Sequence Impedance of
Transmission Lines
Prof. Artemio P. Magabo
Prof. Rowaldo R. del Mundo
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
University of the Philippines  Diliman
Positive Sequence Impedance
For a transposed threephase transmission line
Z1
Z2
r1
jx1
/mile/phase
r1 = resistance per unit length of one phase
conductor or bundle
x1 = reactance per unit length of one phase
x1
2.02 x 10
Dm
f ln
Ds
/mile/phase
f = power frequency (Hertz)
Dm = Geometric Mean Distance (GMD)
Ds = Geometric Mean Radius (GMR)
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Geometric Mean Distance
Typical threephase line configurations
D12
D23
D31
D12
D12
D23
D31
Dm
D12D23D31
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Geometric Mean Radius
For a solid conductor with radius r
Ds
Bundle of Two
1
4
0.78r
Bundle of Four
d
d
d
Ds
Dscd
Ds
1.09 4 Dscd3
Note: Dsc=GMR of a single conductor
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Aluminum Conductors
Aluminum is preferred over copper as a material
for transmission lines due to:
lower cost
lighter weight
larger diameter for the same resistance*
Note: *This results in a lower voltage gradient at
the conductor surface (less tendency for corona)
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Stranded Conductors
Alternate layers of wire of a
stranded conductor are
spiraled in opposite directions
to prevent unwinding and
make the outer radius of one
layer coincide with the inner
radius of the next.
Steel
Aluminum
The number of strands depends on the number
of layers and on whether all the strands are of
the same diameter. The total number of strands
of uniform diameter in a concentrically stranded
cable is 7, 19, 37, 61, 91, etc.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Example: Each conductor of the 345 kV bundled
threephase line shown is 1272 MCM ACSR 54/19
Pheasant. Assuming complete transposition and a
total length of 80 miles, determine the positivesequence impedance of the line. Assume d=45 cm
and D=8 meters.
d
From a table of conductor
characteristics, we get
r = 0.0821
/mile @ 50oC
Dsc = 0.0466 ft = 0.0142 m
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
We get
Dm
Ds
8(8)(16)
10.08 m
0.0142(0.45)
0.08 m
The total resistance per phase
R1
0.0821(80)(0.5)
3.28
The total reactance per phase
10.08
2.02 x 10 (60)(80) ln
0.08
3
X1
46.9
The positive (or negative) sequence impedance of
the line
Z1
Z2
3.28
j46.9
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
/ phase
Transmission Line Inductance
The total selfinductance of a cylindrical conductor
consists of an internal inductance and an external
inductance.
Internal Inductance:
L int
Henry/meter
Note: c is the permeability of the conductor.For
a nonferrous conductor such as copper or
aluminum,
c
4 x 107 Henry/meter
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
External Inductance:
The external inductance may be approximated by
Lext
2s
(ln
2
r
m
1)
Henry/meter
where
m
= permeability of the medium surrounding
the conductor
r = radius of the conductor
s = length of the conductor
Note: For air,
4 x 107 Henry/meter
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Self Inductance:
2s
(ln
2
r
1)
Henry/meter
For a nonferrous conductor in air, we get
2s
2 x 10 (ln
Ds
7
1)
Henry/meter
where Ds is the geometric mean radius of the
conductor
Note: For a solid conductor,
Ds
1
4
0.78r
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Mutual Inductance:
The mutual inductance between two conductors is
2s
2 x 10 (ln
Dm
7
1)
Henry/meter
where Dm is the geometric mean distance
between the conductors
Note: For any unit of length,
L
M
2s
k (ln
1) Henry/unit length
Ds
2s
k (ln
1) Henry/unit length
Dm
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Carsons Line
Carson examined a single overhead conductor
whose remote end is connected to earth.
za a
Local
Earth
REF
Ia
Va

Vd
d
Id
Remote
Earth
za d
0
zd d
Fictitious
Return
Conductor
The current returns through a fictitious earth
conductor whose GMR is assumed to be 1 foot (or
1 meter and is located a distance Dad from the
overhead conductor.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The lineis described
by the following
equations:
Va a'
Vdd'
Note: Ia
Va
Vd
Id , Vd
Va'
Vd'
za aIa
za dIa
0 and Va'
za dId
zddId
Vd'
0.
Subtracting the two equations, we get
or
Va
Va
(zaa zdd
za aIa
2zad)Ia
Note: zaa is the equivalent impedance of the
single overhead conductor.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Primitive Impedances:
za a
zdd
za d
2s
ra j L a ra j k(ln
Dsa
2s
rd j k(ln
1)
Dsd
2s
j M j k(ln
1)
Da d
1)
ra, rd = resistances of overhead conductor and
fictitious ground wire, respectively
Dsa, Dsd = GMRs of overhead conductor and
fictitious ground wire, respectively
Note: Dsd is arbitrarily set to 1 unit length
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Earth Resistance:
Carson derived an empirical formula for the earth
resistance.
rd
1.588 x 103 f
/mile
9.869 x 104 f
/km
where f is the power frequency in Hz
Note : At 60 Hz,
rd
0.09528
/mile
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Equivalent Impedance:
Substitute the primitive impedances into
za a
We get
za a
(ra
za a
rd )
zdd
2za d
2
ad
D
j k ln
DsaDsd
Note: 1. Dsd=1 unit length
2. Define
De
We get
za a
(ra
rd )
2
ad
D
Dsd
De
j k ln
Dsa
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
/unit length
The quantity De is a function of frequency and
earth resistivity.
De
2160
/f
feet
Typical values of De are tabulated below.
Return Earth
Condition
Resistivity
( m)
De
(ft)
Sea water
0.011.0
27.9279
Swampy ground
10100
8822790
Average Damp Earth
100
2790
Dry earth
1000
8820
Sandstone
109
8.82x106
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
ThreePhase Line Impedances
Extend Carsons
analysis to a threephase line
Ia
za a
a
a
Ib
zb b
za b zca b
b
+
zb c
Ic
zcc
+
c
c
Va
Vb +
Vc

REF
za d
Vd
d
Id
zb d
All wires
grounded
here
zcd
0
zd d
1 unit length
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The voltage equation describing the line is
Va a'
Va
Vbb'
Vb
=
Vcc'
Vc
Vdd'
Vd
za a
Va'
zba
Vb'
=
zca
Vc'
zda
Vd'
za b
za c
za d
zbb
zcb
zdb
zbc
zcc
zdc
zbd
zcd
zdd
I
a
Ib
I
c
Id
Since all conductors are grounded at the remote
end, we get from KCL
or
Ia
Id
Ib
Ic
(Ia
Id
Ib
Ic )
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The voltage equation for the fictitious ground
conductor
is
Vd
Vd'
zadIa
zbdIb
zcd Ic
which can be rewritten as
Vd'
za dIa
zbdIb
zcd Ic
Combining terms, we get
Vd'
(zad
zdd)Ia
(zbd
zddId
zdd(Ia
zdd)Ib
Ib
(zcd
Following a similar procedure, the voltage
equation
for
phase a can be shown to be
Va
Va'
(zaa zad)Ia (zab
(zac zad)Ic
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
zad)Ib
Ic )
zdd)Ic
Subtracting the the voltage equation of the ground
conductor from the equation of phase a, we get
Va
(Va'
Vd' )
(zaa
2zad
zdd)Ia
(za b
za d
zbd
(zac
zad
zcd
0 , we get
Since Va' Vd'
Va (zaa 2zad zdd)Ia
(za b za d zbd zdd)Ib
(zac zad zcd zdd)Ic
or
Va za aIa za bIb za cIc
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
zdd)Ib
zdd)Ic
We can also subtract the voltage equation of the
ground conductor from the equations of phases b
and c. The resulting matrix equation is
za a za b za c
Va
Vb = za b zbb zbc
za c zbc zcc
Vc
I
a
Ib
Ic
V/unit length
Self Impedances:
za a
za a
2za d
zdd
/unit length
zbb
zbb
2zbd
zdd
/unit length
zcc
zcc
2zcd
zdd
/unit length
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Mutual Impedances:
za b
za b
za d
zbd
zdd
/unit length
zbc
zbc
zbd
zcd
zdd
/unit length
za c
za c
za d
zcd
zdd
/unit length
Primitive Impedances:
zx x
zx y
rx
2s
j k(ln
Dsx
2s
j k(ln
Dx y
1)
1)
/unit length
x=a,b,c,d
/unit length
xy=ab,bc,ca,ad,bd,cd
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Assumptions:
1. Identical phase conductors
Ds
Dsa
Dsb
Dsc
2. Distances of the overhead conductors to the
fictitious ground conductor are the same
De
Dad
Dbd
Dcd
We get
za a
zbb
zx y
rd
zcc
De
j k ln
Ds
(ra rd )
De
/unit length
j k ln
Dx y xy=ab,bc,ca
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Example: Find the equivalent impedance of the
69kV line shown. The phase conductors are 4/0
harddrawn copper, 19 strands which operate at
25oC. The line is 40 miles long. Assume an earth
resistivity of 100 meter.
10
10
ra=0.278 /mile @ 25oC
a
Dsc=0.01668 ft @ 60 Hz
za a
zbb
zcc
(0.278
Za a
0.373
14.93
(ra
rd )
0.095)
j1.459
j58.38
De
j k ln
Ds
2790
j0.121 ln 0.01668
/mile
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
za b
Za b
zbc 0.095 j0.121 ln 2790
10
0.095 j0.683 /mile
3.81 j27.33
za c
0.095
Za c
3.81
j0.121 ln 2790
20
j23.97
We get
14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j23.97
Zabc= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33
3.81 j23.97 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Line Transposition
Line transposition is used to make the mutual
impedances identical.
Ia
Phase c
Pos.1
Ib
Phase a
Pos.2
Ic
Phase b
Pos.3
s1
s2
s3
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Note: Each phase conductor is made to occupy
all possible positions.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Voltage equation for Section 1
Z11 1 Z12
Va
Vb = Z21 1 Z22
Z31 1 Z32
Vc
Z13
Z23
Z33
1
1
1
Ia
Ib
Ic
volts
Ic
Ia
Ib
volts
Voltage equation for Section 2
Z11
Vc
Va = Z21
Z31
Vb
Z12
Z22
Z32
Z13
Z23
Z33
2
2
2
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Voltage equation for Section 3
Z11
Vb
Vc = Z21
Z31
Va
Z12
Z22
Z32
Z13
Z23
Z33
3
3
3
Ib
Ic
Ia
volts
The total voltage drop for phase a
Va
Z11
1 Ia
Z12
1 Ib
1 Ic
Z13
Z21 2 Ic Z22 2 Ia Z23 2 Ib
Z31 3 Ib Z32 3 Ic Z33 3 Ia
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Va
(Z11 1 Z22 2
(Z12 1 Z23
(Z13
Z33 3 )Ia
Z31 3 )Ib
2
Z21
Z32
3 )Ic
By a similar procedure, we get for phases b and c
Vb
Vc
(Z21 1 Z32 2
(Z22 1 Z33
(Z23
Z13 3 )Ia
Z11 3 )Ib
2
2
3 )Ic
Z12
(Z31 1 Z12 2 Z23 3 )Ia
(Z32 1 Z13 2 Z21 3 )Ib
(Z33
Z31
3 )Ic
Z11
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Z22
If the line is not transposed and we only have
Section 1, the equation of the line will be
Z11 Z12 Z13
Va
Vb = Z21 Z22 Z23
Z31 Z32 Z33
Vc
Ia
Ib
Ic
where
Z11
Zx y
Z22
Z33
(ra
rds
De
j ks ln
Dx y
rd )s
S = length of the line
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Volts
De
j ks ln
Ds
xy=ab,bc,ca
Define f1, f2 and f3 as as the ratios of s1, s2 and s3
to the total length s, respectively. We get
Va
Vb
Vc
(f1Z11 f2Z22 f3Z33)Ia
(f1Z12 f2Z23 f3Z31)Ib
(f1Z13 f2Z21 f3Z32)Ic
(f1Z21 f2Z32 f3Z13)Ia
(f1Z22 f2Z33 f3Z11)Ib
(f1Z23 f2Z31 f3Z12)Ic
(f1Z31 f2Z12 f3Z23)Ia
(f1Z32 f2Z13 f3Z21)Ib
(f1Z33 f2Z11 f3Z22)Ic
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Define:
Zk1
f1Z12
f2Z23
f3Z13
Zk 2
f1Z13
f2Z12
f3Z23
Zk 3
f1Z23
f2Z13
f3Z12
Zs
Z11
Z22
Z33
Substitution gives
Zs Zk1 Zk 2
Va
Vb = Zk1 Zs Zk 3
Zk 2 Zk 3 Zs
Vc
I
a
Ib
Ic
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Volts
It can be shown that
Zs
Zk1
Zk2
Zk3
(ra
rds
rds
rds
De
rd )s j ks ln
Ds
De
De
j ks f1ln
f2 ln
D12
D23
De
f3 ln
D31
De
j ks f1ln
D31
De
f3 ln
D23
De
j ks f1ln
D23
De
f2 ln
D12
De
f2 ln
D31
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
De
f3 ln
D12
Example: Find the equivalent impedance of the
69kV line shown. The phase conductors are 4/0
harddrawn copper, 19 strands which operate at
25oC. The line is 40 miles long. Assume s1=8
miles, s2=12 miles and s3=20 miles.
ra=0.278
/mile @
10
25oC
Dsc=0.01668 ft @ 60 Hz
10
Section 1
Assuming no transposition, we get
14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j23.97
Zabc= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33
3.81 j23.97 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Solving for the mutual impedances, we get
Zk1
f1Z12
f2Z23
0.2(3.81
f3Z13
j27.33) 0.3(3.81
0.5(3.81
3.81
j27.33)
j23.97)
j25.65
Similarly, we get
Zk 2
f1Z13
f2Z12
f3Z23
3.81
j26.66
Zk 3
f1Z23
f2Z13
f3Z12
3.81
j26.32
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The impedance matrix of the transposed line is
14.93 j58.38 3.81 j25.65 3.81 j26.66
Zabc= 3.81 j25.65 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.32
3.81 j26.66 3.81 j26.32 14.93 j58.38
For comparison, the impedance matrix of the
untransposed line is
14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j23.97
Zabc= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33
3.81 j23.97 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Example: For the same line assume the
following transposition cycle:
s1=16 miles
s2=24 miles
s3=0
It can be shown that
14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j25.99
Zabc= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j25.31
3.81 j25.99 3.81 j25.31 14.93 j58.38
Note: Even an incomplete transposition has a
significant effect in reducing the unbalance in the
mutual impedances.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Completely Transposed Line
If s1=s2=s3, the line is completely transposed. We
get
Zs Zm Zm
Va
Vb = Zm Zs Zm
Zm Zm Zs
Vc
where
Zs
Zm
(ra
1
3
rd )s
(Z12
Z23
Ia
Ib
Ic
De
j ks ln
Ds
Z13)
rds
Volts
De
j ks ln
Dm
Ds, Dm = GMR and GMD, respectively
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Example: For the same line assume a complete
transposition cycle.
10
The GMD is
Dm
10(10)(20)
12.6 feet
10
We get the average of the mutual impedances.
Zm
3.81
j26.21
The impedance of the transposed line is
14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.21 3.81 j26.21
Zabc= 3.81 j26.21 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.21
3.81 j26.21 3.81 j26.21 14.93 j58.38
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Phase to SequenceImpedances
Consider a transmission line that is described by
the following voltage equation:
Za a Za b Za c
Va
Vb = Za b Zbb Zbc
Za c Zbc Zcc
Vc
or
Vabc
I
a
Ib
Ic
volts
ZabcIabc
From symmetrical components, we have
Vabc
AV012
and
Ia bc
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
A I012
Substitution gives
or
AV012
V012
Za bcA I012
A Za bcA I012
1
which implies that
Z012
A ZabcA
Performing the multiplication, we get
Zs0 2Zm0 Zs2 Zm2 Zs1 Zm1
Z0
Z1 = Zs1 Zm1 Zs0 Zm0 Zs2 2Zm2
Zs2 Zm2 Zs1 2Zm1 Zs0 Zm0
Z2
Note: Z012 is not symmetric.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
It can be shown that
Zs 0
1
3
(Za a
Zbb
Zcc )
Zs1
1
3
(Zaa
aZbb
a2Zcc )
Zs2
1
3
(Zaa
a2Zbb
aZcc )
Zm0
1
3
(Za b
Zbc
Zm1
1
3
(a2Zab
Zm2
1
3
(aZab
Zca )
Zbc
aZca )
Zbc
a2Zca )
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
If the line is completely transposed,
Zs0
Zs1
Zm0
Zs
Z s2
Zm1
Zm
Zm2
The sequence impedance matrix reduces to
Zs 2Zm
0
0
Z0
0
Zs Zm
0
Z1 =
0
0
Zs Zm
Z2
Note: The sequence impedances are completely
decoupled.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
For a completely transposed line, the equation in
the sequence domain is
Z0 0 0
Va0
Va1 = 0 Z1 0
0 0 Z2
Va2
where
Z1
Z0
Z2
ras
ras
3rds
Ia0
Ia1
Ia2
Dm
j ks ln
Ds
j ks ln
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
De
3
2
m
DsD
Example: For the same line and assuming a
complete transposition cycle, find the sequence
impedances of the line.
10
In the previous example,
we got
Zs
14.93
Zm
3.81
10
j58.38
j26.21
The sequence impedances are
Z0
Zs
2Zm
Z1
Z2
Zs
22.55
Zm
j110.80
11.12
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
j32.17
Completely Transposed Line
For a threephase transmission line that is
completely transposed:
1. The sequence impedances are completely
decoupled; that is
Va0
Z0 Ia0
Va2
Va1
Z2 Ia2
Z1Ia1
2. The application of balanced threephase
voltages at the sending end results in
balanced threephase line currents; that is
only positivesequence components exist.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Incomplete Transposition
The resulting circuit unbalance due to incomplete
transposition is measured in terms of the zeroand negativesequence line currents that arise
when positivesequence voltages are applied at
the sending end.
For a partiallytransposed transmission line,
Va
Vb =
Vc
or
zs
zk 1
zk 1
zs
zk 2
zk 3
zk 2
zk 3
zs
Vabc
Ia
Ib
Ic
zabcIabc
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
V/unit length
where
zs
zk1
zk2
zk3
(ra
rd )
De
j k ln
Ds
rd
De
j k f1ln
D12
De
f2 ln
D23
De
f3 ln
D31
rd
De
j k f1ln
D31
De
f2 ln
D12
De
f3 ln
D23
rd
De
j k f1ln
D23
De
f2 ln
D31
De
f3 ln
D12
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Transform the phase impedances into sequence
impedances.
1
z012
A zabcA
which gives
z0
z1
zs
=
zm2
z2
where
2zm0
zm2
zm1
zs zm0
(zk1
zm1
2zm2
2zm1
zs
zm0
zk 2
zk 3 )
zm0
1
3
zm1
1
3
(a zk1
azk2
zk3 )
zm2
1
3
(azk1
a2zk2
zk3 )
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The elements of z012 can be shown to be
z00
z01
z02
z10
z11
z12
zs
(zk1 zk 2
2
1
(
az
a
zk2
k1
3
2
1
(
a
zk1 azk2
3
2
3
z02
zs 13 (zk1
2z01
z20
z21
z22
zk 2
z01
2z02
z11
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
zk 3 )
zk3 )
zk3 )
zk 3 )
Assume that balanced voltages are applied at the
sending end;
that is
Va0
and
Va2
We can rewrite the voltage equation
Va0
Va1 =
Va2
into
Va1
z00 z01 z02
z10 z11 z12
z20
z00Ia0
z10Ia0
z20Ia0
z21 z22
z01Ia1
z11Ia1
z21Ia1
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Ia0
Ia1
Ia2
z02Ia2
z12Ia2
z22Ia2
The unbalanced
factor are definedas:
m0
Ia0
Ia1
and
It can be shown that
m2
m0
z02z21
z00z22
z01z22
z20z02
m2
z20z01
z00z22
z00z21
z20z02
Ia2
Ia1
Note: For the untransposed 40mile line,
m0
m2
1.054 72.68o %
6.624 139.14o %
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Lines with Overhead Ground Wire
Ia
a
Ib
b
Ic
+
c
Va
Iw
w
+
Vb

Vc
REF
za a
zb b
za b zca
zcc
zb c
zww za d
Vw
Vd 0
d
Id
zb d
b
c
zcd
d
zd d
1 unit length
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
All wires
grounded
here
The primitive voltage equation is
Va
Vb
Vc
0
0
za a
Va'
zba
Vb'
Vc' = zca
zwa
Vw'
zda
Vd'
From KCL, we get
Ia
or
Ib
Id
za b
za c
za w
za d
zbb
zcb
zwb
zbc
zcc
zwc
zbw
zcw
zww
zbd
zcd
zwd
zdb
zdc
zdw
zdd
Ic
(Ia
Iw
Ib
Id
Ic
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Iw )
I
a
Ib
Ic
Iw
Id
V/unit
length
The last equation may be written as
Vd'
or
Vd'
zdaIa
zdbIb zdcIc zdwIw
zdd(Ia Ib Ic Iw )
(zda zdd)Ia (zdb zdd)Ib
(zdc zdd)Ic (zdw zdd)Iw
Following the same procedure, the equation for
phase a can be expressed as
Va
Va'
(zaa
(zac
zad)Ia
zad)Ic
(zab
(zaw
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
zad)Ib
zad)Iw
Subtracting the last equation from the first, we get
Va
(Va'
Since Va'
to
Vd' )
Vd'
Va
(zaa
zad
zdd)Ia
zda
(zab
zad
zdb
(zac
zad
zdc
(zaw
zad
zdd)Ib
zdd)Ic
zdw
zdd)Iw
0, the equation can be simplified
zaaIa
zabIb
zacIc
zawIw
Note: The same procedure can be applied to the
equations describing phases b and c, and the
overhead ground wire w.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
We get
Va
Vb
Vc
Vw
where Vw
zaa zab zac zaw
zba zbb zbc zbw
=
zca zcb zcc zcw
zwa zwb zwc zww
Ia
Ib
Ic
Iw
0 and
zx x
(rx
zx y
rd
De
x=a,b,c,w
rd ) j k ln
Dsx
De
xy=ab,ac,aw,
j k ln
Dx y
bc,bw,cw
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Krons Reduction
Consider the matrix equation
V1
Z1 Z2
=
Z3 Z4
0
I1
I2
where Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4 are also matrices. Suppose
we want to eliminate the current vector I2.
Expanding, we get
V1
Z1I1
Z2I2
(1)
Z3I1
Z4I2
(2)
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
From eq. 2, we get
1
I2
Z4 Z3I1
which is substituted in eq. 1 to get
or
V1
Z1I1
V1
(Z1
Z2( Z4 Z3I1)
1
Z2Z4 Z3 )I1
Go back to the voltage equation of the line.
Va
Vb
Vc
0
zaa zab
zba zbb
zac
zbc
zaw
zbw
zca zcb
zwa zwb
zcc
zwc
zcw
zww
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Ia
Ib
I
c
Iw
We wish to eliminate Iw , where
za a za b za c
za w
T
Z2 = zb w = Z3
Z1 = zba zbb zbc
z cw
zca zcb zcc
Z4
We get
za a
z a bc = zba
zca
za wzwa
zww
zbwzwa
zww
zcwzwa
zww
za b
zbb
zcb
za wzwb
zww
zbwzwb
zww
zcwzwb
zww
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
za c
zbc
zcc
zww
za wzwc
zww
zbwzwc
zww
zcwzwc
zww
Example: Find the equivalent impedance of the
69kV line shown. The phase conductors are the
same as in the previous examples. The overhead
ground wires have the following characteristics:
w
rw=4.0 /mile @ 25oC
Dsw=0.001 ft @ 60 Hz
For the ground wire, we get
z ww
(rw
(4.0
Zww
rd )
De
j k ln
Dsw
0.095)
4.095 j1.8
163.8 j72
15
a
10
2790
j0.121 ln 0.001
/mile
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
10
rd
De
j k ln
Da w
za w
zcw
/mile
Za w
2790
0.095 j0.121 ln 18.03
Zcw 3.81 j24.47
zbw
0.095
/mile
Zbw
3.81
j0.121 ln 2790
15
j25.36
From a previous example, we got
14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j23.97
Z1= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33
3.81 j23.97 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Using the ground wire impedances, we also get
3.81
Z2 = 3.81
3.81
j24.47
j25.36 = Z3 T
j24.47
Z4
163.8
j72
Performing the Kron reduction, we get
17.5 j56.11 6.48 j25.0 6.38
Zabc = 6.48 j25.0 17.71 j55.97 6.48
6.38 j21.7
6.48 j25.0 17.5
j21.7
j25.0
j56.1
Note: The self impedances are no longer equal.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Current Division
How much current is flowing in the overhead
ground wire? Under zerosequence condition,
Ia
Ib
Ic
Ia0
The primitive voltage equation reduces to
Va
Vb
Vc
0
0
za a
Va'
zba
Vb'
Vc' = zca
zwa
Vw'
zda
Vd'
za b
za c
za w
za d
zbb
zcb
zwb
zbc
zcc
zwc
zbw
zcw
zww
zbd
zcd
zwd
zdb
zdc
zdw
zdd
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Ia0
Ia0
V/unit
Ia0
length
Iw
Id
From KCL, we get
Id
Iw
3Ia0
The last equation may be written as
Vd'
(zda
zdb
zdc )Ia0
zdwIw
Similarly, for the overhead ground wire
Vw'
(zwa
zwb
zwc )Ia0
zww Iw
Subtracting the two equations, we get
[(zwa
zwb
(zww
zwc ) (zda zdb
zdw)Iw (zwd
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
zddId
zwd Id
zdc )]Ia0
zdd)Id
Since Id
(3Ia0
Iw ) , we get
0 [(zwa zwb zwc ) (zda zdb zdc )]Ia0
(zww zdw)Iw (zwd zdd)(3Ia0 Iw )
Combine
common terms and get the ratio of Iw to
3Ia0 . We get
Iw (zwa zwb zwc ) (zda zdb zdc) 3(zdd zwd )
3(zww zwd zdw zdd)
3Ia0
Recall that
zwx
zwx
zwd
zdx
zdd
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
x=a,b,c,w
Substitution gives
(a)
From Id
Iw
3Ia0
Iw
Id
3Ia0
zwa
zwb zwc
3zww
3Ia0 , we get
Iw
1
3Ia0
Substitute eq. (a) to get
(b)
Id
3Ia0
zwa
zwb zwc
3zww
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Take the ratio of eq. (a) to eq. (b). We get
Iw
Id
Define:
zag
Dag
We get
Iw
Id
where
zag
zwa zwb zwc
3zww (zwa zwb zwc )
1
3
3
(zwa
zwb
DwaDwbDwc
zag
zww
rd
zag
De
j k ln
Dag
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
zwc )
Line Transposition
Consider a transmission line with one overhead
ground wire. Assume that the line is transposed.
Pos.
Pos.
Pos.
Ground wire
Ia
Ib
Ic
Phase c
Phase a
Phase b
s1
s2
s3
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
The impedance matrix for each section can be
found using Krons reduction.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
For Sections 1 and 2, we get
z wz w
z wz w
z
z
zww
zww
z wz w
z wz w
z
z f1 = z
zww
zww
z wz w
z wz w
z
z
zww
zww
z wz w
z wz w
z
z
zww
zww
z wz w
z wz w
z
zf 2 = z
z
z
ww
z wz w
zww
z
z
z
z
z
ww
z wz w
zww
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
Similarly, for Sections 3, we get
zf 3 = z
z
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z
z
z
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
It can be shown that
Va
Vb
Vc
s(f1Zf1
f2Zf 2
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
z
z
z
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
Ia
f3Zf 3 ) I
b
Ic
If the line is completely transposed, the impedance
matrix becomes symmetric.
zs
z a bc = zm
zm
zs
zm
zm
zm
zm
zs
/unit length
where the diagonal elements are
zs
1
3
(z
1
3
z
z wzw
zww
z )
z wzw
z w zw
zww
zww
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The offdiagonal elements are
zm
1
3
(z
1
3
z )
z wzw
z wzw
z w zw
zww
zww
zww
The sequence impedance matrix will be diagonal.
z00 0
z012 = 0 z11
where
z00
zs
0
0
/unit length
z22
2zm and z11
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
z22
zs
zm
Solving for the positivesequence impedance,
z11
1
3
(z
z
1
3
1
3
z )
1
3
(z
z wzw
zww
z wzw
z w zw
zww
zww
z wzw
z wzw
z w zw
zww
zww
zww
Simplifying the first two terms, we get
1
3
(z
z )
(ra
1
3
(z
z )
rd
z )
De
rd ) j k ln
Ds
De
j k ln
Dm
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The last two terms can be shown to be equal to
where
2
(
k
)
M
1
3
zww
De 2
De 2
De 2
(ln
) (ln
) (ln
)
Dw
Dw
Dw
De
De
De
De
(ln
)(ln
) (ln
)(ln
)
Dw
Dw
Dw
Dw
De
De
(ln
)(ln
)
Dw
Dw
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Likewise,
zww
(rw
rd )
De
j k ln
Dww
For most transmission line configurations,
De
This means M
z11
ra
D w , D w or D w
0. Under this assumption,
Dm
j k ln
Ds
/unit length
Note: This is the formula for the positive sequence
impedance of a transposed line without ground
wires.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The zerosequence impedance can be shown to be
z00
z0(a)
2
0(m)
/unit length
z0(g)
where
z0(a)
(ra
z0(m)
3rd
z0(g)
3zww
3rd )
j k ln
j3 k ln
De
3
2
m
DsD
De
D wD wD w
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Example: For the previous example, assume that
the line is completely transposed. Find the phase
and sequence impedances.
From the previous example, we got
17.5 j56.11 6.48
Zf1 = 6.48 j25.0 17.71
6.38 j21.7
6.48
j25.0 6.38
j55.97 6.48
j25.0 17.5
j21.7
j25.0
j56.1
Assuming a complete transposition cycle, we get
Zs
1
3
[2(17.5
17.57
j56.11) 17.71
j56.06
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
j55.97]
Zm
1
3
[2(6.48
6.45
j25.0)
6.38
j21.7]
j23.9
17.57 j56.06 6.45 j23.9
6.45 j23.9
Zabc= 6.45 j23.9 17.57 j56.06 6.45 j23.9
6.45 j23.9
6.45 j23.9 17.57 j56.06
For comparison, Zabc below is for a completely
transposed line without the overhead ground wire.
14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.21 3.81 j26.21
Zabc= 3.81 j26.21 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.21
3.81 j26.21 3.81 j26.21 14.93 j58.38
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The sequence impedances are
Z00
Zs
2Zm
30.47
Z11
Z22
Zs
11.12
j103.86
Zm
j32.17
Note: When the effect of the ground wire was not
taken into account, we got
Z0
22.55
j110.8
Z1
11.12
j32.17
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Grade E.B.B. 7 Strands
3/8 inch Diameter
3
15
10
105
13
107
11
109
GMR
1011
1013
1015
1017
Resistance
3
1
1019
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Amperes per Cable
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Resistance ( /mile)
The overhead
ground wires are
usually highstrength steel or
some alloy of
steel. This poses a
problem since the
resistance and
GMR of these
conductors vary
with current.
Geometric Mean Radius (ft)
Steel Ground Wires
Example: For the previous example, assume that
the line is completely transposed. Find the phase
and sequence impedances. The overhead ground
wire is 3/8 inch E.B.B.
The zerosequence impedance of the phase wire
z0(a)
(ra
3rd )
0.278
or
j k ln
3(0.095)
0.564 j2.77
Z0(a)
22.55
De
3
2
m
DsD
27903
j0.121 ln
(0.017)(12.6)2
/mile
j110.8
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The zerosequence impedance of the ground wire
z0(g)
3zww
3(rw
rd )
De
j3 k ln
Dww
The resistance and GMR of the ground wire is a
function of the current. For 1A, 30A and 60A, we
get for E.B.B.
rw= 3.5 /mile at 1A
= 7.8 /mile at 30A
= 6.0
/mile at 60A
Dsw= 103 ft at 1A
= 5 x 1012 ft at 30A
= 1.5 x 1010 ft at 60A
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
For 1A, we get
z0(g)
or
Z0(g)
3(3.5
0.095)
10.79
j5.4
431.4
j216
2790
j3(0.121) ln
10 3
/mile at 1A
at 1A
For 30A and 60A, we get
Z0(g)
Z0(g)
947.4
731.4
j494 at 30A
j410.8 at 60A
The GMD between the phase wires and the ground
wire is
Da g
(18.03)2 (15)
16.96 ft
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The zerosequence mutual impedance is
z0(m)
3rd
De
j3 k ln
Dag
2790
3(0.095) j3(0.121) ln
16.96
0.29 j1.86 /mile
Z0(m)
11.43
j74.28
The zerosequence impedance is found from
Z00
Z0(a)
2
0(m)
Z0(g)
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Substitution gives
Z00
31.0
j102.65
Z00
18.86
j107.06
at 30A
Z00
27.21
j105.89
at 60A
at 1A
Note: For comparison, we got the following zerosequence impedances from previous examples:
No overhead ground wire:
Z00
22.55
j110.8
Nonferrous overhead ground wire:
Z00
30.47
j103.86
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Parallel Multicircuit Lines
Consider the doublecircuit transmission line
shown. One circuit is designated abc and the
other abc. Each circuit may be untransposed or
partially transposed.
m
Ia b c
Ia'b'c'
Za b c
Za'b'c'
Let us determine the unbalance factors for this
transmission line configuration.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The voltage equation that describes the line is
Va
Za a
Vb
Zba
Vc
Zca
=
Za'a
Va'
Zb'a
Vb'
Zc ' a
Vc'
Za b Za c Za a'
Zbb Zbc Zba'
Zcb Zcc Zca'
Za'b Za'c Za'a'
Zb'b Zb'c Zb'a'
Zc'b Zc'c Zc'a'
Za b'
Zbb'
Zcb'
Za'b'
Zb'b'
Zc'b'
Za c'
Zbc'
Zcc'
Za'c'
Zb'c'
Zc' c'
Ia
Ib
Ic
Ia'
Ib'
Ic'
Note: The effect of earth and any overhead
ground wire has already been incorporated in the
equation.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Using matrix notation, we get
Za a Za a' Ia bc
Vabc
=
Za'a Za'a' Ia'b'c'
Va'b'c'
The unbalance factors are expressed in terms of
the ratio of sequence currents. Thus, the above
equation must be inverted. Doing so, we get
Ya a
Ia bc
=
Ya'a
Ia'b'c'
Ya a'
Ya'a'
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Vabc
Va'b'c'
It can be shown that
Yaa
Ya'a
Zaa
Yaa'
KL K
Yaa'
Ya'a'
KL 1
L1
where
Zaa Zaa'
L
Za'a'
Za'a Zaa
Za'a Zaa Zaa'
From symmetrical components, we get
A 0
Ia bc
=
0 A
Ia'b'c'
I012
I0'1'2'
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Performing the transformation, we get
A 1 Ya aA
I012
=
I0'1'2'
A 1 Ya'aA
A Ya a' A
A 1 Ya'a' A
V012
V0'1'2'
Assume that the voltages at both ends of the line
contain positive sequence components only. We
get
V012
=
V0'1'2'
Va1
0
0
=
0
0
1
Va'1
0
0
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Va1
Note that Va1
Va'1 since the lines are bused at
both
ends. Substitution gives
Ia0
Y00 Y01 Y02 Y00' Y01' Y02'
Ia1
Y10 Y11 Y12 Y10' Y11' Y12'
I
Y
Y21 Y22 Y20' Y21' Y22'
a2 = 20
Y0'0 Y0'1 Y0'2 Y0'0' Y0'1' Y0'2'
Ia'0
Y1'0 Y1'1 Y1'2 Y1'0' Y1'1' Y1'2'
Ia'1
Y2'0 Y2'1 Y2'2 Y2'0' Y2'1' Z2'2'
Ia'2
0
1
0
0
Va1
1
0
Solving for the sequence currents, we get
Ia0
Ia1
(Y01
(Y11
Y01' )( Va1 )
Y11' )( Va1 )
Ia2
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
(Y21
Y21' )( Va1 )
Ia'0
Ia'1
(Y0'1
(Y1'1
Y0'1' )( Va1 )
Ia'2
Y1'1' )( Va1 )
(Y2'1
Y2'1' )( Va1 )
Define the net through unbalance factors as
m0t
m2t
Ia0
Ia1
Ia2
Ia1
Ia'0
Ia'1
Ia'2
Ia'1
per unit
per unit
Define the net circulating current unbalance factors
as
Ia0 Ia'0
per unit
m0c
Ia1
Ia'1
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
m2c
Ia2
Ia1
Ia'2
Ia'1
per unit
Solving for the unbalance factors, we get
m0t
(Y01
Y01'
Y0'1
Y0'1' ) / Y1
m2t
(Y21
Y21'
Y2'1
Y2'1' ) / Y1
m0c
(Y01
Y01'
Y0'1
Y0'1' ) / Y1
m2c
(Y21
Y21'
Y2'1
Y2'1' ) / Y1
where
Y1
Y11
Y11'
Y1'1
Y1'1'
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering