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Dick and Carey

Systematic Approach to Design


By: Ian Christopher Griffin

Identify
Instructional
Goals

Identify Instructional Goals


The Needs Assessment...
The first step in this instructional design process is to determine
what it is you want the learners to do when they finish with the
instruction. You do this by performing a Needs Assessment. The
Needs Assessment is undertaken to identify the goals for a
project. In doing so you are trying to identify the gap, or need,
between the desired goals and the current status.

The Steps...
During the Needs Assessment, we will:

Identify the problem


The causes of the problem
Identifies solutions that could be implemented
Determine our goals

Identify Instructional Goals


Identifying the Problem...
Many Instructional Designer will point out how important that
Needs Assessment is to creating training. However, just as many
will express a overwhelming concern about the lack of
adequate models to guide the training needs assessment. Dick
and Carey did point to the right direction with Rossetts 5
Components. Rossetts model will be addressed, then we will
adapt it to another popular model.

Rossetts 5 Components of a Needs Assessment...


Actuals:

Problems in terms of the current situation, the way it


is now
Figures how and what percentage
Optimals:
Descriptions of what the situation ought to be
Feelings:
In order to determine a need, its useful to determine
how people feel about it and how it is affecting them
Causes:
When considering feelings, it is possible to obtain the
causes of the gap through interviews
Solutions:
Outcome of the assessment

Not included are gaps: optimal minus actuals. If the two are the same, no change is needed.

Identify Instructional Goals


So Now What..?
You have the components of the Needs Assessment, now you
have to actually do something with it. Robert F. Mager and
Peter Pipe created a flowchart that walks you through a needs
assessment for identifying performance gaps. It takes care of all
of Rossetts Components. Thankfully, I have created a
worksheet of my own based of their flowchart with some
helpful changes.

Identify Instructional Goals


You Really Oughta Wanna...
Many Instructional Designer will point out how important that
Needs Assessment is to creating training. However, just as many
will express a overwhelming concern about the lack of
adequate models to guide the training needs assessment. Dick
and Carey did point to the right direction with Rossetts 5
Components. Rossetts model will be addressed, then we will
adapt it to another popular model. Results of the assessment
also determine if instruction is the answer, sometimes it isnt.

Item found on CD, in the Templates folder: Needs Assessment.pdf

Identify Instructional Goals


Determining Goals...
This is where all the hard work from the Needs Assessment
comes together. The results normally come in the form of one
or more well-defined goals. Goals are usually stated in terms of
new skills, knowledge, or attitudes that the instructor wants the
learners to acquire. Two ways we can determine these goals are
by: Consulting Subject-Matter Experts (SME) or using the
Performance Technology Approach.

Quick Blurb on the Two...


Subject Matter Experts are people whose knowledge greatly
exceeds that of the general public on a certain subject. They will
aid instruction by considering what they were taught by
replicating or improving upon it. There goals will contain words
like know & understand. These sources of information can be
helpful when communicating knowledge from instructor to
student.
The Performance Technology Approach is favored by
instructional designers. The goals are set in response to
problems and opportunities. This approach allows the
instructional designer to work with those who are responsible
for ensuring that an organization is meeting its quality and
productivity goals. Incase you are wondering, the Needs
Assessment you did goes here.

Identify Instructional Goals


Back to Goals...
When determining a goal, the description of what the learners
will be able to do is not complete without a description of who
the learners are, the context in which the learners will use the
skills, and the tools that will be available to the learners.
Basically, a complete goal should contain the following:

The learner (who you want to accomplish the goal)


What learners will be able to do in the performance
context
The performance context in which skills will be applied
The tools that will be available to learners

Fuzzies..!
At times you may encounter a goal that is not clear. Robert
Mager created a procedure to help clarify goals that are fuzzy,
or too vague. His process involves the following:
1. Write down the goal.
2. Identify the behaviors that learners would
demonstrate to reflect their achievement of the goal.
Write everything down first.
3. Sort through the list of behaviors and select those that
best represent what is meant by the unclear goal.
4. Incorporate each of the behaviors into a statement
that describes what the learner will be able to do.
5. Look over the goal statement and ask yourself: If
learners achieved or demonstrated each of the
performances, would you agree that they have
achieved the goal?

Conduct
Instructional
Analysis

Conduct Instructional Analysis


Two Steps, One Goal...
Now that you have a description of the learning needs and a
clearly stated goal, it is time to start to the instructional
analysis. What is an Instructional Analysis? An instructional
analysis identifies all of the skills and knowledge that should be
included in the instruction. There are two steps to this analysis:
1. Goal Analysis
2. Subordinate Skills Analysis

Goal Analysis & Classify Learning Outcomes...


In a Goal Analysis, we are tasked with answering the question,
What would someone be doing if he or she were
demonstrating that he or she already could perform the goal?
To aid in answering this question, Instructional Designers need
to be aware of the different types of learning outcomes. Robert
Gagn developed a set of common categories that allow
designers to group all the different types of subject matter to be
learned. His theory is broken down into three elements:
1. It is based on a classification of learning outcomes
2. Internal and external conditions are necessary for
achieving these learning outcomes
3. Offers nine events of instruction, which serve as a
template for developing and delivering a unit of
instruction

Among much of his work, we will briefly go over his five categories of learning.

Conduct Instructional Analysis


Verbal Information...
Verbal Information is reciting something from memory. Usually
found in goals by the verbs that is used. The learner must state,
list, or describe something. Perhaps names, facts, principles, or
generalizations.

Intellectual Skills...
Intellectual Skills require the learner to perform some unique
cognitive activity. These skills can be further broken down:
DiscriminationThe ability to distinguish one feature of an object
from another based on one or more physical dimensions.
Concrete ConceptsLearning to identify a stimulus as a member
of a class having some characteristics in common.
Defined ConceptsConcepts that cannot be identified by pointing
them out and must be defined.
RulesMake it possible for us to do something, using symbols,
and for us to respond to a class of things with a class of
performances.
Higher-order RulesInvolves applying complex combinations of
simpler rules in order to solve problems and perform tasks.

Cognitive Strategies...
Internal processed we use to govern our own learning and
thinking.

Motor Skills...
Physical activities requiring movement of all or part of the body.

Attitudes...
An internal state that influences the choice or personal action
towards some class of things, persons, or events.

Conduct Instructional Analysis


Next Steps...
Now that the goals have been sorted by learning outcomes, it is
now time for the goal analysis. In a step-by-step fashion,
describe what the person will be doing while performing the
goal. If you are unable to define what it is someone should be
doing, then it is necessary to talk to a Subject Matter Expert.
Remember them? Keep in mind that whether using yourself as
an expert or someone else, some steps may seem more obvious
to you then to others.

Determining Goal Steps...


Once you have all the required knowledge, start to list out the
steps needed to perform in order to accomplice the goal.
Simple to do in either bulleted or outline form. Each step should
indicate a behavior, have an observable outcome, and ordered
to in an effective manner. Once you have the goal steps
organized, it is time to create the flowchart capturing this
information.

Next, we will look at three different types of flowcharts that goals can be organized in.

Conduct Instructional Analysis


Goal Statement with Sequence of Events...

Goal Statement for Verbal Information...


Goal Statement for
Verbal Information

Topic 1

Topic 2

Topic 3

Topic 4

Goal Statement for Attitudinal Goals...


Behavior used to determine
goal is demonstrated

Step 1

Step 2

Goal Statement for


Attitudinal Goals

Step 3

Step 4

These are not the only ways to create flowcharts, create the best to display the information.

Analyze
Learners and
Contexts

Analyze Learners and Context


How its done...
After analyzing the goal(s), it is time to look into the learners
and the context in which learning will take place. This is the
Learner and Context Analysis. You will accomplish this by
describing the following: characteristics of the target group,
where the actual learning will take place, and where the
learners will use their skills. Its good to be aware that this step
can be accomplished during the Instructional Analysis!

Analyzing Learning...
Why you ask? The answer is simple, knowing some information
about your learners can help you increase the rate of transfer
(learners taking what they learner in the class and using it on
the job). Aside from characteristics such as age and academic
level, Dick and Carey mention several other characteristics to
look for and analyze. On the next page, we will take a look at
some of these learner characteristics and so questions to ask
yourself when trying to complete this phases of the analyze.

Analyze Learners and Context


Entry Behaviors...
Skills associated with learning the goal that must already be
mastered. Ask yourself, what should learners already know how
to do prior to instruction? You should have these already.

Prior Knowledge of the Topic...


What must be learners already know about the topic?

Attitudes towards Content and Delivery System...


Do the learners have any impressions or preconceived notions
about the topic or training?

Academic Motivation...
How motivated are learners about the training topic?
Some questions to ask:
How relevant is the instructional goal to you?
What aspects about the training do you find
interesting?

Educational and Ability Level...


What are the ability levels of the learners?

General Learning Preferences...


What learning approach do learners prefer? (workshop, online)

Attitudes towards Training Organization...


Any preconceived notions about whose doing the training?

Group Characteristics...
Items such as race, gender, age, and other demographics.

Analyze Learners and Context


Analyzing Context...
Along with analyzing the learners, the context in which the
learning takes place and where it will be transferred to needs to
be reviewed. To do so, both the performance context and
learning context will need to be analyzed. By gaining an
understanding of the context in which SKAs will be used, you
will be able to plan better instructional activities. The
instruction will have more meaning to them and will allow
better transfer of knowledge. You will gather this information at
the jobsite through interviews and observation.

Performance Context...
The performance context is the setting in which new skills and
knowledge will be used after the instruction is completed. Note
the word after. This context is when learners go back to class,
their desk, or the field. Analyzing this context will aid in creating
a more relevant environment for learners. This will help
increase learners motivation and aid in transferring knowledge.
There are some factors in which you will want to consider doing
this step.

Managerial SupportThe organizational support that


learners can expect when using new skills. Try to include
managers, SMEs, or trainers in the planning stages.
Physical Aspects of the SiteThis is the physical context in
which the new skills will be used. Try to find out what
equipment, facilities, tools, timing, or other resources will be
available and necessary.
Social Aspects of the SiteThe social context of the
performance setting. Will workers work alone or in a team?
Will they work independently in the field or as a supervisor?
Relevance of Skills to WorkplaceHow relevant are the
new skills to the actual workplace? Are there physical, social,
or motivational constraints to the use of the new skills?

Analyze Learners and Context


Learning Context...
The next step is to analysis the learning context. This context is
where the actual learning will take place. During an onsite visit,
the trainer should become familiar with the location where the
learning will occur and note any limitations you may see. Again,
there are several factors to consider when performing this
analysis.

Compatibility of Site with Instructional MandatesDoes


the learning environment include the tools needed to
perform instruction? What type of equipment do they
have and what do they need?
Adaptability of Site to Simulate WorkplaceIn training,
an attempt must be made to simulate factors from the
work environment that are critical to performance. Will it
be possible to do so in the designated training context?
What would have to be changed or added?
Adaptability for Delivery ApproachesThere maybe
other limitations are requirements that should be noted
at this point. The organization may have placed mandates
on the instruction.
Learning-Site Constraints Affecting Design and
DeliveryAny constraints at the learning-site that
maybe problematic. Incompatible computers and
inadequate space are two examples that most be noted
and overcome prior to the development of instruction.

With these tasks completed, it is time to write the instructional


objectives.

Item found on CD, in the Templates folder: Analysis Learner Context.pdf

Analyze Learners and Context


Evaluation of the Instructional Analysis...
This is the first step into formative evaluation that Dick and
Carey have set up in their Instructional Design model. It covers
both the Learner-Context Analysis and the Instructional
Analysis. The instructional analysis contains the goals, the steps
needed to perform those goals, the subordinate skills, and any
entry behaviors.
In order to perform the evaluation:
Select several people who share the characteristics of the
target audience
Sit with each person and explain what the analysis means
State the goal and explain what someone would do if
they were able to do it
Provide an example if possible to help paint the picture
Explain how each of the sets of sub-skills supports one or
more of the steps in the goal
Explain what is meant by entry behaviors and ask if they
know or can do each of the entry behaviors you listed
The purpose is to not only gather the audiences reaction, but
to also hear yourself explaining it. You can hear mistakes and
duplicates. This also gives you a chance to gain more
information about your target audience if that is needed.

Remember to make revisions found from the evaluation, where needed.

Writing
Performance
Objectives

Writing Performance Objectives


Robert Mager...
Mager has been mentioned before and he will be mentioned
for many years to come. Robert Mager has created the rules in
which all Instructional Designers follow when preparing
Performance Objectives. Dick and Carey also make mention to
him and follow his guidelines. We will do the same. Before
explaining what makes a performance objective, we will glance
over the steps Dick and Carey set out to writing these
objectives.

Steps to Writing Performance Objectives...


Dick and Carey provide several steps to follow when writing
objectives:
1. Edit goal to reflect eventual performance context.
2. Write terminal objective to reflect context of learning
3.
4.
5.
6.

environment.
Write objectives for each step in goal analysis for which
there are no substeps shown.
Write objectives that reflect the substeps in one major
objective, or write objectives for each substep.
Write objectives for all subordinate skills.
Write objectives for entry behaviors if some learners are
likely not to possess them.

Writing Performance Objectives


What makes an objective...
Mager describes 3 components of an objective; Performance
Conditions, and Criteria.
1. PerformanceAn objective always states what a learner
is expected to be able to do and/or produce to be
considered competent.
2. ConditionsAn objective describes the important
conditions (if any) under which the performance is to
occur.
3. CriteriaAn objective describes the criteria of acceptable
performance; that is, it says how well someone would
have to perform to be considered competent.

Performance...
Objectives must be clear, precise statements. When coming up
with objectives, ask the following questions:
What is the performance stated?
What is the main point of the objective?
Remember, worthwhile objectives contain behaviors that
represent skills learners will actually use in real life and
skills that are required to learn other skills.
Here are a couple of bad examples:
Be able to write solution.
Be able to appreciate the state bird.
Here are a couple of good examples:
Be able to solve word problems .
Be able to list the state birds.
Next, lists of observable verbs that be used to describe a performance.

Writing Performance Objectives


Cognitive...
Knowledge: Recall of Information

memorize
name
order
recognize
relate
recall
repeat

arrange
define
duplicate
label
list
match
reproduce

Comprehension: Interpret information


classify
describe
discuss
explain
express
identify
indicate

Analysis: Showing relationships


analyze
appraise
calculate
categorize
compare
contrast
criticize
diagram

differentiate
discriminate
distinguish
examine
experiment
inventory
question
test

recognize
report
restate
review
select
sort
tell
translate

Synthesis: Forming new knowledge


arrange
assemble
collect
compose
construct
create
design
formulate

manage
organize
plan
prepare
propose
set up
synthesize
write

Application: Use of knowledge


apply
choose
demonstrate
dramatize
employ
illustrate
interpret

operate
prepare
practice
schedule
sketch
solve
use

Evaluation: Making judgments


appraise
argue
assess
attack
choose
compare
defend
estimate

evaluate
judge
predict
rate
score
select
support
value

Affective...

acclaims
agrees
argues
assumes
attempts
avoids
challenges

cooperates
defends
disagrees
disputes
engages in
helps
is attentive to

joins
offers
participates in
praises
resists
shares
volunteers

Next, a list of observable verbs broken down by the categories of learning.

Writing Performance Objectives


Categories of Learning...
Category

Common Verbs

Verbal Information

State, Recite, Tell, Declare, Name, List,


Define

Intellectual Skills: Concrete Concepts

Identify, Label

Intellectual Skills: Defined Concepts

Classify instances, Sort, Categorize

Intellectual Skills: Rules

Solve, Show, Demonstrate, Generate,


Develop, Create, Determine, Calculate,
Predict

Intellectual Skills: Higher-order Rules

Solve, Show, Demonstrate, Generate,


Develop, Create, Determine, Calculate,
Predict, Defend, Support

Motor Skills

Execute, Perform, Swim, Walk, Run,


Climb, Drill, Saw, Assemble, Build

Attitudes

Choose, Decide, Participate

Avoid the following words...


Know
Understand
Determine
Appreciate
Grasp the significance of
Enjoy
Become familiar with
Become aware of

Believe
Learn
Have faith in
Internalize
Be happy
Value
Acquire
Develop

Writing Performance Objectives


Conditions...
To state an objective clearly, you will sometimes have to state
the conditions you will impose when students are
demonstrating their mastery of the objective. Here are some
examples:

Given a list of
When provided with a standard set of tools
Without the aid of references
With the aid of references
Without the aid of tools

In order to identify key condition, ask yourself the following


questions:
1. What will the learner be allowed to use?
2. What will the learner be denied?
3. Under what conditions will you expect the desired

performance to occur?
4. Are there any skills that you are specifically NOT trying to
develop? Does the objective exclude such skills?

Criteria...
There are two main ways to define a criterion of acceptable
performance: Speed and Accuracy
1. Speedproviding a time limit within which a given
performance must occur. If a time limit is important, it
should be stated as part of the objective. If a time limit is not
important, then do not impose a time limit. Some examples:
in under two hours.
within fifteen minutes.
2. Accuracygiving a range of acceptable performance.
Some examples:
within two inches of accuracy.
to the nearest whole number.

Writing Performance Objectives


Evaluation of Objectives...
Dick and Carey describe a way to evaluate the clarity and
feasibility of an objective is by creating a test item that will
measure the learners accomplishment of the task. If a logical
item can not be produced, then the objective should be
reconsidered.
Another way to evaluate an objectives clarity is to have a
colleague try to construct a test item that matches the behavior
and conditions specified. If the item produced does not closely
resemble the one you have in mind, then the objective is not
clear to others and must be reworded.
It is also necessary to evaluation the criteria of an objective.
This may be done by using the criteria to evaluate existing
samples of the desired performance or response.
Do not allow yourself to become too involved in the semantics
of writing Objectives.

Remember to make revisions found from the evaluation, where needed.

Develop
Assessment
Instruments

Develop Assessment Instruments


Criterion-Referenced Tests...
Criterion-referenced tests are designed to measure an explicit
set of objectives. This type of testing is important for two
reasons. One, like most tests, it tests and evaluates the learners
progress. Two, it provides information on the effectiveness of
instruction. The results of these tests indicate how well the
learners achieved each objective, tell what components need to
be worked on, and what needs revision. Why are test items
created now? Simply put, The activities you will create should
be based on the objectives and assessment items. They should
not be based on what your instructional activities are.

Types of Criterion-Referenced Tests...


Dick and Carey describe two types of tests: Pretest and Posttest.
Pretest
A pretest may consist of items that measure
entry behaviors and items taught during
instruction. Testing entry behaviors determines
whether or not learners are ready to begin your
instruction, while testing for items during
instruction helps determine which skills in the
instructional analysis they may already be
familiar with. If they are familiar, then they do
not need as much instruction for those skills.
Posttest
Posttests are given following instruction, and
help you determine if learners have achieved
the objectives you set out for them in the
beginning. Each item on a posttest should
match one of your objectives, and the test
should assess all of the objectives. One primary
purpose of a posttest is to help identify areas
where the instruction is not working.

Develop Assessment Instruments


Types of Test Items...
There are many difference types of tests out there. Short
Answer, True/False, Multiple Choice, and Matching are just a
few. Whats the best one? A good way to decide what test
format to use is by looking at the learning domains of the
objectives.
1. Verbal InformationVerbal skill objectives generally call for

simple objective-style test items. This includes short-answer,


matching, and multiple-choice.
2. Intellectual SkillsIntellectual skills objectives require either
objective-style test items, the creation of some product, or a
performance of some sort. The product or performance
would need to be judged by a checklist of criteria.
3. AttitudesAttitude objectives are more problematic since
there is not usually a way to directly measure a persons
attitude. Assessment items generally involve observing
learners in action and inferring their attitudes, or having
learners state their preferences on a questionnaire.
4. Psychomotor SkillsPsychomotor objectives are usually
assessed by having the learner perform a set of tasks that
lead to the achievement of the goal. It also requires a
checklist or rating scale so that the instructor can determine
if each step is performed properly.

Develop Assessment Instruments


Types of Test Items now in Chart Form..!
Type of
Behavior in
Obj.
State

Live
Fill-inMultiple
Product
Performance
Essay
Completion
Matching
Blank
Choice
Checklist
Checklist
X

Identify

X
X

Select

Discriminate

Discuss

Define

Solve

Develop

Locate

Construct

Generate

X
X

Operate/
Perform
Choose

X
X

Develop Assessment Instruments


Checklist for Assessment..
There are some things that need to be considered while
developing assessment materials:
Determine the Mastery LevelConsider what is the
level of performance from the best learners?
Number of ItemsEnough so every learning
objective is covered and enough to determine if the
skill is mastered.
Test ItemsYouve seen the chart, right?
Sequence QuestionsCluster items together by
objective, regardless of format.
Write the DirectionsThere should be no doubt in
the learners mind on what to do when handed an
assessment.

Developing Assessment for Performances, Products, & Attitudes...


The steps needed to develop assessment are:
1. Identify the elements to be evaluatedthese elements should be
taken directly from the behaviors and criteria included in your
objectives.
2. Paraphrase each elementelements should be paraphrased to cut
down on the length of the instrument.
3. Sequence the elements on the instrumentthe order in which the
elements are listed should match the natural order of the
performance.
4. Select the type of judgment to be made by the evaluator
Judgments can be made using checklists, rating scales, or
frequency counts.
Checklists provide a simple "yes" or "no".
Rating scales allow in-between ratings instead of just "yes" or
"no".
Frequency counts indicate the number of times a learner meets
or displays a criterion or element.
5. Determine how the instrument will be scored

Develop Assessment Instruments


Evaluating Tests and Test Items...
A test item may appear perfectly clear to the one who
wrote them but can be confusing to the person who is
required to respond to it. The instructor should ensure the
following:
Test directions are clear, simple, and easy to follow
Each test item is clear and conveys to learners the
intended information
Conditions under which responses are made
realistic
The response methods are clear to learners
Appropriate space, time, and equipment are
available for students to respond appropriately.
After writing a test, the instructor should administer it to a
student or individual who will read and explain aloud what
is meant by both the directions and questions, and then
answer the questions provided. This will help pinpoint any
weaknesses in the test or individual test items that can be
corrected.
After administering a test, it is a good idea to review the
results and check for any questions that we missed the
most by the most people. The test item may need to be
reviewed.
Remember when constructing test items, one should keep
in mind that tests measure the adequacy of:
The test itself
The response form
The instructional materials
The instructional environment and situation
The achievement of students

Remember to make revisions found from the evaluation, where needed.

Develop
Instructional
Strategy

Develop Instructional Strategy


Instructional Strategy...
There are many different ways to sequence and present
content to learners. Creating an instructional strategy allows
you to make important choices about the courses structure
and its delivery methods.

Three Issues that Create a Strategy...


1. How will the material be grouped and sequenced?
Learning objectives should be grouped
Once topics are together, what order will you put
them in?
Step-by-step process
Known to unknown knowledge
General to specific information
2. What activities and exercises will be used to present the
material?
Group discussions
Modeling
Scenarios
Applied practice
3. How will assessments measure a learners success?
The courses assessments should measure a learners
progress towards each of the learning objectives.
Quizzes
Demonstration of knowledge

Develop Instructional Strategy


Select Course Format...
The course format will affect almost every aspect of the design
document and the final course content. It is the structure produced
from combining the learners needs, the content, and the business
goals.

Determining Format...
Some suggested formats:
Self study training guides
Quick-reference guides (Pocket tools)
Classroom/Workshop series
eLearning Course
A blended variation of the above
If a classroom or workshop series, determine the appropriate
duration for the course.
One single sitting course
Longer but fewer session
Shorter, more numerous sessions

Develop Instructional Strategy


Creating a Project Plan...
The Project Plan is a formal, approved document used
to guide both project execution and control. The
Training Department has a Project Plan template
available that can be sent electronically.
Answer Questions...
Why? - What is the problem or value proposition addressed by
the project? Why is it being sponsored?
What? - What is the work that will be performed on the
project? What are the major products/deliverables?
Who? - Who will be involved and what will be their
responsibilities within the project? How will they be organized?
When? - What is the project timeline and when will particularly
meaningful points, referred to as milestones, be complete?

Develop Instructional Strategy


The Project Plan...

When writing the Project Plan, you want to


make sure that you include all the necessary
information about the following topics.

Item found on CD, in the Templates folder: Design Development Guide.pdf

Develop Instructional Strategy


Creating a Design Document...
At the end of the design phase, you will need to write up a
design document. This document will provide a high-level
overview of the entire training solution. The Training
Department has a Design Document template available that
can be sent electronically.

Tasks and Purpose...


The Design Document will perform the following tasks:
Describe the overall learning approach
Identify instructional media choices
Cluster and sequence objectives
Describe course exercises, activities, and assessments
The Design Document is used to fulfill 3 purposes:
Check to see that the design concepts are cohesive and
complete
Present the training solution to all parties involved
Allows an opportunity to gather feedback about the
design

Develop Instructional Strategy


The Design Document...

At the beginning of the Design Document, you


will need to state the projects purpose,
objectives, and what your proposed solution is.

Develop Instructional Strategy


The Design Document...

Now, create an overview of each module in


the training program with each major topic.

Develop Instructional Strategy


The Design Document...

Finally, its time to break each module down further:


List the objectives for that module
The materials used (handouts, PowerPoint, etc)
List the contents of each section and add any
design notes that you will need to know when
developing.

Develop Instructional Strategy


Evaluate the Instructional Strategy...
To help aid in evaluating the Instructional Strategy, it is a
good time to check in with both the SMEs and learners.
Their reactions will save a lot of time rewriting in the
future. Remember, the time required is small compared to
the value of their feedback.
It may be necessary to provide evaluators with additional
information, such as:
The instructional goal
A list of objectives
A description of the target audience
This information will help judge the quality of the
information included in the instructional strategy.
Now it is time to try out the instructional strategy and test
items on a few learners. Explain to the learner that you are
devolping some instruction and would like to if you have
an adequate outline. Go through the strategy just as you
are going to write it, but just explain it to the learner. Show
them some examples if needed.

Remember to make revisions found from the evaluation, where needed.

Develop and
Select
Instructional
Materials

Develop Instructional Materials


In House vs. Outsourcing...
Even with little experience in developing training materials, it
can be easy to do:
PowerPoint presentations are made all the time and are
widely used in classroom training
Handouts can be just questionnaires made in a Word
Document.
You have Trainings support to aid you in creating an
eLearning course. You are never alone when coming to
us with your training needs.
Developing the materials yourself will cost less than
Outsourcing to an outside company. However, if you feel that is
your only option, please consult others for contacts.

Develop Instructional Materials


Classroom Training...
Classroom training provides a personal and interactive training
delivery. The classroom should provide hands-on practice,
encourage discussion with clear feedback, and respect
different learning styles. When developing classroom training,
the facilitator will need a guide to aid them in the flow of the
course and what steps to take as it progresses.

Critical Questions...

How many people need training?


Can learners dedicate time for training?
Is there a room available to conduct training when you
need it to be done?
Do learners need hands-on practice and quality
feedback?
Will learners need any additional materials? Handouts,
Guides, etc?
What presentations will need to be made?

Develop Instructional Materials


Facilitators Guide...
The Facilitators Guide contains a layout of what and when to
say and do in the classroom. From start to finish, you will need
to tell the Facilitator what to Say, Ask, Answer, and what
activities/handouts to Show.

Develop Instructional Materials


PowerPoint...
A standard piece of training material that is used in classroom
settings. They can also be used for handouts and study guides.

Intro to Presentation Zen...

If you are using PowerPoint to guide your workshop, here


are a few tips into the concept of Presentation Zen:
Reduce text; text be redundant information
Images trigger emotions
95% of all presentations are boring; When information
is just crammed into a handful of slide.
Dont be boring
Tell stories; be interesting, provoke emotions, dont
just read bullet points
Whitespace is your friend
Be concise
You have something to say, not PowerPoint; so say it!

Develop Instructional Materials


eLearning...
The eLearning Development team has put together an online
certification course on the LMS to help fill you in on how to
create your own eLearning training material in an eLearning.
Your course can be developed in one of two easy-to-use
software; Content Point or Adobe Captivate.

eLearning Standards...
Page Size and Format:
Personal Preference: 1024 x 768; SCORM 1.2
Seat Time:
Personal Preference: Between 15 to 30 minutes
Contents:
Page 1: Explain seat time
Page 2: Audio page, if included
Page 3: Introduction page with objectives
Quiz, If the course needs to be tracked in the LMS, must
include:
Bank of 10 multiple choice or True/False questions, with 5
random questions asked
Passing rate of at least 80%
Feedback needs to be given after each slide
Results need to be shown at the end

Develop Instructional Materials


eLearning...

In most eLearning tools, you will have to create your


own background. Fortunately, this creating a
background can be done in programs such as
Microsoft PowerPoint.

Develop Instructional Materials


Evaluation of Materials...
Remember your resources!
Instructional goal
Instructional analysis
Behavioral objectives
Sample test items
Characteristics of the target audience
Characteristics of the learning and performance
context
Instructional Strategy that includes:
Cluster and sequence of objectives
Preinstructional activities
Tests to be used
Follow-up activities
Information presentation of examples
Student practice and feedback
Strategies for memory and transfer skills
Activities assigned to individual lessons
Wow, the best way to evaluate you instructional materials
is with a pilot class. Try it out and gather feedback.

Remember to make revisions found from the evaluation, where needed.

Design and
Conduct
Summative
Evaluation

Identify Instructional Goals


Four Levels of Evaluation...
You have researched your training needs, designed and
developed your training materials, Implemented your material
and now its time to evaluate your work. Donald Kirkpatrick
created Four Levels of Evaluation that we use to judge the
effectiveness of our training. You may have noticed that
Formative Evaluation wasnt covered in its own section. If you
havent noticed, Formative Evaluation and Revision has been
covered at the end of most sections. At this point, the first
class or at least the pilot class should have been completed.

Level 1Reaction...
Learners are asked to evaluate the learning/training after
completion. This is an inexpensive measurement that usually
takes the form of a port-learning survey that can be a handout
or done online.
Some questions can include:
Level of appeal of the instruction
Relevance of the objectives
Ability of the course to encourage and retain interest
Amount and appropriateness of interactive exercises
Ease of navigation and use of tools
Quality and relevance of media
Value perceived by the learner

Identify Instructional Goals


Level 2Learning...
In level 2, we ask, Did learners actually learn the material? To
show achievement, learners complete a pre-test and post-test.
Questions must be derived from the learning objectives
Some steps you could take to complete this level of
evaluation:
Develop pre-test and post-test based on the
objectives
Administer the pre-test before instruction to be used a
benchmark
Administer the post-test after concluding the course
Compare the results

Level 3Behavior...
Level 3 attempts to determine whether of not learners
behaviors have changed as a result of training. This form of
evaluation should be done two to three months after the
training has ended.
Some tools you can use are:
Observations
Behavioral scorecards/surveys by:
The learner
The learners supervisors
The learners direct reports
Those who interact with the learner in the
workplace

Identify Instructional Goals


Level 4Results...
In level four, we attempt to find how the training has effected
the business. We can quickly see an example of this when living
and teaching the company values can Grow profitability.
Here are some ways you can capture data:
Sales volumes
Customer retention
Customer support
Time for task completion
Return on Investment (ROI)

Congratulations, its done! Remember to make Revisions where needed.