Thin Airfoil Theory

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Thin Airfoil Theory

© All Rights Reserved

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Airfoil Characteristics

l

2

1

C

=

l

/

V

Lift coeffcient: l

c

2

Moment coeficient:

Center of pressure:

Aerodynamic Center:

Symbols:

v=Vsin+v'

u=Vcos+u'

t

c

l (<0)

Chord c

Assumptions:

1. Airfoil is thin << c

2. Angles/slopes are small e.g.

sin , cos 1, slope angle

3. Airfoil only slightly disturbs

free stream u', v' << V

Kutta condition? (cusped TE)

u = c + t

Camber c = 12 (u + l )

or

l = c t

Thickness t = 12 (u l )

Non-penetration condition?

Bernoulli?

Bernoulli:

C p = 1 (u 2 + v 2 ) / V2

= 1 [(V cos + u ' ) 2 + (V sin + v' ) 2 ] / V2

2u '

2v '

u '2 v '2

=

cos

sin 2 2

V

V

V V

Cp

Kutta Condition:

V (c,0 + ) = V (c,0 )

Linearized Pressure

Coefficient

Assumptions:

1. Airfoil is thin << c

2. Angles/slopes are small e.g.

sin , cos 1, slope angle

3. Airfoil only slightly disturbs free

stream u', v' << V

v=Vsin+v'

y

u=Vcos+u'

V(c,0+)

x

c

V(c,0-)

Exact:

Exact:

v=Vsin+v'

u=Vcos+u'

Small disturbances

and angles:

d c d t

v ' ( x , u )

+

+

dx

dx

V

v ' ( x , u )

d d

+ c + t

V

dx

dx

Airfoil thin:

v ' ( x ,0 + )

d d

+ c + t

V

dx

dx

Likewise for

lower surface:

v ' ( x ,0 )

d d

+ c t

V

dx

dx

Or:

v ' ( x ,0 )

d d

+ c t

V

dx

dx

t

c

l (<0)

Linearized:

y

u = c + t

l = c t

C p (x,0 )

y=0+

x

y=0-

u(c,0+)=u(c,0-)

5

A Source Sheet

Jump in normal velocity component

A Vortex Sheet

Jump in tangential velocity component

6

Proposed Ideal Flow Solution:

Linearized problem:

y

iy

C p ( x,0 ) 2u ( x,0 ) / V

v ' ( x ,0 )

d d

+ c t

V

dx

dx

y=0+

y=0+

x

y=0-

u(c,0+)=u(c,0-)

Complex velocity at z 1 q ( x1 ) i ( x1 )

dx1

due to element dx1: 2

( z x1 )

Complex velocity at

y=0 due to sheet:

x1

V

dx1

y=0-

1

Complex velocity at z

W ' ( z) =

due to whole sheet:

2

Source sheet

+ vortex sheet

c

q ( x1 ) i ( x1 )

dx1

( x + iy x1 )

1 q( x1 ) i ( x1 )

W ' ( x,0 ) =

dx1 K

2 0 ( x x1 )

So what?

N.B. Karamcheti defines the vortex

sheet strength with the opposite sign

c

W ' ( x,0 )

v' ( x,0 )

1

q( x)

( x1 )

dx

= Im

=

V

2V

V

2V 0 ( x x1 )

W ' ( x , 0 )

u ' ( x ,0 )

1

= Re

=

V

V

2V

q ( x1 )

( x)

dx

m

1

0 ( x x1 )

2V

c

Proposed Ideal Flow Solution:

Linearized problem:

y

iy

C p ( x,0 ) 2u ( x,0 ) / V

v ' ( x ,0 )

d d

+ c t

V

dx

dx

y=0+

v ' ( x ,0 )

1

=

V

2V

u ' ( x ,0 )

1

=

V

2V

y=0+

( x1 )

( x x ) dx

q ( x1 )

( x x ) dx

0

q( x)

2V

( x)

2V

y=0-

u(c,0+)=u(c,0-)

x1

V

y=0-

x

dx1

Source sheet

+ vortex sheet

(c )

(c )

u ' ( c ,0 + ) u ' ( c ,0 )

1

q ( x1 )

1

q ( x1 )

Kutta

=

so

dx

=

dx

+

so (c ) = 0

1

1

V

2V 0 (c x1 )

2V 2V 0 (c x1 )

2V

condition: V

c

d d

i ( x1 )

1

q( x)

Nondx

+ c t =

1

dx

dx 2V 0 ( x x1 )

2V

penetration:

c

Pressure:

1

C p ( x ,0 ) =

V

Pressure Difference:

q ( x1 )

( x)

dx

0 ( x x1 ) 1 V

c

Solution

order?

Need q(x)?

Non-penetration

d d

i ( x1 )

1

q( x)

dx

+ c + t =

+

1

dx

dx 2V 0 ( x x1 )

2V

c

d c d t

i ( x1 )

1

q( x)

dx

1

dx

dx 2V 0 ( x x1 )

2V

c

d

i ( x1 )

1

dx1

+ c ( x) =

dx

2V 0 ( x x1 )

c

add

+Kutta

(c ) = 0

d c

(x) ?

dx

Write as

x / c = 12 (1 + cos )

x1 / c = 12 (1 + cos 1 )

Relate to

for

d c

dx

Fourier Series Solution gives:

1 cos

( ) / V = (2 Bo )

+ 2 Bn sin(n )

sin

n =1

where:

2 d

Bn = c ( ) cos(n )d

0 dx

mO

0

x / c = 12 (1 + cos )

C p

x

c

0

Cl =

l

=

2

1

2 V c

1

x

m

x

= 1 O2 2 = 1

x

pdx

=

C

(

x

)

d

= 14 C p ( )(1 + cos ) sin d

p

2 2

c

c

2 V c

2 V c 0

0

C mO

= 14 Cl + 14 ( B1 + B2 )

10

Now:

Cl = 2 ( B0 + B1 )

C mO = Cl + ( B1 + B2 )

1

4

mO

1

4

C p ( ) =

4 Bn sin( n )

sin

n =1

So,

Lift varies linearly with

Lift curve slope is 2

Camber only acts to influence the zero lift angle of attack

Thickness has no effect on lift and moment

Lift acts

Aerodynamic center is

C mx =

Center of pressure is

x / c = 12 (1 + cos )

mx

c

2 d

Bn = c ( ) cos(n )d

0 dx

11

An airfoil has a straight camber line

defined as: c / c = 0

Determine the aerodynamic characteristics

and vortex sheet strength.

t

c

u

l

c

0

x / c = (1 + cos )

1

2

2 d

Bn = c ( ) cos(n )d

0 dx

Cl = 2 ( B0 + B1 )

C mx = ( cx 14 )Cl + 14 ( B1 + B2 )

1 cos

( ) / V = (2 Bo )

+ 2 Bn sin(n )

sin

n =1

cos = 2( x / c) 1

sin( ) = 1 cos 2 = 2 x / c ( x / c) 2

12

An airfoil has upper and lower surfaces

defined as: u / c = 0.5( x / c )(1 x / c )

l / c = 0.3( x / c )(1 x / c )

t

c

u

l

x / c = (1 + cos )

1

2

c

0

2 d

Bn = c ( ) cos(n )d

0 dx

Cl = 2 ( B0 + B1 )

C mx = ( cx 14 )Cl + 14 ( B1 + B2 )

13

A NACA 2412 airfoil has a camber line

given by the equations:

c =

c =

1

10

1

90

x / c ( x / c)

+ 452 x / c 362 ( x / c ) 2

2

16

4

10

4

10

4

x c 1

10

x / c = (1 + cos )

1

2

c

0

0 x/c

4

10 x / c 1

0 x c

2 d

Bn = c ( ) cos(n )d

0 dx

Cl = 2 ( B0 + B1 )

1 1 x

d c 10 4 c

=

dx 2 1 x

45 9 c

t

c

C mx = ( cx 14 )Cl + 14 ( B1 + B2 )

1 1

(1 + cos )

d c 10 8

=

dx 2 1

(1 + cos )

45 18

p

p 0

0.4 = 12 (1 + cos p )

p = 1.7722rad = 102

14

2 1

2 1 1

B0 = (1+ cos ) d + (1+ cos ) d = 0.009

0 45 18

p 10 2

2

Use Matlab!

2 2 1

2 1 1

0 45 18

p 10 2

2 2 1

2 1 1

0 45 18

p 10 2

Cl = 2 ( B0 + B1 )

= 2 + 0.2279 ol = 2.08

Cmc / 4 = ( B1 + B2 )

= 0.0532

x / c = (1 + cos )

1

2

c

0

V

1

4

t

c

2 d

Bn = c ( ) cos(n )d

0 dx

Cl = 2 ( B0 + B1 )

C mx = ( cx 14 )Cl + 14 ( B1 + B2 )

15

Comparison

with data

Summary of

airfoil data

Abbott, Ira H Von

Doenhoff, Albert E

Stivers, Louis, Jr

Cl

Cmc/4

http://naca.larc.nasa.gov/re

ports/1945/naca-report-824/

16

The loading distribution Cp is measured

on a helicopter rotor airfoil section as a

function of angle of attack. Estimate the

change in loading produced by a 2 degree

change in angle of attack.

t

c

u

l

x / c = (1 + cos )

1

2

c

0

2 d

Bn = c ( ) cos(n )d

0 dx

Cl = 2 ( B0 + B1 )

C mx = ( cx 14 )Cl + 14 ( B1 + B2 )

17

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