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Running head: LAW ENFORCEMENT MANAGEMENT

Law Enforcement Management


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LAW ENFORCEMENT MANAGEMENT

Introduction
The police service has been subjected to a series of continual change over the last few decades.
These changes have been stimulated by the introduction of new policies such as new public
management initiative (NPM). The main tenet of the NPM is the promotion of new managerial
and professional subjectivities while utilizing a wide range of managerial tools and techniques
that are aimed at reconfiguring the professional attitude, priorities, values, and selfunderstanding. The central elements in the police service have been the re-branding from force
to service and the promotion of feminized professional norm, increased tolerance and creation
of equal and unbiased opportunity for all (Deljki, Lui-ati, 2011). The success of such
models requires a reorientation of the policing performance from a system that legitimizes a
competitive masculine subjectivity while emphasizing crime fighting and reduction to a more
ethical and professional model that is based on the community and its occupants while adopting
a problem-solving orientation and equality principles. In the light of poor public image and
discrimination, the police service has been compelled to abandon the traditional culture where
harassment and macho masculinity are prominent. At the start of the new millennium, police
officers around the world are witnessing a gradual change in the ways their leadership is
structured and in their professional roles and identities.
Implementation of Community Policing
To ensure that community policing is successful, there should exist a permanent change in the
organizational culture and the orientation of the individual police officers and their senior
leadership. However, many scholars have highlighted policing culture as the main hindrance to
this new philosophy. The traditional policing is comprised of a formalized bureaucratic and
standardized set of working conditions and systems with a profoundly entrenched and pervasive

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professional culture. The identity of the traditional policing is constructed as a mechanism of


fighting crime. The traditional policing emphasize on reactive and incident driven policing
which squarely fits into the masculine domain with the societal stereotypes of manliness
mapping on the requirements to be a good cop. The cop culture that has mainly developed due to
traditional policing has three main qualities; informality, solidarity, and masculinity (Bain,
Robinson, Conser, 2014). This form of policing is endemic and enduring in the police services
and towards the values of machismo, action, sexism, political and social conservatism and in
extreme cases racism. Research has revealed a substantial amount of evidence that shows the
continuing problems of sexual discrimination, sexual banter, and sexual harassment within the
police culture and the underrepresentation of women in the senior managerial positions. Female
officers differential deployment corresponds with the quasi-familial roles and the assumptions
about the womens natural skills, and the attitude posed by their male counterparts being a
combination of protectionism and paternalism.
There are scant empirical works that explore the enactment of the NPM and the
individual level. The research conducted took the perspective that organizations are avenues of
gender construction and contestation. The gender identity of being either a male or a female is a
daily achievement, and its robust is not immutable. Identities in the police service are made
through continual processes of self-reflection and as various discourses vie with each other for
dominance. This, therefore, means a shift from presenting women and mens homogeneous and
univocal groups and the reduction of feminist or masculinity to a simple dualism which is
biological determined (Bain, Robinson, Conser, 2014). The professional identities cannot,
therefore, be read off from a biological sex, and the professional correspondences cannot be
utterly read off from a given context of change. This paper will to some extent, therefore, explore

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the ways NPM has received and responded, supported and subverted by a persons
professionalism in the police service. The paper will also tend to explore and examine the
multiple complex patterns of the changing gender relations within the service and the prospects
for a more community-oriented and participative policing method.
Community policing is being embraced by many of police departments globally, and this
change has significant implications for the planners and the residents. It is accepted as a solution
to most of the challenges in the community today. Community police officers are should involve
themselves in development of solutions to community problems and are, therefore, supposed to
adopt goals and methods that enhance community development. The goals and community
policing strategies resemble those of community development and planning. They are formulated
to ensure stable and secure neighborhoods and promote the involvement of community residents
in the collective improvement project. This aspect calls for the planners and community police to
work hand in hand increase their role in the society. Planners and community policy should
utilize the perspectives and skills that each profession has to the task of improving the security
and general conditions of the neighborhood. To ensure the success of the community policing,
the following strategies can be adopted,
Closing problem businesses
Stores that sell beers and wines are a major source of crime and disorder in the
community in Clermont. There is a large crowd of people who loiter around such premises
providing an effective cover for the selling of drugs and other felonies. This establishment has
significant effects on peoples quality of life and therefore there is need to close the premises that
do not adhere to the law. Particularly, there should be no bars near schools or hospitals and such

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businesses located near this social institutions should be closed immediately. The number of
licenses that should be offered to businesses selling alcohol near each other should be controlled.
Cross training in community problem solving
As mentioned earlier, community policing is no effectively implemented by most security
departments, and therefore majority of the officers are inexperienced in the same. On the
contrary, planners have extensive experience in the many activities that occur in the community
such as problem detection, data collection, analysis and development of solution, and evaluating
the impact of the implemented strategies. The community planners can, therefore, play an
important role in educating the police officers on community-based policing by showing them
long range perspective on problem solving. The community planners can help the law
enforcement officers in developing strategies in both the formal and informal setting. These can
help the community in adopting long-term solutions to crime prevention.
Total quality management as a basis for cooperation
Philosophy and total quality management training is effective in enhancing the
cooperation between the planners and police in Clermont. These training aims at adopting an
interdependent problem-solving and is supported by four pillars; customer satisfaction, evidencebased management, respect for people and problem solving using a systematic action planning.
This cooperation will enable the police officers and the residents to know each other on the firsthand basis. Therefore, the implementation of neighborhood improvement projects is enhanced.
Policing Philosophy
From the philosophical approach, community policing is different from the traditional policing
by three main principles; shares responsibility to enhance community safety, crime prevention
and the discretion of the officer in the performance of police duties. The approach emphasizes

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that the responsibility for maintaining order in a society should be shared by the police and the
community. The shared responsibility should entail regular and long-term communication which
plays a vital role in ensuring trust and cooperation between the community residents and the
police. The community policing requires the citizens to be actively involved in crime prevention
through vigilance and reporting of crimes (Ikuteyijo, 2011). Where there is shared responsibility,
the police will respond to and prevent crime-related problems efficiently. Community policing
enhances crime prevention. While traditional policing mainly focuses on the crimes that have
been committed, community policing aims at identifying and analyzing the underlying
conditions and therefore strive to prevent the crime from happening. Community policing is
prevention-oriented. It is facilitated collaboration of the police, residents and other organizations
in the community. It also emphasizes on how to perform duties so as to be responsive to the
community demands and build community trust (Riccio et al. 2013). The philosophy allows the
police officers to have flexibility within reasonable limits which helps them to handle problems
based on what is most effective instead of operating by rigid rules and procedures. The officers
are encouraged to develop skills and techniques to curb crime without necessarily having to
arrest the wrongdoers. However, this requires a decentralization and flattening of the command
structure.
Importance of community policing
The changeover from traditional to community policing face major vicissitudes in
policies, missions and practices of the police department and also in police behavior. This
transition may experience internal resistance. The resistance can be posed by both the middle
managers and or the line officers. The middle manager mostly opposes the community policing
due to their fear for loss of their power over the line officers which mainly accompanies the shift

LAW ENFORCEMENT MANAGEMENT

to community policing (Wareham, Smith, Lambert, 2015). The line officers have a challenge in
accepting the shift of roles from enforcing the laws as in the traditional setup to solving the
community problems. There are many benefits that are associated with community policing and
the cooperation between the officers and community;
Reduced crime and increase fear for committing crime
Crime and fear of crime poses a significant impediment to the revitalization of the
community. Community planners are more likely to concentrate on maintaining or enhancing the
physical infrastructure of the community, but their strategies are easily undermined by
lawlessness and increased crime activities. Despite the resources and the physical appearance of
a location, some people will not stay in areas characterized by fear of crime. To ensure success,
community revitalization projects must also address safety issues in addition to social and
economic conditions that play a role in declining the community. Involvement in crime
prevention activities heightens citizens awareness and attention to crimes and societal problems
which increase fear levels for committing crimes. Increased media coverage of the crime has also
played a vital role in increasing the fear levels.
Residents in revitalization efforts
Community policing can result in the extensive revitalization of the neighborhoods by
emphasizing on organizing the citizen groups in areas where they do not exist or supporting the
already existing groups. The police officers help in organizing the community watch groups
some of which evolve to local multipurpose firms (Miller L. S., Hess M. & Orthmann C. 2013).
They achieve this by adopting policies that are opportunity oriented and emphasizes
collaboration and cooperation between the community and the government agencies. They

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identify the most pressing challenges in the community from which they design intervention plan
that is suitable both for the residents and the public agencies.
Police officers in neighborhood advancement planning
Community policing is involved with cataloging the full spectrum of the problems which
are experienced by community residents. One of the distinct aspects of the community policing
is that the officers are out in the field and the surrounding neighborhood on a daily basis.
Through their local patrols, they can have contact with various residents (Espejo, 2014). These
enable them to assess the conditions of the neighborhood and realize how those conditions
influence the lives of the residents. The police officers, therefore, becomes an excellent source of
firsthand information on the area, its residents and the problems in the area. Considering their
close contact they can also help in disseminating information on improvement of the area.
Despite this advantages, there are also cons associated with community policing, this includes
Power struggle
Some individuals who join the police force of the community watch groups are not civic
minded and therefore may engage in breaching the law. Such acts can cause the residents to lose
trust in community policing
Manufactured deviance
To justify the establishment of community policing in an area, there must be a certain
level of criminal activities that has been reported. Without the crimes, there would be no need to
establish community policing.
Different ideas
A person need not be a criminal to not want a police officer around his or her house or
business premises. Some people are of the idea that police presence is not only unneeded but is

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unwanted. Implementation of the community policing changes the structure of the policing and
its management.
Burglaries are presented as one of the most difficult crime to plan for with statistics
showing that the crime levels have increased by approximately 50%. It is difficult to estimate
when the crimes will occur and the persons involved. There are various strategies that have failed
to prevent crimes or reduce the risk factors for crimes occurring. This was deduced using the
identical scientific criteria that are used to decide what works.
Personnel management is important for various reasons; the department specifically deals
with procuring, training and hiring an effective workforce. It ensures that the hired individuals
are equipped with the required resources and are up to date on their jobs (Ramshaw, 2013). An
effective personnel management also creates a strong bond between the employees and the
people they interact with therefore creating a sense of teamwork.
Conclusion
Clements case study shows that there is much to be gained if the planners, police officers and the
residents work together in cooperation. However, there are many barriers that also need to be
overcome so as to forge an effective working relationship between the three groups. We can
deduce that most of the municipal and police departments suffer from insularity, and planning
challenges. The departments are narrowly focused on the daily activities and therefore fails to
liaise with other departments on how they can coordinate their efforts to address the challenges
in the community effectively. In many occasions, insularity is reinforced by the physical
separation between the planners and the police departments.
Cultural disparities may also simulate a challenge to cooperation. The police officers will
help by immediately responding to solve problems while the planners will play role in adopting

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long-term strategies. In most cases, planners are more educated, have good socioeconomic
backgrounds and are more politically liberal than the police officers. It is also important to bring
to light that each field has its jargons that make effective communication difficult.

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References

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