You are on page 1of 48

A)

B)
C)
D)

1.Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ________ changes


throughout the human life span.
cross-sectional
embryonic
genetic
social

A)
B)
C)
D)

2.Dr. Birkin's major research interest is the development of motor skills in children. It is
most likely that Dr. Birkin is a ________ psychologist.
cognitive
developmental
biological
psychodynamic

A)
B)
C)
D)

3.One of the three major concerns of developmental psychology involves a focus on


puberty and menarche.
continuity and stages.
imprinting and object permanence.
conservation and egocentrism.

A)
B)
C)
D)

4.Distinguishing between very gradual and very abrupt developmental changes over the life
span is most central to the major issue of
object permanence and stranger anxiety.
generativity and stagnation.
continuity and stages.
nature and nurture.

A)
B)
C)
D)

5.Mary believes that cognitive development is a matter of gradual and almost imperceptible
changes over time. Her viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of
nature and nurture.
primary and secondary sex characteristics.
continuity and stages.
conventional and postconventional morality.

A)
B)
C)
D)

6.Psychologists who view the developmental process as a sequence of distinct stages


generally believe that ________ is(are) the same for everyone.
both the order and the timing of the stages
the order but not the timing of the stages
the timing but not the order of the stages
neither the order nor the timing of the stages
7.Theories of human development have been most susceptible to criticism for
Page 1

A)
B)
C)
D)

overemphasizing
discrete age-linked stages.
the interaction of nature and nurture.
maturation during adolescent development.
cognitive changes during adulthood development.

A)
B)
C)
D)

8.A belief that adult personality is completely determined in early childhood would be most
relevant to the issue of
stability and change.
objective permanence and stranger anxiety.
conventional and postconventional morality.
concrete and formal operations.

A)
B)
C)
D)

9.A child's temperament is likely to be


difficult to observe.
stable over time.
a product of parenting style.
a reflection of his or her schemas.

A)
B)
C)
D)

10.Questions about whether anxious children will grow up to be either fearful or relaxed
adults most directly highlight the issue of
continuity and stages.
stability and change.
identity and role confusion.
nature and nurture.

A)
B)
C)
D)

11.The fact that many happy and well-adjusted adults were once rebellious and unhappy as
adolescents is most relevant to the issue of
continuity and stages.
object permanence and stranger anxiety.
stability and change.
primary and secondary sex characteristics.

A)
B)
C)
D)

12.As compared with the production of egg cells, sperm cell production
begins later in life.
involves a jellylike outer covering.
begins earlier in life.
involves differentiation prior to fusion with the egg.
13.Human sperm cells ________ than egg cells.

Page 2

A)
B)
C)
D)

are larger
contain more genes
are smaller
contain fewer genes

A)
B)
C)
D)

14.During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as a(n)
zygote and finally develops into an embryo.
embryo and finally develops into a fetus.
zygote and finally develops into a fetus.
fetus and finally develops into an embryo.

A)
B)
C)
D)

15.When a placenta is first developed, it transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to
egg cell.
fetus.
embryo.
zygote.

A)
B)
C)
D)

16.The heart begins to beat during the ________ period of prenatal development.
embryonic
fetal
zygotic
ovular

A)
B)
C)
D)

17.The placenta develops from the outer cells of the


genome.
zygote.
fetus.
embryo.

A)
B)
C)
D)

18.Genetically identical twins first begin their separate paths of prenatal development during
________ development.
embryonic
fetal
zygotic
ovular

19.A preference for our mother's voice over our father's voice has been detected as early as
A)
during embryonic development.
B)
the day after birth.
C)
one week after birth.

Page 3

D)

one month after birth.

A)
B)
C)
D)

20.Just after birth, the cries of newborns bear the intonation of


identity.
imprinting.
object permanence.
their mother's native language.

A)
B)
C)
D)

21.Four months after having been exposed to a vibrating, honking device placed on its
mother's abdomen, a fetus demonstrates
habituation.
stranger anxiety.
conservation.
an insecure attachment.

A)
B)
C)
D)

22.A teratogen is a(n)


fertilized egg that undergoes rapid cell division.
unborn child with one or more physical defects or abnormalities.
chromosomal abnormality.
substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child.

A)
B)
C)
D)

23.If research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of an artificial sweetener caused harm
to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a(n)
telomere.
stress hormone.
critical period.
teratogen.

A)
B)
C)
D)

24.One of the most consistently damaging teratogens is


blood.
oxygen.
testosterone.
alcohol.

A)
B)
C)
D)

25.When pregnant rats drink alcohol, their young offspring later display a(n)
immunity to fetal alcohol syndrome.
aversion to the taste of alcohol.
unusually rapid development of bladder control.
liking for the taste and odor of alcohol.

Page 4

A)
B)
C)
D)

26.The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include


egocentrism.
brain abnormalities.
habituation.
autism spectrum disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

27.Alcohol may cause fetal damage by leaving chemical marks on DNA that switch genes
abnormally on or off. This best illustrates
imprinting.
object permanence.
an epigenetic effect.
an insecure attachment.

A)
B)
C)
D)

28.A reflex refers to


decreasing responsiveness to repeated stimulation.
the formation of attachments during a critical period in early life.
an automatic response to sensory stimulation.
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior.

A)
B)
C)
D)

29.Babies are born with several reflexes for getting food. One of these is to
withdraw a limb to escape pain.
turn the head away from a cloth placed over the face.
open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek.
look longer at facelike images.

A)
B)
C)
D)

30.Mr. Hersch triggered a rooting reflex in his infant son by touching him on the
foot.
knee.
arm.
cheek.

A)
B)
C)
D)

31.Habituation refers to the


awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed.
adjustment of current schemas to make sense of new information.
biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience.
32.With repeated presentations of a bright red toy, 2-month-old Anita began to respond with
less visual attention to the toy. Her decreasing responsiveness best illustrates

Page 5

A)
B)
C)
D)

egocentrism.
infantile amnesia.
habituation.
object permanence.

A)
B)
C)
D)

33.Infant visual preferences have been discovered by assessing infants'


conservation.
habituation.
accommodation.
imprinting.

A)
B)
C)
D)

34.Newborns have been observed to show the greatest visual interest in a


rectangular shape.
circular shape.
bull's-eye pattern.
facelike image.

A)
B)
C)
D)

35.When placed between a gauze breast pad from their nursing mother's bra, week-old
nursing babies are likely to
move their eyes in a visual search for their mother.
turn their head toward the smell of their mother's pad.
open their mouth in a vigorous search for a nipple.
demonstrate signs of stranger anxiety.

A)
B)
C)
D)

36.French toddlers preferred playing with chamomile-scented toys if


they had never before experienced the scent of chamomile.
they had been diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome.
their mothers had once used a skin balm with a chamomile scent.
their fathers were devoted chamomile tea drinkers.

A)
B)
C)
D)

37.Maturation refers to
the acquisition of socially acceptable behaviors.
biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience.
any learned behavior patterns that accompany personal growth and development.
the physical and sexual development of early adolescence.

38.Maturation is to education as ________ is to ________.


A)
accommodation; assimilation
B)
nature; nurture
C)
imprinting; critical period

Page 6

D)

environment; learning

A)
B)
C)
D)

39.From ages 3 to 6, the brain's neural networks are sprouting most rapidly in the
frontal lobes.
hypothalamus.
cerebellum.
brainstem.

A)
B)
C)
D)

40.The association areas are the last cortical areas to fully develop their
schemas.
teratogens.
neural networks.
primary sex characteristics.

A)
B)
C)
D)

41.A failure to practice important motor skills can result in a loss of agility because unused
neural connections
habituate.
assimilate.
imprint.
are pruned.

A)
B)
C)
D)

42.Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in


________ of the major developmental milestones.
both the sequence and the age-related timing
the sequence but not the age-related timing
the age-related timing but not the sequence
neither the sequence nor the age-related timing

A)
B)
C)
D)

43.Horace, the youngest child of a high school athletic director, was able to roll over at 3
months, crawl at 6 months, and walk at 12 months. This ordered sequence of motor
development was largely due to
habituation.
maturation.
responsive parenting.
imprinting.

44.The concept of maturation is most relevant to understanding the absence of


A)
secure attachments among infants.
B)
bladder control among 2-year-olds.
C)
self-esteem among kindergarten students.

Page 7

D)

moral behavior among adolescents.

A)
B)
C)
D)

45.Mr. and Mrs. Batson can't wait to begin toilet training their year-old daughter. The
Batsons most clearly need to be informed about the importance of
imprinting.
habituation.
maturation.
object permanence.

A)
B)
C)
D)

46.Our earliest conscious memories seldom predate our third birthday. This best illustrates
egocentrism.
role confusion.
habituation.
infantile amnesia.

A)
B)
C)
D)

47.Three-year-olds who experienced a fire evacuation caused by a burning popcorn maker


were unable to remember the cause of this vivid event when they were 10-year-olds. This
best illustrates
habituation.
assimilation.
infantile amnesia.
role confusion.

A)
B)
C)
D)

48.Four-year-old Karen can't remember anything of the first few months of her life. This is
best explained by the fact that
the trauma of birth interferes with the early formation of memories.
most brain cells do not yet exist at the time of birth.
experiences shortly after birth are a meaningless blur of darkness and light.
the hippocampus and frontal lobes are immature during early infancy.

A)
B)
C)
D)

49.One study found that English-speaking adults could relearn subtle sound contrasts in the
Hindu or Zulu they had spoken as children even though they had no ________ the Hindu
or Zulu language they had once spoken.
personal curiosity about
conscious memory of
basic trust regarding
role confusion associated with

50.Cognition refers to
A)
an emotional tie linking one person with another.

Page 8

B)
C)
D)

the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and


communicating.
any process that facilitates the physical development of the brain.
any process of change that accompanies maturation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

51.Which psychologist was most influential in shaping our understanding of cognitive


development?
Konrad Lorenz
Jean Piaget
Sigmund Freud
Erik Erikson

A)
B)
C)
D)

52.Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child


is like a blank slate at birth.
is not heavily influenced by maturation.
develops through a series of stages.
is heavily dependent on the child's personality.

A)
B)
C)
D)

53.According to Piaget, schemas are


fixed sequences of cognitive developmental stages.
children's ways of coming to terms with their sexuality.
people's conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences.
problem-solving strategies that are typically not developed until the formal
operational stage.

A)
B)
C)
D)

54.Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called


egocentrism.
assimilation.
imprinting.
accommodation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

55.The first time that 4-year-old Sarah saw her older brother play a flute, she thought it was
simply a large whistle. Sarah's initial understanding of the flute best illustrates the process
of
assimilation.
conservation.
accommodation.
maturation.
56.Incorporating new information into existing theories is to ________ as modifying

Page 9

A)
B)
C)
D)

existing theories in light of new information is to ________.


conservation; egocentrism
imprinting; maturation
sensorimotor stage; preoperational stage
assimilation; accommodation

D)

57.According to Piaget, accommodation refers to


parental efforts to include new children in the existing family structure.
incorporating new experiences into existing schemas.
developmental changes in a child's behavior that facilitate social acceptance by
family and peers.
adjusting current schemas in order to make sense of new experiences.

A)
B)
C)
D)

58.Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle-aged male nurse took care
of him. Nageeb's altered conception of a nurse illustrates the process of
habituation.
assimilation.
accommodation.
attachment.

A)
B)
C)
D)

59.Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive
development?
preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational, sensorimotor
sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operational, concrete operational
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete operational, formal operational

A)
B)
C)
D)

60.Olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects.
Olivia is clearly in Piaget's ________ stage.
preoperational
concrete operational
sensorimotor
formal operational

A)
B)
C)
D)

61.Object permanence is the understanding that


developmental stages occur in a predictable sequence.
biological growth processes enable orderly development.
things continue to exist even when they are not perceived.
the mass and volume of objects remain the same despite changes in their form.

A)
B)
C)

Page 10

A)
B)
C)
D)

62.During which of Piaget's stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue
to exist even when they are not perceived?
sensorimotor
preoperational
concrete operational
formal operational

A)
B)
C)
D)

63.When Tommy's mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket, he acts as though it no
longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly near the beginning of
Piaget's ________ stage.
sensorimotor
formal operational
concrete operational
preoperational

A)
B)
C)
D)

64.When researcher Karen Wynn showed 5-month-old infants a numerically impossible


outcome, the infants
stared longer at the outcome.
displayed rapid imprinting.
demonstrated an obvious lack of object permanence.
showed signs of formal operational reasoning.

A)
B)
C)
D)

65.Infants accustomed to a puppet jumping three times on stage show surprise if the puppet
jumps only twice. This suggests that Piaget
overestimated the continuity of cognitive development.
underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants.
overestimated the impact of culture on infant intelligence.
underestimated the impact of object permanence on infant attachment.

A)
B)
C)
D)

66.The egocentrism of preschoolers was most strongly emphasized by


Harlow's attachment theory.
Kohlberg's moral development theory.
Piaget's cognitive development theory.
Erikson's psychosocial development theory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

67.According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to


a sensorimotor need for self-stimulation, as evidenced in thumb sucking.
young children's exaggerated interest in themselves and their own pleasure.
the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view.
a failure to realize that things continue to exist even when they are not visible.

Page 11

A)
B)
C)
D)

68.Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy
doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piaget's concept of
accommodation.
object permanence.
conservation.
egocentrism.

A)
B)
C)
D)

69.Incorrectly assuming that something that is clearly understood by us will also be clearly
understood by others illustrates
postconventional morality.
the curse of knowledge.
object permanence.
habituation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

70.According to Piaget, a child can represent things with words and images but cannot
reason with logic during the ________ stage.
concrete operational
sensorimotor
formal operational
preoperational

A)
B)
C)
D)

71.According to Piaget, imagining an action and mentally reversing it would be an example


of a
pruning process.
critical period.
mental operation.
cross-sectional study.

A)
B)
C)
D)

72.If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation, they are unable to
deal with the discipline of toilet training.
see things from the point of view of another person.
recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its
shape.
retain earlier schemas when confronted by new experiences.

73.Mrs. Pearson cut Judy's hot dog into eight pieces and Sylvia's into six pieces. Sylvia cried
because she felt she wasn't getting as much hot dog as Judy. Piaget would say that Sylvia
doesn't understand the principle of
A)
object permanence.
B)
conservation.

Page 12

C)
D)

egocentrism.
accommodation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

74.Three-year-olds were shown a model of a room with a miniature stuffed dog placed
behind a miniature couch. By using the model to locate an actual stuffed dog behind a
couch in a real room, the children demonstrated their capacity for
habituation.
symbolic thinking.
cross-sectional study.
concrete operational reasoning.

A)
B)
C)
D)

75.Psychologists David Premack and Guy Woodruff described chimpanzees' seeming ability
to read intentions as indicative of
imprinting.
a theory of mind.
object permanence.
a secure attachment.

A)
B)
C)
D)

76.Preschoolers' acquisition of a theory of mind suggests that Piaget overestimated young


children's
egocentrism.
habituation.
stranger anxiety.
sense of object permanence.

A)
B)
C)
D)

77.Five-year-olds who were surprised to discover that a Band-Aids box contained pencils
were able to anticipate their friend's false belief about the contents of the box. This best
illustrates that the children had developed a
secure attachment.
conventional morality.
theory of mind.
concept of conservation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

78.Chloe can clearly sense when her sister's teasing is intended to be friendly fun or a hostile
put-down. This best illustrates that Chloe has developed a(n)
sense of object permanence.
insecure attachment.
concept of conservation.
theory of mind.

Page 13

A)
B)
C)
D)

79.An impaired theory of mind is most closely associated with


infantile amnesia.
concrete operational thought.
role confusion.
autism spectrum disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

80.Characteristics of autism spectrum disorder include deficient communication and social


interaction skills, as well as
a prenatal addiction to alcohol.
memory deficits.
a lack of dopamine in relevant brain cells.
repetitive behaviors and interests.

A)
B)
C)
D)

81.Children with high levels of prenatal testosterone develop more


infantile amnesia.
stranger anxiety.
autistic traits.
secure attachment.

A)
B)
C)
D)

82.Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen has proposed that autism spectrum disorder is


indicative of an inborn
stranger anxiety.
fetal alcohol syndrome.
infantile amnesia.
male systemizing tendency.

A)
B)
C)
D)

83.ASD has differing levels of severity. Those who have normal intelligence but lack social
and communication skills are said to
have developed a theory of mind.
have low levels of testosterone.
be high functioning.
be able to mirror others' actions.

A)
B)
C)
D)

84.Animations that grafted emotion-conveying faces onto toy trains have been developed to
alleviate symptoms of
fetal alcohol syndrome.
Alzheimer's disease.
infantile amnesia.
autism spectrum disorder.

Page 14

A)
B)
C)
D)

85.According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about events first develops during the
________ stage.
sensorimotor
formal operational
concrete operational
preoperational

A)
B)
C)
D)

86.According to Piaget, children come to understand that the volume of a substance remains
constant despite changes in its shape during the ________ stage.
sensorimotor
preoperational
concrete operational
formal operational

A)
B)
C)
D)

87.According to Piaget, egocentrism is to conservation as the ________ stage is to the


________ stage.
concrete operational; preoperational
sensorimotor; preoperational
concrete operational; formal operational
preoperational; concrete operational

A)
B)
C)
D)

88.According to Piaget, a person first comprehends that division is the reverse of


multiplication during the ________ stage.
preoperational
concrete operational
formal operational
sensorimotor

A)
B)
C)
D)

89.According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to


reason abstractly.
adhere to social norms.
distinguish between helpful and harmful behaviors.
experience object permanence.

A)
B)
C)
D)

90.The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky suggested that children's ability to solve
problems is enhanced by
basic trust.
inner speech.
conservation.
imprinting.

Page 15

A)
B)
C)
D)

91.According to Vygotsky, parents who say No, no! when pulling a child's hand away
from a cake are giving the child a tool for
habituation.
self-control.
object permanence.
a secure attachment.

A)
B)
C)
D)

92.Vygotsky suggested that new words provide a temporary ________ from which children
can step to higher levels of thinking
preoperational stage
neural network
critical period
scaffold

A)
B)
C)
D)

93.Piaget emphasized how the child's mind grows through interaction with the physical
environment. Vygotsky emphasized how the child's mind grows through
imprinting.
a pruning process.
social mentoring.
cross-sectional study.

A)
B)
C)
D)

94.Four-year-olds are not completely egocentric and 5-year-olds can exhibit some
understanding of conservation. This indicates that Piaget may have underestimated the
importance of critical periods in early life.
role of motivation in cognitive development.
continuity of cognitive development.
importance of early attachment experiences.

A)
B)
C)
D)

95.At about 8 months, children become increasingly likely to react to newcomers with tears
and distress. This best illustrates
role confusion.
insecure attachment.
egocentrism.
stranger anxiety.

96.Lilianne is beginning to develop a fear of strangers and will reach for her mother when
she sees someone who is unfamiliar. It is likely that Lilianne has also just
A)
mastered the principle of conservation.
B)
overcome the limitation of egocentrism.
C)
developed a sense of object permanence.

Page 16

D)

lost her sense of secure attachment.

A)
B)
C)
D)

97.Infants develop a fear of strangers at about 8 months of age because they can't assimilate
unfamiliar faces into their
schemas.
attachments.
theory of mind.
self-concept.

A)
B)
C)
D)

98.Little Karen will approach and play with unfamiliar animals only if her mother first
reassures her that it is safe to do so. This best illustrates the adaptive value of
conservation.
attachment.
egocentrism.
habituation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

99.Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional
bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with
adequate nourishment.
body contact.
the opportunity to explore.
self-esteem.

100.Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to
A)
habituation.
B)
stranger anxiety.
C)
object permanence.
D)
secure attachment.
101.A critical period is a phase during which
children frequently disobey and resist their parents.
children become able to think hypothetically and reason abstractly.
parents frequently show impatience with a child's slowness in becoming toilet
trained.
D)
exposure to certain experiences is needed for proper development.
A)
B)
C)

102.The process of imprinting involves the formation of a(n)


A)
attachment.
B)
identity.
C)
theory of mind.

Page 17

D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

primary sex characteristic.


103.Which of the following is an example of imprinting?
A 2-year-old poodle approaches a stranger who calls it.
A 4-year-old boy imitates aggression he sees on television.
A duckling demonstrates attachment to a bouncing ball.
A 3-year-old girl is simultaneously learning two different languages.

104.Carol is distressed because post-childbirth complications prevented her from being in


close physical contact with her child during its first few hours of life. Carol should be
told that
A)
human infants do not have well-defined critical periods for the formation of a
mother-infant attachment.
B)
physical contact with her infant immediately after birth would not contribute to the
development of mother-infant attachment.
C)
infants should be left physically undisturbed during the first few hours of life so they
can rest.
D)
as long as she can breast-feed her baby, no lasting damage will be done.
105.Unlike ducklings, children do not imprint. Their fondness for certain people, however, is
fostered by
A)
conservation.
B)
egocentrism.
C)
mere exposure.
D)
infantile amnesia.
106.To assess attachment differences among infants, Mary Ainsworth placed them in a
laboratory setting called a
A)
formal operation stage.
B)
rite of passage.
C)
strange situation.
D)
schema.
107.One-year-old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers being held
by her mother than by anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates
A)
accommodation.
B)
secure attachment.
C)
conservation.
D)
egocentrism.

Page 18

108.Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatrician's waiting room,
little Sandra tenaciously clings to her mother's skirt. Sandra most clearly shows signs of
A)
habituation.
B)
egocentrism.
C)
insecure attachment.
D)
accommodation.
109.Aaron cried when his mother left him in the infant nursery at church, and he was not
reassured or comforted by her return a short while later. Aaron showed signs of
A)
egocentrism.
B)
habituation.
C)
conservation.
D)
insecure attachment.
110.In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with a secure maternal attachment are most
likely to
A)
act as though their mothers are of little importance to them.
B)
use their mothers as a base from which to explore the new surroundings.
C)
cling to their mothers and ignore the new surroundings.
D)
show hostility when their mothers approach them after a brief absence.
111.Some mothers feed their infants when they show signs of hunger, whereas others fail to
respond predictably to their infants' demands for food. These different maternal feeding
practices are most likely to contribute to differences in infant
A)
habituation.
B)
attachment.
C)
conservation.
D)
egocentrism.
112.A mother who is slow in responding to her infant's cries of distress is most likely to
encourage
A)
conservation.
B)
insecure attachment.
C)
object permanence.
D)
egocentrism.
113.Evidence that easy, relaxed infants develop secure attachments more readily than
difficult, emotionally intense babies would illustrate the importance of
A)
egocentrism.
B)
temperament.
C)
conservation.

Page 19

D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

object permanence.
114.Nature is to nurture as ________ is to ________.
secure attachment; imprinting
heredity; maturation
accommodation; assimilation
temperament; responsive parenting

115.Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the development of secure
attachment between human infants and their mothers?
A)
conventional morality
B)
responsive parenting
C)
stranger anxiety
D)
authoritarian discipline
116.Two-year-old Anna perceives her parents as cold and rejecting. This is most indicative of
A)
habituation.
B)
egocentrism.
C)
infantile amnesia.
D)
insecure attachment.
117.When placed in strange situations without their artificial mothers, the Harlows' infant
monkeys demonstrated signs of
A)
insecure attachment.
B)
egocentrism.
C)
basic trust.
D)
curiosity.
118.Children's sense that their parents are trustworthy and dependable is most indicative of
A)
maturation.
B)
accommodation.
C)
secure attachment.
D)
object permanence.
119.Marlys is a sensitive, responsive parent who consistently satisfies the needs of Sara, her
infant daughter. According to Erikson, Sara is likely to
A)
form a lifelong attitude of basic trust toward the world.
B)
encounter some difficulty in overcoming the limitation of egocentrism.
C)
encounter some difficulty in forming an attachment to her father.
D)
achieve formal operational intelligence more quickly than the average child.

Page 20

120.In a British study following over 7000 people from birth to adulthood, those individuals
whose fathers were most involved in parenting tended to demonstrate greater
A)
role confusion.
B)
separation anxiety.
C)
empty nest syndrome.
D)
academic achievement.
121.Already at 15 months of age, Justin strongly senses that he can rely on his father to
comfort and protect him. According to Erikson, this most clearly contributes to
A)
egocentrism.
B)
conservation.
C)
object permanence.
D)
basic trust.
122.Many researchers believe that adult styles of romantic love correspond with childhood
patterns of
A)
habituation.
B)
attachment.
C)
conservation.
D)
object permanence.
123.Romanian children raised in orphanages with untrained and overworked staff were found
to have ________ than found in children assigned to quality foster care settings.
A)
less egocentrism
B)
lower intelligence scores
C)
more secure attachments
D)
greater infantile amnesia
124.Most children who experience parental neglect or abuse manage to have socially
meaningful and productive lives. This best illustrates
A)
postconventional morality.
B)
object permanence.
C)
conservation.
D)
resilience.
125.Harlow observed that most monkeys raised in total isolation
A)
were totally apathetic and indifferent to the first monkeys they encountered.
B)
were incapable of mating upon reaching sexual maturity.
C)
showed slower social development but more rapid cognitive development.

Page 21

D)

showed no lasting adverse effects when placed in a socially enriched environment.

126.Edith abuses both her 3-year-old and 1-year-old daughters. Her behavior is most likely
related to a lack of
A)
childhood experience with younger brothers and sisters.
B)
maturation.
C)
an early and secure attachment to her own parents.
D)
formal operational intelligence.
127.When golden hamsters were repeatedly threatened and attacked while young, they
suffered long-term changes in
A)
object permanence.
B)
brain chemistry.
C)
conservation.
D)
habituation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

128.Severe and prolonged child sexual abuse places children at risk for
fetal alcohol syndrome.
menarche.
imprinting.
substance abuse.

129.For several months following a sudden and unexpected divorce, Henry was excessively
preoccupied with thoughts of his ex-wife. His reaction resulted from the disruption of
A)
a critical period.
B)
conservation.
C)
object permanence.
D)
attachment.
130.In considering day-care opportunities for their four children, Mr. and Mrs. Taylor should
be most concerned about whether the experience will influence
A)
egocentrism in their 3-year-old son, James.
B)
object permanence in their 2-year-old son, Billy.
C)
secure attachment in their 6-month-old daughter, Julia.
D)
maturation in their 4-year-old daughter, Sandra.
131.An ongoing study of 1100 children in 10 American cities has found that those who had
spent the most time in day-care facilities had
A)
slightly advanced thinking and language skills and an increased rate of
aggressiveness.

Page 22

B)
C)
D)

slightly inferior thinking and language skills and a decreased rate of aggressiveness.
slightly advanced thinking and language skills and a decreased rate of
aggressiveness.
slightly inferior thinking and language skills and an increased rate of aggressiveness.

132.One study of 4 1/2- to 6-year-old children in 10 American cities found that the children's
rate of aggressiveness was influenced more by ________ than by the amount of time they
spent in day-care programs.
A)
children's temperaments
B)
parents' caregiving sensitivity
C)
family's economic and educational levels
D)
all of these factors
133.Your understanding and awareness of who you are is your
A)
temperament.
B)
egocentrism.
C)
self-concept.
D)
theory of mind.
134.Researchers have used mirror images to assess infants' development of
A)
infantile amnesia.
B)
self-awareness.
C)
egocentrism.
D)
basic trust.
135.Mrs. Carmichael secretly dabs some lipstick on the nose of her 2-year-old son and then
allows him to see his face in a mirror. The child is most likely to
A)
touch his own nose.
B)
touch the mirror at the point where the lipstick shows.
C)
wave at his mirror image as if it were another child.
D)
assimilate the lipstick mark into his existing self-concept.
136.Compared with others their own age, children who form a positive self-concept are more
likely to be
A)
obedient.
B)
egocentric.
C)
sociable.
D)
habituated.
137.Two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they

Page 23

A)
B)
C)
D)

expect obedience but are responsive to their children's needs.


submit to their children's desires but are unresponsive in times of need.
impose rules and expect obedience.
exert control by setting rules and explaining the reasons for those rules.

138.The McDougals use harsh discipline on their children and demand unquestioning
obedience. Psychologists are likely to characterize the McDougals as ________ parents.
A)
authoritarian
B)
egocentric
C)
permissive
D)
authoritative
139.Brad and Jane exercise very little control over their two young children, and they usually
allow them to do whatever they want. Psychologists would characterize Brad and Jane as
________ parents.
A)
authoritarian
B)
authoritative
C)
conventional
D)
permissive

A)
B)
C)
D)

140.Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be
authoritarian.
conservative.
permissive.
authoritative.

A)
B)
C)
D)

141.Authoritative parents are likely to have children who


are obedient but have low self-esteem.
have high self-esteem and are self-reliant.
have high self-esteem but are somewhat dependent.
are rebellious and have low self-esteem.

142.At age 12, Sean is happy, self-reliant, and has a positive self-image. It is most likely that
Sean's parents are
A)
permissive.
B)
conservative.
C)
authoritarian.
D)
authoritative.
143.Compared with authoritarian parents, authoritative parents are likely to be

Page 24

A)
B)
C)
D)

more conservative.
less educated.
more responsive.
less trusting.

144.If warmly supportive parents are especially likely to have children with high self-esteem,
this would most clearly indicate that
A)
authoritative parenting is more effective than authoritarian parenting.
B)
permissive parenting is more effective than authoritative parenting.
C)
children's self-esteem stimulates warmly supportive parenting.
D)
warmly supportive parenting and children's self-esteem are correlated.

A)
B)
C)
D)

145.Adolescence extends from


the beginning of concrete operations to the end of formal operations.
12 to 15 years of age.
the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood.
the beginning to the end of the growth spurt.

146.The development stage of adolescence is likely to be most brief in cultures where teens
are
A)
egocentric.
B)
seldom married.
C)
experiencing role confusion.
D)
financially self-supporting.
147.People experience rapid physical development and sexual maturation during
A)
late adolescence.
B)
puberty.
C)
the preoperational stage.
D)
late childhood.

A)
B)
C)
D)

148.The body structures that enable reproduction are the


primary sex characteristics.
secondary sex characteristics.
teratogens.
frontal lobes.

A)
B)

149.Which of the following is an example of a secondary sex characteristic?


female ovaries
male facial hair

Page 25

C)
D)

the male grip


female height

150.Primary sex characteristics are to ________ as secondary sex characteristics are to


________.
A)
male testes; adrenal glands
B)
female ovaries; deepened male voice
C)
male testes; female ovaries
D)
adrenal glands; underarm hair

A)
B)
C)
D)

151.Puberty is most closely related to the onset of


menopause.
menarche.
stranger anxiety.
conventional morality.

152.Females who have experienced stress related to father absence, sexual abuse, or insecure
attachment experience ________ a few months earlier than average.
A)
infantile amnesia
B)
habituation
C)
egocentrism
D)
menarche
153.The first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as ________ is to an adolescent girl.
A)
sexual intercourse
B)
puberty
C)
menarche
D)
secure attachment

A)
B)
C)
D)

154.Boys who mature at an early age tend to be more


physically uncoordinated.
sexually inhibited.
popular and self-assured.
academically successful.

155.Ten-year-old Heidi is maturing early and already towers over all the girls and most of the
boys in her fifth-grade class. Heidi is likely to be
A)
the most popular student in class.
B)
self-assured and independent.
C)
challenging her teacher's authority.

Page 26

D)

the object of some teasing.

A)
B)
C)
D)

156.The selective loss of unused connections among brain cells is called


pruning.
imprinting.
conservation.
accommodation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

157.As teens mature, the growth of myelin facilitates


the development of secondary sex characteristics.
feelings of attraction toward those of the opposite (or the same) sex.
the birth of new nerve cells in the hippocampus.
communication between the frontal lobes and other brain regions.

158.During adolescence, maturation of the ________ lags behind maturation of the


________.
A)
brainstem; pituitary
B)
pituitary; brainstem
C)
limbic system; frontal lobes
D)
frontal lobes; limbic system
159.The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________
stage of development.
A)
conventional
B)
preconventional
C)
preoperational
D)
formal operational
160.Adolescents' sense of what's fair is most likely to change from simple equality to equity
when they achieve
A)
formal operations.
B)
a secure attachment.
C)
object permanence.
D)
a theory of mind.
161.Fourteen-year-old Lisa was asked, What would happen if everyone in the world
suddenly went blind? She responded, Those who had previously been blind would
become leaders. Lisa's answer indicates she is in the ________ stage of development.
A)
concrete operational
B)
postconventional

Page 27

C)
D)

formal operational
preoperational

162.Lawrence Kohlberg focused on the development of


A)
secure attachments.
B)
self-awareness.
C)
moral reasoning.
D)
object permanence.
163.Kohlberg emphasized that human behavior becomes less selfish as we mature due to
A)
social development.
B)
physical development.
C)
cognitive development.
D)
economic development.
164.According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the
attainment of concrete rewards represents ________ morality.
A)
conventional
B)
preconventional
C)
concrete operational
D)
postconventional
165.Regis thinks it's wrong to drive over the speed limit simply because he might get
punished for doing so. He is demonstrating Kohlberg's ________ stage of morality.
A)
conventional
B)
postconventional
C)
preconventional
D)
preoperational
166.Juanita suffers from a painful back condition. Smoking marijuana would reduce her pain,
but she thinks it would be wrong because it is prohibited by the laws of her state. Juanita
is demonstrating Kohlberg's ________ level of morality.
A)
conventional
B)
unconventional
C)
preconventional
D)
postconventional

A)
B)

167.According to Kohlberg, postconventional morality involves


behavior based on self-interest.
affirmation of self-defined ethical principles.

Page 28

C)
D)

strong concern for social approval.


unquestioning obedience to authority figures.

168.Mr. Lambers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to
support a government that spends billions of dollars on military weapons. Mr. Lambers'
reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg's ________ stage.
A)
postconventional
B)
concrete operational
C)
preconventional
D)
conventional
169.Avoiding physical punishment is to ________ morality as respecting the laws of society
is to ________ morality.
A)
conventional; postconventional
B)
preconventional; postconventional
C)
conventional; preconventional
D)
preconventional; conventional
170.Critics have noted that Kohlberg's ________ level of moral reasoning is culturally
limited, appearing mostly among people who prize individualism.
A)
preconventional
B)
postconventional
C)
concrete operational
D)
conventional
171.Haidt's intuitionist perspective highlights the impact of automatic gut-level feelings on
A)
attachment.
B)
egocentrism.
C)
moral judgments.
D)
stranger anxiety.

A)
B)
C)
D)

172.Psychologist Jonathan Haidt has described our moral intuitions as


formal operations.
secure attachments.
quick gut feelings.
postconventional judgments.
173.Laboratory games reveal that people's desire to punish wrongdoings is driven mostly by
automatic emotional reactions rather than by deliberate conscious calculations that
punishment will deter crime. This most clearly supports the ________ perspective on

Page 29

A)
B)
C)
D)

morality.
epigenetic
intuitionist
postconventional
concrete operational

174.Many people would find it more morally repulsive to kill someone by thrusting a knife
into his or her body than by shooting him or her with a gun from a distance. This is best
explained in terms of
A)
Erikson's psychosocial perspective.
B)
Harlow's attachment perspective.
C)
Haidt's intuitionist perspective.
D)
Kohlberg's moral development perspective.
175.The corrupt behavior of many ordinary people who served as Nazi concentration camp
guards best illustrates that immorality often results from
A)
social influence.
B)
the curse of knowledge.
C)
abnormal cognitive development.
D)
postconventional moral thinking.
176.Learning to delay gratification promotes
A)
maturation.
B)
imprinting.
C)
moral action.
D)
permissive parenting.
177.According to Erikson, trust is to infancy as identity is to
A)
infancy.
B)
childhood.
C)
adulthood.
D)
adolescence.
178.According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the
A)
toddler.
B)
preschooler.
C)
elementary schoolchild.
D)
adolescent.
179.Erikson would have suggested that adolescents can most effectively develop a sense of

Page 30

A)
B)
C)
D)

identity by
seeking a lifelong romantic relationship.
severing the emotional ties between themselves and their childhood friends.
investigating the personal suitability of various occupational and social roles.
adopting whatever values and expectations their parents recommend.

180.Sixteen-year-old Brenda questions her parents' values but does not fully accept her
friends' standards either. Her confusion about what she really wants and values in life
suggests that Brenda is struggling with the problem of
A)
autonomy.
B)
identity.
C)
initiative.
D)
integrity.

A)
B)
C)
D)

181.According to Erikson, teens who suffer role confusion have not yet
experienced a sense of basic trust.
achieved a sense of autonomy.
strived for a sense of competence.
solidified a sense of identity.

182.An awareness of your distinctive status as an international student in a university far from
your homeland best illustrates a sense of
A)
stranger anxiety.
B)
postconventional morality.
C)
social identity.
D)
insecure attachment.
183.The we aspect of our self-concept that comes from our group membership is our
A)
theory of mind.
B)
basic trust.
C)
social identity.
D)
egocentrism.
184.Compared with their counterparts in more collectivist countries, 17-year-olds in North
America are more likely to experience
A)
infantile amnesia.
B)
a critical period.
C)
social identity.
D)
romantic relationships.

Page 31

185.Branden is so apathetic about his occupational future that within two years of his high
school graduation he had already been fired by four different employers. According to
Erikson, Branden best illustrates
A)
the curse of knowledge.
B)
preconventional morality.
C)
role confusion.
D)
egocentrism.
186.Which of the following best describes adolescent self-esteem?
A)
It rises through the early teen years and falls during the late teen years.
B)
It falls through the early teen years and rises during the late teen years.
C)
It rises through the early teen years and rises during the late teen years.
D)
It falls through the early teen years and falls during the late teen years.
187.Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing
capacity for
A)
competence.
B)
intimacy.
C)
autonomy.
D)
trust.
188.Research indicates that the high school girls who have the most affectionate relationships
with their mothers also tend to
A)
have the most intimate relationships with girlfriends.
B)
have somewhat less intimate relationships with girlfriends.
C)
take longer than normal to establish their own independence and separate identity.
D)
have difficulty forming intimate relationships with boys.

A)
B)
C)
D)

189.Adolescence is typically a time of


diminishing parental influence and diminishing peer influence.
growing parental influence and growing peer influence.
diminishing parental influence and growing peer influence.
growing parental influence and diminishing peer influence.

A)
B)
C)
D)

190.In teen calls to hotline counseling services, the most discussed topic is
parent-child conflict.
peer relationships.
secondary sex characteristics.
moral intuition.

Page 32

191.Persistent exclusion from peer social relationships is most likely to increase teens' risk for
A)
imprinting.
B)
egocentrism.
C)
depression.
D)
habituation.
192.Adolescents are most likely to be influenced by their parents with respect to ________,
and they are most likely to be influenced by their peers with respect to ________.
A)
language accents; college choices
B)
dating practices; religious faith
C)
bedtime preferences; political views
D)
career choices; clothing preferences
193.A rite of passage is most similar to a(n)
A)
critical period.
B)
preoperational stage.
C)
initiation ceremony.
D)
pruning process.
194.Which of the following is true of adolescence in contemporary industrialized societies, as
compared with previous centuries?
A)
It begins earlier in life and ends earlier in life.
B)
It begins later in life and ends earlier in life.
C)
It begins earlier in life and ends later in life.
D)
It begins later in life and ends later in life.

A)
B)
C)
D)

195.Today's earlier female sexual maturation is especially likely among


underweight girls in father-absent homes.
overweight girls in father-absent homes.
underweight girls in father-present homes.
overweight girls in father-present homes.

196.A developmental stage between adolescent dependence and responsible adulthood is


called
A)
puberty.
B)
maturation.
C)
emerging adulthood.
D)
postconventional morality.
197.Physical abilities such as muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac

Page 33

A)
B)
C)
D)

output reach their peak during


late childhood.
early adulthood.
puberty.
middle adulthood.

198.As men advance through middle adulthood they experience a gradual decline in
A)
testosterone level.
B)
sperm count.
C)
ejaculation speed.
D)
all of these things.

A)
B)
C)
D)

199.Menopause refers to
the cessation of menstruation.
the loss of male sexual potency.
irregular timing of menstrual periods.
the loss of sexual interest in late adulthood.

200.African infants have had a greater chance of survival if they have a living maternal
grandmother who is without young children of her own. This fact has been used to
support an evolutionary explanation of
A)
conservation.
B)
habituation.
C)
stranger anxiety.
D)
menopause.

A)
B)
C)
D)

201.Between the middle of the last century and the early years of the current century
human birthrates have increased and life expectancy at birth has increased.
human birthrates have decreased and life expectancy at birth has decreased.
human birthrates have increased and life expectancy at birth has decreased.
human birthrates have decreased and life expectancy at birth has increased.

A)
B)
C)
D)

202.The ratio of males to females first begins declining during


prenatal development.
childhood.
adolescence.
adulthood.

203.Aging cells may die without being replaced due to the shortening of
A)
critical periods.

Page 34

B)
C)
D)

teratogens.
schemas.
telomeres.

204.In one 15-year period, more Americans died on the two days after Christmas than on the
two days before Christmas. It has been suggested that this illustrates
A)
a death-deferral phenomenon.
B)
a critical period.
C)
terminal decline.
D)
habituation.
205.Lewis is a 70-year-old retired college professor. In contrast to when he was 30, he now
probably
A)
does not hear as well.
B)
is more susceptible to catching the flu.
C)
has significantly fewer neural connections.
D)
has all of these problems.

A)
B)
C)
D)

206.Older people are NOT increasingly susceptible to


pneumonia.
terminal decline.
common cold viruses.
neurocognitive disorder.

207.Most 20-year-olds outperform most 70-year-olds on video games due to age-related


differences in
A)
role confusion.
B)
object permanence.
C)
infantile amnesia.
D)
information-processing speed.

A)
B)
C)
D)

208.Research on older people has shown that


they grow increasingly fearful of death.
they become increasingly prone to car accidents.
they experience less life satisfaction than younger adults.
all of these statements are true.

A)
B)

209.Aerobic exercise programs during late adulthood stimulate improvement in


object permanence.
basic trust.

Page 35

C)
D)

menarche.
memory.

210.Physical exercise in later life promotes ________ in the hippocampus.


A)
a reduction of myelin
B)
the shortening of telomeres
C)
the process of neurogenesis
D)
reduced mirror neuron activity
211.Neurocognitive disorder is most commonly associated with
A)
menopause.
B)
role confusion.
C)
Alzheimer's disease.
D)
infantile amnesia.
212.During the last few years, 75-year-old Mrs. Yamaguchi has gradually become so mentally
disoriented that she can't find her way around her own house and often fails to recognize
her husband. It is most likely that Mrs. Yamaguchi is suffering the effects of
A)
autism spectrum disorder.
B)
menopause.
C)
habituation.
D)
Alzheimer's disease.
213.Alzheimer's disease involves a deterioration of neurons that produce
A)
dopamine.
B)
telomeres.
C)
acetylcholine.
D)
serotonin.

A)
B)
C)
D)

214.A diminishing sense of smell is associated with the pathology that foretells
FAS.
pneumonia.
Alzheimer's disease.
autism spectrum disorder.

215.Researchers have detected unusually diffuse brain activity while people at risk for
________ are trying to memorize words.
A)
autism spectrum disorder
B)
fetal alcohol syndrome
C)
Alzheimer's disease

Page 36

D)

infantile amnesia

216.When asked to recall the one or two most important events over the last half century,
older adults tend to name events that occurred when they were between ________ years
of age.
A)
2 and 5
B)
5 and 10
C)
10 and 30
D)
30 and 50
217.When adults of varying ages were tested for their memory of a recently learned list of 24
words, the older adults demonstrated
A)
no decline in either recall or recognition.
B)
a decline in recognition but not in recall.
C)
a decline in recall but not in recognition.
D)
a decline in both recognition and recall.
218.On which of the following tasks is a 20-year-old most likely to outperform a 70-year-old?
A)
recalling previously presented nonsense syllables
B)
recognizing previously presented foreign language words
C)
recalling previously presented names of cities
D)
recognizing previously presented names of fruits and vegetables
219.Remembering to take your prescribed medications at a specific time of day best
illustrates
A)
the social clock.
B)
a critical period.
C)
prospective memory.
D)
a death-deferral phenomenon.
220.A cross-sectional study is one in which
A)
the same people are retested over a period of years.
B)
different age groups are tested at the same time.
C)
different characteristics of a given individual are assessed at the same time.
D)
the behavior of a group is assessed by different researchers.
221.Researchers studied the effects on exercise on the physical health of over 5000 residents
in one locale throughout their middle and late adulthood. The research best illustrates a
________ study.
A)
formal operational

Page 37

B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

cross-sectional
concrete operational
longitudinal
222.The same people are retested over a long period in a ________ study.
concrete operational
longitudinal
postconventional
cross-sectional

223.Professor Kuilema compared the moral intuitions of one group of children, a second
group of adolescents, and a third group of adults by assessing their reactions to a variety
of moral dilemmas. Professor Kuilema conducted a ________ study.
A)
longitudinal
B)
postconventional
C)
cross-sectional
D)
concrete operational
224.The terminal decline phenomenon involves a decrease in mental ability that accompanies
the approach of
A)
menopause.
B)
retirement.
C)
death.
D)
any critical period.
225.Researchers have discovered that the midlife transition between early and middle
adulthood is characterized by unusually high levels of
A)
job dissatisfaction and career change.
B)
marital dissatisfaction and divorce.
C)
anxiety and emotional instability.
D)
none of these feelings or events.
226.People have been most likely to describe themselves as a sandwich generation during
their
A)
adolescence.
B)
early adulthood.
C)
middle adulthood.
D)
late adulthood.
227.The age at which people are expected to leave home, get a job, and marry has changed

Page 38

A)
B)
C)
D)

dramatically in Wallonia over the past 50 years. Developmentalists would say that the
country's ________ has been altered.
social clock
developmental norm
maturation cycle
family calendar

228.Professor Parker suggested that heterosexual adults are genetically predisposed to form
monogamous bonds because this practice facilitated the cooperative nurture and survival
of children. The professor's suggestion best illustrates a(n) ________ perspective.
A)
authoritarian
B)
postconventional
C)
psychosocial
D)
evolutionary
229.Marie feels socially useful in her career as a financial investment advisor. Erik Erikson
would have suggested that Marie experiences a sense of
A)
secure attachment.
B)
conventional morality.
C)
generativity.
D)
conservation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

230.Compared with their counterparts of 40 years ago, American men today are marrying
at a younger age and American women are marrying at an older age.
at an older age and American women are marrying at a younger age.
at an older age and American women are marrying at an older age.
at a younger age and American women are marrying at a younger age.

231.After living together for a year, Sylvia and Yefim have decided to marry. Research on
premarital cohabitation most strongly suggests that
A)
they have more positive attitudes toward the institution of marriage than the average
couple.
B)
their marriage will have a higher-than-average probability of being successful.
C)
most of their college friends and acquaintances have viewed their cohabitation
negatively.
D)
their marriage will have a higher-than-average probability of ending in divorce.
232.The best predictor of a couple's marital satisfaction is the
A)
frequency of their sexual intimacy.
B)
intensity of their passionate feelings.
C)
ratio of their positive to negative interactions with each other.

Page 39

D)

experience or nonexperience of a prior marriage.

233.Among employed women, the task of raising children is especially likely to be associated
with ________ marital satisfaction. The departure of mature children from the home is
typically associated with ________ marital satisfaction.
A)
increasing; decreasing
B)
decreasing; increasing
C)
increasing; further increasing
D)
decreasing; further decreasing

A)
B)
C)
D)

234.When children grow up and leave home, mothers most frequently report feeling
depressed.
bored.
happy.
anxious.

A)
B)
C)
D)

235.People typically experience an increasing sense of confidence and self-esteem


from the early to mid-teen years.
from the mid-teen years to midlife.
from middle adulthood through the very final weeks prior to death.
during all of these periods.

A)
B)
C)
D)

236.There is very little relationship between the age of an adult and his or her
risk of neurocognitive disorder.
ability to recall meaningless information.
level of life satisfaction.
susceptibility to accidental physical injury.

237.As people progress into late adulthood, they increasingly use words that convey
________ emotions, and the amygdala shows diminishing activity in response to
________ events.
A)
negative; negative
B)
positive; positive
C)
negative; positive
D)
positive; negative
238.Compared with middle-aged adults, older adults experience
A)
positive emotions with less intensity and negative emotions with more intensity.
B)
positive emotions with more intensity and negative emotions with less intensity.
C)
positive emotions with less intensity and negative emotions with less intensity.

Page 40

D)

positive emotions with more intensity and negative emotions with more intensity.

239.Compared with when she was an adolescent, elderly Mrs. Packer is likely to experience a
sad mood with
A)
less intensity and for a longer time.
B)
more intensity and for a shorter time.
C)
less intensity and for a shorter time.
D)
more intensity and for a longer time.
240.An integrated understanding of successful aging in terms of appropriate nutrition, family
support, and an optimistic outlook is most clearly provided by
A)
a cross-sectional study.
B)
an intuitionist perspective.
C)
a biopsychosocial approach.
D)
Piaget's cognitive development theory.
241.During the time following the death of a loved one
those who express the strongest grief immediately do not purge their grief more
quickly.
B)
those who talk frequently with others are unusually likely to prolong their own
feelings of depression.
C)
grieving men are at less risk for ill health than are grieving women.
D)
both men and women go through predictable stages of denial followed by anger.
A)

242.Older adults who feel satisfied when reflecting on their lives demonstrate what Erikson
called a sense of
A)
attachment.
B)
maturity.
C)
integrity.
D)
resilience.

A)
B)
C)
D)

243.According to Erikson, adolescence is to identity as late adulthood is to


integrity.
autonomy.
generativity.
intimacy.

244.Abner, a 70-year-old retired teacher, feels that his life has not been of any real value or
significance. According to Erikson, Abner has failed to achieve a sense of
A)
basic trust.

Page 41

B)
C)
D)

intimacy.
autonomy.
integrity.

Page 42

Answer Key
1.D
2.B
3.B
4.C
5.C
6.B
7.A
8.A
9.B
10.B
11.C
12.A
13.C
14.C
15.C
16.A
17.B
18.C
19.B
20.D
21.A
22.D
23.D
24.D
25.D
26.B
27.C
28.C
29.C
30.D
31.B
32.C
33.B
34.D
35.B
36.C
37.B
38.B
39.A
40.C
41.D
42.C
43.B
44.B

Page 43

45.C
46.D
47.C
48.D
49.B
50.B
51.B
52.C
53.C
54.B
55.A
56.D
57.D
58.C
59.C
60.C
61.C
62.A
63.A
64.A
65.B
66.C
67.C
68.D
69.B
70.D
71.C
72.C
73.B
74.B
75.B
76.A
77.C
78.D
79.D
80.D
81.C
82.D
83.C
84.D
85.C
86.C
87.D
88.B
89.A
90.B

Page 44

91.B
92.D
93.C
94.C
95.D
96.C
97.A
98.B
99.B
100.D
101.D
102.A
103.C
104.A
105.C
106.C
107.B
108.C
109.D
110.B
111.B
112.B
113.B
114.D
115.B
116.D
117.A
118.C
119.A
120.D
121.D
122.B
123.B
124.A
125.B
126.C
127.B
128.D
129.D
130.C
131.A
132.D
133.C
134.B
135.A
136.C

Page 45

137.C
138.A
139.D
140.D
141.B
142.D
143.C
144.D
145.C
146.D
147.B
148.A
149.B
150.B
151.B
152.D
153.C
154.C
155.D
156.A
157.D
158.D
159.D
160.A
161.C
162.C
163.C
164.B
165.C
166.A
167.B
168.A
169.D
170.A
171.C
172.C
173.B
174.C
175.A
176.C
177.D
178.D
179.C
180.B
181.D
182.C

Page 46

183.C
184.C
185.C
186.B
187.B
188.A
189.C
190.B
191.C
192.D
193.C
194.C
195.B
196.C
197.B
198.D
199.A
200.D
201.D
202.A
203.D
204.A
205.A
206.C
207.D
208.B
209.D
210.C
211.C
212.D
213.C
214.C
215.C
216.C
217.C
218.A
219.C
220.B
221.D
222.B
223.C
224.C
225.D
226.C
227.A
228.D

Page 47

229.C
230.C
231.D
232.C
233.B
234.C
235.B
236.C
237.D
238.C
239.A
240.C
241.A
242.C
243.A
244.D

Page 48