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Sequence Impedance of

Transmission Lines
Prof. Artemio P. Magabo
Prof. Rowaldo R. del Mundo

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering


University of the Philippines - Diliman

Positive Sequence Impedance


For a transposed three-phase transmission line

Z1

Z2

r1

jx1

/mile/phase

r1 = resistance per unit length of one phase


conductor or bundle
x1 = reactance per unit length of one phase

x1

2.02 x 10

Dm
f ln
Ds

/mile/phase

f = power frequency (Hertz)


Dm = Geometric Mean Distance (GMD)

Ds = Geometric Mean Radius (GMR)


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Geometric Mean Distance


Typical three-phase line configurations
D12

D23
D31

D12
D12

D23
D31

Dm

D12D23D31

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Geometric Mean Radius


For a solid conductor with radius r

Ds

Bundle of Two

1
4

0.78r
Bundle of Four
d

d
d

Ds

Dscd

Ds

1.09 4 Dscd3

Note: Dsc=GMR of a single conductor


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Aluminum Conductors
Aluminum is preferred over copper as a material
for transmission lines due to:

lower cost
lighter weight
larger diameter for the same resistance*
Note: *This results in a lower voltage gradient at
the conductor surface (less tendency for corona)

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Stranded Conductors
Alternate layers of wire of a
stranded conductor are
spiraled in opposite directions
to prevent unwinding and
make the outer radius of one
layer coincide with the inner
radius of the next.

Steel

Aluminum

The number of strands depends on the number


of layers and on whether all the strands are of
the same diameter. The total number of strands
of uniform diameter in a concentrically stranded
cable is 7, 19, 37, 61, 91, etc.
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Example: Each conductor of the 345 kV bundled


three-phase line shown is 1272 MCM ACSR 54/19
Pheasant. Assuming complete transposition and a
total length of 80 miles, determine the positivesequence impedance of the line. Assume d=45 cm
and D=8 meters.
d

From a table of conductor


characteristics, we get
r = 0.0821

/mile @ 50oC

Dsc = 0.0466 ft = 0.0142 m


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We get

Dm

Ds

8(8)(16)

10.08 m

0.0142(0.45)

0.08 m

The total resistance per phase

R1

0.0821(80)(0.5)

3.28

The total reactance per phase

10.08
2.02 x 10 (60)(80) ln
0.08
-3

X1

46.9

The positive (or negative) sequence impedance of


the line

Z1

Z2

3.28

j46.9

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/ phase

Transmission Line Inductance


The total self-inductance of a cylindrical conductor
consists of an internal inductance and an external
inductance.
Internal Inductance:

L int

Henry/meter

Note: c is the permeability of the conductor.For


a non-ferrous conductor such as copper or
aluminum,
c

4 x 10-7 Henry/meter

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External Inductance:
The external inductance may be approximated by

Lext

2s
(ln
2
r
m

1)

Henry/meter

where
m

= permeability of the medium surrounding


the conductor

r = radius of the conductor

s = length of the conductor


Note: For air,

4 x 10-7 Henry/meter

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Self Inductance:

2s
(ln
2
r

1)

Henry/meter

For a non-ferrous conductor in air, we get

2s
2 x 10 (ln
Ds
-7

1)

Henry/meter

where Ds is the geometric mean radius of the


conductor
Note: For a solid conductor,

Ds

1
4

0.78r

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Mutual Inductance:
The mutual inductance between two conductors is

2s
2 x 10 (ln
Dm
-7

1)

Henry/meter

where Dm is the geometric mean distance


between the conductors
Note: For any unit of length,

L
M

2s
k (ln
1) Henry/unit length
Ds
2s
k (ln
1) Henry/unit length
Dm

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Carsons Line
Carson examined a single overhead conductor
whose remote end is connected to earth.
za a
Local
Earth
REF

Ia

Va
-

Vd
d

Id

Remote
Earth

za d

0
zd d

Fictitious
Return
Conductor

The current returns through a fictitious earth


conductor whose GMR is assumed to be 1 foot (or
1 meter and is located a distance Dad from the
overhead conductor.
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The lineis described

by the following

equations:

Va a'

Vdd'

Note: Ia

Va

Vd


Id , Vd

Va'

Vd'

za aIa

za dIa

0 and Va'

za dId

zddId

Vd'

0.

Subtracting the two equations, we get


or

Va

Va

(zaa zdd

za aIa

2zad)Ia

Note: zaa is the equivalent impedance of the


single overhead conductor.
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Primitive Impedances:

za a
zdd
za d

2s
ra j L a ra j k(ln
Dsa
2s
rd j k(ln
1)
Dsd
2s
j M j k(ln
1)
Da d

1)

ra, rd = resistances of overhead conductor and


fictitious ground wire, respectively
Dsa, Dsd = GMRs of overhead conductor and
fictitious ground wire, respectively

Note: Dsd is arbitrarily set to 1 unit length


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Earth Resistance:
Carson derived an empirical formula for the earth
resistance.

rd

1.588 x 10-3 f

/mile

9.869 x 10-4 f

/km

where f is the power frequency in Hz

Note : At 60 Hz,

rd

0.09528

/mile

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Equivalent Impedance:
Substitute the primitive impedances into

za a
We get

za a

(ra

za a

rd )

zdd

2za d
2
ad

D
j k ln
DsaDsd

Note: 1. Dsd=1 unit length


2. Define

De

We get

za a

(ra

rd )

2
ad

D
Dsd

De
j k ln
Dsa

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/unit length

The quantity De is a function of frequency and


earth resistivity.

De

2160

/f

feet

Typical values of De are tabulated below.

Return Earth
Condition

Resistivity
( -m)

De
(ft)

Sea water

0.01-1.0

27.9-279

Swampy ground

10-100

882-2790

Average Damp Earth

100

2790

Dry earth

1000

8820

Sandstone

109

8.82x106

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Three-Phase Line Impedances


Extend Carsons
analysis to a three-phase line
Ia
za a
a
a

Ib
zb b
za b zca b
b

+
zb c
Ic
zcc
+
c
c

Va

Vb +
Vc
-

REF

za d

Vd
d

Id

zb d

All wires
grounded
here

zcd

0
zd d
1 unit length

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The voltage equation describing the line is

Va a'
Va

Vbb'
Vb

=
Vcc'
Vc

Vdd'
Vd

za a
Va'

zba
Vb'
=
zca
Vc'

zda
Vd'

za b

za c

za d

zbb
zcb
zdb

zbc
zcc
zdc

zbd
zcd
zdd

I
a
Ib

I
c
Id

Since all conductors are grounded at the remote


end, we get from KCL
or

Ia

Id

Ib

Ic

(Ia

Id

Ib

Ic )

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The voltage equation for the fictitious ground


conductor
is

Vd

Vd'

zadIa

zbdIb

zcd Ic

which can be re-written as

Vd'

za dIa

zbdIb

zcd Ic

Combining terms, we get

Vd'

(zad

zdd)Ia

(zbd

zddId

zdd(Ia

zdd)Ib

Ib

(zcd

Following a similar procedure, the voltage


equation
for
phase a can be shown to be

Va

Va'

(zaa zad)Ia (zab

(zac zad)Ic

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zad)Ib

Ic )

zdd)Ic

Subtracting the the voltage equation of the ground


conductor from the equation of phase a, we get

Va

(Va'

Vd' )

(zaa

2zad

zdd)Ia

(za b

za d

zbd

(zac

zad

zcd

0 , we get
Since Va' Vd'

Va (zaa 2zad zdd)Ia

(za b za d zbd zdd)Ib

(zac zad zcd zdd)Ic

or
Va za aIa za bIb za cIc
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zdd)Ib

zdd)Ic

We can also subtract the voltage equation of the


ground conductor from the equations of phases b
and c. The resulting matrix equation is

za a za b za c
Va

Vb = za b zbb zbc

za c zbc zcc
Vc

I
a
Ib

Ic

V/unit length

Self Impedances:

za a

za a

2za d

zdd

/unit length

zbb

zbb

2zbd

zdd

/unit length

zcc

zcc

2zcd

zdd

/unit length

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Mutual Impedances:

za b

za b

za d

zbd

zdd

/unit length

zbc

zbc

zbd

zcd

zdd

/unit length

za c

za c

za d

zcd

zdd

/unit length

Primitive Impedances:

zx x

zx y

rx

2s
j k(ln
Dsx

2s
j k(ln
Dx y

1)

1)

/unit length
x=a,b,c,d

/unit length

xy=ab,bc,ca,ad,bd,cd

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Assumptions:
1. Identical phase conductors

Ds

Dsa

Dsb

Dsc

2. Distances of the overhead conductors to the


fictitious ground conductor are the same

De

Dad

Dbd

Dcd

We get

za a

zbb

zx y

rd

zcc

De
j k ln
Ds

(ra rd )
De
/unit length
j k ln
Dx y xy=ab,bc,ca

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Example: Find the equivalent impedance of the


69-kV line shown. The phase conductors are 4/0
hard-drawn copper, 19 strands which operate at
25oC. The line is 40 miles long. Assume an earth
resistivity of 100 -meter.
10
10
ra=0.278 /mile @ 25oC
a

Dsc=0.01668 ft @ 60 Hz

za a

zbb

zcc

(0.278

Za a

0.373
14.93

(ra

rd )

0.095)

j1.459
j58.38

De
j k ln
Ds

2790
j0.121 ln 0.01668

/mile

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za b
Za b

zbc 0.095 j0.121 ln 2790


10
0.095 j0.683 /mile
3.81 j27.33

za c

0.095

Za c

3.81

j0.121 ln 2790
20

j23.97

We get

14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j23.97


Zabc= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33
3.81 j23.97 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38
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Line Transposition
Line transposition is used to make the mutual
impedances identical.

Ia
Phase c

Pos.1
Ib
Phase a

Pos.2
Ic
Phase b

Pos.3

s1

s2

s3

Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

Note: Each phase conductor is made to occupy


all possible positions.
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Voltage equation for Section 1

Z11 1 Z12
Va

Vb = Z21 1 Z22

Z31 1 Z32
Vc

Z13
Z23

Z33

1
1
1

Ia

Ib

Ic

volts

Ic

Ia

Ib

volts

Voltage equation for Section 2

Z11
Vc

Va = Z21

Z31
Vb

Z12
Z22

Z32

Z13
Z23

Z33

2
2
2

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Voltage equation for Section 3

Z11
Vb

Vc = Z21

Z31
Va

Z12
Z22

Z32

Z13
Z23

Z33

3
3
3

Ib

Ic

Ia

volts

The total voltage drop for phase a

Va

Z11

1 Ia

Z12

1 Ib

1 Ic

Z13

Z21 2 Ic Z22 2 Ia Z23 2 Ib

Z31 3 Ib Z32 3 Ic Z33 3 Ia

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Va

(Z11 1 Z22 2
(Z12 1 Z23
(Z13

Z33 3 )Ia
Z31 3 )Ib
2

Z21

Z32

3 )Ic

By a similar procedure, we get for phases b and c

Vb

Vc

(Z21 1 Z32 2
(Z22 1 Z33
(Z23

Z13 3 )Ia
Z11 3 )Ib
2
2

3 )Ic

Z12

(Z31 1 Z12 2 Z23 3 )Ia


(Z32 1 Z13 2 Z21 3 )Ib
(Z33

Z31

3 )Ic

Z11

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Z22

If the line is not transposed and we only have


Section 1, the equation of the line will be

Z11 Z12 Z13


Va

Vb = Z21 Z22 Z23

Z31 Z32 Z33


Vc

Ia

Ib

Ic

where

Z11

Zx y

Z22

Z33

(ra

rds

De
j ks ln
Dx y

rd )s

S = length of the line


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Volts

De
j ks ln
Ds

xy=ab,bc,ca

Define f1, f2 and f3 as as the ratios of s1, s2 and s3


to the total length s, respectively. We get

Va

Vb

Vc

(f1Z11 f2Z22 f3Z33)Ia


(f1Z12 f2Z23 f3Z31)Ib

(f1Z13 f2Z21 f3Z32)Ic

(f1Z21 f2Z32 f3Z13)Ia


(f1Z22 f2Z33 f3Z11)Ib

(f1Z23 f2Z31 f3Z12)Ic

(f1Z31 f2Z12 f3Z23)Ia


(f1Z32 f2Z13 f3Z21)Ib

(f1Z33 f2Z11 f3Z22)Ic

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Define:

Zk1

f1Z12

f2Z23

f3Z13

Zk 2

f1Z13

f2Z12

f3Z23

Zk 3

f1Z23

f2Z13

f3Z12

Zs

Z11

Z22

Z33

Substitution gives

Zs Zk1 Zk 2
Va

Vb = Zk1 Zs Zk 3

Zk 2 Zk 3 Zs
Vc

I
a
Ib

Ic

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Volts

It can be shown that

Zs

Zk1
Zk2
Zk3

(ra

rds
rds
rds

De
rd )s j ks ln
Ds
De
De
j ks f1ln
f2 ln
D12
D23

De
f3 ln
D31

De
j ks f1ln
D31

De
f3 ln
D23

De
j ks f1ln
D23

De
f2 ln
D12
De
f2 ln
D31

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De
f3 ln
D12

Example: Find the equivalent impedance of the


69-kV line shown. The phase conductors are 4/0
hard-drawn copper, 19 strands which operate at
25oC. The line is 40 miles long. Assume s1=8
miles, s2=12 miles and s3=20 miles.
ra=0.278

/mile @

10

25oC

Dsc=0.01668 ft @ 60 Hz

10

Section 1

Assuming no transposition, we get

14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j23.97


Zabc= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33
3.81 j23.97 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38
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Solving for the mutual impedances, we get

Zk1

f1Z12

f2Z23

0.2(3.81

f3Z13

j27.33) 0.3(3.81

0.5(3.81

3.81

j27.33)

j23.97)

j25.65

Similarly, we get

Zk 2

f1Z13

f2Z12

f3Z23

3.81

j26.66

Zk 3

f1Z23

f2Z13

f3Z12

3.81

j26.32

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The impedance matrix of the transposed line is

14.93 j58.38 3.81 j25.65 3.81 j26.66


Zabc= 3.81 j25.65 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.32
3.81 j26.66 3.81 j26.32 14.93 j58.38
For comparison, the impedance matrix of the
untransposed line is

14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j23.97


Zabc= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33
3.81 j23.97 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38
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Example: For the same line assume the


following transposition cycle:
s1=16 miles

s2=24 miles

s3=0

It can be shown that

14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j25.99


Zabc= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j25.31
3.81 j25.99 3.81 j25.31 14.93 j58.38
Note: Even an incomplete transposition has a
significant effect in reducing the unbalance in the
mutual impedances.
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Completely Transposed Line


If s1=s2=s3, the line is completely transposed. We
get

Zs Zm Zm
Va

Vb = Zm Zs Zm

Zm Zm Zs
Vc

where

Zs
Zm

(ra
1
3

rd )s

(Z12

Z23

Ia

Ib

Ic

De
j ks ln
Ds
Z13)

rds

Volts

De
j ks ln
Dm

Ds, Dm = GMR and GMD, respectively


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Example: For the same line assume a complete


transposition cycle.
10

The GMD is

Dm

10(10)(20)

12.6 feet

10

We get the average of the mutual impedances.

Zm

3.81

j26.21

The impedance of the transposed line is

14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.21 3.81 j26.21


Zabc= 3.81 j26.21 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.21
3.81 j26.21 3.81 j26.21 14.93 j58.38
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Phase- to Sequence-Impedances
Consider a transmission line that is described by
the following voltage equation:

Za a Za b Za c
Va

Vb = Za b Zbb Zbc

Za c Zbc Zcc
Vc
or

Vabc

I
a
Ib

Ic

volts

ZabcIabc

From symmetrical components, we have

Vabc

AV012

and

Ia bc

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A I012

Substitution gives
or

AV012

V012

Za bcA I012

A Za bcA I012
1

which implies that

Z012

A ZabcA

Performing the multiplication, we get

Zs0 2Zm0 Zs2 Zm2 Zs1 Zm1


Z0
Z1 = Zs1 Zm1 Zs0 Zm0 Zs2 2Zm2
Zs2 Zm2 Zs1 2Zm1 Zs0 Zm0
Z2
Note: Z012 is not symmetric.
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It can be shown that

Zs 0

1
3

(Za a

Zbb

Zcc )

Zs1

1
3

(Zaa

aZbb

a2Zcc )

Zs2

1
3

(Zaa

a2Zbb

aZcc )

Zm0

1
3

(Za b

Zbc

Zm1

1
3

(a2Zab

Zm2

1
3

(aZab

Zca )

Zbc

aZca )

Zbc

a2Zca )

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If the line is completely transposed,

Zs0
Zs1

Zm0

Zs
Z s2

Zm1

Zm

Zm2

The sequence impedance matrix reduces to

Zs 2Zm
0
0
Z0
0
Zs Zm
0
Z1 =
0
0
Zs Zm
Z2
Note: The sequence impedances are completely
decoupled.
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For a completely transposed line, the equation in


the sequence domain is

Z0 0 0
Va0

Va1 = 0 Z1 0

0 0 Z2
Va2
where

Z1

Z0

Z2

ras

ras

3rds

Ia0

Ia1

Ia2

Dm
j ks ln
Ds

j ks ln

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De

3
2
m

DsD

Example: For the same line and assuming a


complete transposition cycle, find the sequence
impedances of the line.
10

In the previous example,


we got

Zs

14.93

Zm

3.81

10

j58.38

j26.21

The sequence impedances are

Z0

Zs

2Zm

Z1

Z2

Zs

22.55
Zm

j110.80

11.12

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j32.17

Completely Transposed Line


For a three-phase transmission line that is
completely transposed:
1. The sequence impedances are completely
decoupled; that is

Va0

Z0 Ia0

Va2

Va1

Z2 Ia2

Z1Ia1

2. The application of balanced three-phase


voltages at the sending end results in
balanced three-phase line currents; that is
only positive-sequence components exist.
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Incomplete Transposition
The resulting circuit unbalance due to incomplete
transposition is measured in terms of the zeroand negative-sequence line currents that arise
when positive-sequence voltages are applied at
the sending end.
For a partially-transposed transmission line,

Va

Vb =

Vc

or

zs
zk 1

zk 1
zs

zk 2
zk 3

zk 2

zk 3

zs

Vabc

Ia

Ib

Ic

zabcIabc

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V/unit length

where

zs

zk1
zk2
zk3

(ra

rd )

De
j k ln
Ds

rd

De
j k f1ln
D12

De
f2 ln
D23

De
f3 ln
D31

rd

De
j k f1ln
D31

De
f2 ln
D12

De
f3 ln
D23

rd

De
j k f1ln
D23

De
f2 ln
D31

De
f3 ln
D12

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Transform the phase impedances into sequence


impedances.
1

z012

A zabcA

which gives

z0
z1

zs
=

zm2

z2
where

2zm0
zm2
zm1
zs zm0

(zk1

zm1
2zm2

2zm1

zs

zm0

zk 2

zk 3 )

zm0

1
3

zm1

1
3

(a zk1

azk2

zk3 )

zm2

1
3

(azk1

a2zk2

zk3 )

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The elements of z012 can be shown to be

z00
z01
z02

z10
z11
z12

zs

(zk1 zk 2
2
1
(
az
a
zk2
k1
3
2
1
(
a
zk1 azk2
3
2
3

z02
zs 13 (zk1
2z01
z20
z21
z22

zk 2

z01
2z02
z11

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zk 3 )
zk3 )
zk3 )
zk 3 )

Assume that balanced voltages are applied at the


sending end;
that is

Va0

and

Va2

We can re-write the voltage equation

Va0

Va1 =

Va2

into

Va1

z00 z01 z02


z10 z11 z12
z20

z00Ia0

z10Ia0

z20Ia0

z21 z22

z01Ia1

z11Ia1

z21Ia1

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Ia0

Ia1

Ia2

z02Ia2

z12Ia2

z22Ia2

The unbalanced
factor are definedas:

m0

Ia0

Ia1

and

It can be shown that

m2

m0

z02z21
z00z22

z01z22
z20z02

m2

z20z01
z00z22

z00z21
z20z02

Ia2

Ia1

Note: For the untransposed 40-mile line,

m0
m2

1.054 72.68o %
6.624 139.14o %

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Lines with Overhead Ground Wire


Ia
a

Ib
b

Ic
+
c

Va
Iw
w
+
Vb
-

Vc

REF

za a

zb b

za b zca

zcc

zb c

zww za d

Vw

Vd 0

d
Id

zb d

b
c

zcd
d

zd d
1 unit length

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All wires
grounded
here

The primitive voltage equation is

Va

Vb

Vc
0
0

za a
Va'

zba
Vb'

Vc' = zca

zwa
Vw'

zda
Vd'

From KCL, we get

Ia

or

Ib

Id

za b

za c

za w

za d

zbb
zcb
zwb

zbc
zcc
zwc

zbw
zcw
zww

zbd
zcd
zwd

zdb

zdc

zdw

zdd

Ic

(Ia

Iw

Ib

Id

Ic

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Iw )

I
a
Ib

Ic

Iw

Id

V/unit
length

The last equation may be written as

Vd'

or

Vd'

zdaIa

zdbIb zdcIc zdwIw

zdd(Ia Ib Ic Iw )

(zda zdd)Ia (zdb zdd)Ib

(zdc zdd)Ic (zdw zdd)Iw

Following the same procedure, the equation for


phase a can be expressed as

Va

Va'

(zaa
(zac

zad)Ia

zad)Ic

(zab
(zaw

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zad)Ib

zad)Iw

Subtracting the last equation from the first, we get

Va

(Va'

Since Va'
to

Vd' )

Vd'

Va

(zaa

zad

zdd)Ia

zda

(zab

zad

zdb

(zac

zad

zdc

(zaw

zad

zdd)Ib

zdd)Ic

zdw

zdd)Iw

0, the equation can be simplified

zaaIa

zabIb

zacIc

zawIw

Note: The same procedure can be applied to the


equations describing phases b and c, and the
overhead ground wire w.
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We get

Va

Vb

Vc

Vw

where Vw

zaa zab zac zaw


zba zbb zbc zbw
=
zca zcb zcc zcw
zwa zwb zwc zww

Ia

Ib

Ic

Iw

0 and

zx x

(rx

zx y

rd

De
x=a,b,c,w
rd ) j k ln
Dsx
De
xy=ab,ac,aw,
j k ln
Dx y
bc,bw,cw

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Krons Reduction
Consider the matrix equation

V1

Z1 Z2
=
Z3 Z4
0

I1
I2

where Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4 are also matrices. Suppose


we want to eliminate the current vector I2.

Expanding, we get

V1

Z1I1

Z2I2

(1)

Z3I1

Z4I2

(2)

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From eq. 2, we get


1

I2

Z4 Z3I1

which is substituted in eq. 1 to get


or

V1

Z1I1

V1

(Z1

Z2( Z4 Z3I1)
1

Z2Z4 Z3 )I1

Go back to the voltage equation of the line.

Va

Vb

Vc
0

zaa zab
zba zbb

zac
zbc

zaw
zbw

zca zcb
zwa zwb

zcc
zwc

zcw
zww

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Ia

Ib

I
c
Iw


We wish to eliminate Iw , where
za a za b za c
za w
T
Z2 = zb w = Z3
Z1 = zba zbb zbc
z cw
zca zcb zcc
Z4
We get

za a

z a bc = zba
zca

za wzwa
zww
zbwzwa
zww
zcwzwa
zww

za b
zbb
zcb

za wzwb
zww
zbwzwb
zww
zcwzwb
zww

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za c
zbc
zcc

zww

za wzwc
zww
zbwzwc
zww
zcwzwc
zww

Example: Find the equivalent impedance of the


69-kV line shown. The phase conductors are the
same as in the previous examples. The overhead
ground wires have the following characteristics:
w
rw=4.0 /mile @ 25oC
Dsw=0.001 ft @ 60 Hz
For the ground wire, we get

z ww

(rw
(4.0

Zww

rd )

De
j k ln
Dsw

0.095)

4.095 j1.8
163.8 j72

15
a

10

2790
j0.121 ln 0.001

/mile

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10

rd

De
j k ln
Da w

za w

zcw

/mile

Za w

2790
0.095 j0.121 ln 18.03
Zcw 3.81 j24.47

zbw

0.095

/mile

Zbw

3.81

j0.121 ln 2790
15

j25.36

From a previous example, we got

14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33 3.81 j23.97


Z1= 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j27.33
3.81 j23.97 3.81 j27.33 14.93 j58.38
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Using the ground wire impedances, we also get

3.81
Z2 = 3.81
3.81

j24.47
j25.36 = Z3 T
j24.47
Z4

163.8

j72

Performing the Kron reduction, we get

17.5 j56.11 6.48 j25.0 6.38


Zabc = 6.48 j25.0 17.71 j55.97 6.48
6.38 j21.7
6.48 j25.0 17.5

j21.7
j25.0
j56.1

Note: The self impedances are no longer equal.


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Current Division
How much current is flowing in the overhead
ground wire? Under zero-sequence condition,

Ia

Ib

Ic

Ia0

The primitive voltage equation reduces to

Va

Vb

Vc
0
0

za a
Va'

zba
Vb'

Vc' = zca

zwa
Vw'

zda
Vd'

za b

za c

za w

za d

zbb
zcb
zwb

zbc
zcc
zwc

zbw
zcw
zww

zbd
zcd
zwd

zdb

zdc

zdw

zdd

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Ia0

Ia0
V/unit
Ia0
length
Iw

Id

From KCL, we get

Id

Iw

3Ia0

The last equation may be written as

Vd'

(zda

zdb

zdc )Ia0

zdwIw

Similarly, for the overhead ground wire

Vw'

(zwa

zwb

zwc )Ia0

zww Iw

Subtracting the two equations, we get

[(zwa

zwb
(zww

zwc ) (zda zdb

zdw)Iw (zwd

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zddId

zwd Id

zdc )]Ia0

zdd)Id


Since Id

(3Ia0

Iw ) , we get

0 [(zwa zwb zwc ) (zda zdb zdc )]Ia0

(zww zdw)Iw (zwd zdd)(3Ia0 Iw )

Combine
common terms and get the ratio of Iw to

3Ia0 . We get

Iw (zwa zwb zwc ) (zda zdb zdc) 3(zdd zwd )

3(zww zwd zdw zdd)


3Ia0
Recall that

zwx

zwx

zwd

zdx

zdd

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x=a,b,c,w

Substitution gives
(a)

From Id

Iw

3Ia0

Iw

Id

3Ia0

zwa

zwb zwc
3zww

3Ia0 , we get

Iw

1
3Ia0

Substitute eq. (a) to get


(b)

Id

3Ia0

zwa

zwb zwc
3zww

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Take the ratio of eq. (a) to eq. (b). We get

Iw

Id

Define:

zag

Dag

We get
Iw

Id
where

zag

zwa zwb zwc


3zww (zwa zwb zwc )
1
3
3

(zwa

zwb

DwaDwbDwc

zag
zww
rd

zag
De
j k ln
Dag

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zwc )

Line Transposition
Consider a transmission line with one overhead
ground wire. Assume that the line is transposed.

Pos.
Pos.
Pos.

Ground wire

Ia

Ib

Ic

Phase c
Phase a
Phase b
s1

s2

s3

Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

The impedance matrix for each section can be


found using Krons reduction.
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For Sections 1 and 2, we get


z wz w
z wz w
z
z
zww
zww
z wz w
z wz w
z
z f1 = z
zww
zww
z wz w
z wz w
z
z
zww
zww
z wz w
z wz w
z
z
zww
zww
z wz w
z wz w
z
zf 2 = z
z
z
ww

z wz w
zww

z
z
z
z
z

ww

z wz w
zww

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww

Similarly, for Sections 3, we get

zf 3 = z
z

z wz w

zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww

z
z
z

z wz w

zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww

It can be shown that

Va

Vb

Vc

s(f1Zf1

f2Zf 2

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z
z
z

z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww
z wz w
zww

Ia

f3Zf 3 ) I
b
Ic

If the line is completely transposed, the impedance


matrix becomes symmetric.

zs
z a bc = zm

zm
zs

zm
zm

zm

zm

zs

/unit length

where the diagonal elements are

zs

1
3

(z
1
3

z
z wzw
zww

z )
z wzw

z w zw

zww

zww

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The off-diagonal elements are

zm

1
3

(z
1
3

z )

z wzw

z wzw

z w zw

zww

zww

zww

The sequence impedance matrix will be diagonal.

z00 0
z012 = 0 z11
where

z00

zs

0
0

/unit length

z22

2zm and z11

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z22

zs

zm

Solving for the positive-sequence impedance,

z11

1
3

(z

z
1
3

1
3

z )

1
3

(z

z wzw
zww

z wzw

z w zw

zww

zww

z wzw

z wzw

z w zw

zww

zww

zww

Simplifying the first two terms, we get


1
3

(z

z )

(ra

1
3

(z

z )

rd

z )

De
rd ) j k ln
Ds
De
j k ln
Dm

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The last two terms can be shown to be equal to

where

2
(
k
)
M
1
3
zww

De 2
De 2
De 2
(ln
) (ln
) (ln
)
Dw
Dw
Dw
De
De
De
De
(ln
)(ln
) (ln
)(ln
)
Dw
Dw
Dw
Dw
De
De
(ln
)(ln
)
Dw
Dw

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Likewise,

zww

(rw

rd )

De
j k ln
Dww

For most transmission line configurations,

De
This means M

z11

ra

D w , D w or D w

0. Under this assumption,


Dm
j k ln
Ds

/unit length

Note: This is the formula for the positive sequence


impedance of a transposed line without ground
wires.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

The zero-sequence impedance can be shown to be

z00

z0(a)

2
0(m)

/unit length

z0(g)

where

z0(a)

(ra

z0(m)

3rd

z0(g)

3zww

3rd )

j k ln

j3 k ln

De

3
2
m

DsD
De

D wD wD w

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Example: For the previous example, assume that


the line is completely transposed. Find the phase
and sequence impedances.

From the previous example, we got

17.5 j56.11 6.48


Zf1 = 6.48 j25.0 17.71
6.38 j21.7
6.48

j25.0 6.38
j55.97 6.48
j25.0 17.5

j21.7
j25.0
j56.1

Assuming a complete transposition cycle, we get

Zs

1
3

[2(17.5

17.57

j56.11) 17.71

j56.06

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

j55.97]

Zm

1
3

[2(6.48

6.45

j25.0)

6.38

j21.7]

j23.9

17.57 j56.06 6.45 j23.9


6.45 j23.9
Zabc= 6.45 j23.9 17.57 j56.06 6.45 j23.9
6.45 j23.9
6.45 j23.9 17.57 j56.06
For comparison, Zabc below is for a completely
transposed line without the overhead ground wire.

14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.21 3.81 j26.21


Zabc= 3.81 j26.21 14.93 j58.38 3.81 j26.21
3.81 j26.21 3.81 j26.21 14.93 j58.38
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The sequence impedances are

Z00

Zs

2Zm

30.47
Z11

Z22

Zs

11.12

j103.86
Zm

j32.17

Note: When the effect of the ground wire was not


taken into account, we got

Z0

22.55

j110.8

Z1

11.12

j32.17

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Grade E.B.B. 7 Strands


3/8 inch Diameter
-3
15
10
10-5

13

10-7

11

10-9

GMR

10-11

10-13

10-15
10-17

Resistance

3
1

10-19
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Amperes per Cable

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Resistance ( /mile)

The overhead
ground wires are
usually highstrength steel or
some alloy of
steel. This poses a
problem since the
resistance and
GMR of these
conductors vary
with current.

Geometric Mean Radius (ft)

Steel Ground Wires

Example: For the previous example, assume that


the line is completely transposed. Find the phase
and sequence impedances. The overhead ground
wire is 3/8 inch E.B.B.
The zero-sequence impedance of the phase wire

z0(a)

(ra

3rd )

0.278
or

j k ln

3(0.095)

0.564 j2.77
Z0(a)

22.55

De

3
2
m

DsD

27903
j0.121 ln
(0.017)(12.6)2

/mile

j110.8

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

The zero-sequence impedance of the ground wire

z0(g)

3zww

3(rw

rd )

De
j3 k ln
Dww

The resistance and GMR of the ground wire is a


function of the current. For 1A, 30A and 60A, we
get for E.B.B.
rw= 3.5 /mile at 1A
= 7.8 /mile at 30A
= 6.0

/mile at 60A

Dsw= 10-3 ft at 1A
= 5 x 10-12 ft at 30A
= 1.5 x 10-10 ft at 60A
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

For 1A, we get

z0(g)
or

Z0(g)

3(3.5

0.095)

10.79

j5.4

431.4

j216

2790
j3(0.121) ln
10 3

/mile at 1A
at 1A

For 30A and 60A, we get

Z0(g)
Z0(g)

947.4
731.4

j494 at 30A
j410.8 at 60A

The GMD between the phase wires and the ground


wire is

Da g

(18.03)2 (15)

16.96 ft

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

The zero-sequence mutual impedance is

z0(m)

3rd

De
j3 k ln
Dag

2790
3(0.095) j3(0.121) ln
16.96
0.29 j1.86 /mile

Z0(m)

11.43

j74.28

The zero-sequence impedance is found from

Z00

Z0(a)

2
0(m)

Z0(g)

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Substitution gives

Z00

31.0

j102.65

Z00

18.86

j107.06

at 30A

Z00

27.21

j105.89

at 60A

at 1A

Note: For comparison, we got the following zerosequence impedances from previous examples:
No overhead ground wire:

Z00

22.55

j110.8

Non-ferrous overhead ground wire:

Z00

30.47

j103.86

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Parallel Multicircuit Lines


Consider the double-circuit transmission line
shown. One circuit is designated abc and the
other abc. Each circuit may be untransposed or
partially transposed.
m

Ia b c

Ia'b'c'

Za b c

Za'b'c'

Let us determine the unbalance factors for this


transmission line configuration.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

The voltage equation that describes the line is

Va
Za a

Vb
Zba

Vc
Zca
=
Za'a
Va'

Zb'a
Vb'

Zc ' a
Vc'

Za b Za c Za a'
Zbb Zbc Zba'
Zcb Zcc Zca'
Za'b Za'c Za'a'
Zb'b Zb'c Zb'a'
Zc'b Zc'c Zc'a'

Za b'
Zbb'
Zcb'
Za'b'
Zb'b'
Zc'b'

Za c'
Zbc'
Zcc'
Za'c'
Zb'c'
Zc' c'

Ia

Ib

Ic

Ia'

Ib'

Ic'

Note: The effect of earth and any overhead


ground wire has already been incorporated in the
equation.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Using matrix notation, we get

Za a Za a' Ia bc
Vabc

=
Za'a Za'a' Ia'b'c'
Va'b'c'
The unbalance factors are expressed in terms of
the ratio of sequence currents. Thus, the above
equation must be inverted. Doing so, we get

Ya a
Ia bc

=
Ya'a
Ia'b'c'

Ya a'
Ya'a'

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Vabc

Va'b'c'

It can be shown that

Yaa
Ya'a

Zaa
Yaa'

KL K

Yaa'
Ya'a'

KL 1
L1

where

Zaa Zaa'
L

Za'a'

Za'a Zaa

Za'a Zaa Zaa'

From symmetrical components, we get

A 0
Ia bc

=
0 A
Ia'b'c'

I012

I0'1'2'

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Performing the transformation, we get

A 1 Ya aA
I012

=
I0'1'2'
A 1 Ya'aA

A Ya a' A
A 1 Ya'a' A

V012

V0'1'2'

Assume that the voltages at both ends of the line


contain positive sequence components only. We
get

V012

=
V0'1'2'

Va1

0
0
=
0
0

1
Va'1
0
0

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Va1


Note that Va1

Va'1 since the lines are bused at

both
ends. Substitution gives

Ia0
Y00 Y01 Y02 Y00' Y01' Y02'

Ia1
Y10 Y11 Y12 Y10' Y11' Y12'

I
Y
Y21 Y22 Y20' Y21' Y22'
a2 = 20
Y0'0 Y0'1 Y0'2 Y0'0' Y0'1' Y0'2'
Ia'0

Y1'0 Y1'1 Y1'2 Y1'0' Y1'1' Y1'2'


Ia'1

Y2'0 Y2'1 Y2'2 Y2'0' Y2'1' Z2'2'


Ia'2

0
1
0
0

Va1

1
0

Solving for the sequence currents, we get

Ia0

Ia1

(Y01
(Y11

Y01' )( Va1 )

Y11' )( Va1 )

Ia2

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(Y21

Y21' )( Va1 )


Ia'0

Ia'1

(Y0'1
(Y1'1

Y0'1' )( Va1 )

Ia'2
Y1'1' )( Va1 )

(Y2'1

Y2'1' )( Va1 )

Define the net through unbalance factors as

m0t
m2t

Ia0

Ia1

Ia2

Ia1

Ia'0

Ia'1

Ia'2

Ia'1

per unit

per unit

Define the net circulating current unbalance factors

as
Ia0 Ia'0

per unit
m0c

Ia1

Ia'1

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

m2c

Ia2

Ia1

Ia'2

Ia'1

per unit

Solving for the unbalance factors, we get

m0t

(Y01

Y01'

Y0'1

Y0'1' ) / Y1

m2t

(Y21

Y21'

Y2'1

Y2'1' ) / Y1

m0c

(Y01

Y01'

Y0'1

Y0'1' ) / Y1

m2c

(Y21

Y21'

Y2'1

Y2'1' ) / Y1

where

Y1

Y11

Y11'

Y1'1

Y1'1'

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering