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Best practices of erection,

testing, operation
and maintenance of solar power
plants &
Case study of 100kWp
Solar Plant
By
N.Ramchander,

M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Project Engineer (Solar


Projects), BVRIT
& Guest Faculty at SURABHI

Project Development Stages

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Radiation availability at Hyderabad, Telangana

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Radiation data availability at Pune,


Maharashtra

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Solar Radiation
Map of India

Applications of Solar PV

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Selection of Solar Photovoltaic(PV)


System Components

Components of MW Scale Solar PV Systems


Land & Infrastructure
Solar Modules.
Panel Mounting Systems.
DC Cabling & Connectors.
String Combiner Boxes.
Inverters.
Transformers.
High Voltage AC cabling.
Control Panels.
Evacuation Systems.
Monitoring Systems.

Land & Infrastructure


Location of land
Availability of large tract of land.
Land topology.
Flora & fauna .
Distance from Substation.
Resistivity of land.
Availability of portable water.
Hardness of the soil.
Shading.
Assessment of radiation at the location.

Solar PV Modules

Solar Modules
Cost.
Efficiency.
Availability.
Product Warranty.
Power output Warranty.
System Voltage.
Open Circuit Voltage.

Max Power point Voltage.


Max Power point
Current.
Weight.
Performance Ratio.

Photovoltaic module design parameters(continued)

Unit protection for polarity reversal


Years of warranty by the manufacturer
Reliability of technology
Efficiency of the cell per unit surface
Degradation rate during the expected life span
(warranty period) of operation
Longevity of the product
Number of installations
Project references and contacts
Product manufacturers financial viability

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Mounting Structure
Fixed Tilt.
Single Axis Tracking.
Dual Axis Tracking.
Tracking technology.
Distance between the rows.
Design strength.
Power required for tracking
operation.
Additional gain due to tracker.
Warrantee on Structures.
Guarantee against additional gain.

DC Cabling & Connectors


Size of cable. ( 4 mm & 6 mm).
Specification of Cables, viz. UV resistant etc.
Wiring of DC cables.
Avoid looping.
Parallel and Series connections.
Laying of DC cables.
Different types of Connectors.
DC Loss Calculation.

String Combiner Boxes


Various Components of a SCB.
Terminal Blocks / Connectors.
SPD.
Fuse Blocks.
Current sensors. ( Hall effect sensor
/ Resistive Sensor).
DC Switch / Circuit breaker.
DC Copper Cable.

String Combiner Boxes

Inverters
Rated AC power: Suitability of Rated AC power for your project.
Max DC voltage: The advantage of higher max DC voltage that can be
fed into the inverter.
No of MPPTs: Various technology of MPPTs and their advantages.
MPPT range: The MPPT range is also important factor.
Output AC voltage: Higher the output AC voltage lower the out
current.
Infeed starting power: This is an important indicator, showing that at
what %age of rated power the inverter start operating.
Power Consumption in night:
Power consumption during operation:

Inverters
Auxiliary power requirement:
Air flow requirement:
Protection Class: Most of the Inverters fall under the protection
class IP20.
Ambient temp range & de-rating:
Possibility of Parallel operation:
Disconnection system on AC and DC side:
Efficiency: Voltage range of max efficiency window.
Master Slave operation & Rotating Master:
Cost per MW:

String Inverter & Central Inverter

Difference between String & Central Inverter:


Efficiency of String Inverters.
No power Consumption at night:
Elimination of Civil construction:
Lower down time:
Data Monitoring system:
Low cable losses:
Saving in overall cost:

String Inverter & Central Inverter

Inverter and automatic transfer system:

Unit conversion efficiency


Waveform harmonic distortion
Protective relaying features
Input and output protection features
Service and maintenance availability and cost
Output waveform and percent harmonic content
Unit synchronization feature with utility power
Longevity of the product
Number of installations in similar types of application
Project references and contacts
Product manufacturers financial viability

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Transformers
Three winding transformers:
Max Efficiency at low loads.
Usage of first quality cores:
Low loss during operation:
Low no load loss:
% age load at max efficiency:
Cable Connectivity:
Evacuation Transformer:
Cost per MW:

H V AC cabling & Control Panels


Directly from the Supplier / System House:
Size of the cable and cable loss:
Requirement of ICOG panel:
Battery pack/ Battery charger:
Accuracy class of CT/PT:
Cable route marking:
Cable sleeve fixing:

Evacuation System
Different type of towers:
Different type of conductors:
Size of the cables and losses:
Requirement of ICOG / RMU panel:
Battery pack/ Battery charger:
Accuracy class of CT/PT:
Cable route marking:
Cable sleeve fixing:

Monitoring System
Different type of Interfacing:
Data transfer through vendor site:
Data acquisition and transfer through own network:
Monitoring parameters:

String monitoring

Alarms:
Control through PLC:
Costing:

Weather Station
Pyranometer:
Thermopile type
Cell type
Temperature sensor:
Wind vane:
Humidity sensor:

Pyranometer

Wind Vane

Humidity & Temperature Sensor

Rain Gauge

Operation, maintenance & trouble


shooting of solar PV plants

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Operation , Maintenance & Trouble shooting of Solar Plants


No moving parts in the Solar PV project, thus the
maintenance cost is less compared to other renewable
projects.
Crimping of Cables on DC side.
Check for any shading due to any object or dust on the
modules by visual inspection.
Checking the module for hotspots with infrared cameras.
Laying of Cables: Check visually and by Meggar for any faults
before laying.
Faults in Jointing Kits.

Operation , Maintenance & Trouble shooting of Solar Plants

Faults in modules of SCADA.


Checking of string voltage and string current regularly.
Current checking with respect to current irradiance level.
Checking input DC power and out put AC power of Inverter.
Changing of Silica Gel in the breather of Transformer.
Cleaning of Inverters & Fan filters.
Fixing of RF ID tag.
Check for inverter data using inverter software.
Check for battery charger & battery bank condition.
Working out a maintenance schedule and follow the same & keep all
records.

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Case Study of 100kWp Solar Power


Plant Installed@BVRIT
By

N.Ramchander,

M.Tech,

(Ph.D)

Project Engineer (Solar


Projects),
Sr.Asstistant Professor,
EEED-BVRIT.

100kWp Solar PV Power Plant @ BVRIT

Total Project Cost : 130 Lakhs


Subsidy(MNRE) : 39 Lakhs
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System Specifications
PV Modules
Cell Technology
Mounting

: SIRIUS Solar 250Wp (400 nos)


: Poly-crystelline (microsol)
: Fixed Tilt(170 South facing)

Inverters

: REFUSol 20kW (5 nos)

Number of Arrays

: 20 (each 5kW, 20 modules in series)

Number of Strings

: 5 (each 20 kW, 4-arrays in parallel)

Array Junction Box

: 5 nos (IP65 protection with MOVs)

Lightning Arresters

: 2 nos

Earthing

: 7 nos

LT Panel

: 1 nos

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PV Modules Specifications
(SIRIUS Solar Energy Pvt Ltd)

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System Configuration

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350
1000
1
yes
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3-ph AC 400V+N, 50-60Hz

1
0.9i..1..0.9c

20W
< 0.5

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**Total energy generation as on 24-08-2016 is

3,98,744 kWh
Monthly Average Energy Production

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Power Generation Profile on 26th Feb14


(590 kWh generated)

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Power Generation Profile on 15th March 2016


(441 kWh generated)

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Power Generation profile on 16th Feb14


(508 kWh generated)

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Voltage and Current profile on 25th Feb14

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Power Generation profile on 4th Mar14

(160 kWh generated)


**Note: Heavy rain and hailstorm, wind speed recorded 21m/s

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Solar Plant damaged due to recent Hudud Cyclone in Vizag

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Operation and Maintenance


Regular cleaning of the modules
Online monitoring through
Refulog mobile App
Physical inspection at regular
intervals

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PV modules testing facilities at BVRIT

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Pyranometers are radiometers designed for


measuring the irradiance on a plane surface.
The instruments are used in meteorological
research, solar energy research, material
testing, climate control in greenhouses,
building physics, science and many other
applications.
The CMP series of pyranometers have
ergonomic features to facilitate installation,
maintenance,
and
exchange
for
recalibration.
Pyranometers are easy to use, require no
power, and are all supplied with calibration
certificates that are traceable to WRR
(World Radiometric Reference).

Spectral range 285 to 2800 nm


Sensitivity 7 to 14 V/W/m
Response time < 5 s
Directional error

(up to 80 with 1000 W/m beam) < 10 W/m


Temperature dependence of sensitivity
(-10 C to +40 C) < 1 %
Operating temperature range -40 C to +80 C
Maximum solar irradiance 4000 W/m

Field of view 180

The CR3000 is a high performance, self-contained, data


logger suitable for large scale applications, such as eddy
covariance or high speed measurements. Measuring most
commercial sensors directly, the data logger communicates
via range of telemetry options, and has the ability control
external devices, reduce data, and store both programs and
data in either non-volatile Flash memory or battery-backed
SRAM.
The CR3000 data logger includes an integral, 8-line display
and power supply (varying options available). A batterybacked, real-time clock and 4M of nonvolatile data storage is
included.

Features of CR 30000
Compact, self-contained data logger
Integrated keyboard and display
2M Flash for operating system
4M battery-backed SRAM for CPU use,
program storage, and data storage
Data format: table
Available operating systems: PakBus
Software support: requires LoggerNet
3.2 or higher (not included)

Thermal Imager
Thermal imagers measure the infrared energy emitted
by surfaces remotely. The Infrared energy emitted by
the object is focused on to an infrared detector. The
Thermal Imager converts this infrared energy into a
heat picture of the object which in thermal Imaging
Terminology is known as a Thermogram.
Different temperatures in the Thermogram are
represented by different colors. The distribution of
temperature on the object gives the user vital
information on the operating condition of the machine
which helps the user take corrective actions.

Salient Features of the Thermal Imager


Flexible Camcorder design with a rotatable display
Wide field of view 32 Horizontal and optional
telephoto lens 9
Very high image quality due to NETD < 80 mK
Voice recording with every Image through
external headset
In camera Analysis,- One Point measurement,
Hot and Cold Spot recognition, Isotherms,
The Thermal Imager comes with professional
Reporting and analysis software and a host of
accessories
Standard temperature measurement is
from -20 to 280 Deg C optimized for Industrial
Maintenance applications
Typical applications include
Electrical Maintenance
Mechanical Maintenance
Buildings Maintenance

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I-V Curve Tracer


The Daystar DS-100C I-V curve tracer is a portable self-contained unit
for testing installed photovoltaic systems. It weighs 13 kg and is packaged
in a non-metallic case 44 x 35 x 20 cm.
The DS-100C uses a capacitive load to vary the impedance connected to
the output terminals of the PV array under test. The voltage and current
are sampled as the capacitors in the DS-100C are charged. This data set
is transferred to the control computer for display, analysis, and storage
using the powerful Windows-based IVPC software.
The displayed I-V curve includes values of:
Open Circuit Voltage, Voc
Short Circuit Current, Isc
Peak Power
Voltage at Peak Power, Vpk
Current at Peak Power, Ipk
Fill Factor

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Long term field performance

Electroluminescence images (EL) should be taken when ever PV modules


performance difference is more to confirm the micro-cracks.

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About BVRIT-INDNOR Solar PV Project in media

Complete project Sponsored by Research Council of Norway(RCN)

Cost of project 84 lakhs

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BVRIT Students with team of MNRE & NCPRE


(15th October 2014 )

INDNOR Solar PV Project Students

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Swapping of modules on 10-11-2014 by students & technicians of BVRIT

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Common Construction Mistakes

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Common Construction Mistakes

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Common Construction Mistakes

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Common Construction Mistakes

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Common Construction Mistakes

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Installation system integrator qualification:

Experience and technical qualifications


Years of experience in solar panel installation and maintenance
Familiarity with system components
Amount of experience with the particular system product
Labor pool and number of full-time employees
Troubleshooting experience
Financial viability
Office location
Approval from MNRE/TNREDCL..etc
Performance bond and liability insurance amount
Previous litigation history
Material, labor, overhead, and profit markups
Payment schedule
Installation warranty for labor and material

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Good System Design Guidelines

Choose the PV technology (mono/poly) suitable to installation location


Select the good system designer/system integrator
Based on the installation site ground mounted/roof mounted select the
mechanical structure
Visit the PV module manufacturing unit, asked to perform reliability
tests on few randomly selected modules

Check/collect the certifications (IEC 61215, UL/TUV, MNRE)

Check certifications with the same rating of PV modules or not

Check performance warranty and product warranty

Ask them to provide IV curves of all the modules & slotting


Select the inverter based on the reliability, efficiency, warranty
After installation monitor the PV plant daily basis
Clean the PV modules daily/weekly based on installation site (dust
conditions)
Provide proper protection lightning, grounding etc..
Better to have insurance for the solar plant
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Contact: ramchander.nirudi@gmail.com
Mobile : 9247798832
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400 kWp Plant : Chinnasawamy Stadium

Project Site

Dwarka Metro Station, Delhi

Plant Capacity

500kWp (under RESCO)

Est. Annual Savings

> Rs. 50 lakhs

150 kWp solar rooftop on a Curved Roof in a Metro Station


in Faridabad

1 MWp Rooftop Power plant


Annual saving :10.73 lakh kWh and Rs. 10.73 lakh

Jaipur station

Case Study of DMRC: Tariff Comparison

Solar Projects

500 kWp ON gird Solar Plant at Secunderabad Station