Hydraulics Engineering

© All Rights Reserved

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Hydraulics Engineering

© All Rights Reserved

- 1. Introduction to Fluid Power
- Designing Airflow Systems
- Calculate Flow Rate From Differential Pressure
- roughness
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Systems

ME4803 Motion Control

Wayne J. Book

HUSCO/Ramirez Chair in Fluid Power and

Motion Control

G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical

Engineering

Georgia Institute of Technology

Mobile Equipment Industry

References

1. Norvelle, F.D. Fluid Power Control Systems, Prentice

Hall, 2000.

2. Fitch, E.C. and Hong I.T. Hydraulic Component

Design and Selection, BarDyne, Stillwater, OK, 2001.

3. Cundiff, J.S. Fluid Power Circuits and Controls, CRC

Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2002.

4. Merritt, H.E. Hydraulic Control Systems, John Wiley

and Sons, New York, 1967.

5. Fluid Power Design Engineers Handbook, Parker

Hannifin Company (various editions).

(Hydraulic, to a lesser extent pneumatic)

High force at moderate speed

High power density at point of action

Fluid removes waste heat

Prime mover is removed from point of action

Conditioned power can be routed in flexible a fashion

Controllable either electrically or manually

Resulting high bandwidth motion control at high forces

APPLICATIONS

Possible leakage

Noise generated by pumps and transmitted by

lines

Energy loss due to fluid flows

Expensive in some applications

Susceptibility of working fluid to contamination

Lack of understanding of recently graduated

practicing engineers

Multidisciplinary

Cost of laboratories

Displaced in curriculum by more recent technologies

Voltsamp

Electric

or IC

prime

mover

System Overview

Rpm- Pump

torque

Transmis

& valve

Flow- Motor or

press. cylinder

Rpmtorque

or

force

Coupling

mechanism

Power is either converted to another useful form or waste heat

Impedance is modified (unit force/unit flow)

Power is controlled

Function is achieved

Rpmtorque

or

force

Load

cylinder

Actuating solenoid

Spring return

4-way, 3 position

valve

filter

Fixed displacement pump

Fluid tank or reservoir

Motor

Check valve

Variable

displacement

reversible pump

Proportional Valve

(single stage)

Flow

enters

Torque motor

moves spool

left

Flow

exits

Torque motor

moves spool

right

Positive motor

Negative motor

rotation

rotation

Orifice Model

Q Cd Ao

2

p

Ao orifice flow area w x

Spool assumptions

q1 q2

No leakage, equal actuator areas

q1 C ps p1 x, C a constant

Sharp edged, steady flow

q2 C p2 p0 x

Opening area proportional to x

ps p1 p2 p0 p2

Symmetrical

Load pressure : p p1 p2

Return pressure is zero

p p

p p

so : p1 s

; p2 s

Zero overlap

2

2

Fluid assumptions

ps p

q1 C ps p1 x C

x

p

p

p

2

s

0

Incompressible 0

Mass density

x

p2, q2

p1, q1

Expand in a Taylor series to first order to linearize

q

q1 q1 1

x

1

(p p ) (high order terms)

(x x)

x x

p x x

p p

p p

q1

x

x x

p p

ps p

C

;

2

q1

p

x x

p p

x

2 2 ps p

p0

x 0; p 0, at which q1 0

q1

x

x x

p p

ps

q1

C

K1 ;

2

p

x x

p p

ps

p0

x

K2 0

p2, q2

p1, q1

q1

Change in

volume

Change in

density

q1 K1 x K 2 p K1 x Ay

Net area Ap

If truly incompressible:

brings a causality problem

For example, if the piston has mass, and flow can

change instantaneously, infinite force is required for

infinite acceleration

Need to account for change of density and compliance

of walls of cylinder and tubes

p N

m 2

1 1 d 1 d ( M / V )

dp

dp

Bulk modulus :

dM q dt ; dp

V

q dt

the walls and compression of entrapped gasses

1

1 d ( M / V ) 1 1 M M V

2

eff

dp

V p V p

Using this to solve for the change in pressure

eff

dp

V

dM k M dt k q dt

With no compliance or compressibility we get actuator velocity v as

q

1/A

dv/dt

And with moving mass m

q

dt

dv/dt

A /m

Torque motor rotates

flapper, obstructs left nozzle

With flapper

centered the flow

and pressure is

balanced

Feedback spring balances

torque motor force

Pressure increases

Spool is driven right

Flow gives

negative rotation

2 Sharp

edged

orifices,

symmetrical

opening

overlap or underlap

feedback

Position

measurement

Proportional

control

displacement

May be negligible

Net flow /

displacement

(with issues pertinent to this class)

The conduit (tubing) is subject to requirements for

flow (pressure drop)

2 to 4 ft/sec for suction line bulk fluid velocity

7 to 20 ft/sec for pressure line bulk fluid velocity

pressure (stress)

Must withstand pressure

Must not buckle

Systems

Flow

Darcys formula

Orifice flow models

Stress

Thin-walled tubes (t<0.1D)

Thick-walled tubes (t>0.1D)

Guidelines

Fluid speed

Strengths

Factors of safety (light service: 2.5, general: 3.15,

heavy: 4-5 or more)

2

L Q

p f D

2 Dh A

p pressure drop along the tube

f D friction factor (depends on N R )

L tube length

Dh hydraulic diameter

or

D

Q

p, N R 2000

128L

absolute viscosity

(Hagen - Poiseuille law)

fluid mass density

Q flow rate

A flow section area

uDh

NR

u fluid velocity

4

h

(empirical) from e.g. Fitch

Orifice Model

Q Cd Ao

2

p

Ao orifice flow area

Buckling

in

the

Piston

Rod

(Fitch)

Rod is constrained by cylinder at two points

Diameter must resist buckling

Theory of composite swaged column applies

Composite column fully extended is A-B-E shown below consisting of 2 segments

A-B segment buckles as if loaded by force F on a column A-B-C

B-E segment buckles as if loaded by F on DBE

Require tangency at B

(conduits or cylinders)

Thin walled cylinders (open, or where only

circumferential hoop stress is significant) (Barlow)

Thick walled cylinders

Brittle materials (based on max normal stress) use Lames

formula

Ductile (based on max strain theory)

Open end (no axial stress) (Birnie)

Closed end (cylinder bears axial stress) (Clavarino)

(Youngs modulus)

Stress formulas

PDi

t

2 sd

Di inside diameter

Di

t

2

sd (1 2 ) P

1

sd (1 ) P

Poisson' s ratio

Di

t

2

sd P

1

sd P

Di

t

2

sd (1 ) P

1

sd (1 ) P

Equating the slope of the two

column segments at B where

they join yields:

Ia

F

tan La

Ib

Ea I a

tan Lb

F

Eb I b

0.25

64 I b

Dr

diameter of rod

The first equation may be solved iteratively

then solve for Dr

matches manufacturers

recommendations with

factor of safety of 4

Pressure Specifications

Design pressure = Nominal

Proof pressure (for test) = 2x Design

Burst pressure (expect failure) = 4x Design

Tubes are preferred over pipes since fewer joints mean

Lower resistance

Less leakage

Easier construction

components require multiple seals

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