crewe (D3) 2,097 Buckley (D2) 1,

Pilot Point (D3) .. 1,499 Wolfe City (E3)... 1,859


. Fairfax (Bl) "1,244 Culpeper (D2) 1,819 . . . . Burlington (CI).. . 1,

Pittsburg (E3)...: 2,540 Yoakum (D5) 6 Fairfield (Al) "1,532 Damascus (CI)... 1,599 Camas (C4) 1,

Plainview(B2).... 3,989 Yorktown (D5) 1,723 . . . Fairhaven (A3) 2,182


. Danville
. (C4)
. 21,539 Centralia (C3) . . . . 7,

Piano (D3) 1.715 Ysleta(A6) 2,000 Ferrisburg(A2)... "1,338 Dendron(F3) 1,795 Charleston (C2)... 3,
. .

159
flTOEX OP UNITED STATES
Charlestown (L2) 2,527
WASH., Cont'd
Chester (K4)
.

3,283
Chehalis(C3) 4,558 Clarksburg (F2)... 27,867
Cheney (H2) 1,252 Clendenin (D3) .. 1,263
.

Chewelah(Hl) ... 1,288 Davis (H2) 2,491


Clarkston (H3) . . . 1,859 Elkins (G3) 6,788
CleElum(E2).... 2,661 Elm Grove (K5).. 1,899
Colfax (H3) 3,027 Eskdale(D4) 1,003
Colville(Hl) 1,71 Fairmont (F2).... 17, 851
Cosmopolis (B3) 1.512 Follansbee(K5)... 3,135
Davenport (G2)... 1,112 Fulton (K5) 1,038
Dayton (Hi) 2,695 Gassaway (E3) ... 1,518
Ellensburg(E3)... 3,967 Grafton (F2) 8,517
Elma(B2) 1,253 Harrisville(D2)... 1,036
Enumclaw(D2)... 1,378 Hinton(E5) 3;912
Everett (CI) 27,644 HollidaysCove(LS)l,213
Goldendale (E4) .. 1,274 Huntington (B3) .50,177
Hillyard(H2) 3,942 Keyser (J2) 6,0U3
Hoquiam (A2) .... 10,058 Keystone (DO).... 1,839
Kalama(C3) 1,228 Kimball (D6) 1,428
Kelso (C3) 2,228 Kingwood (Gl) . . . 1,417
Kennewick(F3)... 1,684 Lewisburg (F5) . . . 1,202
Kent(C2) 2,282 rogan(C5) 2,998
Kirkland (C2) . . . . 1,354 McMechen (K6) 3,356
. .

Leavenworth (E2) . 1,791 Mabscott(D5).... 1,114


Lynden(Cl) 1,244 Mannington (Fl). 3,673
Marysville (CD .. 1,244 Marlinton (F4) . 1,177
. .

Medical Lake(H2) 2,545 Martinsburg (K2) 12,515 1,798


Monroe (D2) 1,675 Milton (B4) 1,023 3,016
Montesano (B2) 2,158 . .
Monongah(F2)... 2,031 5,165
Mt. Vernon (CI).. 3,341 Montgomery (D4). 2,130
0LYMP1A(B2).. 7,795 Morgantown (Gl).12,127
Palouse(H3) 1,179 Moundsville (K6) 10,669 .

Pasco (F3) 3,362 Mount Hope (D5) 1,989


Pomeroy (H3) 1,804
. . . .
Mullens (D5) 1,425
Port Angeles (Bl). 5,351 New Cumberlantl
Port Blakeley (K4) 1,816
(C2) 1,950 New Martinsville
Port Townsend (Dl) 2,341
(Bl) 2,847 PadenCityCEl).. 1,705
Prosser(F3)... 1,697 Parkersburg
Pullman (H3).. 2,440 (D2) 20,050
Puyallup (C2) 6,323 Parsons (G2) 2,001
Raymond (B3), 4,260 Pennsboro(D2).. 1,654 .

Renton(C2)... 3,301 Philippi(G2) 1,543


RitzviUe (G2) 1,900 Piedmont 2,835
(J 1)....
Roslyn(E2) 2,673 Pt. Pleasant (B3) 3,059 .

Seattle (C2) 315,312 Princeton (E6).... 6,224


Sedro Woolley Ravenswood (C3) 1,284 .

(CI) 3,389 Richwood(F4).... 4,331


Snohomish (D2).. 2,985 1,061
Rivesville(Fl)....
South Bend (A3) 1,948 . .
Romney(J2) 1,028
Spokane (H2).... 104,437 Ronceverte (F5) .. 2,319
Sumner (C2) 1,499 Rowlesburg (G2) 1,225 .

Sunnyside (F3) . . . 1,809 St. Albans (C4) .. . 2,825


Tacoma (C2) 96,965 St. Marys (D2) .. 1,648 .

Tekoa(H2) 1,520 2,920


Toppenish (E3) 3,120 . . .

Vancouver (C4).. 12,637 .


1,063
Waitsburg(H3)... 1,174 1,079
Walla Walla 3,238
(G3) 15,503
Waterville (E2) . . . 1,198 3,650
Wenatchee(E2)... 6,324
Yakima (E3) 18,539

WEST VmCINIA
Descriptive Gazetteer
of the

Principal Countries of the World


Copyright C. S. Hammond & Co., N. Y.

ABYSSINIA Towns. The principal towns are Kabul, the


Principal
capital, 6,396 feet above sea level; Herat, the chief to^-n in
The Country. A
native kingdom of East Africa, sepa-
the west, an important depot for the carpets of central
rated from the Red Sea by Italian, French and British colo-
Asia; Kandahar, the chief city in the south; Ghanzi, Jela-
nies; area about 350,000 square miles. It is mainly a
labad and Faizabad.
plateau varying from 4,000 ft. to 8,000 ft. high. Minerals
abound, including gold, silver, iron, rock salt and coal. ALBANIA
Government. Abyssinia is ruled by an emperor and The Country. Albania is a mountainous country on the
political institutions essentially feudal. western side of the Balkan peninsula, with an area of about
Commerce and Industry. Abyssinia is an agricultural 11,000 square miles. It is independent, but under the
and grazing country varying in climate and products. In political influence of Italy. In the center, part of the
the south, cotton does well, while further north, coffee is plateau is cultivable and in the south there is fertile alluvial
indigenous. Sugar is grown in the south and oranges, in- soil with grazing land on the slopes. Saseno Island, off the
digo and bananas are abundant. The forests produce Albanian coast, forms the Gibraltar of the Adriatic.
ebony, mahogany and other hard woods, as well as acacia Commerce and Industry. Albania has little outside
and bamboo. In the northwest is a district famous for trade. Tobacco, wool and olive oil are the principal prod-
cattle. The exports mainly consist of coffee, skins and ucts. Forests are scarce but as for minerals, Albania pos-
hides, bees-wax, ivory, rubber, butter and herbs. sesses silver, copper, gold and lead. There is little agri-
Communications. The main avenue of trade is the culture, but in a few districts, fair crops of corn are raised
French-Ethiopian Railway which runs from the port of and olives, mulberries and other fruits are grown. Flocks
Djibouti, in French Somaliland to the Abyssinian capital, and herds provide the main subsistence of the people.
Addis Abeba, a distance of 490 miles. In the West and Communications. Northern Albania has one road con-
north, goods are exported via Khartum. necting Durazzo and Tirana with Scutari. Central Al-
Principal Towns. The principal towns are Addis Abeba, bania has no roads but some military roads have been con-
the capital; Harar, Adowa, Gondar, Ankober and Gambela. structed in the south.
Principal Towns. The principal towns are Durazzo, a
AFGHANISTAN port; Scutari, Tirana, the provisional capital; Elbassan,
The Country. The length of Afghanistan from the Per- the port Avlona (Valona) and Goritza (Korytsa.)
sian frontier to the Khyber Pass is about 600 miles and
the extreme width north to south about 500 miles, esti-
ANDORRA
mated area being 245,000 square miles. It is mainly The Country. A small republic in the eastern Pyrenees,

mountainous, broken by deep ravines and fertile valleys. with an area of about 190 square miles.
Government. Afghanistan is an absolute monarchy. Government. Andorra is under the joint suzerainty of
The country is divided into provinces, each ruled by a gov- the president of France and the bishop of Urgel and its gov-
ernor responsible to the Ameer.
ernment is intrusted to a council of twenty-four members,
Commerce and Industry. Climate and products are holding office for four years, who elect the first and second
those of temperate regions, varying in altitude, permitting syndic to preside. The executive power rests with the first
syndic while the judge and two magistrates alternately
cultivation in the south of tobacco, cotton and fruits. The
civil

exercise judicial power.


spring crop consists of wheat, barley and lentils and the
Commerce and Industry. Agriculture thrives where the
autumn harvest produces rice, millet, sorghum, tobacco
suited to tillage, rye, barley, vines and tobacco being
and corn. Cotton goods, indigo, tea and sugar are the soil is

chief articles of import and the wool and skins of fat-tailed


cultivated. There is also some mineral wealth, especially
sheep, cattle, horses, timber, fruit, silk and drugs are the iron and lead. Transport difficulties make_ exploitation
Of manufactured articles, silk and car- doubtful. The inhabitants pay much attention to stock-
principal exports.
most important. breeding. Prindpal Town: Andorra la Vieja.
pets are the
Communications. There are no railways in the country.
The Khyber and Bolan roads are fit for light-wheeled
ARGENTINA
traffic as far as Kabul and Kandahar, respectively. Mer- The Country. A South
American republic with an area
chandise is still transported on camel or pony back. Tele- of about 1,153,119 square miles. The republic measures
phonic communication exists between Dakka, Jelalabad about twenty-three hundred miles from north to south. It
and Kabul, a distance of 136 miles, and it is being extended is mountainous toward the west and the mountains extend

to Kandahar. to the Western Andes. The remainder of the surface con-

160
GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 161

sists of grassy plains, forested hills,drained by the Parana, eastern plains, and are both navigable and irrigable for hun-
Plata, Colorado and other rivers flowing into the Atlantic. dreds of miles, the western half of the continent is almost
GoTernment. The constitution of the Argentine Confed- waterless. —
The soil is generally fertile even in the most
eration resembles that of the United States, The republic arid districts a heavy rainfall favors a rapid growth of
consists of 14 provinces, 10 territories and one federal dis- vegetation— but while the eastern shores are washed by
trict. The provinces elect their own governors and legis- a warm ocean current from the north, the western shores
latures. The territories are under governors appointed by are washed by a cold current from the Antarctic Ocean.
the president. The executive power, which is practically The eastern half is visited at intervals of every few years
independent of the legislature, is in the hands of a president by droughts causing heavy loss and suffering. In the
elected for six years by electors appointed by the provinces. northern tropical belt, where several short but torrential
The national congress consists of a senate and a house of rivers run into the sea, growth is again luxuriant; but the
deputies. There are 30 senators, two elected by each whole of this great district, potentially wealthy in minerals
province and two by the capital; one-third of the senate is as well as in pasture and arable land, awaits development.
renewed every three years. The 120 deputies are elected The eastern plains form one of the great stock-raising dis-
directly by the people for four years, but half the house re- tricts of the world.
tires every two years. Justice is administered by a federal Government. The Commonwealth of Australia is di-
court of five judges which sits at Buenos Aires, four appeal vided politically into six states: New South Wales, West-
coiu-ts with three judges each at Buenos Aires, La Plata, ern Australia, Southern Australia, Victoria and Queens-
Cordoba and Parana, and provincial and a number of land and two territories, the Northern Territory and the
minor courts. Each province has formulated its own judi- Federal Capital Territory, which, with Tasmania, consti-
cial system. tute the Commonwealth. Australia is a self-governing
Commerce and Industry. Argentina is in the forefront dominion of the British Empire and its constitution is de-
among the countries in exporting food and iraw materials fined by the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act
such as wheat, corn, linseed, oats, alfalfa, wool, chilled or as "an indissoluble Federal Commonwealth under the
frozen meal and hides. Tobacco-growing is not inconsid- Crown of the United Kingdom." It is governed, like other
erable and cotton-growing is increasing. The northern British dominions, by a governor-general appointed by
forests supply bard quebracho, excellent for building but and responsible to the crown; the governor-general is
also exported for use in tanning. Textiles, food-stuffs, iron, assisted by an advisory federal executive council— in
glassware and oil are the chief articles of import. The practice, the commonwealth cabinet of the day. The
metric system of weights and measures is compulsory. Australian parliament consists of two houses, caiied the
Communications. There are about 25,000 miles of rail- senate and the house of representatives. In the theory
ways in operation, about one-third of which are owned by of the constitution the senate represents the states, and
the government. The rivers Parana, Plata, and Uruguay the house of representatives the people, as in the U. S. A.;
also form important means of communication. There is but the senators in Australia are elected directly by the
an excellent postal, telegraph and telephone system and people.
cable communication with all parts of the world. Commerce and Industry. There are no native cattle,
Principal Towns. Buenos Aires, the capital; Rosario, sheep, horses, or pigs. The main
industry is the produc-
Cordoba, Tucuman, Santa Fe, Mendoza, La Plata, and tion of wool. Genera! has long been the second
agricultiu'e
Bahia Blanca. industry, and wheat is grown for export. In recent years
wines have become an important subsidiary industry. The
AUSTRALIA soil of many districts, particularly in South Australia, Vic-
The Country. Australia may be considered the largest toria and New
South Wales, is suitable to the grape. The
island and the smallest continent in the world. It is the discovery of gold in Victoria first called attention to Aus-
greatest isolated mass of land south of the equator. Its total tralian minerals. Before this, copper and coal had been
area, including the island of Tasmania, is 2,974,581 square mined to some extent, but it was the sensational finds of
miles, with a coastline of about 8,800 miles. Its extreme gold in Victoria that induced the great stream of immigra-
measurements are from Cape York in the north to Wilson's tion. Since then large quantities of gold have been found
Promontory in the south, about 2,000 miles and from Steep in Western Australia, enormous deposits of silver at
Point in the west to Cape Byron in the east, 2,450 miles. Broken Hill in New South Wales, and other metals else-
Its climate is partly temperate and partly sub-tropical. where. Australia is now one of the great metal-producing
Tasmania, the island of the southeast, is the most temperate countries of the world, both for precious and base, and the
area, with a climate similar to that of Ireland. A series of extent of the deposits, particularly in Queensland and the
highlands runs along the eastern and northeastern shores of Northern Territory, is still imperfectly known. AgriculluTal
Australia; coastal plains are the feature of the southeastern products: wheat, oats, barley, corn, hay, potatoes, sugar-
littoral, which broaden out in the eastern half of the interior cane, beet sugar, wine and fruit. Mineral output: gold,
into a great plain through w^hich flow the main rivers of lead, silver, copper, zinc and tin. Imports: textiles,
NewSouth Wales, Victoria and South Australia—the Dar- yarns, woolen, all other apparel (including boots), bags
ling, Murrumbidgee and Murray. This plain covers and sacks, cotton piece goods and other textiles, man-
nearly the whole of New South Wales and adjacent parts of ufactures of metal, agricultural machinery, other ma-
Queensland and Victoria. Another large plain stretches chinery, iron and steel, plate and sheet, tinned plates, ve-
inland along the Great Bight in the south, but both middle hicles and parts, paper and paper boards, drugs, chemicals
and southern plains give way to the western plateau, which and fertilizers, oils and waxes, tobacco, alcoholic liquors,
reaches from the Indian Ocean to the Eyria Peninsula and and sugar. Exports: wool, wheat, flour, skins and hides,
comprises over half the continent. Although the Darling, tinned meat, butter, beef, copper ingots and bars,
Murrumbidgee and Murray water the great area of the leather products, tallow, silver, jama and ielliea,
162 GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES
metal products, mutton and lamb, dry chemicals Commerce and Industry. While Belgium is a great
and fertilisers, milk, tin ingots, coal and zinc concentrates. agricultural country its prosperity is in scarcely less degree
,

Communications. Government railways, miles open the result of industrial activity. The principal manufac-
23,295. Private railways in commonwealth, open for tures are lace, iron work, locomotives and steam engines,
general 968 miles.
traffic, motor cars, arms, bronze, porcelain, glass, etc. Belgium is
Principal Towns. Melbourne, present capital until the rich in minerals including valuable zinc and coal mines.
Canberra ready for the new capital; Ballarat, gold
site is Metric weights and measures.
field center; Bendigo, quartz crushing; Sydney, capital of Communications. The railway sj'stem is the oldest on
New South Wales with Port Jackson, one of the world's the continent, total mileage 6,600. With few exceptions
most convenient harbors; Parramatta, in the orange dis- all railways are owTied by the state. There are more than
trict; Newcastle, coal-mining town and place of coal ex- fifty canals, with a total length of over 3,000 miles, and five

port; Brisbane, capital of Queensland, important port; ship caii^is.


Adelaide, one of chief ports and capital of South Australia; Principal Towns. Brussels, the capital; Antwerp,
Perth, capital of Western Australia; Fremantle, port for Liege, and Ghent.
Perth; Albany, port; Hobart, capital of Tasmania, im- Dependencies. Belgian Congo in central Africa, with
portant port. an area of 909,654 square miles. This colony is of great
importance to the mother country owing to its great yield
AUSTRIA of rubber, palm nuts and palm oil. Principal towns are

republic consists roughly of Leopoldville, the capital, and Bcma, the seaport.
The Country. The Austrian
the German-speaking portion of what was Austria in the
dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The approximate
BOLIVIA
area of the country is about 30,766 square miles. A large The Country. The area of the republic of Boli\'ia is esti-
part of the Alps lies in that part of western Austria called mated at about 514, Lj5 square miles. Cut off from direct
the Tyrol. Eastern Austria is in the valley of the Danube access to the sea, it is the most sparsely populated of any
river and its branches. of the South American republics. The northern part is the
Government. A national constitutional assembly con- more inhabited, as it contains the Lake of Titicaca and
sisting of a single cham"ber, is elected by universal sutfrage. many well-watered valleys around it. The southern and
Seven of the eight provinces have an assembly of one cham- lower tableland is chiefly a desert.
ber; the city of Vienna, the eighth province, holds a special Governrficnt. The president is elected by direct popular
position in respect to local government. vote for four years; the chamber of deputies, 68 in num-
Commerce and Industry. Agriculture predominates, ber, also for four years, one-half the deputies retiring every
but there is some forestry and stockbreeding. IManufac- two years; the senators, 16 in number, two for each de-
tures include cottons, woollens, glass, woodwork, pianos, partment, are elected for six years, one-third retiring every
motor cars, etc. The country has not been deprived of all two years. There are two capitals, an arrangement due to
minerals and is producing lignite, anthracite, and iron ore eariy local rivalries. La Paz isthe seat of the executive
in considerable quantities. Some copper, zinc, silver and and legislature. The supreme tribunal sits at Sucre , which
gold ore, lead and salt are also produced. Chief imports is also the seat of the archbishop.
are coal, iron and food stuffs. Weights and measures- Commerce and industry. The chief imports are pro-
metric system. visions, hardware, wines and spirits, cotton, woolen, linen
Communications. Although now a land-locked state, and silk goods, and ready-made clothes. The chief ex-
Austria was accorded free access by rail to the Adriatic. ports are silver, tin and rubber. There is scarcely any food
The Danube river is internationalized from the Ulm export. The metric system of weights and measures is in
to the Black Sea. There are about 4,000 miles of railroads use.
and an elaborate telephone system. Communications. Three railways descend from the
Principal Towns. Vienna, the capital; Gratz, Linz, highlands to the Chilean ports of Antofagasta and Arica
Innsbruck, Salzburg, Wiener-Xeustadt and Klagenfurt. and to the Peru\-ian port of MoUendo, the total railway
mileage being about 1,500 miles. Rubber and timber of the
BELGIUM eastern forests are carried to the Amazon and Atlantic by
Brazilian rail and river. Southern Boli\-ia has an outlet
The Country. Belgium is the most densely populated
by way of Tupiza to the Ai-genrine railway system. Not-
country in Europe, occupying an area of 11,373 square withstanding the extensive navigable waters and a consid-
miles. In the Ardennes, which include parts of the prov- erable extent of roads, partly admitting slow motor traffic,
inces of Namur, Luxemburg and Liege, the average eleva- internal communication is very defective.
tion is about 500 feet while the highest points attain an Principal Towns. La Paz, the actual seat of govern-
altitude of little over 2,000 feet. The country is well wa- Cochabamba, Potosi, Oruro,
ment; Sucre, the capital;
tered, but its two principal rivers, the Schelde and the
Santa Cruz, and Trinidad.
Meuse, are Belgian only in part. Their affluents, how-
ever, are for the greater part held by Belgium and those of
the Schelde are the more important of the two. Four-fifths
BRAZIL
of the land is under cultivation and more people are em- The Country. more than half of the
Brazil occupies
ployed on the land than in all the trades, including mines. South American continent, an area of 3,275,510 square
Government. Belgium is a constitutional and hereditary miles and is the largest of the South American republics.
monarchy. The legislative power is vested in the cham- From north to south, the extreme measure of her territory
ber of representatives and the senate, whose members are is 2,630 miles; from east to west it is even greater. On the
elected partly directly and partly indirectly. north and west are the great depressions of the Amazon
GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 163

and Paraguay rivers which comprise large areas of flood- sluggish Shannon. In the north-west and south-west
plains and swamps, heavily wooded, and almost uninhab- respectively lie the mountains of Donegal and Kerry,
itable. The interior of the country is a high plateau with a while to the east lie the Wicklow Mountains, and the basalt
general elevation of 1,000 to 3,000 feet, irregularly ridged plateau of Antrim. In Scotland three well-marked divi-
by mountains and deeply cut by large rivers. The moun- sions stand out: the highlands, the southern uplands and
tainous ranges of the maritime system form the eastern between these two the central lowlands, into which four-
margin of this plateau. Brazil possesses three great river- fifths of the population is crowded. The lowlands contain
systems— the Amazon, Plata, and San Francisco. The the richest agricultural land, as well as the coal-fields.
Amazon and its tributaries drain fully half of the country. They are penetrated by three great estuaries, the Firths of
The Plata system drains nearly one-fifth of the country Tay and Forth on the east, and of Clyde on the west, so that
through its "three branches— the Paraguay, Parana, and communication coast-wise or over-seas is everywhere easy.
Uruguay. Only the first of these is freely navigable for a The Welsh upland is flanked to north and east by small
long distance. coal-fields, but the greatest field, rich in steam coal and

Government. The United States of Brazil constitute anthracite, lies to the south. A belt of limestone running

a federal republic, having a general resemblance to the con- from Bill of Portland to Tees Bay, and bearing at many
stitution of the United States of America, but with one points valuable iron ores, serves as a rough boundary
notable difference. The Brazilian states have severally of industrial England, for to the south and east of it,

the right of levying export duties— a concession to local apart from the metropolis, agricultural interests pre-
sentiment. The country is divided into twenty states, one dominate. Lying to the west of the limestone band, is
national territory, and one federal district, which includes the Devon-Corawall peninsula, where great bosses of
the capital. The president is elected for four years by granite and slate build the famous moors. The Channel
direct popular vote. The chamber of deputies contains Islands, lying across the English Channel off the coast of
212 members; elected for three years. The 63 senators, Normandy, and the Scilly Islands, lying south-west of
three for each state and three for the federal district, are Land's End, enjoy an almost complete freedom from frost
elected for nine years, one-third retiring every three years. and severe weather.
Commerce and Industry. Agriculture continues to hold Government. The government is vested in crown and
first place in Brazil and the industries are related closely parliament. England is united with Wales in a system of
to agriculture. Brazil is the chief coffee producer of the local government, for the purposes of which the country

world and the next natural product is rubber. Rice, cot- is divided into administrative counties, in each of
fifty

ton, sugar, tobacco, Paraguay tea and cacao are important which the crown represented by a local lord-lieutenant.
is

products. Textiles amount to about forty per cent of the County affairs are administered by justices of the peace
total manufactured Both the forests and mines
articles. and county councils. In certain matters, for instance, educa-
of Brazil are important. Gold is found and the greater tion, Wales and Monmouthshire have a distinct organiza-

part of the world's supply of monazite comes from Brazil. tion. There is also a Welsh board of health with head-
There has been lumber development in recent years. Pine quarters at Cardiff. The Isle of Man has a governor
has become an important export. Other exports are mica appointed by the Crown and its own laws and government.
and talc, copper ore, platinum and rock crystal. The For the general control of Scottish affairs by the govern-
metric system of weights and measures is compulsory, but ment, there is a secretary for Scotland, who does not rank as
nevertheless certain local units are still used. a secretary of state. Certain British state departments, e.g.,
Communications. About 20,000 miles of railways are the home office and board of trade, have authority in
open for traffic. While many of these are short lines con- Scotland, but for other branches of public work there are
necting the several ports with towns in the interior, the separate Scottish departments, these including education,
entire system now joins the railways of Brazil with those of agriculture, and health.

Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay. The republic has Commerce and Industry. The kingdom owes to its

over 10,000 miles of navigable waterways open to river mineral wealth the basis of its prosperity. Soft coal of the
steamers and ocean-going vessels and 20,000 miles addi- England and Wales; iron
finest quality underlies central

tional which are navigable for light-draft and flat-bottom abounds in the same regions, and in Scotland and Ireland;
boats only. tin has been mined in Cornwall since pre-historic times,
Principal Towns. Rio de Janeiro, the capital; Sao and zinc, copper, gold and silver, with a large range of
Paulo, Bahia, Pernambuco, Para (Belem), Porto Alegre, non-metallic minerals, are also present. Fisheries are
Manaos and Parahiba. conducted on an extensive scale and furnish a large pro-
portion of the food of the people. The climate favors the
BRITISH EMPIRE breeding of horses, cattle and sheep, and the development
of certain breeds has greatly improved the livestock of the
BRITISH ISLES worid. About half of the total area is devoted to agri-
AND DEPENDENCIES IN EUROPE culture but the total product is insufficient for home
The The British Isles comprise the United
Countries. demands. The vast supplies of coal, the geographical
Kingdom, Northern Ireland and the Irish Free State. The situation, and the deficiency in agricultural resources,
governmental functions of Northern Ireland and the Irish have combined to favor and force an industrial develop-
Free State are treated under these respective headings. ment. Great Britain maintains supremacy in ship-
The Kingdom of Great Britain and the Irish Free State building and naval equipment and ranges among the great-
have an area of 121,633 square miles. Within the small est producers of iron and steel, machinery, metallic
compass of the islanas there is a considerable variety goods, textiles and leather goods. The majority of the
of topography. Ireland is largely an ill-drained plain, population is employed in these industries, for which
dotted with lakes and peat-bogs, and crossed by the markets are found in all parts of the world.
:

164 GAZETTEER OP PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES


British Emvire-^oniinued — Nigeria, Kenya, Togoland, Tanganyika, Uganda, Zanzibar,
Communications. There are about 24,000 miles of Nyasaland, Somaliland, Swaziland.
railways, and 4,700 miles of canals. The Manchester In the protectorates and colonies native kings and chiefs
Ship Canal, opened in 1894, is 353^ miles in length and 28 are encouraged to govern their own people, and native laws
feet in depth. The canal is in direct communication with and customs are respected unless they conflict with justice
all the principal railway systems and barge canals of the or morality. The chartered company which, until recently,
Kingdom. controlled the administration of Rhodesia, has been relieved
Principal Towns. London, the capital, is the largest of its obligations. Northern Rhodesia has been constituted
city of Europe; Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland; Dublin, a crown colony, while Southern Rhodesia has been granted
capital of the Irish Free State; Glasgow, famous for its responsible government and becomes a self-governing
shipbuilding, general manufactures and great shipping dominion.
trade; Manchester, the great cotton manufacturing center, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Consists of fifteen provinces
connected with the great port of Liverpool by a ship- under military governors. Area about 1,014,000 square
canal. Birmingham, Sheffield, and Wolverhampton, miles. Principal source of world supply of gum arable and
manufacturing centers for machinery, cutlery and hard- ivory. Cotton growing important. Principal Towns: Khar-
ware; Belfast, the capital of Northern Ireland, is the seat tum, the capital; Omdurman, Meroe, Suakin, El-Obeid.
of the Irish linen trade and of shipbuilding interests; Leeds Ascension Island in South Atlantic, a dependency of the
and Bradford, woolen centers; Bristol a manufacturing colony of St. Helena. Area, 34 square miles. Garrison sta-
and commercial port; Hull and Dundee, important fishing tion, GeorgetouTi.
centers; Newcastle and the Tyne ports, coal exporters; Basutoland (Territory). Area 11,716 square miles.
Nottingham, noted for laces, curtains, boots and shoes; Produces cattle, wool, wheat, maize and Kaffir com.
Cardiff and Swansea, the chief Welsh ports, exporting Capital, l\Iaseru.
: quantities of coal and ore.
Bechuanaland (Protectorate). Area about 275,000 square
miles. Administered by Union of South Africa. Cattle
DEPENDENCIES Headquarters of administra-
rearing is principal industry.
The Countries. Consist of the Island of Malta in the tion at Mafeking, Transvaal. Principal Towns: Serowe,
Mediterranean and Gibraltar. Francistown. _
Malta. An island south of Sicily, with an area of 91 J^ Cameroon (Colony) formerly German Protectorate.
rtiiles, divided into French and British
square miles; total area wuth the neighboring dependent Area 191,300 square
island 118 square miles. Chief products: wheat, barley, spheres. British sphere, a strip of 28,000 square miles, on
potatoes and fruit. Considerable fishing industry. Chief Nigerian eastern border. Rich in forest produce. Capi-
town and port, Valletta. tal, Buea.

Gibraltar. A naval base commanding the entrance to Gambia (Colony and Protectorate). Area of colony
the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean and position proper, St. Mary Island, four square miles. Protectorate,
of great importance. Area Ij^ square miles. The trade 4,500 square miles. Capital, Bathurst.
is chiefly transit trade. Gold Coast (Colony) with Ashanti and Norihern Terri-
Government. Malta has a legislature for local affairs, tories. Area about 80,000 square miles. Chief products,
consisting of 32 members and a senate of 17 members, cocoa (about half world's supply), gold, palm oiland ker-
while Gibraltar is administered by a governor who is com- nels, kola nuts, manganese and timber. Akkra is centre
mander-in-chief and exercises all functions of civil govern- of government. Other important toTvns, Kumassi, Cape
ment and legislation. Coast-Castle, Sekondi and Axim.
Kenya (Crown Colony and Protectorate). Area, 245,060
BRITISH DEPENDENCIES IN AFRICA square miles. Rice, corn, cassava, cocoanuts and other
number tropical products grown on lowlands; wheat, sheep, ostrich
The Countries. Consist of a of colonies, pro-
tectorates, provinces, territories, islands and groups of
and dairy farming thrive on highlands. Forests contain
islands, the chartered territory of Rhodesia, the self-govern-
many valuable species of wood. Chief port, Mombasa,
with fine harbor. Other towns, Nairobi, capital, Kismayu
ing Union of South Africa. The last and the independent
kingdom of Egypt are described under their own headings. and Lamu
Government. Constitution of British Empire i s largely Mauritius, with dependencies Rodriguez, Diego Garcia
unwritten, but administration is based on three principles: and seven other islands in Indian Ocean, east of Madagas-
self-government, wherever and whenever practicable, self- car. Area about 809 square miles. Produces sugar, fibre,
support and self-defence. The dependencies in Africa, cocoanut oil. Capital, Port Louis.

apart from the self-governing Union of South Africa, are Nigeria (Colony and Protectorate). Area about 336,000
administered square miles. Chief products, palm oil, palm kernels,
1. By legislative assembly, partly or entirely elected, ground nuts, cocoa, rubber, cotton, hides. Tin fields
and an executive council nominated by the crown, e.g., (about 9,000 square miles in Northern Provinces). Large
Mauritius. coal fields. Lagos is seat of government. Other trade cen-
2. Bya governor with executive and (or) legislative ters are Kano, Wari, and Opobo.
councils nominated by the Crown, e.g., Gambia, Sierra Nyasaland Protectorate. Formerly British Central
Leone, Gold Coast, Seychelles. Africa. Area about 39,573 square miles. Produces cotton,
3. By a governor alone, e.g., St. Helena, Bechuana- tobacco, ground nuts and tea. Principal Towns: Zomba, the
land, Basutoland. seat of government; Blantyre, Kotakota and Fort Johnston.
4. By governors or commissioners under the Colonial Rhodesia. Area about 440,000 square miles, extending
Office, with nominated advisory or executive councils, e.g., from the Union of South Africa to the Belgian Kongo.
GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 165

Bnthh Empire— Continued — Bahamas. Twenty inhabited and largo number of unin-

Principal products: Great mineral wealth, including gold, habited islands. Principal island, New Providence. Area
silver,copper, chrome iron, lead and coal. Com, tobacco, about 4,404 square miles. Chief industries, sponges and
and oranges are grown. Principal Towns: Livingstone, the sisal, also pearls, ambergris, and fruit. Capital, Nassau.
capital of Northern Rhodesia; Salisbury, the capital of Barbados. Area, 166 square miles. Staple products,
Southern Rhodesia; Bulawayo, Hartley, Gatooma and sugar and cotton. Capital, Bridgetown.
Victoria. Bermuda Islands. About 300 islands (twenty inhab-
St. Helena, solitary island in South Atlantic, 1,200 miles ited). Area, 19 square miles. Principal products are
from west coast of Africa. Area, 47 square miles. Indus- onions, potatoes, lily bulbs and garden vegetables. Capi-
try, flax. Capital, Jamestown. tal, Hamilton.
Seychelles, about 90 islands in Indian Ocean. Total British Guiana. Area, 89,500 square miles. Principal
area estimated at 156 square miles. Chief products, cocoa- products are sugar cane, rice, cocoanuts, coffee, para rub-
nuts, vanilla and cinnamon. British Guiana is
ber; also livestock. rich in gold and
Sierra Leone (Crown Colony and Protectorate). Area manganese ore and mica deposits have also been found.
about 31,000 square miles. Produces palm kernels, palm Capital, Georgetown.
oil, ginger, kola nuts and piassaba. Principal Town: British Honduras. Area, 8,598 square miles. Noted
Freetown, capital and greatest seaport in West Africa. for mahogany and logwood production, also bananas, coffee,
Somaliland Protectorate. Area about 68,000 square cocoa, etc. Capital, Belize.
miles. Exports, hides, gums, cattle and sheep. Principal
Falkland Islands. East and West Falkland (about
Town: Berbera. 5,300 square miles), and about one hundred small islands;
Swaziland (Protectorate). Area, 6,678 square miles. total area, 6,500 square miles. Also dependencies of South
Excellent grazing grounds, and large cattle ranches. Sheep Georgia (estimated 1,000 square miles), South Shetlands,
brought in large numbers from Transvaal for winter graz- South Orkneys, Sandwich group, and Graham Land (Ant-
ing. Rich mineral deposits; tin exported. Gold, coal, and arctic). Principal products are whale and whale produce.
copper also exist. Chief industries, sheep farming and horse breeding.
Tanganyika Territory (formerly German East Africa), Capital, Port Stanley.
di\ided between British and Belgians. Area estimated at
Jamaica. Area, 4,207 square miles, with Turks and
365,000 square miles. Native products as in Kenya. Euro- Caicos Islands (170 square miles). Cayman Islands (89
pean planters grow rubber, sisal, coffee, cotton, rice, sugar, square miles), Movant Cays, and Pedro Cays. Principal
etc. Chief ports, Dar-es-Salaam (capital), Tanga, Ba-
products, sugar, bananas, rum, cocoanuts, logwood, coffee,
gamoyo, Kilwa Kivinje, Ujiji. and cocoa. Chief industry in Turks' Islands, is salt
Togo (Colony), formeriy German, now under joint raking; in Caymans, cocoanut planting. Principal Towns:
Franco-British administration. Total area about 33,700
Kingston, capital; Spanish To\™, Port Antonio.
square miles, of which 12,500 square miles on Gold Coast
Leeward Islands comprise five presidencies, as follows:
borders is British. Abundantly cultivated products simi-
;
Antigua (170 square miles), with Barbuda and Redonda.
lar to those of Gold Coast. Capital, Lome.
Produce sugar, cotton, and pineapples. Capital, St. John,
Uganda (Protectorate). Area 109,119 square miles.
St. Kitts (68 square miles) and Nevis (50 square miles),
Chief products, cotton, coffee, oil seeds, ivory and hides.
with Anguilla (35 square miles). Produce sugar, syrup,
British headquarters, Entebbe.
and cotton. Capital, Basseterre. Montserrat. Area about
Zanzibar (Protectorate) and Pemba. Two coralline
32 square miles. Chief products, cotton, lime juice, sugar.
islands, area 640 square miles and 380 square miles, respec-
Chief town, Plymouth. Dominica, about 305 square miles;
tively. Under a sultan and British commissioner. Clove
produces limes and lime products, cocoa, cocoanuts. Chief
industry is practically a worid monopoly. Cocoanut indus-
town, Roseau. British Virgin Islands, about 32 of the
try also of great importance. Zanzibar is one of the finest
group are British, remainder belonging to U.SA. British
ports in Africa.
area, about 58 square miles. Principal islands: Tortola,

BRITISH DEPENDENCIES IN AMERICA Virgin Gorda, Anegada. Chief Industry, cotton; copper
mine on Virgin Gorda,
The Countries. In addition to Canada, described sepa-
America consist of the Newfoundland and Labrador, the latter a political depend-
rately, the British dependencies in
ency of the former, have a total area of 162,734 square miles.
Archipelago of West Indies, Bermuda, Falkland Islands,
British Guiana, British Honduras and Newfoundland with
The chief occupation is fishing, dried cod being the leading
commercial product, also cod-liver oil. There is a large
Labrador.
and territories are crown paper-pulp industry and some mining of iron ore and
Government, All the islands
copper. Principal Towns: St. Johns, the capital; Harbor
colonies, and the crown is represented by governors. Rep-
resentative government, with partially or wholly elected
Grace and Bonavista.
legislative councils or executives, exists in Bermuda, Baha-
Trinidad. (1,863 square miles), and Tobago (114 square
miles). Principal products are cocoa, crude petroleum,
mas, Barbados, Jamaica, Leeward Islands (except
Antigua and Dominica), and Newfoundland. In Wind- asphalt from a large asphalt lake and coconuts. Capital,
ward Islands each island has its own institutions, semi- Port of Spain.
elective in Grenada and by nominated council in St. Windward Islands consist of three colonies with depend-
Lucia and St. Vincent. Falkland Islands, British Hondu- encies as follows: Grenada. Area about 133 square miles.
ras and Trinidad are ruled by governors with nominated Chief products, sugar, rum, cocoa, nutmegs and spices.
councils. In Newfoundland the governor is assisted by an Chief town, St. George. St. Vincent. Area, 150 square
executive council, a legislative council and an elected miles. Produces fine Sea Island cotton and arrowroot;
house of assembly consisting of 36 representatives^ also sugar, rum, cocoa, and spices. Capital, Kingstown.
166 GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES
British Empire—Continued-- tal, Victoria. Chief industries: sugar refining, shipbuild-
St. Lucia. Area, 233 square miles. Exports: sugar, cocoa, ing and repairing, ropemaking, tin refining, manufacture
lime juice, molasses, logwood, hides, and fuel. of tobacco and cement, and deep-sea fishing. Large trade
in sugar, flour, rice, cotton, silk, leather, wolframite, iron
BRITISH DEPENDENCIES IN ASIA and steel goods, tea, oils, matches, etc.

The Countries. Consists of Aden, Cyprus, Ceylon, So- Mesopotamia (Irak). An independent kingdom between
kotra, Bahrein Islands, British Borneo, Hong Kong, Straits the rivers Tigris Euphrates, allied by treaty to
and
Settlements, Federated Malay States, Mesopotamia and Great Britain. The area is 143,250 square miles. It is a
India, with the Andaman, Nicobar, and Laccadive
Islands land of greatest potentialities, owing to its oil wellsand its
and Burma, a major province of India. India, owing to rich soil, which is being developed by means of irrigation.

its importance is described separately. Principal Towns: Bagdad, the capital and Basra, the
_ _

GoTernment. Aden and its dependencies (Perim, Lahej, seaport at the head of the Persian Gulf.
Sokotra, and Kuria Muria Islands) are protectorates
with Palestine. This British mandate has the object to' pro-
political resident; Sokotra having a native
sheikh. The vide for the establishment of the Jewish National Home,
Bahrein Islands have native sheikh under British protec- without prejudicing the rights of the non-Jewish communi-
tion. British North Borneo is a protectorate with gov- ties in Palestine. The area is about 9,000 square miles and
ernor under administration of British North Borneo
Com- includes only that part of Palestine which lies west of the
pany. Brunei has a native sultan. Sarawak is an inde- Jordan. It is mainly an agricultural country, the principal
pendent state under British protection with an English products being raisins, wine, olives, oranges and some to-
raja. British agent for North Borneo and Sarawak and bacco. Principal Towns: Jerusalem the Holy City of Jews.
high commissioner for Brunei is the governor of the Moslems and Christians alike, and Yaf a, the chief seaport.
Straits Settlements.Ceylon, Hong Kong and the Straits Sarawak. Area about 42,000 square miles; capital,
Settlements are crown colonies, with a governor and exec- Kuching. Large deposits of coal, gold, silver, antimony,
utive and legislative councils. The Federated Malay mercury; oil-fields also being developed.
States have native rulers with British high commissioner Straits Settlements. Consist of Singapore Island with
and residents; Johore has a sultan, assisted by British small islands adjoining at southeast point of peninsula;
adviser and executive and legislative councils. Mesopo- Penang Island off northwest coast; Wellesley Province on
tamia is an autonomous kingdom under British mandate. northwest mainland; the Bindings, including island of
Palestine is governed by a high commissioner who appoints PangkoT and a strip on the mainland, on west; Malacca
an advisory council composed of 4 Moslems, 3 Christians, on southwest coast. Also Cocos or Keeling Islands, about
and 3 Jews. , n ..^i 700 miles southwest of Sumatra, Christmas Island, 200 miles
Aden and Red Sea Territories. Aden. Area of Settle- east of Cocos Islands and Labuan Island, about 43 miles
ment and Protectorate about 9,000 square miles; town, 75 from Brunei, North Borneo. Total area, 1,600 square
square miles; Perim Island, 5 square miles. Fortified coal- miles. Exports include tin, rubber, gums, spices, copra,
ing station; transhipment trade with adjacent coasts. rattans, sago, gambler, tapioca, preserved pineapples,
Sokotra. Area, 1,400 square miles. Industries, pastoral.
phosphates of lime. Singapore is chief town and seat of
Capital, Tamareed. Kuria Muria, Islands. Area, 29 government for Straits Settlements and one of the great-
square miles. Contain guano deposits. est oorts in the world.
Bahrein Islands. Bahrein Island is 27 miles long by 10
miles broad. Muharrak is 4 miles long by about half a BRITISH DEPENDENCIES IN
mile wide. Pearl fishing important. OCEANIA
British North Borneo. Area, 3 1,106 square miles. Chief
The Countries. Australian Commonwealth (with Tas-
products, timber, rubber, tobacco, rice, sago, spices, cocoa-
Sandakan, Kudat, mania), New Zealand and Pacific Islands. Last only dealt
nuts, camphor. Principal Towns:
with here. Roughly grouped as Melanesia, Micronesia and
Tawao. ^
. ,
Ceylon produces Polynesia, they consist of colonies, protectorates and Aus-
Ceylon. Area, 25,481 square miles.
tralian territories, formerly German, with the New Hebri-
about one-sixth of the world's tea. Principal grain is rice.
des and Nauru. Total estimated area of the islands dis-
Other products include cocoanuts, coffee, cinnamon, vanilla,
cussed here about 208,000 square miles.
areca-nut, tobacco. Forests yield ebony and satinwood.
Government. British high commissioner for Western
Pearl-fishery in the Gulf of Manar. There are about 700
Pacific has jurisdiction over the islands, except those as-
miles of railways. Principal Towns: Colombo, the capital;
signed by League of Nations to Australia and Zealand. New
Jaffna, Point de Galle, Kandy, Trincomali, a naval station.
Papua has a legislative council, partly nominated^ by
Cyprus. The third largest island in the Mediterranean,
governor-general of Australia; New Guinea is adminis-
40 miles from the coast of Asia Minor. Area, 3,584 square
tered under Commonwealth laws, as are Papuan Islands.
miles. Administered by a high commissioner and an
Fiji has governor and legislative council partly elected.
executive council. Cyprus is mainly agricultural. The
Tonga has legislative council on similar lines, but financial
chief products are wheat, barley, vetches, olives. Sponge British
abundance. affairs are supervised by high commissioner.
fisheries are carried on and marble is found in
policy, as in other parts of the Empire, is to encourage
The chief exports are animals, lemons and oranges, pome-
native administration.
granates, raisins and wine. Principal Towns: Nicosia, the
Fiji. Crown colony of about 250 islands, 80 inhabited,
capital; Larnaka and Limasol.
Federated Malay States. Area, 27,506 square miles. including Viti Levu. (area, 4,053 square miles), Vanua Levu
(area, 2,130 square miles), Rotuma. Chief products: sugar,
Exports, rubber, copra, tin and tin ore, metals, timber.
Hong Kong. Area of island 32 square miles; with molasses, copra, rubber, bread-fruit, plantains, bananas.

Kowloon and New Territories about 391 square miles; capi- CaoitJil, Suva.
GAZETTEER OP PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 167

British Empire— Contin iied— Communications. There are about 1,500 miles of rail-
Nauru or Pleasznt Island. Formerly German, now ad- way in operation in the country of which about 200 are
ministered by Great Britain, Australia, and New Zealand. narrow gauge. There are aliout 3,500 miles of telegraph
Small coral island; has valuable deposits of phosphates. and about 1,500 miles of telephone lines.
New Britain Archipelago, formerly Bismarck Archi- Principal Towns. Sofia, the capital; Philippopolis
pelago, assigned to Australia. Native industry; cocoanut (Plovdiv), Rustchuk, Varna, Shumla, Slivno and Plevna
growing. Total area of islands, about 18,200 sf|uare miles. (Pleven).
New Hebrides. Under joint British and French admin-
istration. Area, 5,500 square miles. Chief products: CANADA
copra, maize, cotton, coffee. The Country. The Dominion of Canada consists of
Papua (British New Guinea). Australian territory, Ontario and Quebec, with the maritime provinces of Nova
consists of southeast portion of New Guinea with Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, the three
D'Entrecasteaux and Louisiade gi'oups. Area, 90,540 prairie provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta,
square miles. Industries: gold and copper mining, pearl- and British Columbia, Yukon and North-West Territories.
fishing, rubber, cocoanut, sisal-hemp. Trading center: Total area, 3,729,665 square miles (water area about
Port Moresby. Northeast portion of New Guinea, form- 126,000 square miles).
erly Kaiser Wilhelm's Land, is also Australian territory. Goverrmient, Executive authority vested in governor-
Area, 70,000 square miles. Chief products; cocoanul, rub- general, appointed by the British crown, and executive
ber, yams, bananas. council; legislative power in federal parliament; gover-
Phoenix Islands. Group of eight small islands. Area, nor-general has power of veto, but appeal lies to privy
16 square miles. council. Senate of 104 life members may be nominated
Pitcairn Island (Colony). Area, 2 square miles. Chief
by governor-general; present number, 96. House of
products: sugar-cane, sweet potatoes, yams, pineapples, commons with 235 members, to be increased to 244,
bananas, arrowroot and coffee. elected for five years. Women have vote except in Que-
Solomon Islands. British Protectorate includes Gua- bec. Nine provinces have local legislatures, and control of
dalcanar, Malayta, San Cristoval, New Georgia, Choiseul, administration under lieutenant-governor. Territory of
Ysabel, and Lord Howe. Santa Cruz group were added in Yukon under chief executive officer and elective council.
1890. Bougainville, area 3,500 square miles. Buka Island,
North West Territories administered by commissioner and
area 300 square miles; formerly German, assigned to Aus- nominated council.
tralia. Total area about 11,000 square miles. Chief prod- Commerce and Industry. Staple industry, agricultiu-e;
ucts: cocoanuts, rubber, pineapples, bananas.
great wheat belt in prairie provinces; 55,000,000 acres under
Tonga or Friendly Islands (Protectorate). Area 385 field crops. Area of land covered by timber between
square miles. Products: copra, kava, green fruit, fungus, 500,000,000 and 600,000,000 acres. Pulp and paper pro-
candlenuts. duction important. Mineral products include gold,
Other Islands. Gilbert Islands (Colony) area 166 square
,
silver, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromite, iron, zinc, lead,
miles, produce phosphates, cocoanuts, and pandanus fruit. coal, asbestos, petroleum. Among the producing mines
Ellice or Lagoon group, area 14 square miles. Union or are the great nickel-copper mines of Sudbury, the chief
Tokclau group, area 7 square miles. Fanning Island, area source of the nickel supply of the world; the silver mines of
15 square miles. Washington Island, area, 6 square Cobalt, perhaps the richest silver-bearing area of the world;
miles. Christmas Island, which has valuable phosphate
the gold mines of Porcupine, which comprise three of the
deposits, anne.xed 1919. Area, about 56 square miles.
greatest gold mines of the worid; together with important
mica, feldspar and talc mines, in Ontario; the asbestos
BULGARIA mines of Quebec, the source of most of the asbestos of the
world; the coal mines of Nova Scotia and Alberta, and the
The Country. A Balkan an area of about
state covering
coal, copper, lead and gold mines of British Columbia.
40,656 square miles. The country
is hilly and well Canada is the principal fur-bearing country. Other in-
watered by numerous streams of which the Isker, Struma salmon and
dustries include fish, chiefly lobster, and
and Maritza are the most important. canneries, fruit, wool, tobacco, maple-sugar, and agri-
Government. Bulgaria is a constitutional monarchy. cultural implements.
The legislative authority is vested in a single chamber Communications. Over 2,700 miles of canal, river, and
called the Sobranye or national assembly. The members
lake navigation. Eight rivers over 1,000 miles in length,
of it are elected by universal suffrage. For local adminis-
including Mackenzie, St. Lawrence, Nelson, and Saskat-
tration the country is divided into a number of depart-
chewan. Railway mileage totals about 40,000 miles, half
ments, each under a prefect assisted by a departmental of which is operated by the Dominion government.
council and aided by several sub-prefects. Principal Towns. Ottawa, the capital; Montreal,
Commerce and Industry. About five-sevenths of the Toronto, Winnipeg, Vancouver, Hamilton, Quebec, Cal-
population are engaged in agriculture. Methods of gary, Halifax, Edmonton, St. John, London, Victoria.
cultivation are primitive; machinery is being gradually
introduced. Iron is found in large quantities and the
other chief mineral deposits are gold, silver, lead, man- CHILE
ganese and copper. Chief manufactures are fiuur, woolen The Country. The republic of Chile occupying the
goods and cotton. V/heat and live stock are the principal western coast of South America from 18° south altitude to
exports of the country. The chief imports are metal goods, Cape Horn, has an area of 289,829 square miles. The
machinery, kerosene, textiles and provisions. The metric average width from east to west is only ninety miles and
system is in general use. the length of the coastline is 2,625 miles. For about two-
168 GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES
thirds of its total length, the Andean chain borders Chilean Next to India, China is the largest rice producing country in
territory. In Tierra del Fuogo the loftiest peaks barely the world. Home requirements prevent the exports from
reacb 7,000 ft., but the hei<:!hts generally increase north- being very large. Wheat, cotton, corn and tea are being cul-
wards up to Aconcagua, which exceeds 23,000 ft., the tivated on a large scale and the only food material exported
highest peak of the whole continent. from China on a large scale is the soya-bean and its prod-
Government. Chile consists of twenty-three provinces ucts. In cotton growing, China occupies third place in the
and one territory. The administration is highly central- worid's countries. China possesses abundance of coal, in-
ized, thel ocal authorities being controlled by the executive cluding ample quantities of coal suitable for coking, which
in the capital. The franchise, being confined to property- are found in the vicinity of iron ore deposits. Iron ore is
holders and those able to read and write, is possessed not so plentiful as coal, "but although geological research in
only by a small minority. The president appointed by China is still in its infancy, many deposits of high-grade ore
electors, rules for five years. have been located capable of yielding several hundred
Commerce and Industry. The varieties of Chilean million tons. China also possesses an abundance of anti-
products correspond to the immense geographical range. mony, zinc and lead ores, quicksilver, copper, silver and
Nitrates, iodine, copper, iron, silver, gold, borax and lead wolfram ores.
from the northern provinces; coal, wheat, fruit, wine and Communications. China has some 8,000 miles of rail-
pastoral products from central Chile; timber from the ways open including the foreign system on Chinese terri-
southern forests; meat and wool from the pastures north tory but much of the internal trade is carried on by means
and south of Strait of ]\Iagellan. The chief exports are of the numerous canals and navigable rivers.
minerals and pastoral products. The metric system of Principal Towns. Peking, the capital; Han-kau, Shang-
weights and measures is obligatoiy. hai, Canton.
Communications. There are in Chile 22,000 miles of
public road, 850 miles of navigable river and 497 miles COLOMBIA
of navigable lakes. The Longitudinal Railway of Chile, The Country. Therepublic of Colombia occupies the
traversing the republic from north to south over northwestern region of South America. Alone among the
a distance of 2,854 miles, is a government-owned line, South American republics, Colombia has a coastline upon
embracing w'ith the Arica to La Paz Railway (271 miles) both oceans, its northern shores being washed by the Car-
an extent of 3,125 miles. There are also 2,270 miles of ibbean Sea, its western shores by the Pacific Ocean. The
privately owned lines, making a total of 5,395 miles. country lies wholly within the tropics, the equatorial line
Principal Towns. Santiago, the capital; Valparaiso, traversing its southern region. The area is estimated at
the principal port; Concepcion, Antofagasta, Iquique, about 440,846 square miles. The dominating feature of
Talca and Chilian. the whole country is the gigantic mountain-system of the
Andes.
CHINA Government. The president, elected by direct popular

The Country. The Chinese Republic comprises the vote for a term of four years, possesses large centralised
eighteen provinces of China proper, and the provinces of power, particulariy through the exercise of official patron-
Manchuria, Mongolia, Sinkiang and Tibet. The total age. The senators are elected for four years and the
area of the republic is estimated at 4,2/7,170 square miles. deputies for two years.
China proper is a coastal plain formed by the alluvial val- Commerce and Industry. Only a small setion of the
leys of the Hoang, Yangtze and lesser rivers. Manchuria country under cultivation. Coffee is the staple product.
is

has a similar character, but is separated from Chosen Tobacco is also grown; cotton, cocoa, sugar, vegetable
(Korea) and the coast by mountains. Western China and ivory, tagua (or vegetable i voiy nut) and dyewoods are pro-
Tibet are a mass of very high mountains containing the duced, besides wheat, com, plantains, etc. Banana cul-
sources of all the great rivers of southern Asia. tivation isincreasing rapidly. The rubber tree grows wild,
Government. The government is composed of a presi- and its cultivation has begun. Tolu balsamis cultivated
dent, a vice-president and a bi-cameral legislature assem- and copaiba trees are tapped but are not cultivated. Dye
bling at Peking and consisting of a senate (J'san Yi Yuan) and cedar woods are abundant on the Magdalen a river but
of 264 members and a house of representatives {Chung Yi little no wood of any sort is exported. The Panama hat
or
Yuan) of 596 members. Executive authority is provision- industry is making great strides. Colombia is rich in min-
ally vested in a premier nominated by the president and a erals, and gold is found in all parts. Other minerals, more
cabinet of nine ministers nominated by the premier. All or less worked, are copper, lead, mercury, cinnabar, manga-
appointments require the sanction of both houses of par- nese, emeralds and platinum. Neariy all the emeralds
liament. The qualification for electors is based on prop- mined to-day come from Colombia. The iron works north-
erty, education or previous official rank. east of Bogota are important; in the immediate neighbor-
Commerce and Industry. Silk is one of the most impor- hood of the w-orks are coal, iron, limestone, sand, manga-
tant of Chinese industries and exports. Another famous nese and fireclay deposits. The salt mines north of Bogota
industry which originated in China is the manufacture of are a government monopoly and a great source of revenue,
porcelain. The typical native industries still flourishing supplying most of the interior departments. In several sec-
are lacquer-ware and enamel and cloisonne. Tientsin has tions there are extensive deposits of coal and oil. The met-
a reputation for its carpets and rugs. Fireworks, mats ric system of weights and measures is used.
and matting and palm-leaf fans are manufactured. In- Communications. Colombia cannot be said to possess a
dustries on a large scale are carried on at the open ports; railroad system. The few railroads are detached lines unit-
cotton-spinning and weaving at Shanghai, sugar-refining at ing important towns to sea or river. The totallength of
Canton, iron and steel works at Hanyang, docks, ship- the railroad systems is about one thousand miles. The
building and engineering works at Shanghai and Han-kau. main channel of communication to the interior is the Mag=
GAZETTEER OP PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 169

dalena river, whose mouth is blocked by an impassable bar. Extensive forest lands yield mahogany, cedar and other
Principal Towns. Bogota, the capital, at an elevation valuable cabinet woods, dyewoods, gums, resins and other
of 8,600 feet above the sea; Medeliin, Barranquilla, Car- tropical forest products. Metric system of weights and
tagena an important mining center; Manizales and Bucara- measures.
manga, center of coffee production. Communications. Cuba has about 2,600 miles of steam
railways and 250 miles of electric railways. Through
COSTA RICA trains run daily between Havana and Santiago and many

The Country. A Central American republic with an branch lines from this main trunk connect the principal
area of 23,000 square miles. Costa Rica is traversed from ports on both the north and south coasts with the interior.

northwest to southeast by a chain of mountains (cordillera). The railway system is being supplemented by an elaborate
The slopes of the mountains are heavily forested, much of system of highways.
the timber consisting of mahogany and other valuable Principal Towns. Havana, the capital; Camaguey,
cabinet woods. Cienfuegos, Santiago, Guantanamo, Santa Clara, Matan-
Government. Legislative power is vested in the con- zas, Manzanillo, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Trinidad
a chamber of 43 deputies, elected by universal suff-
gress, and Cardenas. Coaling stations at Guantanamo Bay and
rage. The president is elected for six years. Bahia Honda were leased to the United States.
Commerce and Industry. The principal industry is

agriculture; coffeeand bananas are exported in large


quantities, as rosewood, cedar and mahogany; horses,
CZECHOSLOVAKIA
pigs, sheep, and goats are raised in considerable numbers. The Country. A land-locked state comprising the for-
Gold and silver are mined; and there are deposits of mer Austrian states of Bohemia, Moravia and a part of
manganese. The metric system is in general use. Silesia,together with the former Hungarian districts of
Communications. The country has about five hundred Slovakia and the semi-autonomous Carpatho-Russia or
miles of railway including one through transcontinental Ruthenia, with an area of 54,264 square miles and
railroad. At Limon there are excellent terminal facilities, about 700 miles in length from east to west. It includes
with wharves so equipped with track facilities that loading on the west the plateau of Bohemia and on the east the
and unloading can be carried on directly from the car to the southern slopes of the Carpathians as far as the Danube
vessel. At Puntarenas on the Pacific Ocean, the harbor and the Theiss. The rivers are, with two exceptions, the
has only fifteen feet of water at low tide, necessitating the relatively useless upper courses, i.e. of the Elbe, Oder, Vis-
handling of cargo by lighters. There are sixteen navigable tula, etc. The exceptions are the Moldau (Vltava) which ,

rivers in the republic, the most important being the San is entirely Bohemian and fragments of the course of the
Juan River and its tributaries, which are largely utilized for Danube on the south of Slovakia.
the transportation of the natural products. There are fif- Government. The National parliament, which consti-
teen hundred miles of telephone lines in operation. body for the whole of the republic,
tutes the only legislative
Principal Towns. San Jose, the capital; Cartago, Here- is composed a chamber of deputies elected by universal
of
dia, Limon, Puntarenas and Alajuela. franchise without distinction of sex, for a period of six years
and containing 300 members, and of a senate comprising
CUBA 150 members to be renewed every eight years. The two
chambers in joint congress elect the president of the republic
The Country. Cuba, the largest and westernmost of the for seven years. The constitution safeguards racial min-
West India Islands, has an area of 44,215 square miles, its orities to whom it assures the maintenance of their schools.
maximum length east to west is 730 miles and its width The principal products of the
Commerce and Industry.
varies from 20 to 100 i ts coast line being about 2,000
miles,
mines are coal, lignite, iron, gold, silver, and graphite.
miles. mountainous, though considerable
It is generally
Manufactured products include textiles, shoes, gloves,
flatlands and marshy depressions extend along the south
glass, porcelain, sugar, metal goods, foodstuffs, toys, etc.
coast.
Agriculture is highly developed and intensive farming is
Government. Republic, modelled after the system of the
carried on. The beet-root is the foundation of an enor-
United States, with a president, vice-president, senate and
mous sugar industry. Large quantities of fruit are ex-
a house of representatives. The government of Cuba can-
ported. Forests comprise thirty-two per cent, of the whole
not make a treaty with any foreign government endangering
area, the country ranking among the most richly wooded of
its independence, and the United States has the right of
Europe. Only metric weights and measures are used.
intervention and the use of naval stations.
Commerce and Industry. The foremost crops are to- Communications. There are about 8,300 miles of rail-
bacco and cane sugar, the former producing the finest leaf ways, over half of which are owned by the government.
for cigars in the world. Other products are coffee, cacao,
There is no important continuous railway route from east
cereals, potatoes, market vegetables and fruits, bananas,
to west; the majority of important lines simply cross the

guavas, oranges, grapes, etc. Cattle-raising in the central republic to connect German cities and ports with Vienna
and eastern districts is an ancient and extensive industry. or Budapest. TrafiBc on the internationalized Danube is

The ixports, largely to the United States, are sugar, leaf constantly increasing and the government is doing all in
tobacco, cigars, iron ore, cattle products, forest products, its power to develop the Danube ports. The Elbe and Oder
and fruit. The imports, also largely from the United are also internationalized and the Peace Treaty vested
States, are meat products, iron and steel manufactures, Czecho-Slovakia with the right to use certain terminal fa-
cilities in the German ports of Hamburg and Stettin.
wheat, lumber and timber products, coal and coke. Cop-
per, iron and manganese mines are worked in the east, Principal Towns. Prague (Praha), the capital; Brunn
and limestone, clays, and asphalt occur in useful quantities. (Brno), Pilsen (Plzen), Pressburg (Bratislava).
170 GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES
DANZIG visional president to further the restoration of constitu-
tional government through general elections, free from the
Danzig, constituted as a Free City ("Freistaat") by the
intervention of military government.
Treaty of Versailles and under the protection of the League Commerce and Industry, The chief industry is agri-
of Nations, stands on the delta of the Vistula. The terri-
culture, the products being sugar, tobacco, cacao, coffee
tory included within the administration of the city has an
and cotton. There are large forested tracts throughout
area of about 794 square miles and contains 325 localities.
the country, }ielding enormous quantities of cedar, mahog-
About three thousand steamships use the port annually. any, satinwood and dye woods. Cattle-raising is exten-
Sugar is next in importance to grain, and lumber ranks
sively carried on and the minerals, although not exploited
third as the commodities shipped through Danzig. The
to any considerable extent, include gold, silver, platinum,
City is in fiscal union with Poland and under Polish suz-
quicksilver, coal, iron and rock salt.
erainty as regards foreign affairs, but German currency is
Communications. Roads are bad in the interior and
used. Weights and measures are of the metric system.
transport is difficult; there are only 153 miles of railway in

DENMARK use.
Principal Towns. Santo Domingo, the capital; Puerto
The Country, Denmark occupies a peninsula and nu- Plata, chief north coast port, and SantiagOc
merous islands between the North and Baltic Seas and its
area, including the islands in the Baltic and Faroe Islands
is 16,609 square miles. The highest elevation is the Him-
ECUADOR
melbjurg in Jutland, which only 560 feet high.
is
The Country. This South American republic Is so
Government Constitutional monarchy. The Rigsdag named because the equatorial line runs through the coun-
try. Its western shores, 500 miles in extent, are washed
or diet embraces two houses, the Folkding or lower house,
by the Pacific Ocean. Its area is approximately 116,000
and the Land&ting or senate. The Folketing, which con-
square miles including the Galapagos Islands, in the Pa-
sists of 140 members, is elected by universal suffrage (male
cific Ocean, 600 miles from Ecuador. It contains the
and female) for a term of four years. The seats allotted
volcanoes Chimborazo, Cotopaxi and others of great alti-
to Copenhagen are filled by proportional representation,
tude. The most valuable and productive part of the
the remainder, including the Faroe Islands, by simple ma-
country the broad coastal plain.
is
jority, but a certain number of seats are held by non-elected
who have received the largest minority votes
Government. The president is chosen by direct popular
candidates
election for four years. The 32 senators and 48 deputies
and whose parties are not proportionately represented. The
are elected upon a limited franchise which is withheld from
Siatsraadet or cabinet consists of twelve ministers who are
an arrangement which secures ascendency to
illiterates,
individually and collectively responsible to the Folketing.
the inhabitants of more or less white blood.
Commerce and Industry, The principal industries of the
country have to do with agricultural pursuits. Beet-root,
Commerce and Industry. The staple products of Ecua-
and other cereals con- dor are cacao and ivory nuts. Coffee is grown and largely
potatoes, barley, wheat, rye, oats
The exported. Other products are rubber, tobacco and sugar.
stitute the chief agricultural products of the country.
Weaving of Panama hats is a considerable industry. Some
live stock and dairying industries, the manufacture of mar-
gold is produced in the Andes. The legal system of weights
garine and the fisheries are important. The principal im-
poTts of Denmark are: oil cake and meal, iron, steel, lum-
and measures is metric.
Communications. Roads of the country are mostly
Iser, coal, hardv;are and machinery, fertilizers, paper,
and often impassable for half the year.
bridle roads only,
wheat, flour and cotton.
Conununications. In the kingdom, 2,635 miles of rail- A railway is open from Guayaquil to Quito, 280 miles.
There are also a few short lines connecting important
way are open for traffic, half of which belong to the state.
points. Various streams provide access from Guayaquil
Principal Towns. Copenhagen, the capital and great
Aarhus, Odense, to a large part of the cacao-bearing region of the southern
clearing house for all of Scandinavia-
coastal strip. The lower reaches are navigated by river
Aalborg, Horsens and Randers.
steamers, the upper waters by canoes and rafts. The Ma-
Colonies, Greenland is the only colonial possession of
ranon River is navigable in its entirety.
Denmark, The King of Denmark is also King of Iceland,
Principal Towns. Quito, the capital; Guayaquil, chief
which, however, is independent of Denmark.
port; Cuenca and Riobamba.
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
The Country. The Dominican Republic embraces tha
EGYPT
eastern and larger portion of the Island of Haiti. It hag The Country. Area including the Libyan Desert, the
an area of 19,332 square miles. l\It. Tina (9,420 ft.) is region between the Nile and the Red Sea, and Sinai Pen-
the highest peak in the island and in the West Indies. insula, about 350,000 square miles. The Libyan Desert
Government, The Dominican Republic is nominally is part of the extensive territory.
governed by a president elected for six years, and a national Government. Independent sovereign state. Sultan
congress, consisting of a senate and a chamber of deputies, Ahmed Fuad Pasha, proclaimed king March 14, 1922, with
elected for four years. This system of government obtained cabinet and legislative assembly. The British govern-
until 1916, when the United States set up a government ment proclaimed Egypt a sovereign state, having no
with naval officers at the heads of all departments. In connection with the British Empire, and enjoying the same
October, 1922, plans for the withdrawal of the American status as any other sovereign state in the world. The
Marines were completed in accordance with a proclama- British reservations, announced coincident with the with-
tion of the military governor providing for ratification of drawal of the protectorate were: The security of British
the laws of American administration in the island, the pro- imperial communication; the defense of Egypt against
GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES l!7l

attack; protection of foreign interests, and retention of were awarded to Finland by the League of Nations. The
Britain's interests in the Sudan. total area of Finland is 149,586 square miles. The coun-
Commerce and Industry. Chief industry: aRriculture. try consists of a great plateau, the southern half of which
The cultivable area is estimated at about 13,000 square has about 25 per cent, of its area occupied by thousands
miles. Grain, cotton and sutjar are important products. of shallow lakes, many of them linked by short natural
Where, as in Lower Egypt, irriL^ation is perennial, two and and artificial channels.
sometimes three crops are secured each year. The date Government, Republic. The president is elected for
palm is an important growth, and limes, bananas, melons, six years and the cabinet consists of twelve members, and
and olives are cultivated. Oil and tobacco are being ex- the house of representatives chosen by direct and propor-
ploited, and building stones, clays, gypsum, gold, manga- tional election. The suffrage is possessed, with the usual
nese ores, natron, phosphate of lime, salt, alum, magnesia, exceptions, by every Finnish citizen Cman or woman) who
and others developed commercially. The leading exports has reached his or her twenty-l'oui th year. Every citizen
are textiles and yams, cereals and vegetables, and tobacco. entitled to vote is eligible to the house of representatives,
Communications. The Kilo is the great highway, and which is elected for throe years.
much travelling is done by boat. Exclusive of the Sudan Commerce and Industry, Agriculture is the chief occu-
military railway to Khartum, the state-owned railways pation of the peopie, although the cultivated area covers
have over 2,311 miles of track; private companies own over less than 9 per cent, of the land. A considerable part of
720 miles of light railways. Since 1918 there has been the population along the coast gains its livelihood from
direct railway communication between Cairo and Palestine. fishing and considerable quantities of salt fish are exported
Length of Suez Canal, including approach channels, is 103 to neighboring Baltic countries. Lumber is the main in-
miles. dustry and the principal basis of the general prosperity of
Principal Towiis. Cairo, the capital; Alexandria, Port the country. Butter is also being exported extensively.
Said, and Ismailia, Tanta, Assiout, Damanhur, Medinet- Manufactures are well developed, mainly by help of water
el-Faiyum, Zagazig, El Rlinya, Suez and Damietta. power. They include engineering, machine and shipbuild-
ing, pulp and paper making, cotton goods and tanning.
ESTHONIA Metric weights and measures are used.
The Country,Esthonia comprises the former Russian Communications. The southern half of the country is
province of Esthonia, the northern part of Livonia, the well served by railways which are linked with those of
northwestern portion of the Pskof government and the Russia and tho.se of Sweden, total mileage being about
Islands Osel (Ezel) and Dago in the Baltic Sea. Its area 2,700. ]\Iost of the railways are owned by the state.
is23,160 square miles. Except in the southeast which is Numerous canals connect the lake districts in the interior
the mainland lies low, much of which is swampy.
hilly, with the coast.
There are many lakes and about half of Peipus Lake lies Principal Towns. Helsingfors, the capital; Tammerfoi-s
wnthin it. (Tampere), Abo (Turku), Viborg and Uleaborgc
According to the constitution of the re-
Government.
public, the sovereign power is assured to the people by
FIUME
means assembly (Riigi-
of the elections to the legislative The Country. This Adriatic seaport was created an
kogii, the state assembly), the referendum and the right of independent state by the Treaty of Rapallo (1920), be-
initiating legislation. The state assembly is composed of tween Italy and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and
100 members elected for three years on the basis of pro- Slovenes (Jugo-Slavia). It ceased to exist as a free state
portional representation and by universal suffrage. The in January, 1294, when it passed under the sovereignty
executive power consists of the state head {Riigiwanem, of Italy alter direct negotiations with Jugo-Slavia. That
state elder), and ministers who form the government. part of the harbor Ivnown as Port Barros was reserved to
Commerce and Industry. Agriculture is the chief occupa- Jugo-Slavia. Both ports are under a common adminis-
tion of Esthonia. Flax is one of the principal products and tration.Long a small center of coastwise trade, Fiume
the live stock industry is flourishing. Oil-shale in rich came into prominence only when the Budapest-Zagreb-
quality is plentiful. Principal exports are timber, meat, Fiume Railway was built.
potatoes, flax, and paper. Manufactures include iron,
steel, machinery, cotton, paper, wood pulp, and spirits.
FRANCE
The Country. France is a republic of western Europe
Principal imports are salt, coal, fertilizers and sugar.
Metric weights and measures. with an area, including Corsica, of 212,659 square miles.
The length of the coastline is about 2,000 miles. The
Communications. Reval is an important port for the total
It is also the surface is diversified, but most of it is lowland, with a
few
transit of Russian imports and exports.
a triangular plateau called
nearest winter port for Siberian produce. When Petro- level plains. In the center is

grad is closed by ice, most of that trade passes through the Auvergne Mountains, with a height of something over
Reval. 3,000 feet. The Cevennes form the eastern edge of this
Principal Towns, Reval (Tallinn), the capital; Dorpat plateau and from them to the Vosges, the tableland con-
(Yurief), the university town; Pernau, the port on the Gulf tinues. There is a mountainous area in Brittany, but the
of Riga, and Ivangorod (Narva), manufacturing town, greatest heights are on the frontiers, the Jura separating
France from Switzeriand, the Pyrenees separating it from
FINLAND Spain, and the Alps separating it from Italy. The Ar-
The Country. Finland comprises the former Grand- dennes in the northeast are less lofty. France has few
Duchy of Finland to which was added through treaty with lakes, but in the southwest, there are numerous lagoons.
the Soviet government of Russia, the territory of Petsamo, The Seine drains the north, the Loire and the Garonne th«
giving outlet to the Arctic Ocean. The Aland Islands west, and the Rhone the east and south
1^2 GAZETTEER OP PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES
Government. France is governed by a president and a Colonies, Mandates, and Dependencies. France has
council of ministers wiio are respon?ible to a parliament of the second greatest colonial empire of the world. Its colo-
two houses called the national assembly. The president nies, dependencies, protectorates and mandates in all

is elected by the assembly for se?en years. He chooses parts of the world, from which it derives a great part of
the ministers, but his functions approximate rather to its wealth and power, cover a total area of about 5,000,000

those of the English king than of the prime minister, square miles. The French colonies and dependencies in
although on ceremonial occasions he presides over meetings Africa are: French Equatorial Africa with 982,049 sa. m.;
of the council of ministers. The ministers are the i French West Africa with 1,800,000 sq. m.; Madagascar with
ble heads of the various departments and it is not i 228,000 sq. m.; Mayoite with 790 sq. m.; Morocco with
sary for them to be members of the assembly for they can 231,500 sq m.; Reunion with 970 sq. m.; Sahara with
attend and speak in either house when necessary. They 1,544,000 sq. m.; Somali Coast with 5,790 sq. m.; French
are responsible to the parliament and also for all the acts Togo with 31,000 sq. m.; Txmis with 50,000 sq. m.; French
of the president. Their responsibility is collective. Their Kamcrun with 160,000 sq. m.; and Algeria with 222,180 sq.
head is the prime minister v/ho presides over their ordinary m. which, however, has not the status of a colony, but is
deliberations. The senate, or upper house, consists of politically ani ntegral part of France proper.

314 members. Of these 225 are chosen by indirect elec- The Colonial possessions and mandates in Asia embrace
tion, for nine years, one-third retiring every three years. Syria with an area of 106,700 sq. m.; Anam with 52,100
The remaining 75 are chosen from among the other senators sq. m.; Cambodia with 45,000 sq. m.; Cochin China with
and sit for life. The senate sits in impo tant cases as a 20,000 sq. m.; French India with 196 sq. m.; Kwang-chau-
high court of justice. The lower house or chamber of wan with 190 sq. m.; Laos with 98,000 sq. m.; and Tong-
deputies, consists of persons directly elected by universal king with 46,400 sq. m.
manhood suffrage. They are chosen for four years. The insular possessions in America are represented by
Guadeloupe with an area of 722 sq. m.;Guiana with an area
Commerce and Industry. First among the industries of
of 32,000 sq. m.; Martinique with an area of 385 sq. m.;
France are fine textile products and the French have a
and St. Pierre and Miquelon with an area of 93 sq. m.
worldwide reputation for fine silks, fine linens, and fine
cloths, Manufactured silk is by far the largest export and
The principal possessions in Oceania are New Caledonia
with an area of 7,650 sq. m. and Tahiti and many other
raw silk figures high up in the list. Wine, is of course,
small islands with an area of 9,194 sq. m.
prominent, but much more is imported than exported.
French coal mines, of which the most productive are in the
north, do not yield sufficient for the manufacturers' needs.
GERMANY
The Country. The largest state of Central Europe with
The making of soap, cheese, and beet-sugar are important an area of 183,381 square miles. The greater part of the
industries. The state maintains manufacturing and in-
country is flat. Throughout the northern districts, the
dustrial monopolies in tobacco and matches. Certain ex-
plain is scarcely broken; in the south there are several
plosives, but not dynamite or nitro-glycerine, are state
systems of hiUs and regions of great beauty. On the Bav-
products and the artistic manufactures of Sevres porcelain arian border the highest point is 9,710 feet and there are
and Gobelin and Beauvais tapestries are famed for a higher many peaks between 4,000 and 8,000 feet. The rivei's, in
quality than are the first-named monopolies. Iron ore, order of importance, are the Rhine, Elbe, Weser and Oder.
and silver are the chief mineral products. Fish-
lead, zinc Government. Republic. The president according to
and oyster culture form a large item in the wealth of
eries
the constitution is elected by direct vote of all citizens and
the coast population. Agriculture is distinguished by holds office for seven years. Though the head of the Ger-
thoroughness of cultivation, the land being divided into a man State is not, like the American president, also the
multitude o f small holdings. Only metric weights and mea- chief executive, that post being held by the chancellor,
sures are legal. who, like the British and French premiers, gets his sup-
Communications. The total length of railways is about port from a majority of the reichstag, he is the commander-
26,000 miles of which about 6,000 miles are operated by in-chief of the military and naval forces, and can at will
the state. The canals of France are a most valuable aux- dissolve the reichstag. He can also refuse to approve laws
iliary to the railways and are used regularly for transport- passed by the reichstag and have them submitted to a
ing merchandise. There are over 3,600 miles of them actu- popular referendum. The legislature of Germany (the
ally navigated out of 3,620 miles in existence. French reichstag) and of each of the constituent republics is elected
roads are excellent. Those of the first class, national roads, on the proportional system by the universal, equal, direct
are looked after by the state. In the second class come the and secret votes of all voters of both sexes. Declarations
departmental roads, kept up by the local government au- of war and peace must be by legal enactment.
thorities; and in the third class, district roads under the Commerce and Industry. About 90 per cent, of the
district councils. area of Germany is agriculturally productive, the principal
Principal Towns. Paris, the capital and metropolis; crops being wheat, rye, barley, oats, potatoes and beets.
Marseille, the chief Mediterranean port; Lyon, a leading Forestry is an important industry, conducted by scientific
industrial and commercial center; Bordeaux, and impor- methods under governmental supervision. Rye is the
tant port and coaling station on the Garonna River with a cereal chiefly grown. Potatoes are produced in enormous
large export trade; Lille, center of important coal fields; quantities and sugar beets also. Vines are cultivated in
Strasbo urg, an i mportan t Rhine port i n Alsace ; N
antes, an many parts and the wines have a world-wide fame. Coal,
important port on the Loire; Toulouse, a large manufac- iron, copper, zinc, lead and potash are mined. Textiles
turing and market town; St. Etienne, a mining and manu- are largely manufactured in Saxony, Silesia and West-
facturing center; Nice, pleasure and health resort on the phalia. The chemical industry is of special importance.
Riviera; Havre, an important port on the English Channel. Metric weights and measures.
GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 173

Communications. The total railway mileage is 38,000 Caribbean Sea. It has a total area of 48,290 square miles.
of which nearly four per cent is narrow-gauge. The lines The surface is mountainous, except near the northeast
are fairly evenly distributed in proportion to area, among coast where it is low-lying andmarshy f or«st land. Several
the constituent states. Germany is well served by mountain ranges, mainly belonging to the Antillean sys-
north and south waterways. The Rhine, Ems, Weser, tem, traverse the country. The coastline is unbroken
Elbe and Oder form natural highways for water transport, on the Pacific side and the only indentation on the Atlantic
all of which have been canalized to bring the inland areas side is the Gulf of Amatique, an extension of the Gulf of
into connection by barge with the North Sea and Baltic Honduras.
ports. From Magdeburg on the Elbe, a valuable system Government. The legislative power is vested in a
of east-west canals extends east to the Oder, near Frank- national assembly, consisting of representatives (one for
fort, and to the Vistula at Bromberg, Poland. The Kiel every 20,000 inhabitants) chosen by universal suffrage for
Canal carries as much traffic as the Rhine. The Oder has four years and a council of state of 13 members partly
been canalized to Breslau. elected by the national assembly, partly appointed by the
Principal To wns. Berlin, the capital and one of the great president of the republic. The president is elected for
railway c nters of Europe; Hamburg, chief of the German six years.
Hansa ports; Munich, capital of Bavaria, with the famous Commerce and Industry. The most important crops
academy of arts; Lei^wig, chief city in the publishing trade; are coffee, plantains, bananas, corn, rice and potatoes.
Dresden, capital of Saxony, noted for its picture galleries; The cotton-growing industry is being developed. On the
Cologne, an important river port and center of coal fields plateau horses, mules, cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs are
and textile areas of the north; Breslau, an important mar- reared in large numbers. Gold, silver, coal, lignite, man-
ket to wn a t the head of the barge traffic on the Oder Frank-
;
ganese, copper, tin, lead, cinnabar, slate, alum, antimony,
fort (on-the-Main), a financial center; Dusseldorf, the river marble, alabaster, plumbago, asbestos, bitumen, porphyry,
port for the industrial area of the Westphalia coal fields; zinc and chalk are found, and opals and other precious
Nuremberg (Nurnbcg), the chief railway center of Bavaria; stones also exist. The forests abound in valuable trees,
Hanover, a market town and industrial center: Essen, with producing mahogany, dyewoods, oak, pine and spruce
the Krupp works. wood. Metric weights and measures.
GREECE Communications. There are about 500 miles of rail-
ways. One trans-continental line and several minor lines
The Country. Greece lies in the south of the Balkan
are in operation. Most of the traffic is borne by mules.
peninsula, with a very long coasthne on the Aegean and
Principal Towns. New Guatemala, the capital; Quezal-
Ionian Seas, and a large number of islands. The area of
tenango, an industrial center and Coban, center of a coffee
Greece is estimated at about 42,000 square miles. It is
district.
generally mountainous. The mountains, though not very
high, divide the country into a number of small districiis HAITI
between which communication is difficult. It is the sea
The Country. The
republic of Haiti, occupying the
which links up the different regions of Greece.
western portion of an island of the same name, has an
Government. A plebiscite held in April, 1924, deter-
area of 10,204 square miles. It is a land of mountains and
mined that the monarchy should be succeeded by a republic.
There is only one legislative chamber, the Boule, to which
valleys. The coast line is greatly indented on the west by
the Gulf of Gonaive or Leogane. Several islands lying
each 1 6,000 inhabitants return one member. The chamber
off the coast are subject to this republic. Torrid heat
must be in session for at least three months every year and
prevails on the lowlands but the climate is more equable
cannot transact business unless one-third of its members
in the higher regions.
are present. There is a council of state, but its functions
are judicial, not legislative. Government. The legislative power is vested in a
_ ,

Commerce and Industry. The forests are gradually dis- chamber of deputies whose members are chosen for two
appearing, there pasture land, and the area avail-
is little years by direct vote, and in a senate of 15 members elected
able for cereals is small. Although wheat, corn, and barley for 6 years, likewise by direct vote of the people. All

are gi'own, the chief crop, especially in the west, is the cur- citizens over 21 enjoy the franchise. The president is
rant, with which Greece supplies the world. Olives, to- elected for four years by the two chambers in joint session.
bacco, oranges, lemons, figs and nuts are important prod- The United States maintains a protectorate over the re-
ucts. Rice is grown near Saloniki. Ores of manganese, public.

iron and emery are mined. Commerce and Industry. Nearly all the trade is with
Communications. There are only about 1,700 miles of the United States. Logwood from the forests, excellent
railways open for traffic. All the lines are state-owned coffee, some cotton and cocoa are exported. Most of the
and state-controlled. There are good steamer services people depend on agriculture. Many minerals, gold, iron,
on the long coastline. copper, etc., are known to occur, but are little worked.
Principal Towns. Athens, the capital and ancient city, Officially, metric weights and measures have been adopted.
now an important railway center; Saloniki, a great port Communications. Port au Prince is connected with
near the mouth Athens
of the Vardar; Piraeus, the port of Cap Haitien by a road 169 miles long and with Mirebalais
and an important manufacturing center; Candia, chief and Las Cahobas by a road 33 miles long. A light railway
town and former capital of Crete. has been constructed from Port au Prince to Lake Assuei
(28 miles) but the traffic is small.
GUATEMALA Principal Towns. Port au Prince, the capital with a
The Country. A Central American republic wth a large shipping trade; Cap Haitien, with considerable
long coastline on the Pacific and a short coastline .on the export trade.
GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES
HEJAZ Principal Towns. Budapest, the capital
railway center; Szegedin, important trading center;
and great

The kingdom Hejaz which obtained its independence


of
Debreczin, chief city of the northeast; Kecskemet, an
during the course of the great war, has an estimated area important agricultural and cattle market; Hodmezo-
of 170,000 square miles. It has a frontage on the Red
Vasarhely, an agricultural center.
Sea of about 700 miles. It is barr'^f or semi-barren in its
entire area. Lacking perennial rivers, the land is fertile
only in its few valleys. It owes its importance to the holy
ICELAND
cities of Mekka and Medina, from the latter of which the The Country. An island of the north Atlantic, with an
HeJRi railway runs north to Damascus, a distance of area of about 39,709 square miles. Iceland is a great
1,105 miles. Besides Mekka and Medina, the towns o' tableland averaging 2,000 feet above sea-level, of which
the Hejaz are Jidda and Yanbo, the ports respectively of a large portion is covered with lava fields or with enormous
these two cities and Taif, in the south. In these cities glaciers. Of its whole area barely a quarter is habitable.
and towns live the greater number of the population of The surface is dotted by over 100 volcanic peaks. There
the country. are many boiling springs, and the geysers are world famous.
HONDURAS Government. The King of Denmark is also King of
Iceland. It is however independent of Denmark which is
The Country. A Central American republic with an
represented by a minister at Reykjavik. Denmark also
area of 44,275 square miles. The surface is mainly
takes charge of the foreign affairs of Iceland. The legis-
mountainous, especially in the west and southeast, inter-
lative body is the Althing, composed of a senate of 14
spersed with elevated plateaus, plains and valleys. The
and a house of representatives of 26 members.
coastal regions are low-lying and swampy. The loftiest
Commerce and Industry. Apart from sheep and cattle-
peaks are found in the volcanic ranges on the Nicaraguan
raising, the principal industry is fishing. Herring abound,
boundary, rising to nearly 10,000 feet. Most of the rivers
The Gulf of Fonseca on the but the chief wealth of Icelandic waters consists of cod.
are difficult of navigation.
Finbacked whales are hunted by the Icelanders and seals
south coast, contains numerous islands.
are numerous. Large quantities of eider-down and feath-
Government. At the head of the government is the
ers are exported annually. The only minerals are lignite,
president, who, assisted by an executive council of five
sulphur and Iceland spar.
members, serves for four years. Legislative power is
vested in a congress of deputies, also serving for four years,
Communications. There are no railways in Iceland.
who are elected at the ratio of one per 10,000 inhabitants. Principal Town. Reykjavik, the capital and largest city.
Commerce and Industry. Stock-raising is extensively
engaged in. The product is bananas.
chief agricultural INDIA
Lemons, oranges, corn, tobacco and coffee are also
rice,
The Country. The term British India includes the
produced. The minerals include gold, silver, lead and cop-
districts subject to British law, the area of which is 1,093,-
per, but the mining industry has not yet been e.xtensively
074 square miles. The Indian States or Agencies having
developed. Metric weights and measures.
with the Indian Government have an
political relations
Communications. There are about 500 miles of railways
area of 709,555 square miles.thus making the total area
on the north coast. In general, travelling and transport The
of India and Dependencies 1,802,629 square miles.
are accomplished by means of mules and ox-carts, but
whole northern portion is mountainous, and includes
the number of automobiles for mail service is increasing.
the Himalayas, the loftiest mountains in the world, with
Boats of 20 feet draft ply on the Ulua River. The govern-
l\It. Everest (29,002 ft.) and several others exceeding
ment owns and operates the telephone and telegraph lines.
25,000 feet. An extension of the western coast uplands
Principal Towns. Tegucigalpa, the capital and mining
crosses central India and forms the western and eastern
center; La Esperanza and Santa Ptosa.
Ghats. The Malay peninsula is formed by mountain
HUNGARY ranges with broad lowlands along the coast.

The Country. Hungary is one of the states of Europe Government. The sovereign of the United Kingdom
formed out of the old Austro-Hungarian Empire. It has is emperor of India. The chief authority is the secretary
an area of 35,654 square miles. It is almost entirely of state for India, who is a member of the cabinet of the

lowland. The shallow Lake Balaton is fed by springs, United Kingdom, and is responsible to parliament. He
has brackish waters, and drains into the Danube. has a council composed of twelve members representing
Indians. In political and secret matters he can act without
Govsrnment. The titular head of Hungary is styled
officially Protector of the Magyar State or regent; the them. In India the government is committed to the
state is to be regarded as a monarchy and the word royal is governor-general-in-council, who has also the title of

officially retained. viceroy. He and the eight members of his council are
Commerce and Industry. The cultivation of the soil appointed by the crown. The Indian legislature consists
is the chief industry of Hungary. Except for lignite, of a council of state and a legislative assembly, the majority
there are no minerals and there are none but local industries. of the members of both being directly elected by various

The Magyars still retain the bulk of the agricultural land, constituencies such as the Mahomcdans, Sikhs and
the products of which made Hungary the chief granary of Em-opeans. Each house also has appointed members in
the old dual empire. Corn and wheat are the chief cereals, order that government may be directly represented, but
although barley and oats are grown. Horses are reared in some of these have to be non-officials. Each of the large
large numbers, and great efforts have been made to improve provinces, except Burma, is governed by a governor who
the breeds of cattle. Metric weights and measures. is advised by a council, while ministers look after the de-

Communications. Hungarian railways radiate from partments of state. Burvia is under a lieutenant-governor.
Budapest, the total mileage being 4,372. In each province there is also a legislative counciL
i^AZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COONTRIES 175

Commerce and ilncfustry. Minerals of every sort occur is intrusted to a parliament "consisting of His Majesty, the
to the mountains, and coal is abundant in east central senate of Nort-hem Ireland, and the house of commons of
parts. The aggregate output of gold is very great and Northern Ireland." The powers of the parliament and
constantly increasing, while the gem mines of Burma government of Northern Ireland are wholly domestic. The
yield the greater part of the world's supply of rubies and mini;itry of commerce of Northern Ireland assists in the
similar precious stones. The tin and oil of upper Burma, development of new markets and encouragement of export
and lead and copper in the Himalayas, are also important. trade. So far as foreign policy and affairs are concerned
The most valuable forest product is Several breeds
teak. LHster remains essentially a part of the British unit.
of cattle have been domesticated from wild stock. The Therefore her foreign credit remains on a par with that of
fisheries supply a notable proportion of the food of the Great Britain. Her representatives abroad are the
common people. Five sevenths of the people are engaged British representatives.
in agricultural pui'suits, and initiation is extensively For description of physical features, principal towns
developed. Rice, corn, wheat, millet and sugar cane, etc., see under British Isles.
are the chief food-crops; of these rice and wheat are
expoTted. Cotton, jute, opium, tea, tobacco, indigo and IRISH FREE STATE
oil-yielding seeds are also grown for export. Cattle are Tlie Country. For demarcation of territory see under
largely raised in the northwest, whence hides form a valua- Northern Ireland; for physical features see under British
ble item of export; camels, asses and horses in the north- Isles. Area of Irish Free State 23,973 square miles.
western plains, and sheep, goats and yaks among the Government. The constitution of the Irish Free State
northern mountains. The manufactiu-es are mainly gives the people those powers to govern themselves pos-
yarns and cheap cottons, silks, largely from tussar (wild sessed by the peoples of Canada, Australia, South Africa
silk), cocoons, sugar, paper, rugs and blankets. Ship- and New Zealand. Unlike the cases of these self-governing
building is extensively carried on. India imports manu- dominions, however, the constitution of the Swiss Republic
factured articles, chief of which are cotton goods, metals, rather than that of Great Britain was used as a model
sugar, silk, woolen goods, machinery, railway equipment in framing the organization through which these powers
and oils. are to be exercised. The British and dominion system of
Communications. There are about 40,000 miles of government by a cabinet composed exclusively of members
railways open. There are good metalled roads over most of the dominant party in parliament is replaced by in-
of India. Inland steam navigation is well established on trusting the carrying out of the will of the elected majority
the lower courses of the main rivers. to a federal council, in which only a minority of the mem-
Principal Towns. Calcutta, the principal port of the bers are drawn from the ranks of politicians. The similarity
east coast; Madras, the great cotton manufacturing and to the Swiss constitution extends also to an arrangement
shipping port of the south; Bombay, the principal financial included whereby legislation can be initiated by referen-
center; Delhi, the capital; Karachi, the port of the western dum. Article XI says: "The rights of the state in and to
region There are twenty-five other towns exceeding natural resources, the use of which is of national impor-
100,000 inhabitants, and fifty-two more with over 50,000 tance, shall not be alienated. Their exploitation by private
inhabitants each. Important towns, including several individuals or associations shall be permitted only under
native capitals, are Hyderabad, Lucknow, Rangoon, the state supervision and in accordance with the conditions
port of Burma, Benares, Lahore, Cawnpur, Agra, Ahmada- and regulations approved by legislation." Another im-
bad, Mandalay, the capital of Burma, Allahabad, Amritsar, portant point is the immunity Ireland is to enjoy from
Jaipur, Bangalore, Howrah, opposite Calcutta, Poona, embroilment in British quarrels. Article 48 provides
Patna, Bareli (Bareilly), Nagpur, Srinagar, the capital of that, save in case of actual invasion, the Irish Free State
Kashmir, Surat, Meerut, Madura, Trichinopoli and Baroda. "shall not be committed to active participation in any
war," without the assent of the Free State parliament.
IRELAND, NORTHERN For description of principal towns see under British
Isles.
The Country. The present Ulster border was deter-
mined by the Government of Ireland Act in 1920, which
ITALY
contemplated the division of Ireland between a nationalist The Country. Italy consists of the Italic peninsula,
south and a unionist north. For centuries Ireland had the peninsula of Istria and the islands of Sicily and Sar-
been geographically divided into four provinces, Ulster, dinia. The area including the new territories added to the
Munster, Leinster and Connaught, of which the first is kingdom, comprises about 117,982 square miles. The
predominatingly unionist, and the remainder nationalist, Apennines, extending southward from the Alps, form the
the latter term being used to include Sinn Fein. But backbone of the peninsula, the southern and western parts
upon closer examination the framers of the act discovered of which have been subjected to volcanic eruptions and
that three of the counties of Ulster, namely, Donegal, Vesuvius, Etna and Stromboli are still active volcanoes.
Monaghan and Cavan, contained a population with a The Alpine lakes are long and narrow and the lakes of
considerable majority of nationalists. These counties central Italy are in the craters or pipes of extinct volcanoes.
were therefore included in Southern Ireland, and the Ulster The principal rivers are the Adige, 230 miles in length,
border became the lines circumscribing the remaining six the Arno, 150 miles, the Po, 420 miles and the Tiber,
counties of Ulster. Area of Northern Ireland 8,613 250 miles.
square miles. Government. Constitutional monarchy; the executive
Government. Under the Act of 1920 the government power is vested in the king, but is exercised through re-
of the territory comprising the six counties of Down, sponsible ministers. Law-making power is the joint
Antrim, Londonderry, Armagh, Tyrone and Fermanagh prerogative of king and parliament, the latter consisting
176 GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES
of a senate and a chamber of deputies. The king nomi- Commerce and Industry. Agriculture is the chief
nates the senators for life, the deputies are elected on a industry, but only about 20,000 square miles of Japan
universal manhood suffrage. proper can be cultivated; of this 57 per cent is under
Commerce and Industry. Italy is predominantly rice,and 33 per cent under wheat. Tea plants are pro-
agricultural; one fifth of the area is forested and many duced on neariy 500 square miles. Over 3,000,000 house-
portions of the lowlands cannot be cultivated on account holds are occupied with the production of silk, the yield
of the prevalence of malaria. The chief food products of raw silk equalling that of the whole of Europe and about
are wheat, wine and olives. Corn, beans and oats come 75 per cent, of the silk is exported. Tobacco, soya beans
next in importance; then potatoes, sugar beets, barley and produced. Over 2,000,000 men
fruit are extensively
and rice. Silk culture is general, but of special importance are engaged m
fishing. Coal, copper, phosphate, and zinc
in the north. The chief minerals are sulphur, marble and are mined. Chief manufactures are textiles, silk, earthen-
iron. The chief imports are wheat, coal, raw cotton, iron ware, glass, lacquered goods, matting and hemp. Trade
goods and woolens. The prime exports are raw silk, in matches and paper is important. A large amount of
cotton and silk goods, hemp, wine and motor-cars. Metric timber is produced. Imports are chiefly raw cotton
weights and measures. from the United States, India and China.
Communications. There are nearly 12,000 miles of Communications. The whole country is covered with
railways, three fourths of which belong to the state. The a network of railways with a total length of nearly 8,000
merchant fleet numbers about eight hundred steamships miles, and it is possible to travel from the extreme north
and five times as many sailing vessels. of Hokkaido (Yezzo) to the extreme south of Kiushiu
Principal Towns. Naples, the most important port; without once leaving a railway station except to cross the
Milan, great railway and industrial center; Rome, the Straits of Tsugaru and Shimonseki, where special steam
capital; Turin, manufacturing center; Palermo on the ferries are provided. The Japanese government subsidizes
island of Sicily and the center of a great fruit producing shipping companies for foreign trade and Japanese vessels
industry; Genoa, the port on the Ligurian coast and head- run on four great routes to Europe, North America, South
quarters of the iron trade. America and Australia.
Colonies and Dependencies. Italy has in Africa a Principal Towns. Tokyo, the capital and great indus-
colonial empire of 591,230 square miles, consisting of trial center; Osaka, seaport and textile manufacturing

EritTea with 45,800 square miles; Italian Somaliland with city; Kobe, seaport and extensive shipbuilding; Kyoto
139,430 square miles, and Tripoli and Cyrenaica with an with silk, porcelain and lacquer goods factories; Nag-
area of 406,000 square miles. In addition to those it has oya, port with large textile industries; Yokohama, port of
in Asia, a concession in Tientsin. Tokyo; Nagasaki, a seaport and winter resort.
Dependencies. The most important of Japan's de-
pendencies are Chosen {Korea), with an area of 84,738
JAPAN square miles, from which Japan takes the surplus rice crop
The Country. The Japanese Empire comprises five and the bulk of the raw cotton; the island Formosa (Tai-
largeand numerous small islands together with the penin- wan) with 13,944 square miles; the southern part of
sula ofChosen (Korea), the southern part of the Sakhalin Sakhalin (Karafuto) with 13,253 square miles; and the
Island and the leased territory on the Asiatic coast Kwan- former German colonies in Oceania awarded by the League
tung. In addition, it exercises a mandate of the League of Nations as mandates to Japan, viz: Caroline Islands,
of Nations over the former German colonies in the Pacific, Mariana Islands, Marshall Islands and Pelew Islands
north of the equator. The area of the mainland and adja- with a total area of 1,520 square miles.
cent islands is 148,756 square miles. Bays and inlets are
numerous and there are many natural harbors, especially
on the Pacific side. The chief feature of the Empire is
JUGOSLAVIA
its mountainous character, for each island has a moun- The Country. Jugo-Slavia or the Kingdom of the Serbs,
tainous backbone. Among the higher mountains, several Croats and Slovenes, occupies the northwest corner of the
extend above the snow line. Fuji Yama, the sacred Balkan peninsula. It combines the old kingdoms of
mountain of Japan, is the highest and reaches 12,245 feet. Serbia and Montenegro, the former Austro-Hungarian
The Yoda, one of the longest streams, empties into the territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Hun-
Bay of Osaka. One of the most notable physical features garian provinces of Croatia-Slavonia and parts of the Banat
is the Inland Sea or Japanese Mediterranean which re- and Bacska, and portions of Styria, Carniola and Dal-
produces on a smaller scale, the same features as the larger matia, former Austrian provinces. It consists essentially

Sea of Japan. It is almost entirely landlocked and sur- of a mountainous core, most of which is over 3,000 feet in
rounded by chains of volcanoes of which few are now elevation which stretches from the Dinaric Alps in the
active. The climate is temperate and healthful with northwest to the Balkan Mountains on the Bulgarian
abundant rainfall. frontier. The only valley which cuts the mountains and
Government. The government is in the hands of forms a passage way is that of the Morava which, with
the emperor. He is assisted by cabinet ministers whom that of the Vardar, leads from Belgrade to Saloniki.
he appoints and who are responsible to him. There is a Beyond the Save-Danube, as far as the northern boundary,
privy council which is consulted on important occasions the land is low, swampy near the rivers, with a few minor
but the executive power rests with the emperor. Laws elevations. The chief concentrations of people are round
are made under his sanction by the imperial diet which Zagreb (Agram) and near Belgrade. The area is 95,020
consists oftwo houses, a house of peers which has 373 square miles.
members and a house of representatives of 381 members, Government. Jugo-Slavia is a limited nonarchy, with
elected by a restricted suffrage. a two-chamber parliament in which the senate is an ad-
GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 177

visory chamber. Parliament is elected for four years on Government. The constitution of the republic is

the basis of one deputy for every 40,000 inhabitants. modelled on that of the United States. The executive
The senate consists of 100 members and is elected for nine power is vested in a president and a council of 6 ministers
years though one third of its membership is renewed every and the legislative power in a parliament of two houses
three years. called the senate and the house of representatives. Electors
Commerce and Industry. As^riculture is the chief must be of negro blood and owners of land.
industry. Mediterranean fruits, chiefly plums, and tobacco, Commerce and Industry. The exports include rubber,
are successfully grown. Swine are reared in the oak and palm oil, palm kernels, piassava fibre from the rafia palm,
beech forests; cattle, sheep and goats are also reared. coffee, cocoa, ginger, chillies, ivory, annatto seed, dye,
Some wheat is grown. Small quantities of iron ore are and camwood— a hard dyewood. The chief imports are
mined. Coal occurs near Sarajevo and Banjaluka. rice, textiles, tobacco, building timber, galvanized roofing

Lead, iron and coal are mined in Serbia. Quicksilver is iron, ready-made clothing and dried and preserved fish.
extensively mined. The principal imports are textiles, Communications. There are no railways or vehicular
agricultural products, animal products, chemicals, leather means of transport in the country except ox-carts and a
and leather goods, metals and machinery. Exports: motor road of about 20 miles.
Corn, wheat and oats, cattle and other animals, fruits, Principal Towns. Monrovia, the capital and chief port;
timber and timber goods. Metric system of weights and Robertsport and Marshall.
measures.
Communications. Jugo-Slavia has about 6,000 miles LIECHTENSTEIN
of railway, mostly state-owned. Total length of water-
Liechtenstein, a small independent principality, extend-
ways, principally the Danube and the Save, 1,322 miles.
ing along the right bank of the Rhine, opposite the Swiss
Principal Towns. Belgrade, the capital; Zagreb (Agram)
canton of St. Gallen and the Austrian land of Vorarlberg.
the university city; Sarajevo, former capital of Bosnia;
It has an area of 65 square miles. The industries include
Monastir, trade center near the Greek frontier; Uskup on
agriculture, weaving and embroidery. It is governed by
the Vardar, and Nish, an important railway center.
a diet of fifteen members. It has a customs treaty with
Switzerland which includes administration by Switzerland
LATVIA of the post and telegraph lines. Vaduz is the capital and
principal town.
The Country.Latvia, a republic on the Baltic Sea,
was formerly part of the Russian Empire. Its area is LITHUANIA
about 24,440 square miles. It has about 340 miles of
The Country. Lithuania is a republic carved out of the
sea coast. The land is flat and low-lying, and is watered
former Russian Empire. It has an estimated area of 22,520
by many rivers, the chief of which is the Dvina. There
square miles and a narrow frontage on the Baltic Sea. The
are many marshy tracts and lakes; a quarter of the country
country is flat and low-lying. It has numerous lakes and
is covered with forests.
marshes and many rivers, the largest being the Niemen.
Government. At the head of the republic stands a
About 25 per cent of the land is forest.
president elected for 5 years on the basis of universal
Government. The constituent assembly makes laws,
suffrage. War can only be declared by a vote of the
ratifies treaties with other states, approves the budget and
legislature. Parliament consists of one chamber of 100
superintends the execution of the laws. The executive
members, elected for three years.
power is placed in the hands of the president of the republic
Commerce and Industry. Agriculture is the principal
and of the cabinet of ministers. The president is elected
industry, and includes dairy farming, the raising of live
by the constituent assembly.
stock and beekeeping. The soil is moderately fertile,
Commerce and Industry. The chief articles of export
but is highly cultivated, producing good crops of barley,
are corn, cattle, hams, poultry, eggs, butter, timber, flax,
oats, flax and potatoes. The fisheries are of considerable
linseed, hides and wool. The imports are mainly manufac-
value. Manufactures comprise metals, minerals, chemi-
tured articles, fertilizers and agricultural machinery.
cals, textiles, timber and spirits. Exports are timber,
About seventy per cent of the populationengaged in
is
cereals, flax, dairy products and fish. Metric system of
agriculture, the products being cereals, potatoes, flax and
weights and measures.
linseed. Poultry farming, particularly of geese, is a con-
Communications. Latvia has about 1,700 miles of
siderable industry.
railroads. Three of the Russian main lines verge on
Communications. Lithuania has about 1,600 miles of
Latvian ports.
railways. There are about 120 miles of streams navigable
Principal Towns. Riga, the capital and chief seaport;
for steamboats. The Niemen is navigable for about 270
Libau (Libava), an important port on the Baltic Sea;
days in the year.
Mitau (Mitava), formerly the capital of Courland with
Principal Towns. Kovno (Kamias), provisional capi-
tanne. ies and textile industries.
tal and an important grain market; Grodno, an important
manufacturing center, Suvalki and Shavli.
LIBERIA
The Country. is an independent negro republic,
Liberia LUXEMBURG
with an area of 40,000 square miles. It occupies about The Country. A Grand Duchy surrounded by France,
350 miles of the west African coast and extends inland Germany and Belgium. It has an area of about 998 square
200 miles at its widest part. Many rivers are navigable miles. The great wealth of th e country lies in i ts iron ore.
in stretches. The interior rises into mountains of from Three fifths of the area is cultivated; wheat, rye, oats and
2,000 to 6,000 feet in height. potatoes are the main crops. The vine is grown in the Mo-
178 GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES
selle valley; horses and cattle are reared. The govern- ufacturing center; Puebla, with cotton-spinning and other
ment is in the hands of a council of state and a chamber of manufactures; San Luis Potosi, an agricultural and mining
deputies. Luxemburg is in customs union with Belgium. center; Leon, a mining and manufacturing town; Vera
Principal Towns. Luxemburg, the capital; Esch, center Cruz, principal port; Tampico, principal oil port,
of mining district.

MEXICO MONACO
The Country. Mexico has an area of 767,198 square This principality, the smallest state of Europe, situated
miles. Two mountain chains traverse the republic, form- on the Mediterranean coast, has an area of 8 square miles
ing between them a number of valleys and plateaus. The and is encircled by the French department of Alpes Mari-
plateau of Anahuac, on which the capita! is situated, is the times and the Mediterranean Sea. The government is car-
largest and most important. The eastern edge of the plat- ried out under the authority of the prince by a ministry
eau is formed by the Sierra Madre Oriental. On the west- assisted by a council of state. The legislative power is ex-
ern edge of the plateau, the Sierra Madre Occidental shows ercised by the prince and the national council which con-
a steep front and narrow ridges broken by canyons; in sists of 21 members elected for four years. About one
both Sierras the highest peaks are about 10,000 feet. At thousand of the inhabitants are employed in the rooms of
the southern edge of the plateau, confused ranges of moun- the celebrated gambling-house known as the "Casino."
tains fall sharply to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, where The climate is very mild. Revenue is derived chiefly from
the lowest point on the watershed between the Atlantic and the gambling tables.
Pacific is a little over 700 feet. The physical divisions east-
ward of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec include the highlands NETHERLANDS
of Chiapas, and the narrow low plain of Soconusco on the
These highlands range from 6,000 to 8,000 The Country. The area of the country, about 15,760
Pacific side.
Northeast of them is the pen- square miles, is for the most part flat, much of it lying be-
feet in extreme elevation.
low the level of the water, salt and fresh. Along the canals,
insula of Yucatan.
the meadows are often ten or twelve feet below the water-
Government. Mexico is a federative republic, divided
line, and between the land and sea at high tide, there may
into states, each of which has a right to manage its own
local affairs, while the whole are bound together in one
be a difference of twenty-five feet or more. The land is
protected by embankments and dikes and it may be pic-
body politic by fundamental and constitutional laws. The
tured asagreat trough, the floor of which slopes downfrom
powers of the supreme government are divided into the leg-
The legislative power is east and southeast toward the North Sea in the west and
islative, executive and judicial.
north. The rivers which flow across this country from the
vested in a congress consisting of a house of representa-
higher continent beyond, are, at their mouths, frequently
tives and a senate and the executive power in a president.
Representatives are elected for two years by universal
below the level of the sea into which they have to be lifted
suffrage. The senate consists of fifty eight members, two
by canals and locks across the dams or dikes. At all times
the precarious river levels threaten internal floods.
for each state, and are elected in the same manner as the
deputies. Mexico is divided into twenty eight states, one Government. Constitutional monarchy. The execu-
federal districtand two territories. tive power is vested in the sovereign with nine ministers in
Commerce and Industry. Mexico is a country of im- council, the legislative authority being the sovereign and
mense natural wealth, with its oil fields, its gold, silver, states-general, which consists of two chambers, the first of

copper, iron and other minerals and the great variety of 50 members elected for nine years and the second of 100
vegetable products determined by the wide range of eleva- deputies elected for four years. There are eleven prov-
tion and climate. Among these last may be specially men- inces, sub-divided into communes.

tioned hemp, bananas, logwood, and other tropical forest Commerce and Industry. The chief exports are dairy

products of the southeast; coffee, tobacco and cotton of produce, vegetables and bulbs, flax, fish, sugar-beets, and
more northerly localities, with a variety of fruit and all colonial wares. Ship-building is an important industry.
usual grain crops. The most interesting development in Textiles are extensively manufactured. Chief imports are
resources of Mexico in recent years has occurred in the oil oiland raw cotton. One-third of the land is permanent
industry. In spite of inadequate transportation facilities, pasture, and intensive methods are largely used in horti-
the Mexican oil fields have been able to take a high place culture as well as in agriculture. Metric weights and
among the petroleum-producing territories of the world. measures.
Its vast oil reservoirs have scarcely been tapped. Coal is Communications. Total length of raikoads in operation
mined in the state of Coahuila. Large quantities of sugar, is about 2,500 miles. Total extent of canals is about 2,000
molasses and spirits are also produced. miles.
Communications. Mexico has in operation about 16,000 Principal Towns. Amsterdam, the metropolis and sec-
miles of railways, most of which are run by the government. ond seaport; Rotterdam, chief port with a large foreign
Through connections to the United States can be made at trade; The Hague ('s Gravenhage), the capital; Utrecht,
the following five border points: Nogales, Ariz., El Paso, university city; Groningen, chief city of the north; Haar-
Tex., Laredo, Tex., Eagle Pass, Tex. and Brownsville, lem, famous for horticulture and center of the bulb trade;
Tex. A railway service from Vera Cruz and Mexico City Arnhem on the Rhine near the German frontier; Leiden,
to the frontier of Guatemala has also been completed. the famous university town; Nijmegen, a historic fortified
Puerto Mexico, on the Atlantic and Salina Cruz on the city on the Waal.
Pacific are connected by the Tehuantepec railroad. Dependencies. The Netheriands have a large colonial
Principal Towns. Mexico (city), the capital and chief empire of about 782,000 square miles in Asia and America,
commercial center; Guadalajara, an agricultural and man- the population of which is many times larger than the pop-
GAZETTEER OP PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 179

ulation of the Netherlands. The principal colonies are east across the state, comprising the basins of Lakes Man-
thelargeislandsin the Indian Ocean, the Dutch East Indies, agua and Nicaragua and the San Juan River. Between
consisting of Bali and Lomhok with 4,0G5 sq. m., Banka the lakes and the Pacific Coast is a range of low mountains
with 4,446 sq. m., Billiton with 1,863 sq. m., Borneo, South the chief center of volcanic activity in the country.
and Eastm[h 156,912 sq. m., Borneo, Wcstmth 55,825 sq. Government. Executive power is vested in the presi-
m., Celebes Island with 72,070 sq. m., Jara and Madura dent, appointed for four years. Legislative power is
with 50,557 sq. m., and the capital, Batavia, Molucca Island vested in a congress of two houses consisting of 40 depu-
with Dutch New Guinea, with 195,653 sq. m., Riou Linga ties elected for four years by universal suffrage, and 13
Archipelago with 16,301 sq. m., Sumatra with 159,739 sq. senators elected for six years.
m., Timor Archipelago with 17,698 sq. m. Commerce and Industry. The banana is the principal
These colonies are governed by a governor- general who agricultural product in the east. Cocoanuts are also of
has the right of passing laws and regulations for the ad- some importance and a few plantains, oranges and pine-
ministration of the colony, so far as his power is not re- apples and some yucca are raised. Ilice is grown to a small
served to the legislature of the mother country. The extent and some wheat in the hilly districts, while tobacco
principal products of Dutch East Indies are sago, corn, is cultivated round Masaya. The mostimportant products
tapioca, coffee, tobacco, tea, copra, and oil-seed. of the western half are coffee, sugar-cane, cacao, corn and
The Dutch West Indies are Curacao, with 210 square beans. Extensive forests yield mahogany, cedar, gums,
miles, lying just off the mainland of Venezuela, South and medicinal plants. Over a million cattle provide hides
America and Dutch Guiana, with 40,060 square miles, on for export. Gold and silver are mined. Metric weights
the north coast of South America, producing coffee, cacao, and measures.
bananas and balata. Communications. The total railway mileage of the re-
public is about 200 miles. The principal line runs from
NEW ZEALAND Corinto to Grenada.
Towns. Managua, the capital; Leon, largest
Principal
The Country. New Zealand is a British Dominion in the
city; San Juan del Norte (Greytown), chief seaport.
South Seas. embraces the two main islands,
Politically it
north and south, the small Stewart Island separated from
the south end of South Island by Foveaux Strait, and NORWAY
many islands in the neighboring seas. Area, 104,751square
The Country. Norway, occupying the western half of
miles. South Island consists of a great mountain range,
the Scandinavian peninsula, has an area of about 125,000
the Southern Alps, alpine in magnitude. North Island con-
square miles. It is 1,160 miles in length and the coastline,
sists ofa highland reaching from Cook Strait in the south
excluding minor indentations, is over 2,100 miles long. It
to East Cape in the northeast, and two peninsulas.
isseparated from Sweden by the Kjolen Mountains, which
Government. The Dominion is governed by a governor-
form the backbone of the peninsula. These mountains rise
general and a general assembly, consisting of a legislative
in many parts to over 6,000 feet, the highest peaks being
council of thirty-seven paid members and a house of eighty
over 8,000 feet. Norway's long coastline facing the At-
paid representatives, upon a system of constitutional cabi-
lantic is edged with lofty cliffs and seamed with deep fiords.
net government.
Islands, countless in number, fringe the coast. These
Commerce and Industry. The dominant industry is
archipelagoes cover a total area of no less than 8,600 square
sheep-raising. Dairy farming, mainly for the production of
miles. Seventy per cent of Norway's area is barren land—
butter and cheese, is of growing importance. Crops of
wheat, oats, and barley are grown for local consumption.

mountain, moor, or glacier uninhabitable by man. Of
the whole area of 125,000 square miles only 3,500 square
Kauri gum is dug in the Auckland peninsula. Coal is
miles are fit for agriculture and nearly 3,000 square miles
mined on the western coast of South Island, and gold in the
are water. The rivers are short and torrential, but pro-
Thames peninsula; some alluvial gold is dredged. The
vide the finest salmon fishingin Europe. Its comparatively
principal exports are wool, frozen meat,butter, cheese, tal-
mild climate is due entirely to the influence of the ocean.
low, hides, skins and flax.
Spitzbergen and adjacent islands, with total area of 25,000
Communications. Communication is maintained by a
square miles and rich coal fields, is under the sovereignty
growing railway system connecting the chief towns and
of Nortt ay.
supplemented by a coastal steamer service. Total rail-
Government. Parliament, called the Storting, consists
way mileage about 3,200. The government telegraph sys-
all 123 members,
of an upper and a lower house, having in
tem comprises 14,000 miles of line and a government tele-
one-quarter forming the Lagting or senate, three-fourths
phone system is very generally used.
the Odelsting or house of commons. Questions relating to
Principal Towns. Wellington, the capital; Auckland,
the laws are considered by each house separately, but if the
Christchurch, Dunedin, Hamilton, Gisborne and Napier.
Dependencies. New Zealand exercises the mandate
two houses do not agree they resolve themselves into a
over those of the Samoan Islands which formerly belonged
common sitting for discussion and a two-thirds vote is
then required for decision. Members are chosen by
to Germany. Their total area is about 1,250 square miles.
universal suffrage, without distinction of sex.
Commerce and Industry. Soil and climate are not very
NICARAGUA favorable to agriculture. The chief crop i s oats barley, rye,
;

The Country. Nicaragua, a Central American republic, and potatoes are also cultivated. The hay harvest is large
has an area of 49,200 square miles. The east coast is and important. Dairy farming on cooperative lines is mak-
backed by an allu\'ial plain, beyond which lie the central ing great progress; butter and tinned milk are exported.
mountains, which rise to 7,000 feet. From the Gulf of Fishing is the principal occupation. Norway claims a four-
Fonseca on the northwest coast a depression extends south- mile instead of a three-mile territorial limit and so piany of
GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES
the coastal fishing grounds are under her sovereignty. The Commerce and Industry. Excellent grazing land is
cod fishing is the most important. Silver, copper, iron and abundant and pastoral industries have made great advance
feldspar are mined. The timber industry is important, in recent years. The chief exports are hides, yerba mate
especially in the south. IVIetric weights and measures. (Paraguay tea), oranges, tobacco, timber, meat, cattle and
Communications. The total railroad mileage is about quebiacho (tannin) extract. Chief imports are textiles,
2,000 miles. Important trunk lines join Christiania with provisions, hardware and fancy goods.
Bergen, and four lines run into Sweden. Coastwise steam- Communications. Total railroad mileage is less than
ers serve all ports. 300 miles. Asuncion, the capital, is now in direct com-
Principal Towns. Oslo(Christiania) the capital; Bergen, an munication with Buenos Aires. The main channel of com-
important seaport with fishing and ship-building industry; munication is the navigable system of the Plata. Large
Trondhjem and Stavanger. river steamers and small sea-going ships penetrate as far
as Asuncion. Thence north, the Paraguay is navigable by
OMAN smaller steamers throughout the limits of the republic.
Metric weights and measures.
An independent Arabia whose
state in southeastern
Principal Towns. Asuncion, the capital and chief river
integrity has been guaranteed by Great Britain and France.
port; Villa Rica, the center of tobacco growing; Villa Con-
It has an area of 82,000 square miles. The chief products
cepcion, a trading center on the Paraguay River.
are dates and other fruit. Maskat is the capital.

PANAMA PERSIA
The Country. Panama, formerly a department of the
The Country. Persia, country of Asia called Iran by the
Persians and Arabs, has an area of about 628,000 square
republic of Colombia, has an area of 32,380 square miles.
miles. Most of the country is a plateau, from 2,500 feet
It occupies the narrowest portion of the connecting link
to 3,500 feet above the sea, surrounded by mountain
between North and South America, known as the Isthmus
drained by chains, except in the east, where are the huge salt deserts.
of Panama. The interior is elevated and is

short rapid streams to both coasts. The peninsula of An extension, locally known as the Khorasan Mountains
of theHindu Kush, enters on the northeast from Afghan-
Azuero projects into the Pacific Ocean.
istan and merges into the Elburz range south of the
Government. The constitution provides for a chamber
Caspian, the Cighest peak being Mt. Demavend, 19,400
of deputies of 33 members, and for a president of the re-
feet.
public, elected by direct vote for four yearsand not eli-
Government. The Shah of Persia divides his power with
gible for the succeeding term. There are three vice-
a cabinet and a national assembly or "Majlis." The em-
presidents and a cabinet of five ministers.
pire is divided into provinces ruled by governors-general
Commerce and Industry. The most important product
directly responsible to the crown, and these are again
is the banana. Rubber is collected by the Indians of the
divided into districts, cities, and their dependencies.
mountains, or is obtained from trees planted by Europeans
Commerce and Industry. Deposits of coal and iron in
near the coast. Coffee is grown near theCostaRican fron-
the Elburz Mountains, copper, lead and other metallic ores
tier. Other products are coconuts, mahogany, and other
in Kerman Desert, copper and turquoise in Khorasan and
woods, copaiba, sarsaparilla and ipecacuanha.^ The coun-
rock salt near the Persian Gulf, are known but have been
try has great timber resources. Cattle raising is carried on
but little exploited. Petroleum is being obtained in_ in-
successfully and hides form an important article of export.
creasing quantity. The chief exports are petroleum, opium
Pearl fishing is carried on at the Pearl Islands in the Gulf
fruit,animals, raw cotton, rice, wool and carpets.
of Panama and at Coiba Island. Turtle-shell is also ex-
Communications. Traflnc is by camels and cart cara-
ported to a considerable amount. Metric weights and
vans, merchants combining together for protection against
measures.
robbers who in some parts are well-armed and numerous.
Communications. The U. S. government railroad be-
Small steamers ply on the Karun as high as Ahwaz. With
tween Colon and Panama, 48 miles in length, with a branch
the exception of a small line (six miles) at Teheran and a
line 3 miles to Balboa, the Pacific entrance to the canal,
branch of the Trans-Caspian Railway to Tabriz, there are
isthe most important transportation route of the isthmus.
no railways.
There are also other railroad lines of minor importance.
Principal Towns. Teheran, the capital; Tabriz, manu-
Principal Towns. Panama, the capital and chief port of
facturing and chief commercial center; Ispahan, the former
the Pacific; Colon, the chief port on the Caribbean.
capital; Meshed, principal city of the northeasL
PARAGUAY
The Country. Paraguay, one of the two inland coun-
PERU
tries of South America, has an area of about 97,722 square The Country. republic with an area
A South American
miles. An area officially stated to be 100,000 square miles of 709,871 square miles. The Cordilleras of the Andes di-
in extent, lying between the rivers Paraguay and Pilco- vide Peru into three natural divisions. The first lies be-
mayo, known as the Chaco, is claimed by Paraguay, whose tween the coast and the Maritime Cordillera, and consists
rights, however, are disputed by Bolivia. for the most part of desert. By means of irriga tion much ,

Government, The legislative authority is vested in a of this desert is now cultivated. The second lies between
congress of two houses, a senate and a chamber of deputies the Maritime and Central Cordillera, and consists of grass-

elected by the people, the executive power being entrusted clad uplands, suitable for the rearing of cattle and sheep.
to a president, elected for a term of four years, with five Further east in the mountainous regions between the Cen-
ministers. There is also a non-active vice-president who tral and Real Cordilleras, there are huge mineral resources,

is at the same time president of the senate. untapped for the most part
GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES ISI

Government. The legislative power is vested in a senate tatoes and sugar beets are important crops. Flax and
of 35 members and a house of representatives of 110 mem- wool, obtained locally and imported cotton are worked into
bers elected by direct vote and renewed totally every five textile goods.
years. The executive power is entrusted to the president, Communications. Poland has about 8,000 miles of rail-
elected for five years and not re-eligible until after another ways, all of which are the property of the state. There are
five years. The president exercises his executive functions about 2,000 miles of navigable waterways of which 300
through a cabinet of six ministers. miles are accessible for vessels of over 400 tons. The most
Commerce and Industry. The mineral
deposits which important canal is the former German Bromberg Canal
are found in the mountainous regions of the east, consist of from the Vistula to the Netze.
gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, zinc,sulphur, petroleum and Principal Towns. Warsaw, the capital; Lodz, a great
various valuable earths. Cotton, sugar and corn are the textile industry center; Lemberg (Lwow), I&akow, the old
principal productions; coffee, cacao and coca (from which capital of Poland; Posen (Poznan), Bialystok, a railway
cocaine is made) are also cultivated. Cinchona, sarsapa- center with manufactures of linens, etc.
copaiba are produced in large quantities. Rubber
rilla,

which is now an important product is found in the basin


of the Amazon. The exports consist chiefly of minerals,
PORTUGAL
and rubber. The principal imports are man-
sugar, cotton The Country. Portugal,a republic in the extreme
ufactured goods and machinery. Metric weights and southwest of Europe, has an area of 34,254 square miles.
measures. Including, however, the Azores and Madeira Islands in the
Communications. The Andean plateau has access to Atlantic Ocean, which politically form an integral part of
the sea by two mountain railways. One of these, the the republic, the area is 35,490 square miles. The length
Callao-Oroya line, traverses the western Cordillera and is of Portugal from north to south is approximately 300 miles
linked by a north extension to the gieat copper mines of anditsaverage widthisalittlelessthan 100 miles. Physi-
Pasco. The Southern Railway mounts over the west Cor- cally, Portugal is an integral part of the Iberian peninsula,
dillera to the north shore of Lake Titicaca at Puno whence its mountains and rivers being mainly prolongations of those
steamers connect it with the Bolivian railway system. of Spain. The longest river rising in Portugal is the Mon-
These two mountain railways with their extensions, to- dego. The chief rivers are the Minho, which forms part of
gether traverse about 900 miles. But much of the trans- the northern boundary; the Guadiana, which forms part of
port in the mountains is still carried by troops of llamas the southeastern frontier; the Duero and the Tagus.
driven by Indians. The river port of Iquitos, 2,300 miles Government. There are two chambers, viz.: the na-
from the Atlantic, is visited by ocean steamers. Large tional council and the second or upper chamber. The
river steamers navigate great stretches of the Amazonian former consists of 164 members elected for three years by
affluents. Metric weights and measures. direct suffrage; the latter is composed of 71 members,
Principal Towns, lama, the capital with manufactui'es elected by all the municipal councils and is renewable as to
of idss, furniture, etc.; Callao, the principal port; Cuzco, one half of the members every three years. The president
the ancient capital of the Incas; Arequipa, a cathedral town. is elected by both chambers, his term of oSice being for

four years; he may not be re-elected. He appoints the


POLAND ministers of state,
Commerce and
who are responsible to parliament.
Industry. The vine is the most gener-
The Country. Poland, whose independence has been allycultivated plant,and wine the mostimportant product.
re-established as the result of the war, consists of the Polish In the mountainous regions, rye is grown and sheep and
territories formerly incorporated into Russia, Austria and goats are reared; in the north, corn and cattle are raised;
Prussia. The largest area was recovered from Russia, the in the south, wheat and swine. Olive trees cover nearly
so-called "Congress" Poland; from Austria, Poland recov- 1,000,000 acres; figs, tomatoes, potatoes, oranges, nuts, etc.
ered Galicia, with the valuable oil and salt mines and from are grown. Fish, especially sardines and tunny fish are
Germany, Posen, West Prussia, and the necessary territory caught, cured and tinned for exportation. Cotton-spin-
for an outlet to the Baltic Sea. It has an estimated area of ning ranks next after fishing. Articles manufactured of
about 150,000 square miles. It consists essentially of the cork are largely exported. Other industries are silk, leather,
basins of the Vistula and the Warthe (a tributary of the glass, paper, and gold and silver filigree manufactures. Salt,
Oder), and stretches from the Carpathian Mountains to- gypsum and marble are exported.
wards the Baltic Sea. Only by a narrow corridor does it Communications. About 2,000 miles of railroads are in
reach the shore, and the Free City of Danzig, at the head operation, of which nearly half are state-owned.
of this corridor, lying outside of the Republic, is the port of Principal Towns. Lisbon, the capital and chief seaport;
Poland. Oporto, with extensive port wine trade; Setubal, noted for
Government. There are two chambers, a diet and a its sardine fisheries and export of fruit and salt; Braga,
senate, both elected by universal suffrage of both sexes. noted for its manufactures of firearms; Coimbra, an inland
The president, elected for a term ot seven years by the diet city with a famous university.
and senate united in a national assembly, is the supreme Colonies and Dependencies. Portugal has a large
commander of the army, and can make treaties with foreign colonial empire in Africa totahng 927,292 square miles and
powers. minor possessions in Asia, extending over 8,972 squan
Commerce and Industry. In the production of coal, Po- miles. Thus the total area of the colonies is 936,264 square
land ranks third among the European countries. 1 1 occu- miles.
pies fifth place among the petroleum producing countries of In Africa the colonies are: Cape Verde Islands, 1,480
the world. Iron ore, copper, lead and rock salt are exten- square miles, with the capital, Porto Praya; Guinea on the
sively mined. Rye is the chief cereal. Fruits, wheat, po- coast of Senegal, with 13,940 square miles; Principe and St
182 GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES
Thomas Islands \s-ith 360 square miles; Angola (Portuguese Union of Socialist Soviet Republics and is a federation of
West Africa) with 4S4,S00 square miles and a coast line of seven socialist republics: Russia proper including Siberia,
1,000 miles; capital, Loanda; and Mozambique (Portuguese Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Armenia, White Russia, Khiva, and
East Africa) with an area of 428,132 square miles; capital, Georgia; six autonomous republics, and ten autonomous
Lourenco Marques. areas. Georgia includes two additional autonomous repub-
In Asia the possessions are Goa, 1,469 square miles; Diu, lics and one autonomous area. Russia is mostly a plain and
169 square miles; and Timor, 7,330 square miles, in India; nowhere does the land rise to heights exceeding 1,200 feet;
and Macao, 4 square miles, in China. only in the fringing Caucasus, Crimean heights and Urals
are there peaks exceeding 5,000 feet; for roughly 200 miles

RUMANIA north of the Caspian Sea, the land is below sea level.
Neariy all the most useful rivers radiate from the Valdai
The Country. Rumania, which now has an area of 122,- Hills, the central boss. Of them the greatest is the Volga,
282 square miles, consisted in 1914, of the two principalities which flows east to Kasan and then south to the Caspian,
of Walachia and Moldavia, together with the Dobruja on receinng the Kama set of tributaries from the Urals. The
the other side of the Danube. To these were added after Don and the Dnieper flow to the Black Sea, the Dvina to
the great war, Bessarabia to the east and Bukowina to the the Baltic Sea across Latvia and the Volkhof to Lake
north of Moldana, along with Transjlvania and part of Ladoga which drains by the Neva to the Gulf of Finland.
the Hungarian plain. The physical structure of Rumania
Government. The government of the peoples and na-
is comparatively simple. Walachia is bordered on the
tionalities inhabiting the territory of Russia is vested in
north and Moldavia on the west by the great arc of the local, regional, and central Soviets or councils of workers
Carpathians. On the south and east this range passes into
and soldiers delegates. Only those have qualifications for
a region of hills which in Walachia has an extreme breadth
franchise who are earning a livelihood by productive labor.
The Dobruja, situated between the Black
of fifty miles.
The power hands
central is in the of the peoples commis-
Sea and the Danube in its northward course, is hilly in sars elected by the All-Russian so\iet congress convened
the north, plateau-like in the south and marshy along the
periodically in Moscow. Local affairs are settled by the
coast, especially in the deltaic land of the northeast.
local or regional Soviets, but matters pertaining to war,
Bessarabia, in soil and climate, belongs essentially to the
foreign affairs, foieign trade, etc. are in the hands of the
steppe lands of Russia. Transylvania, is, on the whole, central government. Many of the largest industries
a mountainous coimtry; on the east and south lie the have been socialized and are nm by the government,
Carpathians, while within the great curve formed by
though smaller industries are run by private ouTiers.
them is a high tableland, relieved by various ranges and
deeply dissected by river valleys. To the southwest of Commerce and Industry. Under normal conditions Rus-
saa isthe world's greatest grower of rye and barley, and was
Transylvania lies the Banat, much of which has been
second only to the United States in the production of oats
ceded to Rumania.
GoTernment. Constitutional monarchy. No act of the and wheal. Less than a quarter of these grain crops were
exported. Skins, hides and furs are also largely exported
king can become effective until it has been countersigned
under normal conditions. Flax and hemp are products of
by the minister of state. The executive power which be-
the wet soils of the west; sugar beets are cultivated in the
longs to the crown is generally exercised by the council of
southwest, near the Dnieper; and tobacco, vines, mulberry
ministers appointed and dismissed by the king. Parha-
trees and cotton are produced in the warm south. The for-
ment consists of two houses, a chamber of deputies and a
ests jield timber, wood pulp, wooo pitch and turpentine,
senate. All citizens of twenty-one years, paying taxes, are
and the tundra yields furs. Coal is mmed west of the Urals,
electors.
About 80 per south of Moscow and in the valley of the Donetz; iron is
Commerce and Industry. cent, of the pop-
mined in the first two coal fields, in the neighborhood of
ulation are engaged in agriculture. Wheal is the chief crop
Krivoi Rog, 100 miles northeast of Kherson and near
cultivated, but com and other cereals, the mulberrj-, to-
bacco and vines are also grown. Principal mining prod-
Kertch in the Crimea.
ucts are oil, salt, lignite, iron and copper ore. Metric Communications. In October 1917 the length of rail-

weights and measures. ways was 34,000 miles. There are over 20,000 miles of
Communications. About 7,500 miles of railway and a rivers, canals, and lakes navigable for steamers.
navigation service on the Danube and Black Sea are all PrincipalTowns. Moscow, the capital; Petrograd, the
under government control. former capital; Odessa, a great port on the Black Sea; Kief,
PrincipalTowns. Bukharest (Bucuresti), the capital; the former capital of LTcraine;Kharkof, the present capital
Jassy; Galatz, chief port on the Danube; Ismail, a river and industrial center.
port in Bessarabia Ivishenef , a trading center in Bessarabia.
; Russia in Asia and Dependencies. Siberia forms an in-
tegral part of So\"iet Russia; Turkestan, Khirghiz, Yakut,
and Buriat-Mongol are autonomous republics. Oirad is an
RUSSIA autonomous area. Allied to Soviet Russia, without form-
The Country. The former Russian empire extended ing, however, an integral part of it, is the former vassal state
from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean and from the Black of the Russian Empire:
Sea to the Arctic Ocean, stretching nearly half way around Bokhara, with an area of 83,000 square miles. It pro-
the globe and including an area of 8,500,000 square miles. duces mostly cotton and raw silk; wheat, hemp, tobacco,
Of this area it lost about 300,000 square miles to Finland, and fruit trees are extensively cultivated, and sheep,
Poland, Lat^•ia, Lithuania, Esthonia, which have been rec- camels, and horses are br^d in the steppes. Gold, alum,
ognized as independent countries and Bessarabia, which was salt, and sulphur are found. The principal towns are
annexed by Rumania. The official name of Russia is now: Bokhara, Kermineh, Karshi, and Charjui.
GAZETTEER OP PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 183

Khna, on the Sea of Aral, one of the seven members of


is
SPAIN
the Union. Its area is about; 24,000 square miles. It con-
sists mainly of sandy deserts, the only fertile part being the
The Country. Spain, a kingdom in the southwest of
Europe, occupying about five-sixths of the Iberian Pen-
Amu-Daria delta. Here grains and fruit are cultivated.
insula, has an area of 194,783 square miles. The Balearic
The chief industries are pottery and textile fabrics. Khiva
Islands and the Canary Islands form two of its forty-nine
is the capital.
provinces; the province of Cadiz includes Ceuta, a forti-

SALVADOR fied station on the north coast of Morocco. A greater part


of the surface is a tableland ranging in height from 2,000
The Country. Salvador, the smallest of the American feet to 3,0t)0 feet above sea level. This great table land is
republics and the only one of the Central American states enclosed by the Cantabrian Mountains and the Pyrenees
lying wholly on the Pacific, has an area of 13,253 square
on the north and the Sierra Morcna on the south. Outside
miles. The Pacific coast plain is narrow, and is backed by
tho plateau lie the highest summits of tho whole country,
the coast range of mountains, which rise above 7,000 feet,
tho Pic do Nethou in the Pyrenees being over 11,000 feet.
and contain many volcanoes. The chief river is the Lempa.
The plateau itself is traversed by four mountain-ranges
Government. The administrative atTairs of the republic which separate tho valley of the Ebro from that of the
are carried on, under the president, by a ministry of four
Duero. All tho considerable rivers except tho Ebro flow
members, having charge of the departments. Every citi-
westward to the Atlantic.
zen over eighteen years of ago not only has the right, but is
Government. Spain is a constitutional monarchy and
compelled to vote.
legislation is vested in the king and tho cortes (senate and
Commerce and Industry. Population is largely engaged congress). The senate consists of not more than 300 mem-
in agriculture. Coffee is the chief crop and the chief export;
bers and congress of deputies in the proportion of one to
cacao, sugar, indigo and tobacco are grown. Cattle are
every 50,000 of the population.
numerous. Gold, silver, copper, iron and mercury occur.
Commerce and Industry. Spain is largely an agricul-
Metric weights and measures. tural country. Wheat, barley, maize, rye, oats and rice
Communications. Total railroad mileage is 213 miles. are tho chief crops; the annual production of grape-juice
Principal Towns. San Salvador, the capital ; Santa Ana,
exceeds 500,000,000 gallons and of olive oil 385,000 tons.
center of the sugar-growing district, and San Miguel, an Silk culture and stock raiding are important branches of
agricultural center.
industry. Coal, iron, copper, lead, zinc, mercury, iron
pyrites, and lignite are mined. Tho chief imports are raw
SAN MARINO cotton, machinery, coal and coke, chiimical proiiucts and
The Country, One of the oldest states in Europe and fish; the chief exports are metals and mineral ores, wine,
one of the smallest republics in the woild, entirely sur- olive oil, oranges, cotton and manufactures and cork.
rountied by Italian territory. The frontier is 24 miles long Communications. Total length of railways is about
and encloses an area of 38 square miles. The state is hilly, 10,000 miles, owned by
private companies.
embracing spurs of the Apennines. Authority rests in the Principal Towns. Madrid, the capital; Barcelona, the
council of 60 popularly elected members; a third of whom chief seaport, on tho Mediterranean; Valencia, important
are renewable every three years, and from whom two se- center of tobacco and pottery; Seville, a thriving port and
lected councillors act as regents for a period of six months. chief city of Andalusia; Malaga, an important seaport and
Wine, cattle and stone are exported. The capital, whose health resort; Saragossa, capital of the former kingdom of
name is also San Marino, is situated on the Mt. TitanOo Aragon; Cartagena, fortified seaport on the Mediterranean.
Colonies and Dependencies, The former great colonial
SIAM empire of Spain is now considerably reduced. All colonies
are in Africa and occupy a total area of 128,149 square miles.
The Country. An independent kingdom
of southeaEtern
They consist of Spanish Morocco with 7,700 sq. miles, with
Asia in the Indo-Chinese peninsula, occupying an area of
the fortified towns of Ceuta and Melilla; Ifni, 965 sq. miles;
198,900 square miles. Tho climate is hot, but not un-
Rio de Oro, 109,200 sq. miles; and Spanish Guinea, includ-
healthy and the country is mountainous and forest-covered.
ing Fernando Po and other small islands, 10,284 sq. miles.
Government. Siam is nominally a constitutional, but
practically an absolute monarchy. The king, assisted by a
cabinet of 12 ministers with crown nominees, form a legis- SWEDEN
lative council. The Country. Sweden occupying the eastern and larger
,

Commerce and Industry. Rice is tho staple crop and the portion of the Scandinavian peninsula, has an area of 173,-
main export. Other produce includes pepper, sesamum, 035 square miles. Tho length is nearly 1,000 miles and it
cardamoms, areca nut, gamboge and tobacco. Teak is tho has a coast hno of over 1,500 miles. Besides the large num-
chief commercial ])roduct of tho forests. The mineral re- ber of small islands which fringe the coast, Sweden includes
sources are exlunsivo and varied, including tin, tungsten, the two largo Baltic islands of Gotland and Oland. Her
wolfram, coal and iron, zinc, manganese and antimony. islands cover an area of 3,000 sq. miles. Tho whole coun-
Communications. About 1,500 miles of railway are in try a tal)leland sloping from the Kjolen range to the Bal-
is
operation. It is now possible to travel by train to Bang- tic. No
less than 8 per cent of the surface of Sweden is
kok, via Penang (Georgetown) to Singapore. The Menam water, the immense number of lakes covering 14,000 square
is navigable by deep-draught launches during flood for 275 miles. The two largest are Wenner and Wetter, in the
miles. southern portion of the country and are connected by an
Principal Towns. Bangkok, the capital, principal port excellentsystem of canals.
and trading center; Ayuthia, trading center on the Menam Government. Sweden is a constitutional monarchy, the
Eiver king's power being exercised in conjunction with a council
184 GAZETTEER OP PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES
of state and a diet. There are two chambers, the first of adjacent to Constantinople and is now mainly confined
150 members and the second of 230. to Asia Minor, a peninsula of southwestern Asia. This
Commerce and Industry. Principal crops are oats , pota- peninsula from north to south varies in length from three
toes, barley, rye and wheat. Live stock are produced in hundred to four hundred miles and from east to west is
great number. A large amount of butter is exported. about 800 miles. Much of the district is an elevated
Forests of pine, fir and larch cover more than half of the plateau, the altitude varying from 6,000 to 2,500 feet
area and her output of timber and paper pulp is very large. above the sea. Among the chief mountains are the
The mining of iron ore and the production of iron and slee! Taurus Chains, stretching across the south of the country
is of utmost importance. Cream separators, matches, from the southwest shore of the Aegean to the the north
lighthouse apparatus, telephone supplies, motors and many of Syria, their principal peaks reaching from 7,000 feet to
kinds of electrical machinery are among the highly special- 10,000 feet; the Bulgar Mountains are upwards of 10,000
ized products of industry. Porcelain factories and the glass feet and the Ala Mountains, north of Adana, are 8,000 to
factories produce wares that have achieved a high reputa- 10,000 feet high. Between the mountains on the north
tion in the markets of the world. About 3,500,000 H.P. and on the south are several chains, from one of which
are available for hydroelectric development, of which —near Kaisarieh, soars Mount Argaeus, 13,100 feet and
800,000 are being used. Metric weights and measurements. the highest peak in Asia Minor. Flowing into the Black
Communications. Sweden has about 10,000 miles of Sea are the Chorok, the Yeshil Irmak, the Kizil Irmak
railway supplemented by an excellent system of canals. (Halys) and the Sakaria. Into the Mediterranean flow
Steamer communication is kept up on the internal water- the Sihun and the Jihun. In the east of Asia Minor are
ways along the coast during the open season. the ) sadwaters of both the Euphrates and the Tigris as
Principal Towns. Stockholm, the capital; Gottenborg well as of the Aras (Araxes). The lakes are the Tuz, 60
the chief seaport; Malmo, a seaport opposite Copenhagen; miles long; the Kirili, 30 miles long; the Eyerdir, 30 miles
Norrkoping, an important manufacturing town. long in Anatolia; and Lake Van 80 miles long.
Government. Constitutional republic with national as-
SWITZERLAND sembly elected by the people and a council of state ap-
The Country. Switzerland, an inland mountainous
pointed by the president. The executive power is entrusted
country in the central portion of the Alps, has an area of
to a cabinet responsible to the assembly.
15,976 square miles. The northwest of the country
Commerce and Industry. Agriculture is primitive, but
bounding France and Germany consists of some of the
the soil, where cultivable, is fertile and produces consider-
parallel ridges and valleys of the Jura Mountains. Be-
able crops of wheat, barley, cotton, tobacco, nuts, figs,
tween Lake Constance on the Rhine and the Lake of
ohves, grapes and other fruits. A large quantity of opium
Geneva on the Rhone are the Lakes Neuchatel, Zurich,
is groNvn. The exports include cereals, cotton, fruit,
Lucerne, Brienz, Bienne, etc., which all drain to, the Aar.
olive oil, tobacco, carpets and wool. Asia Minor is rich
Lake Geneva and Lake Constance each exceed 200 square
in minerals, which, however, are only slightly worked.
miles in area; Lake Neuchatel covers 93 square miles.
Owing to its elevation, much of Switzerland is under Communications. About 1,500 miles of railways are
permanent snow. in operation. The Bagdad railroad extends from
so-called

Government. Smtzerland is a confederate republic the Bosphorus via Adana and Aleppo to Nisibin.
of twenty-five cantons. The parliament consists of the Principal Towns. Constantinople, the capital; Smyrna,
state council (44 members) and the national council an important seaport; Brusa, the ancient capital and cen-
(189 members). The federal assembly which consists ter of silk manufacture; Sivas, a mining center; Angora,
of both chambers, is the supreme authority. The referen- the provisional capital.
dum is used when legislative measures are submitted
directly to the people. The separate cantons have an UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
independent system of local government.
The Country. The Union of South Africa is a self-govern-
Commerce and Industry. The thousands of tourists
ing dominion of the British Empire; area 473,089 square
who visit Switzerland have made hotel-keeping one of the miles. The Union of South Africa consists of the four prov-
principal industries of the country. Silk, cotton and
inces, theCape of Good Hope, Natal, Transvaal and Orange
textile mills employ thousands, the manufacture of ma-
Free State. South Africa is a vast tableland with a lofty
chinery, clocks and watches, and dairy farming are the
rim to the east and south, represented by the Drakensberg
most important economic factors of Switzerland. Large
and other mountains. The main drainage is carried west
quantities of milk are consumed in chocolate factories
by the Orange and Vaal Rivers. The Cape region has a
and milk-condensing concerns, and in the manufacture
vegetation of evergreen trees, shrubs and heaths; the well-
of cheese for export. Metric weights and measures.
watered eastern terraces are clothed with a rich wooded
Communications. About 4,000 miles of railways are
savannah, with palms on the coastal belt; over vast acres
in operation, a large portion of which is electrified.
of the eastern tableland there is an almost treeless grass-
Principal Towns. Zui'ich, gi'eat industrial center;
land, the veldt, which merges westwards into scrub and
Basel, manufacture of silk ribbons; Bern, the capital;
bush, composed of thorn bushes and other drought-
St. Gall (St. Gallen), industrial center south of Lake
resisting plants. In the north the gi-assland is wooded,
Constance; Lausanne, educational center; Geneva, head-
and is known as the bush veldt. Southwest /I /"nVa, formerly
quarters of the League of Nations, and noted for its
German, with an area of 322,400 square miles, is now ad-
watches; Lucerne, great tourist center.
ministered by the Union under a mandate from the League
TURICEY of Nations.
The Country. Turkey, now reduced in size to about Government Under the act constituting the Union,
174,900 square miles, comprises a portion of Thrace the sovereign appoints a governor-general, who, with an
GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 185

executive council, administers the executive government Government. The country, a federal republic of forty-
of the Union. Departments of state have been estab- eight sovereign states, is bound together by the pact of

lished, the governor-general appointing officers to ad- 1787, put in force in 1789. The Federal Government,
minister them. Legislative power is vested in a parlia- from its seat at Washington, deals with only such matters
ment consisting of the king, a senate and a house of as the states have delegated to it, and each state retains
assembly. The senate may not be dissolved within ten complete authority over all unenumerated categories.
years of the establishment of the Union. There must be The government looks after foreign relations,army and
a session of parliament every year. navy, and dependencies, and controls interstate trade,
Commerce and Industry. The most important cereal customs, post office, currency, bankruptcy and patents.
crop is Tobacco is widely grown. The leading
corn. The ordinary civil and criminal law are state matters,
pastoral occupation is sheep raising. Dairy farming is but income tax, suits between residents of different
very successful in Natal on the higher and cooler eastern states, prohibition, and the majority of banks are

terraces and in similarly situated parts of the Cape under the control of Washington. The president and
province. Ostriches are reared. The mineral wealth is vice-president are elected every four years. The vice-

enormous; ofthis, gold represents considerably more than president presides over senate, and, in case the president

half. Ranking second to the gold mines as regards the dies, fills out his term. The president is commander-in-
monetary value of their output are the diamond mines. chief of the army and navy, and until it comes to treaty-
Coal is mined in the Transvaal and Orange Free State. making, is supreme in foreign affairs. He can, within ten
Among metals of secondary importance are copper and days of its passage, veto any bill. The senate, representing
tin. The Union is now the world's largest producer of the states as sovereign entities, has two members from each
conmdum, and has valuable asbestos mines. As regards state, regardless of its importance; the house has state del-

manufactures, the products include biscuits, jams and egations proportionate to their population. Senators sit
preserves, beer, cement, soap, candles, matches, furniture, for six years, and, as one third retire every second year, the

and shoes, explosives, chemicals, tobacco, life of the senate is never interrupted and is periodically re-
leather, boots
vehiclesand so forth. newed. Congressmen are elected for two years, a general
election being held every presidential year and again two
Communications. The whole transport system of
— —
South Africa railways, ports and harbors is owned and
years later.

managed by the State. There are nearly 10,000 miles of Commerce and Industry. The mineral supply is one of
railway. the chief natural sources of wealth of the country, which
exceeds every other in its output of coal, iron, oil and sil-
Principal Towns. Johannesburg, the center of the
densely populated gold mining region; Cape Town, the
ver. The deposits of gold, quick-silver, lead and cop-
per also are extensive. In the west and northeast are
premier port of South Africa; Durban ranks second,
dense forests of pine, spruce, birch and maple; in the
and is the principal port for Johannesburg; the nearest
southeast the cedar, pine, and many valuable hard woods
port to the latter city is, however, Delagoa Bay (Lourenco
abound; in the east-central part grow oak, maple, hickory,
Marques), which takes a certain portion of the Transvaal
and East London. elm, and other useful trees, while in California are found
trade; Pretoria, Port Elizabeth
the giant sequoia trees. The great agricultural region, rais-
ing three fourths of the corn and wheat crop of the world,

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA is in the northern and central part of the Mississippi Valley.
Three fourths of the cotton supply of the world, and half
Tlie Area of the contiguous territory of
Country. the tobacco crop, together with corn, rice, and tropical
continental United States is 3,026,791 square miles. fruits, grow luxuriantly in the south; grains, vegetables,
fruits, including grapes, are cultivated extensively in
Length from north to south is 1,780 miles, width from east
California. The raising of cattle, sheep, hogs and poul-
to west 3,100 miles, coastline 21,354 miles. Mountains
and highlands cover the eastern and western borders; try, are important industries, yielding an immense product
the Rocky Mountains in the west, the Appalachians in for export.

the east. Short slopes and coastal plains di-ained east- Communications. Total railway mileage 270,000. Total
ward by the Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna, Potomac tonnage of American shipping about 7,000,000. The New
and other rivers, and westward by the Columbia and York Barge Canal from Buffalo on Lake Erie to Troy on
Colorado, extend from the mountains to the sea-boards. the Hudson River is 352 miles long, to which its Oswego and
Between the mountain-systems is the great central valley Cayuga-Seneca tributaries add another 100 miles. The
of the Ohio-Missouri-Mississippi river system. Waterfalls, Great Lakes are connected with each other and by canals
chief of which Niagara, are features along many of the
is with the Atlantic Ocean, Saint Lawrence River and the
rivers. The climates vary in different regions, owing to Mississippi River. There are over 290 streams in the
the size of the country. Its northern regions are in a zone country used to a substantial degree for navigation, with
where winters are long and severe; its southern extremities an approximate navigable mileage of 26,400.
lie near the tropics. But for the most part the country Principal Towns. New York City, Chicago, Philadel-
is temperate, though tiie summers are much hotter and phia, Detroit, Cleveland, St. Louis, Boston, Baltimore,
the winters colder than in western Europe. The prevailing Pittsburgh, Los Angeles, Buffalo. San Francisco, Milwau-
winds of the northwest are from the Pacific Ocean; they kee, Washington, the capital.
give the western coast a mild and fairly uniform climate. Dependencies. The total area of Dependencies and
In Florida and Texas there are regions where tropical non-contiguous territory of the United States is 716,740
vegetation flourishes; in California and the states along square miles divided as follows: On the Continent of
the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic, as far north as Virginia, America, Alaska, with an area of 590,884 square miles,
subtropical plants are found. forms a territory of the United States, governed conjointly
1S6 GAZETTEER OF PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES
by Congress at Washington and by the local legislative as- gold mines are worked. Silver, copper, lead, magnesia
sembly consisting of 8 senators and 16 representatives. and lignite coal are found. The exports consist almost en-
The seat of government and largest town Juneau. Other
is tirely of animal products. Metric weights and measxires.
dependencies in Ameiica are the Panama CanalZone, with Communications. River transport is very extensive.
an area of about 500 square miles, the ViTgin Islands, with The Uruguay affords the principal means of communica-
an area of 132 square miles, (formerly Danish West Indies), tions, while railways of a total length of nearly 1,600 miles
and its capital, St. Thomas, and the island of Porto Rico, linkup the ports with the chief centers of commerce.
with an area of 3,425 square miles and its capital, San Juan. Principal Towns. Montevideo, the capital and chief
In the Pacific Ocean is the most important dependency, seaport; Paysandu, seaport on the Uruguay, with meat
the Philippine Islands, with a total area of 114,400 square packing interests; Salto, also on the Umguay, with largo
milea and the capital, Manila. A governor-general, ap- trade in hides,
pointed by the president of the United States, administers
the islands in conjunction with the local legislative body,
VENEZUELA
consisting of two houses, the senate and a house of rep- The Country. Venezuela has an area of 398,594 squara
resentatives. Other dependencies in Oceania are the miles. It comprises roughly the basin of the Orinoco
islands of Guam, with an area of 225 square miles; Hawaii, and the district surrounding the Gulf of Maracaibo. The
with an area of 6,449 square miles with the capital Hono- country is divided geographically into three distinct zones,
lulu, and American Samoa, with an area of 102 square miles. viz., the extensive plains and river valleys, Icnown as llanos,
affording excellent pasturage for cattle; the mountain sec-
tion, formed by three mountain ranges; and the table-
URUGUAY lands. This variety of physical features yields an equal
The Country.Uruguay hag an area of 72,153 square variety of climate, products and soil.
miles. The most notable feature of Uruguay is its long Government. Legislative authority of the republic is
rolling plains, comprisingalmost the entire length of the vested in a congress of two chambers, the senate and the
country, occasionally broken by low mountain ranges and chamber of deputies. The former consists of forty mem-
copiously watered by numerous streams. The Uruguay bers elected for three years, two for each state. The latter
River, forms the western boundary with its chief tributary isconstituted by du-ect election for three years. The exec-
the Negro, draining the entire central portion of the re- utive power is exercised by the president in conjunction
public. The climate is generally moderate and healthy. with the cabinet ministers through whom he acts. The
GoTemment The executive is divided between the president is elected by congress for seven years; there is no
president and a national administrative council. The restriction as to re-election.
president is elected for four years by direct vote and may Commerce and Industry. Coffee and cacao are largely
be re-elected after an interval of eight years. The na- grown and exported and wheat and other cereals thrive.
tional administrative council consists of nine members, six The mountains are heavily wooded and many useful trees
of the majority party and three of the largest minority and plants are found. The mines produce gold, silver,
party; three retiring every two years. The election is by copper and lead; the various asphalt lakes yield the best
direct popular vote. The president appoints the ministers quality of asphalt; along the coast pearls are obtained.
of foreign atfairs, of war and maiine and of the interior and Metric weights and measures.
has supreme control of these departments; the other min- Communications. Total railway mileage is about 700
isters are appointed by the council. The legislative power miles. The waterways of Venezuela form important means
is vested in a parhament of two houses, the senate and the of communication and transportation, there being no less
chamber of representatives, which meet in annual session. than 70 navigable rivers in the country with a total navig-
In the interval of the session, a permanent committee of able length of over 6,000 nailes of which the Orinoco, with
two senators and five members of the lower house assumes its tributaries, furnishes neaily 4,000 miles. A regular
the control of the executive power. The representatives steamship service is maintained on the Orinoco, between
are chosen for three years. The senators are chosen for six Ciudad Bolivar and the interior, as well as points along the
yearsby an electoral college whose members are du-ectly coast. Ocean-going vessels enter Lake Maracaibo which
by the people.
elected is navigable in its entirety.
Commerce and Industry. Sheep and cattle raising are Principal Towns. Caracas, the capital; Maracaibo, the
the principal industry. Agriculture is also practiced to a city with extensive export trade in coffee, cocoa and rub-
considerable extent, nearly all of the cereals being growTi. ber; Ciudad Bohvar, on the right bank of the Orinoco,
Wine is produced in considerable quantities, and tobacco with export trade of coffee, hides, etc.; Puerto Cabello, and
and olives are cultivated. In the northern department, La Guaua, seaports.
DISTANCES BETWEEN- THB CITIBS OF THE V. S.

DISTANCES BETWEEN THE LARGER CITIES


OF THE UNITED STATES

The distances are by the shortest usually traveled railroad routes. Compiled from the
War Department's official table of distances.

Fbom
iEEAS OF THE EAETH

PRINCIPAL RELIGIONS
OF THE WORLD

Copu, etc. 7,000,000


CHARACTER OF lATO) OF THE EARTH

'^RE MILES

PRINCIPAL RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS


OF THE UNITED STATES
VOTE FOR PRESIDENT
. ..., . . .... . . ... ....., . .

VOTE FOR PRESIDENT

PRESIDENTIAL VOTE 1876-1924


Year and Total Elect. Year and Total Elect.
Party Candidate and State Vote Vote Party Candidate and State Vote Vote
1876
Rep Rutherford B. Hayes, O. 4,033, 9S0 1904
Dem Samuel J. Tildeii, N. Y 4,284,885 Rep Theodore Roosevelt, N. Y.. 7,628,834 336
Greenback. Peter Cooper, N. Y 81,740 Dem Alton B. Parker, N. 5,084,491 Y 140
Prohib Green Clay Smith, Ky 9,S22 Soc Eufjene V. Debs, Ind 402.460
Amer James B. Waker, HI 2,636 Prohib Silas C. Swallow, Pa 259,257
Peop Thomas E. Watson, G;i 114.753
Soc. L Charles H. Corregan, N. Y. 33,724 . . .

Rep J\irES A. Garfikld, Ohio. 4,449,0S3


Dem W.
Hancock, Pa S. 4.442.030
Greenback. James B. Weaver, Iowa. . 307.306 1908
Prohib Ncal Dowe, Me 10,305 Rep William H. Taft, Ohio 7.679.006 321
Amer John W. Phelps, Vt 707 Dem William J. Bryan, Neb 6,409.106 162
Soc Eugene V. Debs, Ind. 420.820
1884 Prohib Eugene W. Chafin, 111. 252.683
Dem Gro\'er Ci.E\'ELANr), N. Y. 4.011.017 219 Ind. League Thos. L. Hisgen, Mass. 83.562
Rep James G. Blaine, Me 4,848,334 182 Peop Thos. E. Watson, Ga. . 28,131
Prohib John P. St. John. Kan 151,809 Soc. L August Gillhaus, N. Y. 13,825
Greenback. Benj. F. Butler, Mass 133.825

1912
Rep BENjAiON Harrison, Ind 5,444,337 Dem WnoDROW Wilson. N. J
Dem Grover Cleveland. N. Y 6,286.214
5,540,050 Rep William H. Taft, Ohio .5.483.922
Prohib Clinton B. Fisk. N. J 250.125 Prog Theodore Roosevelt, N. Y. . . 4,126.020
U. Labor. . A. J. Streeter, 111 146.897 Soc Eugene V. Debs. Ind 901,873
United L.. . R. H. Cowdry, 111 2.808 Prohib. Eugene W. Chaplin. Ariz.
. 207.928
Amer Jas. L. Curtis, N. Y 1.591
Soc. L. . . Arthur E. Reimer, Mass
. . .

29,259
Soc 2,063

1916
Dem Gro%t:r Cleveland, N. Y.. . 5,554.414 277 Dem. WooDROW Wilson, N. J
Rep Ben. Harrison, Ind
.
9,129.606 277
5.190.802 145 Rep. Chas. E. Hughes, N. Y
Peop James B. Weaver, Iowa 1,027.329 22
. .
8.538.221 254
Soc. . . Allen J. Benson. N. Y 585.113
Prohib John Bidwell, Cal 271.058 Prohib. Frank Hanly, Ind
Soc. Lab... Simon Wing, Mass
J. 220.506
21,164 Soc. L.. Arthur Reimer, Mass 13,403

1896
Rep William McKinley, Ohio. . . . 7,035,638 271 1920
Dem WiHi-am J. Bryan, Neb l ^ ,^, n,-c it.: Rep. . . Warren G. H.\rding. Ohio. . 16.138.914 404
Peop WiUiim J. Bryan, Neb / 6,467,946 176 Dem. . James M. Cox, Ohio 9.142.438 127
Prohib Joshua Levering, Md 141 ,676 Prohib. Aaron Sherm.an Watkins 192.438
Nat.-Dem.. John M. Palmer, HI 131.529 Soc. . . Eugene V. Debs, Ind 915.302
Soc. Lab. Ch-'.rles H. Matchett, N. Y.. 36.454 Far.-L.. Perley Parker Christensen...
. . . . . .
. 272,514
Nat. Charles E. Bentley, Neb 13,969

1900 1924
Rep William McKintxy, Ohio. ... 7.219.530 292 Rep CALVIN COOLIDGE 15.718,789 382
Dem W iliiam J. Bryaa, Neb 6,358,071 155 Dem John W. Davis .378.962 136
Prohib John G. Woolley, 111 209.166 Prog Robt. M. LaFollettc. . . ,822.319 13
A.-F. Peop. Wharton Barker, Pa 50,373 Far.-L....William Z. Foster 37.008
Soc Dem. Eugeae V. Debs, Ind
. 96,768 . Soc.L.... Frank T. Johns 28.161
Soc. L Jos. F. MaUonev, Mass 32,75 1 Prohib... Herman P. Fans 20.337
U.Christian J. F. R. Leonard, Iowa 1,059 Amer. Gilbert O. Nations
. . . .
2.236
U. Reform. Seth H. EUis, Ohio 5,698 Com. Ld. William J. WaUace 3,257

DATA OF STATES
Admitted to the Area Rep. Elec. Admitted to the Area Rep. Elec
State Union Sq. IVL Cong State Union Sq. M. Cong. Vote
Alabama Dec.14, 1819. . 51.998 Nebraska March 1867.
1, 77.520 8
Arizona Feb.14, 1912. . . 113,956 Nevada Oct. 31, 1864. 110.690 3
Arkansas June 15, 1836. . . 53.335 New Hampshire. .
'June 2 1 1788.
, 9.341 4
California Sept. 9. 1850. . . . 158.297 New Jersey *Dec. 18, 1787. . 8.224 14
Colorado Aug. 11876
, 103.948 New Mexico Jan. 6, 1912. . 122,634 3
Connecticut *Jan. 9, 1788 4.965 New York 'July 26, 1788. 49,204 45
Delaware *Dec. 7, 1787 ... . 2.370 North Carolina. . . 'Nov. 21, 1789. 52,426 12
Florida March 3, 1845.. 58.666 North Dakota Nov. 2, 1889. . , 70,837 S
Georgia *Jan. 2, 1788 59,265 Ohio Nov. 29, 1802. 41,040 24
Idaho July 3, 1890 83.888 Oklahoma Nov. 16, 1907. 70,057 10
Blinois Dec. 3. 1818 56.665 Oregon Feb. 14. 1859. . 96,699 5
Indiana Dec. 11, 1816. . 36,354 Pennsylvania. . . .'Dec. 12, 1787. . 45.126 38
Iowa Dec. 28, 1846. . . 56.147 Rhode Island 'May 29, 1790. . 1,248 5
Kansas Jan. 29, 1861. .. 82.158 South Carolina. . .'May 23, 1788. . 30,939 9
Kentucky June 1, 1792 40,598 South Dakota Nov. 2. 1889. . 77,615 5
Louisiana April 8, 1812. . , 48.506 Tennessee June 1, 1796. . 42,022 12
Maine March 15. 1820.. 33,040 Texas Dec. 29. 1845.. 265,896 20
Maryland 'April 28, 1 788. . 12.327 Utah Jan. 4, 1896. . . 84.590 4
Massachusetts. . . 'Feb. 6, 1788. . . 8.266 Vermont March 4, 1791.. 9.564 4
Michigan Jan. 26, 1837.. . S7.980 Virginia 'Tune 26. 1788. . 42.627 12
Minnesota Alay 11, 1858. . «4,6S2 Washington Nov. 11, 1589. 69.127 7
Mississippi Dec. 10. 1817. . . 46.S65 West Virginia Tune 19, 1363. . 24,170
Missouri Aug. 10, 1821 .. . 69,420 Wisconsin May 29, 1848. . 56,C66
Montana Nov. 8, 1889 146,997 Wyocning July 10, 1890.. 97.914
•Thirteen Original States.
CROSS-WORD PUZZLE No. I
1
CROSS-WORD PUZZLE No. II
1
CROSS-WORD PUZZLE No. Ill
CROSS-WORD PUZZLE No. IV

DEFINITIONS
HORIZONTAL

1. The Gopher State (ab.) 17. Province in Union of S 24. GreenMountainStateCab.) 37. Capita! of Bolivia
4. The Stub Toe State (ab.) Africa 26. City in Peru 39. Each (ab.)
8. Unaspirated 19. Sinned 29. Southeastern State (ab.) 40. Prefix meaning half
10. Fervor 21. Previous month (ab.) 32. Artificial waterway 42. City in Russia
12. And (Latin) 22. Protract 34. Edible seaweed 44. Free from danger
13. City in Northern Peru 23. U. S. insular possession 36. Prefix meaning out 45. City in Oklahoma
16. Central State (ab.) (ab.)

VERTICAL

1. River in Colombia 8. River in Siberia 20. Capital of Esthonia 31. Dinner


2. Enclosed 9. Smallest state (ab.) 25. Frosts a cake 33. An edge-tool (pi.)
3. Country in Asia 11. A city in Italy 27. The Golden State (ab.) 35. To sow
5. Mountains of U. S. 14. Height of land (ab.) 28. The Cotton State (ab.) 38. Keystone State (ab.)
6. Group of Stales (ab.) 15. Golfing term 29. Girl's name 41. Mother
7. Domesticate 18. City in Italy 30, One of Philippine Islands 43. A New England Stateobj

195
CROSS-WORD PUZZLE No. V
CROSS-WORD PUZZLE No. VI
? -5

""""
CROSS-WORD PUZZLE No. VH
15 IS IT i«

DEFINITIONS
CROSS-WORD PUZZLE No. VIH
I i- 3 •
CROSS-WORD PUZZLE No. IX
1
CROSS-WORD PUZZLE No. X
CROSS-WORD PUZZLE No. XI

CROSS-WORD PUZZLE No. XH

?==EH=='
CROSS -WORD PUZZLE No. XIII

i^-'
CROSS-WORD PUZZLE No. XIV
.
^ 5

21
^^UJtlOU^i aBOORAPUICAt« GROSS -WORD PUZ2 LBS
CROSS -troRD PUZZEE W* U
PlAfR

CROSS -WORD -PUZZLE No. I


SOLUTIONS GEOGRAPHICAL CROSS-WORD PUZZLES
CROSS WORD PUZZLE No. IX
; ;

To Prevent Disease and Prolong Life


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Women's Foundation for Health National Organization for Public
National Tuberculosis Association Health Nursing
National Committee for Mental American Association of Industrial
Hygiene Physicians and Surgeons
American Heart Association
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