Mexico’s potential and exploratory strategy of

unconventional plays (shale oil and gas)

Ing. J. Antonio Escalera Alcocer

OTC 2013, 6-9 May, Houston, Texas

The 2013-2017 PEMEX Business Plan establishes one
objective and five main strategies for Exploration
PEMEX Business Plan

Strategic Objectives of PEP

▪ The Plan consists of 15

strategic objectives and 49
strategies.

Increase the reserves inventory
through new discoveries and
reclassification.
Increase the production of
hydrocarbons.

Exploration Strategies
1▪ Increase the level of oil
reserves booking in shallow
waters and onshore areas.
2▪ Accelerate the evaluation of
the Gulf of Mexico’s deep
water potential.
3▪ Extend the exploration
opportunities’ portfolio in
non-associated wet gas areas.
4▪ Intensify the delineation
activity so as to accelerate
the development of proven
reserves.
5▪ Intensify the evaluation of
the potential of both shale oil
and gas.

Source: Plan de Negocios de Petróleos Mexicanos y Organismos Subsidiarios 2013-2017

2
2

Regional perspective of oil and gas shales in Mexico
 Studies are based on the information of

EUA
USA
Haynesville

Sierra Marathon
Ouachita

Eagle Ford

BurroPicachos

Sabinas

Burgos
Mz

Golfo de Mexico
Gulf of Mexico

Océano
Pacífico

Tampico Misantla

Veracruz

Upper
Jurassic
shale
area Superior
Área de
Lutitas del
Jurásico
Esc.: 1:9,000,000

100

200

 Upper

Jurassic plays (La Casita and
Pimienta) from the Chihuahua, Sabinas,
Burgos and Tampico-Misantla basins are
equivalent to the producing Haynesville
Formation in the USA.

 Technically

Upper
Cretaceous
area
Área de
Lutitas del shale
Cretácico
Superior
0

 Upper Cretaceous plays in the Chihuahua,

Sabinas, Burro Picachos and Burgos basins
in northeastern Mexico represent the
continuations of the productive Eagle Ford
Formation in southeastern USA.

Chihuahua

México

1,000+ wells, as well as geological and
geophysical information generated in 75
years of Pemex exploration.

400
Kms

recoverable
prospective
resources were estimated through the
integration of the results of regional
geological-geochemical studies.

3

Update of shale oil/gas potential
In a first evaluation, resources were quantified with a
mean value of 297 Tcf (60 Bboe) primarily considering gas.
Oil
Gas and condensate
Dry Gas
In study
Mexican Republic

Continued data integration and interpretation has allowed
distinction of the expected hydrocarbon type, with an
estimated mean of technically recoverable resources of
60.2 Bboe, 53% corresponding to oil and the rest to dry
and wet gas.

kilometers

PEP 2013
60.2 Bboe

PEP 2011, Tcf
P90
Avg. 301.5*
P10
0

100

200

P90

300

Media

400

P10

* In the order of 60 Bboe

28.3,

31.9,

47%

53%

Gas = 141.5 Tcf

Oil = 31.9 Bb

Wet
36.8

30.7

500

Dry
104.7

Tampico-Misantla

1900n
1900r
1900n
aal
1900r
aal
Burro-Picachos

Veracruz

4

The assessment methodology follows current
international standards
Presence of hydrocarbons

Organic richness

Example: Pimienta Formation (Tithonian)

Maturity

Key parameters
Area

Thickness

Depth

Depth

Sw

P

Fairway
Thicknesses

Porosity
T

Producer
Focus

Shc

HC

Prospective areas

In-situ
IH
S2
COT

Organic
Richness

Ro
Tmax

Thermal
maturity

Bo
Bg
RGA

ρ
Hydrocarbons
Retained

Lithology
Mineralogy
Fracturability

Volumetric Assessment (petrophysical method):

Overlapping geological, geochemical and
conventional production element maps are
the basis for the definition of unconventional
plays and prospective areas.

Resources = A·T·Ф·So,g·RF/FVFo,g
A – Area
T– Average thickness
Ф – Porosity
So,g – Oil or gas saturation

RF– Recovery factor
FVF– Formation volume factor
(FVF Boi (oil); FVF Bgi (gas))

5

Oil and Gas Shales Exploration Project
Strategy

N

 Give certainty to the quantified
prospective resources, the hydrocarbon
type and appraise productivity in the
prospective areas.

Chihuahua
Burro-Picachos

Sabinas
Burgos

GulfGolfo
of
de
México
Mexico

Tampico Misantla

Área de las
Basin
cuencas
areas

Prospective
Áreas prospectivas
prioritarias
areas

0

250

Veracruz

 Continue geological and geochemical
studies to increase the understanding of
unconventional petroleum systems.
 Apply state-of-the-art technology
reduce uncertainty in these plays.

500
kilometers
Kilómetros

Escala Gráfica

 Preferential assessment of oil and wet
gas prone areas.

to

Project Exploration Oil and Gas Shales

Goals

 Total area: 200,000 km2
 Prospective area: ~120,000 km2
 Available production facilities in TampicoMisantla, Burgos and Veracruz basins

In a 4-year horizon:
 Drill 175 wells
 Acquire ~10,000 km2 of 3D seismic
 Invest ~3,000 million USD
6

PEMEX Exploration Stages for Shale oil/gas basins
Pemex has defined an exploration process to reduce uncertainty on the resource
estimation and has set the basis for commercial development, taking environmental
regulations and sustainability into account for the entire process.

Stage1

Stage2

Stage3

Prospectivity, identification of
resources

Geological characterization and
uncertainty reduction

Commercial development

Regional analysis

Shale plays studies

Plan development

Potential plays
identification

Sweet fairways
identification and
delineation

Well fracturing design for high
production
Cost efficiency

Ranking basins
and shale levels
Resources
assessment

Sustainability
Drilling of pilot well
Concept test

Pilot leads
portfolio

Results evaluation of
pilot well

Drilling appraisal
and fairway wells
delineation

Initial reservoir
characterization
studies

Pozos
Horizontales

Well data acquisition for geochemical and geomechanical properties
Multi-fracturing design efficiency
Well fracturing results monitoring and performance production

7

Sabinas – Burro-Picachos – Burgos provinces
 Hydrocarbon type: dry gas, wet gas and oil.
 Estimated technically recoverable resources in the Cretaceous
(Eagle Ford and Agua Nueva) and Jurassic (La Casita and
Pimienta) plays amount to 8.5 and 15.3 Bboe, respectively.
Sabinas
Basin

Producing Wells USA
Black Oil
volatile oil
Condensed

Eagle Ford/Agua Nueva

Wet Gas
Dry Gas

Basin
Burgos

Play Eagle Ford / Agua Nueva

Gulf
of
Mexico

 Five wells have been drilled along the continuation of the
dry and wet gas trends from south Texas, with a 60%
commercial success and booking 51 million boe of 3P
reserves.
 In order to test the continuity of the wet gas trend, two
wells are in completion and two more will be drilled.
La Casita/Pimienta
 The Arbolero-1 well, proved the shale gas concept in La
Casita and Pimienta formations.
 The Anhelido-1 well tested 35°API oil in the Pimienta and
the Nuncio-1 well will test the extension of this play to the
north.

Mesozoic
Burgos

 Reserves at Anhelido-1 and Arbolero-1 are estimated around
63 million bboe.
8

The Anhelido-1 well is the first producer of shale oil in Mexico
Anhelido-1 Well
ANHELIDO 1

NW

SE

1100-

1200-

 Initial production: 429 bpd of oil and 1.3 MMcfd of
gas.
 Cumulative production: 23,000 barrels.
 Estimated ultimate recovery: 250-500 (M) barrels.
 45 Development wells are expected to be drilled in
a 20 km2 area.
longitud=1635 m

1300-

Navegación=1435 m
1400-

J. PIMIENTA
1500-

H=52.7 m

J. OLVIDO

1600-

Production forecast

Proved reserves (3 Wells)
probable reserves (12 Wells)

2000
m

Possible ReserveE (30 Wells)

 17 Hydraulic fractures were made in order to
improve the flow capacity and recovery
9

Seismic surveys in Burro-Picachos and south Burgos will
allow an increased understanding of these plays

South Burgos 2D

Galaxia 3D

4,488 km

 Objective: To define the geological and structural
framework of the Pimienta and Agua Nueva plays.

Galaxia 3D

1,500 km2

 Objective: To define the characteristics of the Eagle
Ford play.
Sur de
Burgos 2D

Anhelido 3D

700 km2

 Objective: To define brittle and ductile zones in the
Pimienta and Agua Nueva formations in the
Anhelido-1 well area.
Anhelido 3D

Kilometers
0

20

100

10

Azimuthal attributes analysis from
existing 3D seismic data
Geomechanical properties
Arbolero-1

Karma – Anáhuac Area

Special
seismic
processing
and
azimuthal AVO studies are performed
in order to:
 Identify and map ductile and brittle
areas.

Arbolero-1

Kilómeters
0

50

100

Unconventional reservoir properties
(COT)
Arbolero-1

Base (20 ms)

 Predict organic richness by multiattribution analysis calibrated with
petrophysical and geochemical
properties in existing wells.
 Define the number of fractures and
location of development wells.
 Optimize the number of wells for
future development .

0.1

Fragility

60-80 ms
[dimensionless] 0.4
11

Tampico-Misantla Basin
resource estimation and area ranking
 The basin is mainly oil prone, with a strip of wet gas in
front of the Sierra Madre Oriental. Resources of 30.7
Bboe have been estimated.
 In the most interesting area, A1, the Axochitl-1 well is
being drilled to test the concept of shale oil in the
Upper Jurassic Pimienta play.
 At least 10 wells are expected to be completed this
year and start acquisition of 1,200 km2 of 3D seismic
in the northern portion.
 In addition, special processing will be applied to
existing 3D seismic to perform azimuthal AVO.

A2
Limonaria 3D

Axochitl-1

Existing 3D seismic
3D Seismic acquisition
Seismic processing

A1
Áxochitl-1

1.5 km

1,500 m

12

Distinct challenges exist according to the stage of
development of unconventional plays
Level of
activity

China
France

Chile

Venezuela

Ukraine

USA

Poland
Russia

Algeria

Colombia Brazil

Argentina

Canada

Romania

<

Challenges

Technology
(examples)

<

Exploration (uncertainty reduction)

<

GB

Mexico Australia

Development (pilot and development)




Proof of concept
Define development strategy
Build an efficient supply chain
Adjust organization for
unconventionals







3D Micro- & nano-pore petrophysics  New fracturing techniques
Geomechanics
 New horizontal well design
Microseismic
Completions
Multiple hydraulic fracturing

Optimize acquisitions and contracting
Manage field operations
Ensure water management and
environmental sustainability
Ensure availability of resources
(human, technical and financial)

Production



Production facilities
Reservoir management
Technology portfolio
management

 Land use efficiency /
“Macroperas”
 Horizontal wells with
multiple fracturing and
no environmental impact
13

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