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# Sequence Impedance of

Transmission Lines
Prof. Artemio P. Magabo
Prof. Rowaldo R. del Mundo

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

University of the Philippines - Diliman

## Positive Sequence Impedance

For a transposed three-phase transmission line

Z1

Z2

r1

jx1

/mile/phase

## r1 = resistance per unit length of one phase

conductor or bundle
x1 = reactance per unit length of one phase

x1

2.02 x 10

Dm
f ln
Ds

/mile/phase

## f = power frequency (Hertz)

Dm = Geometric Mean Distance (GMD)

## Ds = Geometric Mean Radius (GMR)

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## Geometric Mean Distance

Typical three-phase line configurations
D12

D23
D31

D12
D12

D23
D31

Dm

D12D23D31

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

For a solid conductor with radius r

Ds

Bundle of Two

1
4

0.78r
Bundle of Four
d

d
d

Ds

Dscd

Ds

1.09 4 Dscd3

## Note: Dsc=GMR of a single conductor

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Aluminum Conductors
Aluminum is preferred over copper as a material
for transmission lines due to:

lower cost
lighter weight
larger diameter for the same resistance*
Note: *This results in a lower voltage gradient at
the conductor surface (less tendency for corona)

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Stranded Conductors
Alternate layers of wire of a
stranded conductor are
spiraled in opposite directions
to prevent unwinding and
make the outer radius of one
layer coincide with the inner

Steel

Aluminum

## The number of strands depends on the number

of layers and on whether all the strands are of
the same diameter. The total number of strands
of uniform diameter in a concentrically stranded
cable is 7, 19, 37, 61, 91, etc.
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## Example: Each conductor of the 345 kV bundled

three-phase line shown is 1272 MCM ACSR 54/19
Pheasant. Assuming complete transposition and a
total length of 80 miles, determine the positivesequence impedance of the line. Assume d=45 cm
and D=8 meters.
d

## From a table of conductor

characteristics, we get
r = 0.0821

/mile @ 50oC

## Dsc = 0.0466 ft = 0.0142 m

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We get

Dm

Ds

8(8)(16)

10.08 m

0.0142(0.45)

0.08 m

R1

0.0821(80)(0.5)

3.28

## The total reactance per phase

10.08
2.02 x 10 (60)(80) ln
0.08
-3

X1

46.9

the line

Z1

Z2

3.28

j46.9

/ phase

## Transmission Line Inductance

The total self-inductance of a cylindrical conductor
consists of an internal inductance and an external
inductance.
Internal Inductance:

L int

Henry/meter

## Note: c is the permeability of the conductor.For

a non-ferrous conductor such as copper or
aluminum,
c

4 x 10-7 Henry/meter

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

External Inductance:
The external inductance may be approximated by

Lext

2s
(ln
2
r
m

1)

Henry/meter

where
m

the conductor

## s = length of the conductor

Note: For air,

4 x 10-7 Henry/meter

Self Inductance:

2s
(ln
2
r

1)

Henry/meter

2s
2 x 10 (ln
Ds
-7

1)

Henry/meter

## where Ds is the geometric mean radius of the

conductor
Note: For a solid conductor,

Ds

1
4

0.78r

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Mutual Inductance:
The mutual inductance between two conductors is

2s
2 x 10 (ln
Dm
-7

1)

Henry/meter

## where Dm is the geometric mean distance

between the conductors
Note: For any unit of length,

L
M

2s
k (ln
1) Henry/unit length
Ds
2s
k (ln
1) Henry/unit length
Dm

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Carsons Line
Carson examined a single overhead conductor
whose remote end is connected to earth.
za a
Local
Earth
REF

Ia

Va
-

Vd
d

Id

Remote
Earth

za d

0
zd d

Fictitious
Return
Conductor

## The current returns through a fictitious earth

conductor whose GMR is assumed to be 1 foot (or
1 meter and is located a distance Dad from the
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by the following

equations:

Va a'

Vdd'

Note: Ia

Va

Vd

Id , Vd

Va'

Vd'

za aIa

za dIa

0 and Va'

za dId

zddId

Vd'

0.

or

Va

Va

(zaa zdd

za aIa

## Note: zaa is the equivalent impedance of the

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Primitive Impedances:

za a
zdd
za d

2s
ra j L a ra j k(ln
Dsa
2s
rd j k(ln
1)
Dsd
2s
j M j k(ln
1)
Da d

1)

## ra, rd = resistances of overhead conductor and

fictitious ground wire, respectively
Dsa, Dsd = GMRs of overhead conductor and
fictitious ground wire, respectively

## Note: Dsd is arbitrarily set to 1 unit length

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Earth Resistance:
Carson derived an empirical formula for the earth
resistance.

rd

1.588 x 10-3 f

/mile

9.869 x 10-4 f

/km

Note : At 60 Hz,

rd

0.09528

/mile

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Equivalent Impedance:
Substitute the primitive impedances into

za a
We get

za a

(ra

za a

rd )

zdd

2za d
2

D
j k ln

2. Define

De

We get

za a

(ra

rd )

2

D
Dsd

De
j k ln
Dsa

/unit length

## The quantity De is a function of frequency and

earth resistivity.

De

2160

/f

feet

Return Earth
Condition

Resistivity
( -m)

De
(ft)

Sea water

0.01-1.0

27.9-279

Swampy ground

10-100

882-2790

100

2790

Dry earth

1000

8820

Sandstone

109

8.82x106

## Three-Phase Line Impedances

Extend Carsons
analysis to a three-phase line
Ia
za a
a
a

Ib
zb b
za b zca b
b

+
zb c
Ic
zcc
+
c
c

Va

Vb +
Vc
-

REF

za d

Vd
d

Id

zb d

All wires
grounded
here

zcd

0
zd d
1 unit length

Va a'
Va

Vbb'
Vb

=
Vcc'
Vc

Vdd'
Vd

za a
Va'

zba
Vb'
=
zca
Vc'

zda
Vd'

za b

za c

za d

zbb
zcb
zdb

zbc
zcc
zdc

zbd
zcd
zdd

I
a
Ib

I
c
Id

## Since all conductors are grounded at the remote

end, we get from KCL
or

Ia

Id

Ib

Ic

(Ia

Id

Ib

Ic )

conductor
is

Vd

Vd'

zbdIb

zcd Ic

Vd'

za dIa

zbdIb

zcd Ic

Vd'

zdd)Ia

(zbd

zddId

zdd(Ia

zdd)Ib

Ib

(zcd

## Following a similar procedure, the voltage

equation
for
phase a can be shown to be

Va

Va'

Ic )

zdd)Ic

## Subtracting the the voltage equation of the ground

conductor from the equation of phase a, we get

Va

(Va'

Vd' )

(zaa

zdd)Ia

(za b

za d

zbd

(zac

zcd

0 , we get
Since Va' Vd'

## (za b za d zbd zdd)Ib

or
Va za aIa za bIb za cIc
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zdd)Ib

zdd)Ic

## We can also subtract the voltage equation of the

ground conductor from the equations of phases b
and c. The resulting matrix equation is

za a za b za c
Va

Vb = za b zbb zbc

za c zbc zcc
Vc

I
a
Ib

Ic

V/unit length

Self Impedances:

za a

za a

2za d

zdd

/unit length

zbb

zbb

2zbd

zdd

/unit length

zcc

zcc

2zcd

zdd

/unit length

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Mutual Impedances:

za b

za b

za d

zbd

zdd

/unit length

zbc

zbc

zbd

zcd

zdd

/unit length

za c

za c

za d

zcd

zdd

/unit length

Primitive Impedances:

zx x

zx y

rx

2s
j k(ln
Dsx

2s
j k(ln
Dx y

1)

1)

/unit length
x=a,b,c,d

/unit length

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Assumptions:
1. Identical phase conductors

Ds

Dsa

Dsb

Dsc

## 2. Distances of the overhead conductors to the

fictitious ground conductor are the same

De

Dbd

Dcd

We get

za a

zbb

zx y

rd

zcc

De
j k ln
Ds

(ra rd )
De
/unit length
j k ln
Dx y xy=ab,bc,ca

## Example: Find the equivalent impedance of the

69-kV line shown. The phase conductors are 4/0
hard-drawn copper, 19 strands which operate at
25oC. The line is 40 miles long. Assume an earth
resistivity of 100 -meter.
10
10
ra=0.278 /mile @ 25oC
a

Dsc=0.01668 ft @ 60 Hz

za a

zbb

zcc

(0.278

Za a

0.373
14.93

(ra

rd )

0.095)

j1.459
j58.38

De
j k ln
Ds

2790
j0.121 ln 0.01668

/mile

za b
Za b

## zbc 0.095 j0.121 ln 2790

10
0.095 j0.683 /mile
3.81 j27.33

za c

0.095

Za c

3.81

j0.121 ln 2790
20

j23.97

We get

## 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j23.97

Zabc= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33
3.81 j23.97 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38
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Line Transposition
Line transposition is used to make the mutual
impedances identical.

Ia
Phase c

Pos.1
Ib
Phase a

Pos.2
Ic
Phase b

Pos.3

s1

s2

s3

Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

## Note: Each phase conductor is made to occupy

all possible positions.
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Z11 1 Z12
Va

Vb = Z21 1 Z22

Z31 1 Z32
Vc

Z13
Z23

Z33

1
1
1

Ia

Ib

Ic

volts

Ic

Ia

Ib

volts

Z11
Vc

Va = Z21

Z31
Vb

Z12
Z22

Z32

Z13
Z23

Z33

2
2
2

Z11
Vb

Vc = Z21

Z31
Va

Z12
Z22

Z32

Z13
Z23

Z33

3
3
3

Ib

Ic

Ia

volts

Va

Z11

1 Ia

Z12

1 Ib

1 Ic

Z13

Va

(Z11 1 Z22 2
(Z12 1 Z23
(Z13

Z33 3 )Ia
Z31 3 )Ib
2

Z21

Z32

3 )Ic

Vb

Vc

(Z21 1 Z32 2
(Z22 1 Z33
(Z23

Z13 3 )Ia
Z11 3 )Ib
2
2

3 )Ic

Z12

## (Z31 1 Z12 2 Z23 3 )Ia

(Z32 1 Z13 2 Z21 3 )Ib
(Z33

Z31

3 )Ic

Z11

Z22

## If the line is not transposed and we only have

Section 1, the equation of the line will be

Va

Vc

Ia

Ib

Ic

where

Z11

Zx y

Z22

Z33

(ra

rds

De
j ks ln
Dx y

rd )s

## S = length of the line

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Volts

De
j ks ln
Ds

xy=ab,bc,ca

## Define f1, f2 and f3 as as the ratios of s1, s2 and s3

to the total length s, respectively. We get

Va

Vb

Vc

## (f1Z11 f2Z22 f3Z33)Ia

(f1Z12 f2Z23 f3Z31)Ib

## (f1Z21 f2Z32 f3Z13)Ia

(f1Z22 f2Z33 f3Z11)Ib

## (f1Z31 f2Z12 f3Z23)Ia

(f1Z32 f2Z13 f3Z21)Ib

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Define:

Zk1

f1Z12

f2Z23

f3Z13

Zk 2

f1Z13

f2Z12

f3Z23

Zk 3

f1Z23

f2Z13

f3Z12

Zs

Z11

Z22

Z33

Substitution gives

Zs Zk1 Zk 2
Va

Vb = Zk1 Zs Zk 3

Zk 2 Zk 3 Zs
Vc

I
a
Ib

Ic

Volts

Zs

Zk1
Zk2
Zk3

(ra

rds
rds
rds

De
rd )s j ks ln
Ds
De
De
j ks f1ln
f2 ln
D12
D23

De
f3 ln
D31

De
j ks f1ln
D31

De
f3 ln
D23

De
j ks f1ln
D23

De
f2 ln
D12
De
f2 ln
D31

De
f3 ln
D12

## Example: Find the equivalent impedance of the

69-kV line shown. The phase conductors are 4/0
hard-drawn copper, 19 strands which operate at
25oC. The line is 40 miles long. Assume s1=8
miles, s2=12 miles and s3=20 miles.
ra=0.278

/mile @

10

25oC

Dsc=0.01668 ft @ 60 Hz

10

Section 1

## 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j23.97

Zabc= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33
3.81 j23.97 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38
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## Solving for the mutual impedances, we get

Zk1

f1Z12

f2Z23

0.2(3.81

f3Z13

j27.33) 0.3(3.81

0.5(3.81

3.81

j27.33)

j23.97)

j25.65

Similarly, we get

Zk 2

f1Z13

f2Z12

f3Z23

3.81

j26.66

Zk 3

f1Z23

f2Z13

f3Z12

3.81

j26.32

## 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j25.65 3.81 j26.66

Zabc= 3.81 j25.65 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.32
3.81 j26.66 3.81 j26.32 14.93 j58.38
For comparison, the impedance matrix of the
untransposed line is

## 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j23.97

Zabc= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33
3.81 j23.97 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38
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## Example: For the same line assume the

following transposition cycle:
s1=16 miles

s2=24 miles

s3=0

## 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j25.99

Zabc= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j25.31
3.81 j25.99 3.81 j25.31 14.93 j58.38
Note: Even an incomplete transposition has a
significant effect in reducing the unbalance in the
mutual impedances.
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## Completely Transposed Line

If s1=s2=s3, the line is completely transposed. We
get

Zs Zm Zm
Va

Vb = Zm Zs Zm

Zm Zm Zs
Vc

where

Zs
Zm

(ra
1
3

rd )s

(Z12

Z23

Ia

Ib

Ic

De
j ks ln
Ds
Z13)

rds

Volts

De
j ks ln
Dm

## Ds, Dm = GMR and GMD, respectively

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## Example: For the same line assume a complete

transposition cycle.
10

The GMD is

Dm

10(10)(20)

12.6 feet

10

Zm

3.81

j26.21

## 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.21 3.81 j26.21

Zabc= 3.81 j26.21 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.21
3.81 j26.21 3.81 j26.21 14.93 j58.38
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Phase- to Sequence-Impedances
Consider a transmission line that is described by
the following voltage equation:

Za a Za b Za c
Va

Vb = Za b Zbb Zbc

Za c Zbc Zcc
Vc
or

Vabc

I
a
Ib

Ic

volts

ZabcIabc

Vabc

AV012

and

Ia bc

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

A I012

Substitution gives
or

AV012

V012

Za bcA I012

A Za bcA I012
1

Z012

A ZabcA

## Zs0 2Zm0 Zs2 Zm2 Zs1 Zm1

Z0
Z1 = Zs1 Zm1 Zs0 Zm0 Zs2 2Zm2
Zs2 Zm2 Zs1 2Zm1 Zs0 Zm0
Z2
Note: Z012 is not symmetric.
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Zs 0

1
3

(Za a

Zbb

Zcc )

Zs1

1
3

(Zaa

aZbb

a2Zcc )

Zs2

1
3

(Zaa

a2Zbb

aZcc )

Zm0

1
3

(Za b

Zbc

Zm1

1
3

(a2Zab

Zm2

1
3

(aZab

Zca )

Zbc

aZca )

Zbc

a2Zca )

Zs0
Zs1

Zm0

Zs
Z s2

Zm1

Zm

Zm2

## The sequence impedance matrix reduces to

Zs 2Zm
0
0
Z0
0
Zs Zm
0
Z1 =
0
0
Zs Zm
Z2
Note: The sequence impedances are completely
decoupled.
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## For a completely transposed line, the equation in

the sequence domain is

Z0 0 0
Va0

Va1 = 0 Z1 0

0 0 Z2
Va2
where

Z1

Z0

Z2

ras

ras

3rds

Ia0

Ia1

Ia2

Dm
j ks ln
Ds

j ks ln

De

3
2
m

DsD

## Example: For the same line and assuming a

complete transposition cycle, find the sequence
impedances of the line.
10

we got

Zs

14.93

Zm

3.81

10

j58.38

j26.21

Z0

Zs

2Zm

Z1

Z2

Zs

22.55
Zm

j110.80

11.12

j32.17

## Completely Transposed Line

For a three-phase transmission line that is
completely transposed:
1. The sequence impedances are completely
decoupled; that is

Va0

Z0 Ia0

Va2

Va1

Z2 Ia2

Z1Ia1

## 2. The application of balanced three-phase

voltages at the sending end results in
balanced three-phase line currents; that is
only positive-sequence components exist.
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Incomplete Transposition
The resulting circuit unbalance due to incomplete
transposition is measured in terms of the zeroand negative-sequence line currents that arise
when positive-sequence voltages are applied at
the sending end.
For a partially-transposed transmission line,

Va

Vb =

Vc

or

zs
zk 1

zk 1
zs

zk 2
zk 3

zk 2

zk 3

zs

Vabc

Ia

Ib

Ic

zabcIabc

V/unit length

where

zs

zk1
zk2
zk3

(ra

rd )

De
j k ln
Ds

rd

De
j k f1ln
D12

De
f2 ln
D23

De
f3 ln
D31

rd

De
j k f1ln
D31

De
f2 ln
D12

De
f3 ln
D23

rd

De
j k f1ln
D23

De
f2 ln
D31

De
f3 ln
D12

impedances.
1

z012

A zabcA

which gives

z0
z1

zs
=

zm2

z2
where

2zm0
zm2
zm1
zs zm0

(zk1

zm1
2zm2

2zm1

zs

zm0

zk 2

zk 3 )

zm0

1
3

zm1

1
3

(a zk1

azk2

zk3 )

zm2

1
3

(azk1

a2zk2

zk3 )

z00
z01
z02

z10
z11
z12

zs

(zk1 zk 2
2
1
(
az
a
zk2
k1
3
2
1
(
a
zk1 azk2
3
2
3

z02
zs 13 (zk1
2z01
z20
z21
z22

zk 2

z01
2z02
z11

zk 3 )
zk3 )
zk3 )
zk 3 )

sending end;
that is

Va0

and

Va2

Va0

Va1 =

Va2

into

Va1

z10 z11 z12
z20

z00Ia0

z10Ia0

z20Ia0

z21 z22

z01Ia1

z11Ia1

z21Ia1

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Ia0

Ia1

Ia2

z02Ia2

z12Ia2

z22Ia2

The unbalanced
factor are definedas:

m0

Ia0

Ia1

and

m2

m0

z02z21
z00z22

z01z22
z20z02

m2

z20z01
z00z22

z00z21
z20z02

Ia2

Ia1

m0
m2

1.054 72.68o %
6.624 139.14o %

Ia
a

Ib
b

Ic
+
c

Va
Iw
w
+
Vb
-

Vc

REF

za a

zb b

za b zca

zcc

zb c

zww za d

Vw

Vd 0

d
Id

zb d

b
c

zcd
d

zd d
1 unit length

All wires
grounded
here

Va

Vb

Vc
0
0

za a
Va'

zba
Vb'

Vc' = zca

zwa
Vw'

zda
Vd'

Ia

or

Ib

Id

za b

za c

za w

za d

zbb
zcb
zwb

zbc
zcc
zwc

zbw
zcw
zww

zbd
zcd
zwd

zdb

zdc

zdw

zdd

Ic

(Ia

Iw

Ib

Id

Ic

Iw )

I
a
Ib

Ic

Iw

Id

V/unit
length

Vd'

or

Vd'

zdaIa

## zdbIb zdcIc zdwIw

zdd(Ia Ib Ic Iw )

## Following the same procedure, the equation for

phase a can be expressed as

Va

Va'

(zaa
(zac

(zab
(zaw

Va

(Va'

Since Va'
to

Vd' )

Vd'

Va

(zaa

zdd)Ia

zda

(zab

zdb

(zac

zdc

(zaw

zdd)Ib

zdd)Ic

zdw

zdd)Iw

zaaIa

zabIb

zacIc

zawIw

## Note: The same procedure can be applied to the

equations describing phases b and c, and the
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We get

Va

Vb

Vc

Vw

where Vw

zba zbb zbc zbw
=
zca zcb zcc zcw
zwa zwb zwc zww

Ia

Ib

Ic

Iw

0 and

zx x

(rx

zx y

rd

De
x=a,b,c,w
rd ) j k ln
Dsx
De
xy=ab,ac,aw,
j k ln
Dx y
bc,bw,cw

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Krons Reduction
Consider the matrix equation

V1

Z1 Z2
=
Z3 Z4
0

I1
I2

## where Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4 are also matrices. Suppose

we want to eliminate the current vector I2.

Expanding, we get

V1

Z1I1

Z2I2

(1)

Z3I1

Z4I2

(2)

1

I2

Z4 Z3I1

or

V1

Z1I1

V1

(Z1

Z2( Z4 Z3I1)
1

Z2Z4 Z3 )I1

Va

Vb

Vc
0

zaa zab
zba zbb

zac
zbc

zaw
zbw

zca zcb
zwa zwb

zcc
zwc

zcw
zww

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Ia

Ib

I
c
Iw

We wish to eliminate Iw , where
za a za b za c
za w
T
Z2 = zb w = Z3
Z1 = zba zbb zbc
z cw
zca zcb zcc
Z4
We get

za a

z a bc = zba
zca

za wzwa
zww
zbwzwa
zww
zcwzwa
zww

za b
zbb
zcb

za wzwb
zww
zbwzwb
zww
zcwzwb
zww

za c
zbc
zcc

zww

za wzwc
zww
zbwzwc
zww
zcwzwc
zww

## Example: Find the equivalent impedance of the

69-kV line shown. The phase conductors are the
same as in the previous examples. The overhead
ground wires have the following characteristics:
w
rw=4.0 /mile @ 25oC
Dsw=0.001 ft @ 60 Hz
For the ground wire, we get

z ww

(rw
(4.0

Zww

rd )

De
j k ln
Dsw

0.095)

4.095 j1.8
163.8 j72

15
a

10

2790
j0.121 ln 0.001

/mile

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

10

rd

De
j k ln
Da w

za w

zcw

/mile

Za w

2790
0.095 j0.121 ln 18.03
Zcw 3.81 j24.47

zbw

0.095

/mile

Zbw

3.81

j0.121 ln 2790
15

j25.36

## 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j23.97

Z1= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33
3.81 j23.97 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

3.81
Z2 = 3.81
3.81

j24.47
j25.36 = Z3 T
j24.47
Z4

163.8

j72

## 17.5 j56.11 6.48 j25.0 6.38

Zabc = 6.48 j25.0 17.71 j55.97 6.48
6.38 j21.7
6.48 j25.0 17.5

j21.7
j25.0
j56.1

## Note: The self impedances are no longer equal.

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Current Division
How much current is flowing in the overhead
ground wire? Under zero-sequence condition,

Ia

Ib

Ic

Ia0

Va

Vb

Vc
0
0

za a
Va'

zba
Vb'

Vc' = zca

zwa
Vw'

zda
Vd'

za b

za c

za w

za d

zbb
zcb
zwb

zbc
zcc
zwc

zbw
zcw
zww

zbd
zcd
zwd

zdb

zdc

zdw

zdd

Ia0

Ia0
V/unit
Ia0
length
Iw

Id

Id

Iw

3Ia0

Vd'

(zda

zdb

zdc )Ia0

zdwIw

Vw'

(zwa

zwb

zwc )Ia0

zww Iw

[(zwa

zwb
(zww

zdw)Iw (zwd

zddId

zwd Id

zdc )]Ia0

zdd)Id

Since Id

(3Ia0

Iw ) , we get

## (zww zdw)Iw (zwd zdd)(3Ia0 Iw )

Combine
common terms and get the ratio of Iw to

3Ia0 . We get

3Ia0
Recall that

zwx

zwx

zwd

zdx

zdd

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

x=a,b,c,w

Substitution gives
(a)

From Id

Iw

3Ia0

Iw

Id

3Ia0

zwa

zwb zwc
3zww

3Ia0 , we get

Iw

1
3Ia0

(b)

Id

3Ia0

zwa

zwb zwc
3zww

Iw

Id

Define:

zag

Dag

We get
Iw

Id
where

zag

## zwa zwb zwc

3zww (zwa zwb zwc )
1
3
3

(zwa

zwb

zag
zww
rd

zag
De
j k ln
Dag

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

zwc )

Line Transposition
Consider a transmission line with one overhead
ground wire. Assume that the line is transposed.

Pos.
Pos.
Pos.

Ground wire

Ia

Ib

Ic

Phase c
Phase a
Phase b
s1

s2

s3

Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

## The impedance matrix for each section can be

found using Krons reduction.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

z wz w
z wz w
z
z
zww
zww
z wz w
z wz w
z
z f1 = z
zww
zww
z wz w
z wz w
z
z
zww
zww
z wz w
z wz w
z
z
zww
zww
z wz w
z wz w
z
zf 2 = z
z
z
ww

z wz w
zww

z
z
z
z
z

ww

z wz w
zww

z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww

zf 3 = z
z

z wz w

zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww

z
z
z

z wz w

zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww

Va

Vb

Vc

s(f1Zf1

f2Zf 2

z
z
z

z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww

Ia

f3Zf 3 ) I
b
Ic

## If the line is completely transposed, the impedance

matrix becomes symmetric.

zs
z a bc = zm

zm
zs

zm
zm

zm

zm

zs

/unit length

zs

1
3

(z
1
3

z
z wzw
zww

z )
z wzw

z w zw

zww

zww

zm

1
3

(z
1
3

z )

z wzw

z wzw

z w zw

zww

zww

zww

z00 0
z012 = 0 z11
where

z00

zs

0
0

/unit length

z22

z22

zs

zm

z11

1
3

(z

z
1
3

1
3

z )

1
3

(z

z wzw
zww

z wzw

z w zw

zww

zww

z wzw

z wzw

z w zw

zww

zww

zww

1
3

(z

z )

(ra

1
3

(z

z )

rd

z )

De
rd ) j k ln
Ds
De
j k ln
Dm

where

2
(
k
)
M
1
3
zww

De 2
De 2
De 2
(ln
) (ln
) (ln
)
Dw
Dw
Dw
De
De
De
De
(ln
)(ln
) (ln
)(ln
)
Dw
Dw
Dw
Dw
De
De
(ln
)(ln
)
Dw
Dw

Likewise,

zww

(rw

rd )

De
j k ln
Dww

De
This means M

z11

ra

D w , D w or D w

Dm
j k ln
Ds

/unit length

## Note: This is the formula for the positive sequence

impedance of a transposed line without ground
wires.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

z00

z0(a)

2
0(m)

/unit length

z0(g)

where

z0(a)

(ra

z0(m)

3rd

z0(g)

3zww

3rd )

j k ln

j3 k ln

De

3
2
m

DsD
De

D wD wD w

## Example: For the previous example, assume that

the line is completely transposed. Find the phase
and sequence impedances.

## 17.5 j56.11 6.48

Zf1 = 6.48 j25.0 17.71
6.38 j21.7
6.48

j25.0 6.38
j55.97 6.48
j25.0 17.5

j21.7
j25.0
j56.1

Zs

1
3

[2(17.5

17.57

j56.11) 17.71

j56.06

j55.97]

Zm

1
3

[2(6.48

6.45

j25.0)

6.38

j21.7]

j23.9

## 17.57 j56.06 6.45 j23.9

6.45 j23.9
Zabc= 6.45 j23.9 17.57 j56.06 6.45 j23.9
6.45 j23.9
6.45 j23.9 17.57 j56.06
For comparison, Zabc below is for a completely
transposed line without the overhead ground wire.

## 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.21 3.81 j26.21

Zabc= 3.81 j26.21 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.21
3.81 j26.21 3.81 j26.21 14.93 j58.38
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Z00

Zs

2Zm

30.47
Z11

Z22

Zs

11.12

j103.86
Zm

j32.17

## Note: When the effect of the ground wire was not

taken into account, we got

Z0

22.55

j110.8

Z1

11.12

j32.17

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

3/8 inch Diameter
-3
15
10
10-5

13

10-7

11

10-9

GMR

10-11

10-13

10-15
10-17

Resistance

3
1

10-19
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Amperes per Cable

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Resistance ( /mile)

ground wires are
usually highstrength steel or
some alloy of
steel. This poses a
problem since the
resistance and
GMR of these
conductors vary
with current.

## Example: For the previous example, assume that

the line is completely transposed. Find the phase
and sequence impedances. The overhead ground
wire is 3/8 inch E.B.B.
The zero-sequence impedance of the phase wire

z0(a)

(ra

3rd )

0.278
or

j k ln

3(0.095)

0.564 j2.77
Z0(a)

22.55

De

3
2
m

DsD

27903
j0.121 ln
(0.017)(12.6)2

/mile

j110.8

z0(g)

3zww

3(rw

rd )

De
j3 k ln
Dww

## The resistance and GMR of the ground wire is a

function of the current. For 1A, 30A and 60A, we
get for E.B.B.
rw= 3.5 /mile at 1A
= 7.8 /mile at 30A
= 6.0

/mile at 60A

Dsw= 10-3 ft at 1A
= 5 x 10-12 ft at 30A
= 1.5 x 10-10 ft at 60A
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

z0(g)
or

Z0(g)

3(3.5

0.095)

10.79

j5.4

431.4

j216

2790
j3(0.121) ln
10 3

/mile at 1A
at 1A

Z0(g)
Z0(g)

947.4
731.4

j494 at 30A
j410.8 at 60A

wire is

Da g

(18.03)2 (15)

16.96 ft

## The zero-sequence mutual impedance is

z0(m)

3rd

De
j3 k ln
Dag

2790
3(0.095) j3(0.121) ln
16.96
0.29 j1.86 /mile

Z0(m)

11.43

j74.28

Z00

Z0(a)

2
0(m)

Z0(g)

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Substitution gives

Z00

31.0

j102.65

Z00

18.86

j107.06

at 30A

Z00

27.21

j105.89

at 60A

at 1A

Note: For comparison, we got the following zerosequence impedances from previous examples:

Z00

22.55

j110.8

Z00

30.47

j103.86

## Parallel Multicircuit Lines

Consider the double-circuit transmission line
shown. One circuit is designated abc and the
other abc. Each circuit may be untransposed or
partially transposed.
m

Ia b c

Ia'b'c'

Za b c

Za'b'c'

## Let us determine the unbalance factors for this

transmission line configuration.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Va
Za a

Vb
Zba

Vc
Zca
=
Za'a
Va'

Zb'a
Vb'

Zc ' a
Vc'

Za b Za c Za a'
Zbb Zbc Zba'
Zcb Zcc Zca'
Za'b Za'c Za'a'
Zb'b Zb'c Zb'a'
Zc'b Zc'c Zc'a'

Za b'
Zbb'
Zcb'
Za'b'
Zb'b'
Zc'b'

Za c'
Zbc'
Zcc'
Za'c'
Zb'c'
Zc' c'

Ia

Ib

Ic

Ia'

Ib'

Ic'

## Note: The effect of earth and any overhead

ground wire has already been incorporated in the
equation.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

## Using matrix notation, we get

Za a Za a' Ia bc
Vabc

=
Za'a Za'a' Ia'b'c'
Va'b'c'
The unbalance factors are expressed in terms of
the ratio of sequence currents. Thus, the above
equation must be inverted. Doing so, we get

Ya a
Ia bc

=
Ya'a
Ia'b'c'

Ya a'
Ya'a'

Vabc

Va'b'c'

Yaa
Ya'a

Zaa
Yaa'

KL K

Yaa'
Ya'a'

KL 1
L1

where

Zaa Zaa'
L

Za'a'

Za'a Zaa

A 0
Ia bc

=
0 A
Ia'b'c'

I012

I0'1'2'

A 1 Ya aA
I012

=
I0'1'2'
A 1 Ya'aA

A Ya a' A
A 1 Ya'a' A

V012

V0'1'2'

## Assume that the voltages at both ends of the line

contain positive sequence components only. We
get

V012

=
V0'1'2'

Va1

0
0
=
0
0

1
Va'1
0
0

Va1

Note that Va1

## Va'1 since the lines are bused at

both
ends. Substitution gives

Ia0
Y00 Y01 Y02 Y00' Y01' Y02'

Ia1
Y10 Y11 Y12 Y10' Y11' Y12'

I
Y
Y21 Y22 Y20' Y21' Y22'
a2 = 20
Y0'0 Y0'1 Y0'2 Y0'0' Y0'1' Y0'2'
Ia'0

Ia'1

Ia'2

0
1
0
0

Va1

1
0

Ia0

Ia1

(Y01
(Y11

Y01' )( Va1 )

Y11' )( Va1 )

Ia2

(Y21

Y21' )( Va1 )

Ia'0

Ia'1

(Y0'1
(Y1'1

Y0'1' )( Va1 )

Ia'2
Y1'1' )( Va1 )

(Y2'1

Y2'1' )( Va1 )

m0t
m2t

Ia0

Ia1

Ia2

Ia1

Ia'0

Ia'1

Ia'2

Ia'1

per unit

per unit

as
Ia0 Ia'0

per unit
m0c

Ia1

Ia'1

m2c

Ia2

Ia1

Ia'2

Ia'1

per unit

m0t

(Y01

Y01'

Y0'1

Y0'1' ) / Y1

m2t

(Y21

Y21'

Y2'1

Y2'1' ) / Y1

m0c

(Y01

Y01'

Y0'1

Y0'1' ) / Y1

m2c

(Y21

Y21'

Y2'1

Y2'1' ) / Y1

where

Y1

Y11

Y11'

Y1'1

Y1'1'