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Raising a new Generation of Leaders





The classification of the different forms of
corrosion is based on:
Nature of the Corrodents (Wet or dry). Dry: high-temp.

Mechanism of corrosion (Direct chemical attack or

electrochemical mechanism)

Appearance of the corroded metal

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Appearance of the corroded metal

Uniform or General corrosion
Pitting corrosion (sharply defined holes are produced)
Crevice corrosion (occurs at narrow openings between metals or metal and
Galvanic corrosion (occurs when metals, even non-metals, are electrically
coupled together)
Erosion corrosion (corrosion accelerated by mechanical wear or abrasive)
Intergranular corrosion (selective dissolution of grain boundaries)
Dealloying (selective leaching or parting corrosion of more active metal
from an alloy)
Environmentally assisted cracking (e.g. stress-corrosion cracking, corrosion
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Forms of corrosion


Macroscopic (by
naked Eye)
1. Galvanic

2. Erosioncorrosion

1. Intergranular

3. Crevice

2. Stresscorrosion cracking


Microscopic (by


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Group Work
Problem-based learning
Presentation skills development
Each group will take a corrosion type assigned to it and explain to the class.
Assessment will be based on both group and individual performances.
Each group will have 12 mins in all both for presentation and questions
All the presentations shall be taken one day.
All members of a group shall take turns in the presentation and shall be
graded accordingly.
Each group will submit a hard copy of document to meand soft copies in
word to turnitin and to me. All presentation slides shall also be submitted.
Check the Moodle later today or latest by tomorrow for the different
groupings, time of presentation and submission and submission deadline.

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Most metals exist in nature (in ores or minerals) as compounds,
such as oxides, sulfides, sulfates, because these are their
thermodynamically stable state.

Metal will have a natural tendency to revert back to its

natural thermodynamically stable state. This is the basic
reason for metallic corrosion.
Extraction requires a lot of energy

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Metals and environment

When a metal is exposed to the atmosphere, an oxide
film is formed on its surface due to its interaction with
atmospheric air.
Further attack of corrosion will not occur, if this
protective oxide film is maintained on the entire metal
But, however, if this oxide film breaks down due to
electro-chemical action on the metal surface due to the
presence of moisture or any electrolyte, corrosion
proceeds further.
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Factors influencing metal corrosion can be

broadly classified into two. These are:
The Nature of the metal
The Nature of the environment

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The Nature of the metal

[A] Oxidation Potential
Electrochemical series

Which becomes the anode ?

Relative distance btw the metals and rate of corrosion

[B] Relative Areas of the Anode and Cathode

Steel plate and copper plates of different areas in turns.
Corrosion of the anode is directly proportional to the area of the cathode.
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[C]Purity of the Metal

The impurities form a galvanic cell with the metal given the right environment.

[D] Physical State of the Metal

The smaller the grains size of the metal or alloy, the greater the solubility.
Orientation of the crystal also affects corrosion rates.

[E] Solubility of the Corrosion Products

If the corrosion product is soluble, corrosion of the metal will proceed faster.

If insoluble, the protective film formed tends to suppress corrosion.

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Nature of the environment

[A] Presence of moisture
This is because, moisture acts as the solvent for oxygen in the air, gases or
salts to furnish the electrolyte essential for setting up a corrosion cell.

[B] Temperature
Rate of chemical reactions in general and temperature.

[C] Effect of PH
The hydrogen ion concentration of the medium is another important
factor in corrosion reactions as well as corrosion control. Acidic media are
generally more corrosive than alkaline and neutral media.
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[D] Impurities Present in the Atmospheric Air

Enhanced corrosion rates are observed in marine atmosphere and industrial areas.
In marine atmosphere, the presence of electrolytes such as NaCl in the humid
atmospheric air leads to increase in corrosion of the metals.
Similarly, the atmospheric air near industrial areas is contaminated with acid fumes and
gases, such as H2S, SO2, SO3 and CO2.

[E] Nature of Anions and Cations present

Chloride ions present in the medium destroy the passive film and corrode many metals
and alloys. On the contrary, some anions like silicate may form an insoluble reaction
product (e.g. silica gel) which inhibits corrosion.
Traces of Cu or more noble metals accelerate the corrosion of the iron pipes carrying
mine water.

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[F] Flow Velocity of Process Streams

The relative velocity between metal and environment can
profoundly affect the corrosion rate.
It all depends.
Going from stagnant conditions to moderate velocity may lower
corrosion by distributing a more uniform environment through the
If inhibitors are added, they are distributed more evenly and
therefore may be more effective.
On the other hand, increasing velocity may increase the supply of
reactant (usually O2) to the cathodes
For metals that can passivate, increasing velocity could increase
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