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WORD CLASSES PARTS OF SPEECH

The English language is now spoken in many parts of the world and
owes its widespread use to the fact that it is one of the most
progressive of modern languages.
The language was first spoken by various tribes in Denmark and
Northern Germany and was introduced into England when they
settled there in the 5th and 6th centuries.
The majority of words in English are of this Anglo-Saxon origin, but
due to the progress of civilisation and continous contact with other
countries,many words are now in common use which have their
origin in such languages as Latin, Greek, French, Dutch and
German.
The words of the English language are classified as parts of speech
and are named according to their functions. This means that every
word,depending on its use, falls into one of the following divisions;
Parts of speech or Word classes fall into two major (1 and 2) and two
minor (3 and 4) sets;
(1) a set of closed-class items such as:
-articles(a, an, the)
-pronouns(mine, he,she, it, us, I)
-prepositions(in, at, by, on, with)
-conjuctions(or, and, but, so)
2) a set of open-class items which includes:
-nouns (London, Croatia, lion, Mark, hope)
-adjectives (beautiful,long,old,young, trustful)
-adverbs(beautifully,trustfully,slowly,never,always,here..)
-verbs (sing, learn,must,is,learnt)
Minor (3 and4) sets;
(3) numerals; (one,two, three,first,second,seventh) etc.
(4)interjections; (oh, ah, ugh, phew)
A set is closed in the sense that it cannot normally be extended by
additional members. By contrast, new members are constantly being
created in the set of open-class items.
No one can make an inventory of all the nouns in English. The set is
open in the sense that it is indefinitely extendable. For example, new

nouns are created on daily basis. Numerals resemble both the openclass and closed-class items. They resemble the former in that they
make up a class of infinite membership, but they also resemble the
latter. For example,we cannot create new numerals in the way we
can create new nouns.
Interjections can be considered a closed class on the grounds that
those that are fully institutionalised are few in number.
But it is just possible to create new ones, maybe even with the use
of sounds which do not otherwise occur in English words. For
example, grsssh or fiyouhhhh in comics.
Define the parts of speech.
a)When the girl returned from London, she told her father that she
had seen a grizzly bear which performed tricks in the circus.
b) The best way to do that is to go upstairs and jump.
c)This bag is hers, and that is my bag.
d) Never in my lifetime have I seen such nice girls.

ADVERBS
Adverbs of place

away, everywhere, here, nowhere, somewhere, there etc

If there is no object, these adverbs are usually placed after the


verb: She went away.

But they come after verb + object or verb + preposition + object:


She sent him away.

Usually

But: here, there can be followed by be/come/go + noun subject:


Here's Tom.

end position!

Adverbs of manner

Adverbs of manner come after the verb: She danced beautifully


or after the object when

there is one: He gave her the money reluctantly.

Note the difference:

They secretly decided . . .


They decided to leave the town secretly.

somehow (= in some way or other) can be placed in the front


position or after a verb without object or after the object: Somehow
they managed. They managed somehow.

Adverbs of place

away, everywhere, here, nowhere, somewhere, there etc

If there is no object, these adverbs are usually placed after the


verb: She went away.

But they come after verb + object or verb + preposition + object:


She sent him away.

Usually

But: here, there can be followed by be/come/go + noun subject:


Here's Tom.

end position!

Adverbs of time

afterwards, eventually, lately, now, recently, soon, then,


today, tomorrow etc. and adverb phrases of time: at once, since
then, till

These are usually placed at the very beginning or at the very end of
the clause. End position is usual with imperatives and phrases with
till:

Eventually he came/He came eventually


Adverbs of frequency
a) always, continually, frequently, occasionally, often, once, twice,
periodically, repeatedly, sometimes, usually
b) ever, hardly ever, never, rarely, scarcely ever, seldom

Adverbs in group (a) above can also be put at the beginning or end
of a sentence or clause. Exceptions:
always is rarely found at the beginning of a sentence/clause except
with imperatives.
often, if put at the end, requires very or quite: Often he walked.
He walked quite often.

Adverbs in group (b) above, hardly ever, never, rarely etc. (but
not ever alone), can also be put at the beginning of a sentence, but
inversion of the following main verb then becomes necessary:
Hardly/Scarcely ever did they manage to meet unobserved.

Sentence adverbs

These modify the whole sentence/clause and normally express the


speaker's/narrator's opinion.

actually (= in fact/really), apparently, certainly, clearly,


evidently, obviously, presumably, probably, undoubtedly,
definitely, perhaps, possibly, surely admittedly,
(un)fortunately, frankly, honestly*, (un)luckily, naturally*,
officially*

are usually in the front position though the end position is


possible.

Order of adverbs and adverb phrases of manner, place and


time when they occur in the same sentence

Expressions of manner usually precede expressions of place: He


climbed awkwardly out of the window.

But away, back, down, forward, home, in, off, on, out, round
and up usually precede adverbs of manner: He walked away sadly.

here and there do the same except with the adverbs hard, well,
badly: He stood there silently but They work harder here.

Time expressions can follow expressions of manner and place: They


worked hard in the garden today.

ADJECTIVES

Adjectives are words that give extra information about nouns. They
do not change their form to show number or gender;

The hero was played by a young boy.

Several young girls took the secondary roles.

KINDS OF ADJECTIVES

Demonstrative: this, that, these, those

Distributive: each, every; either, neither

Quantitative: some, any, no; little/few; many, much; one, twenty

Interrogative: which, what, whose

Possessive: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their

Of quality: clever, dry, fat, golden, good, heavy, square


Participles (present/past)

WORD ORDER

Before a noun (attributive adjectives):


Claires got a new car.

After a linking verb copula (predicative adjectives):


Claires car is new.

Adjectives can sometimes act as nouns when they describe a


particular group or characteristic. We usually use the definite article
and a plural verb;

Old people are becoming more numerous= The old are becoming
more numerous.

THE POSITION OF ADJECTIVES

Some adjectives can be used only attributively or only predicatively

change their meaning when moved from one position to the other

bad/good, big/small, heavy/light and old


a small farmer/the farmer is small

early and late


an early train/ the train is early

We often use more than one adjective to describe a noun. The order
of adjectives generally follows this sequence of categories;

Opinion + size + quality/character + age + shape + colour +


participles + origin + material + type + purpose

The 747s refurbished interior features fantastic soft grey leather


seats.

For sale:small,old, French carriage clock.

ORDER OF ADJECTIVES OF QUALITY


Adjectives of:

opinion (how good?)

size (except little)

general description (excluding adjectives of personality, emotion


etc.)

shape

age, and the adjective little

color

origin

material/ type

purpose (these are really gerunds used to form compound)


adjectives of personality/emotion come after adjectives of physical
description, including dark, fair, pale, but before colors:
(a pale anxious girl, a kindly black doctor)
The order of adjectives
Some examples:

a wonderful new face cream (opinion, age, purpose)


a small green insect (size, color)
a long boring train journey (size, quality, type)
awful plastic souvenirs (opinion, material)
some nice easy quiz questions (opinion, quality, purpose)
a beautiful wooden picture frame (opinion, material, purpose)
Write a list of things to be sold at an auction.
basin / sugar, antique, silver
an antique silver sugar basin
1) vase / glass, old, lovely
2) mirror / wall, attractive
3) desk / modern, office
4) chairs / kitchen, red, metal
5) stamps / postage, valuable, Australian

6) table / small, coffee, wooden

PARTICIPLE (-ING OR ED) ADJECTIVES

We often use ing or ed participles as adjectives. We usually use


them in the same position as other adjectives.

Some participle adjectives can be used on their own before or after a


noun;

The chosen song features innovative use of digital sampling.

The song chosen may be a disappointment to lovers of traditional


ballads.

ING-ADJECTIVES
ACTIVE MEANING
I always seem to play for the losing
team.(the team which is losing)
It was a boring film. (it was not
interesting/the film itself was boring)

ADJECTIVE PAIRS

interesting/interested

amusing/amused

boring/bored

depressing/depressed

exciting/excited

exhausting/exhausted

fascinating/fascinated

frightening/frightened

relaxing/relaxed

surprising/surprised

ED-ADJECTIVES
PASSIVE MEANING
She found the lost ring under the
sofa.(the ring which had been lost)
I felt bored when I watched that
film.(I was bored, I experienced
boredom)

shocking/shocked

tiring/tired

disappointing/disappointed

confusing/confused

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES

A compound adjective has two parts. It is usually written with a


hyphen:

He is a well-known actor.

She is a red-haired girl.

I think that we should preserve the deeply-rooted traditions of our


country.

The second part of the compound adjective is often;

A present participle;tight-fitting,good-looking

A past participle; old-fashioned, well-built

A preposition; well-off, broken-down

Another adjective;brand-new
MATCH THE FOLLOWING WORDS TO MAKE COMPOUND ADJECTIVES

Thick

A) aged

Good

B) famous

World

C) made

Self

D) humoured

Left

E) skinned

Middle

Brand

G) sighted

Short

H) new

F) handed

ADJECTIVE FORMATION

Many adjectives are formed from other words

+ic (history hitorical)

+(i)al (politics political)

+able (fashion fashionable)

+ful (beauty beautiful)

+ent (depend dependable)

+ive (effect effective)

+ous (danger dangerous)

+less (hope hopeless)

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
There are three degrees of comparison:

Positive (dark, useful)

Comparative (darker, more useful)

Superlative (darkest, most useful)

one-syllable adjective

form their comparative and superlative by adding -er and -est to the
positive form:
bright

brighter

brightest

Adjectives ending in e add -r and -st:


brave

braver

bravest

Adjectives of two or more syllables

form their comparative and superlative by putting more and most


before the positive:

interested more interested

most interested

frightening more frightening

most frightening

Adjective of two syllables

follow one or the other of the rules

Those ending in ful/-ing/-ed or re usually take more and most:

doubtful

more doubtful

most doubtful

boring

more boring

most boring

obscure

more obscure

most obscure

Those ending in -er, -y or -ly usually add er, est:

clever

cleverer

cleverest

pretty

prettier

prettiest

(note that the y becomes i)


silly

sillier

silliest

IRREGULAR COMPARISON

UBACITI TABELU ODNEKUD

We can use elder and eldest (instead of older and oldest) to talk
about peoples ages, especially people in the same family, but we
cant use elder immediately after the verb;

Their eldest/oldest son went to Harvard.

Mary is the eldest/ the oldest.

We dont use elder/eldest to talk about the age of things: This is


the oldest house in the street.

Further/farther we use these to talk about a greater distance

Johns house is the farther one.

Ive moved further away from my parents (a great distance away)

We use further (not farther) with the meaning of extra or more;

Let me know if you have any further questions. (extra,more)

SPELLING RULES

There are some special spelling rules for the er and est endings.

e -> er, est, e.g. nice ~> nicer, nicest

y-> ier, iest after a consonant, e.g. happy -> happier, happiest.

Words ending in a single vowel letter + single consonant letter ->


double the consonant

e.g. hot -> hotter, hottest

but w does not change, e.g. new -> newer)


THE COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
Put in the superlative form of the adjectives.

Everyone's heard of United. They're the most famous (famous) team


in the world.

They've got a long history. They're the oldest (old) club in England.

They've got lots of money. They're


the...................................................... (rich) club in the country.

Their stadium is new. It's the ...................................................


(modern) stadium in Europe.

United are wonderful. They're the. (great)


club in the world.

And what a team! It's the . (exciting)


team ever.

They've got lots of fans. They're the........................


(popular) team in the country.

United have won everything. They're the.................


(successful) team ever.

They're good to watch. They play the.................. ........


(attractive) football.

United fans are happy. We're the ................


(happy) people in the world.

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE PATTERNS


THE COMPARATIVE AND THAN

We often use a phrase with than after a comparative.

This restaurant is nicer than the Pizza House.


I had a bigger meal than you.
The steak is more expensive than the fish.

Comment on these situations. Write sentences with a comparative


and than. Use these adjectives: big, expensive, long, old,
popular, strong, tall

The film lasts two and a half hours, but the videotape is only two hours
long: The film is longer than the videotape.
The water-colour is 85, and the oil-painting is 100: The oil-painting is
more expensive than the water-colour.
1 The church was built in 1878 and the library in 1925.
2 Daniel can lift 90 kilos, but Matthew can lift 120 kilos.
3 Mike is 1.7 metres tall, but Harriet is 1.8 metres.
4 Andrew hasn't many friends. Claire has lots of friends.
5 Mark's car has room for five people, but Sarah's has room for only four.

THE PATTERN WITH ONE OF + SUPERLATIVE


The last question is one of the most difficult.
He is one of the kindest people I know.

After a superlative we can use in or of. We use in with places and


with groups of people, e.g. team.

It's the most expensive hotel in Oxford.

Who is the best player in the team?


This question is the most difficult of all.

Write sentences from the notes. Use the superlative form of the
adjective.

Melanie / kind person /I know: Melanie is the kindest person I know.


1 Friday / busy day / week .
of the week.
2 the Metropole / nice hotel / town
3 this watch / one / cheap / you can buy
4 this Beatles album / good / they ever made
5 Alan / successful salesman / company

AS POSITIVE - AS

We use as ... as to say that things are equal, it is used with the
positive form of an adjective,in affirmative sentences.

Our house is as big as yours. (They're the same size.)

In a negative sentence we can use so ... as, but this is less common
than as ... as.

Manslaughter is not as/so bad as murder.

AN EXERCISE:
a car / a motor bike / expensive

Why don't you buy a motor bike? A motor bike isn't as expensive as
a car.

1 metal / plastic / strong


I don't like these plastic screws
2 the armchair / the stool / comfortable
Oh, don't sit there
3 surfing / swimming / exciting

I prefer surfing to swimming. ..


4 the post / e-mail / quick
A letter will take two days

LESS AND LEAST

Less and least are the opposites of more and most.

A bus is less expensive than a taxi.


I feel better today, less tired.
I'm the least musical person in the world.

Complete the sentences. Use less with these words: attractive, busy,
convenient, nervous, optimistic, painful, seriously
Laura once hated flying, but now she feels less nervous about it.
1 David says his leg really hurt at first, but now
it's .................................................
2 Mark and Sarah normally have lots to do, but
they're. this week.
3 Rita's old flat was near the shops. Her new place
is .......................................... for shopping.
4 Claire used to think Henry was very handsome, but now she finds
him.
5 Matthew is always exercising. Maybe he should take his
fitness.
6 With United's best player injured, Tom feels ... about
their chances.

MUCH, FAR, A BIT

We can put a word or phrase (e.g. much, far, a bit) before a


comparative to say how much faster, cheaper, etc something is.

Bill is much richer than Tom

Bill is a lot richer than Tom


Bill is far richer than Tom

REPEATING COMPARATIVES

Comparative + and+ comparative

faster and faster and more and more expensive (to say that
something is increasing all the time)

The caravan was rolling faster and faster down the hill.

use less and less for something decreasing.

As each new problem arose, we felt less and less enthusiastic

Complete the sentences.


This subject gets harder and harder (hard) all the time.
I'm just getting more and more confused (confused).
1 It's becoming (difficult) for me to
keep up.
2 The textbook just gets..
(complicated).
3 I spend .............................................................. (more) time on my work.
4 My list of things to do gets ............................................
(long).
5 My problems are just getting.................... .
(bad).

THE + COMPARATIVE + THE + COMPARATIVE

We use this pattern to say that a change in one thing goes with a
change in another.

There's no time to lose. The faster you drive, the better.


The higher the price, the more reliable the product.

Complete each sentence using the information in brackets.

(The rent is high.) The bigger a flat is, the higher the rent is.

(You learn quickly.) The younger you are, the more quickly you learn.

1 (The roads are quiet.) The earlier you leave, ......................................


2 (The choice is wide.) The bigger a supermarket is,
3 (I get confused.) The more I try to work this out,...........................
4 (You can speak fluently.) The more you practise,....................
5 (The beaches get crowded.) The better the weather is

ARTICLES
Articles are divided into two categories:
Definite (the)
Indefinite (a/an)

A/AN INDEFINITIVE ARTICLE


The form a is used before a word beginning with a consonant, or a
vowel with a consonant sound:
o a man
o a hat
o a university
o a European
a one-way street
The form an is used before words beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u)
or words beginning with a mute h:
o an apple
o an island
o an hour

or individual letters spoken with a vowel sound:


o an MP
o an SOS
In expressions of price, speed, ratio etc
5p a kilo

1 a metre

In exclamations before singular, countable nouns


Such a long queue'

What a pretty girl

A can be placed before Mr/Mrs/Miss + surname


a Mr Smith

a Mrs Smith

a Miss Smith

(a Mr Smith means 'a man called Smith' and implies that he is a stranger
to the speaker )
With certain numbers
a hundred

a thousand

Before half when half follows a whole number


ll/2 kilos = one and a half kilos or a kilo and a half
But 1/2 kg = half a kilo (no a before half), though a + half + noun
is sometimes possible: a half holiday
a half portion
With 1/3 1/4, 1/5 etc a is usual a third, a quarter etc , but one is
also possible

THE (THE DEFINITE ARTICLE)


the is the same for singular and plural and for all genders:
o the boy
o the girl
o the day
o the boys
o the girls

o the days
When the object or group of objects is unique or considered to be
unique:
the earth

the sea

the sky

the equator the stars

Before a noun made definite by the addition of a phrase or clause:


the girl in blue
Before a noun which by reason of locality can represent only one
particular thing:
Ann is in the garden (the garden of this house)
the + singular noun can represent a class of animals or things.
The whale is in danger of becoming extinct.
BUT: man, used to represent the human race, has no article!
the + adjective represents a class of persons: the old = old people in
general

BASIC RULES
Articles precede nouns and some other words in a noun phrase
e.g.;few,little,adjectives.
The article is usually the first word in a noun phrase.

INDEFINITE ARTICLE
1.With singular countable
noun,mentioned for the first time
and represents no particular person
or thing;
a garage,an opinion
2.to name or describe sth:
Thats an enormous hill.
3.to refer to one example of a
class or species:
An African elephant has
longer ears than an Indian
elephant.

DEFINITE ARTICLE
1.with singular countable
noun:

the garage
plural nouns:

the latest computers

uncountable nouns:

the purest water


2.Before a noun to indicate a
specific object,which must be
introduced in the text
beforehand:

6.expressions of quantity;
a lot of a couple of
a great many
a dozen
7.with singular fractions,group
numbers;
One and a half kilos
A dozen eggs
(meaning per):
He was going ninety miles an
hour.
8.with certain numbers;
a hundred a thousand

I bought a coat.The coat I


bought was black with
buttons.
3.to refer to the whole class or
species:
The African elephant has
longer ears than the Indian
elephant.
6.musical instruments;
the violin, the guitar
7.in measurements;
You can buy saffron by the
gram.
8.in comparative phrases;
the more the better
9.the media;
the news, the TV
10.newspaper;
The Times,the Herald Tribune
11.in front of superlatives and
first,last,next,only,same,right,
wrong;
the last time,the only one,the
right one
12.physical enviorments;
I prefer the town to the
country.
13.dates when spoken;
The tenth of May
Before names consisting of
noun+of+noun;
The Gulf of Mexico,the United
States of America
Before other proper names
consisting of adjective +
noun/noun+of+noun;
the National Gallery the
Tower of London
Before names of
choirs,orchestras,pop groups;
The Bach Choir The
Philadelphia Orchestra
the

Beatles

the Killers

It is more common to refer to the whole class with plural:


African elephants have longer ears than Indian elephants.
THE ZERO ARTICLE

do not use articles when talking about things in general such as:
Life is hard.
do not use an article before uncountable nouns when talking about them
generally. Crime is always present in society
Tea is refreshing
Leaves fall in autumn

when we are talking about countries DO NOT USE AN ARTICLE


before their names, EXCEPT where they indicate multiple areas or
contain the words State(s), Kingdom, Republic and Union.
Kingdom, state, republic and union are nouns, so they need an article.
E. g.:
Ireland is beautiful.
The Republic of Ireland is a stable democracy.
The Czech Republic is independent.

Canada is under populated


Proper names;James,Chris Graham,Mr.Jones
Substances,liquids and gases;Cooking oil is simply liquid fat.
Materials;This blouse is made of silk.
Political or business roles;Lagos became President of Chile in 2000.
Sports;She plays both tennis and squash very well.
Illnesses;Hes got lung cancer. Shes had German measels.

We use a/an if we want to make the name less specific;


A Mr Jones came to see you this afternoon.(I dont know which Mr
Jones)
We use the if we want to make the name more specific;
The Mr Jones with the stutter came to see you.(The stutter identifies
Mr Jones)

Before plural nouns

a/an has no plural form: a dog is dogs

Before uncountable nouns

Before names of meals, except when these are preceded by an


adjective

We have breakfast at eight


He gave us a good breakfast

BUT: I was invited to a dinner given to welcome the new ambassador

Before abstract nouns except when they are used in a particular


sense
Men fear death
Before names of meals
The Scots have porridge for breakfast
Before names of games: He plays golf
Before parts of the body and articles of clothing as these normally
prefer a possessive adjective:
Raise your right hand

When home is used alone i.e. is not preceded or followed by a


descriptive word or phrase, the is omitted

He is at home

We go:

to bed to sleep or as invalids


to hospital as patients
to church to pray
to prison as prisoners
to court as litigants etc.
to school/college/university to study
These nouns do not take an article if we think of their purpose!
If we think of the physical place or building,we use an article;
Is there a school in the village or do the children have to go to the
town?

sea

We go to sea as sailors.
To be at sea = to be on a voyage (as passengers or crew).
But to go to or be at the sea = to go to or be at the seaside.

work (= place of work) is used without the: He's on his way to


work.

town

can be omitted when speaking of the subject's or speaker's own town:


We go to town sometimes to buy food.

What is the difference in meaning between the books are


expensive and books are expensive?

1.insert a/an if necessary;


a)We had ___fish and ___chips for____
lunch.
b)Hes ___ vegetarian;you wont get ___
meat at his house.
c)My neighbour is ___photographer;lets ask him for ____advice.
d)____travel agent would give you ____
information about ____ hotels.
e)Im not ___wage-earner.Im ___self-employed man.I have ___
business of my own. Then youre not ___worker;youre ___
capitalist.

2.Insert the if necessary;


a)___youngest boyhas just started going to ___school;___eldest boy is
at ___ college.
b)Do you know ___time?Yes,___clock in ___hall has just struck
nine.Then it isnt _____time to go yet.
c)I went to____school to talk to ___ headmistress.I persuaded her to
let Ann give up___gymnastics and take____ ballet lessons instead.
d)____ballet isnt much for____girls;it is much better to be able to
play ___piano.
e)Peters at ___office but you could get him on ___phone.Theres a
telephone box just round ____corner.

DETERMINERS
Determiners are words that precede nouns.
2. Which words are considerd to be determiners?
Articles

demonstratives

Quantifiers

possesive adjectives

A lot of/lots of

enough

All

most

every

much

Another

few

Any

little

Both

a little of

other

Each

many

several

Either

neither
none/none of

more

some

POSSESSIVES

Possession can be expressed by:

Possessive adjective

Possessive pronouns

Apostrophe and s
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

UBACITI

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

UBACITI

APOSTROPHE 'S

ALL and EVERY


Every is used with singular nouns:
e.g. every student in that school.
All can be used in different ways:

All + noun:
e.g. all men are born equal

All + of + noun:
e.g. I invited all of the student

Pronoun + all
e.g. She loves us all.

All + verb
e.g. My friends all love you.

All + adjective/adverb/preposition
e.g. I am all wet.
All is not usually used to mean everybody/everything
e.g. All the people left the party.
Everybody left the party.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

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CONSONANTS

A consonant sound is a sound produced by blocking the air flow


from the mouth with the teeth, tongue or lips.

VOICELESS VS VOICED

If the vocal cords are vibrating voiced

If the vocal cords are not vibrating voiceless

Voiced: b,d, g, j, l, m, n, r, v, y, z,

Voiceless: p, t, k, f, s, ch, sh

th voiceless: with, three

th voiced: the

THE (DEFINITE ARTICLE)

Pronounced as [i] after vowel sounds:

The accident
The egg

Pronounced as [] after consonant sounds

The shelf
The visitor

WHEN IT COMES TO PLURALS

[s] if the preceding sound is voiceless

[z ] if the preceding sound is voiced.

[b],[d],[g],[m],[n],[],[l],[v],[]*,[z],[],[r], [d],[w],[j] are voiced. The other


consonants [p],[t],[k],[f],[],[s],[ ],[h],[t ] are voiceless

CONSONANT CLUSTER

A consonant cluster is a group or sequence of consonants that


appear together in a syllable without a vowel between them.

SPEECH UNIT OR TONE UNIT

When we speak we divide what we day into speech units. Words


within speech units are usually run together without pauses,
although there is often a pause between speech units. In each
speech unit there is one main tone. Speech unit boundaries are
indicated by //.

d : Genius, huge, oblige, fragile, rigid, agenda, bridge, giant, joke,


juryman, sponge, urgent

t: challenge, chance, choosing, reach, porch, chairman, lunch,


reproach, Rachel, capture

: shoot, shock, ocean, patient, bishop, shrimp

: three, method, cloth, both, faith, warmth, wealth

: they, these, though, with, smooth, brother

NOUNS

A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and


abstract idea.

Belong to the set of open-class items.

No one can make a complete inventory of nouns in English

Have certain characteristics that set them apart from other parts of
speech, e.g. they can make plurals and take articles (this is not true
for some nouns)

TYPES OF NOUNS

the proper noun

the common noun

the concrete noun/the abstract noun

the countable noun/uncountable nouns

the collective noun

PROPER NOUNS
Are written with a capital letter and they include:
a) Names of people (Shakespeare)
b) Names of geographical units such as countries, rivers (Germany, the
Mississippi)
c) Names of nationalities (German)
d) Names of holidays (New Years Day)
e) Names of time units (Wednesday, March)
f) Names of magazines (the Times , Cosmopolitan)

COMMON NOUNS

Are nouns referring to a person, place, or thing in a general sense

write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence.

CONCRETE NOUNS

Are nouns which name anything (or anyone) that you can perceive
through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell.

A concrete noun is the opposite of an abstract noun

E.g. judge, files, dog, beach, agent, house etc.

ABSTRACT NOUNS

Are nouns which name anything which you cannot perceive through
your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun.

Childhood, justice, schizophrenia etc.

COUNTABLE NOUNS

Are nouns with both singular and plural forms, and name anything
(or anyone) that you can count.

E.g. books, dollars, tree, baby, etc.

UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Are nouns which do not have plural forms, and which refer to
something that you could (or would) not usually count.

A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence.

E.g. oxygen, furniture etc.

Some nouns end in s but are uncountable and take a singular


verb.They are plural in form but singular in meaning:

news

physics

aerobics

mathematics

athletics

phonetics

genetics

statistics

measles

mumps

Some uncountable nouns ending in s also have a plural meaning:

Politics is a dirty business (in general)

His politics are right wing (specific)

economics

Some nouns are used only in the plural:

scissors

spectacles

trousers

breeches

authorities

Breeches(short trousers fastened below the knee)

We often use my,his,her etc.with these plural nouns:

Are you aware of our activities?

His travel has provided good material for a book.

We often use some plural nouns without an article or determiner:

Congratulations on your diploma paper.

Troops are sent in to restore the order.

Clothes and tools- we use them as plurals with s and a plural verb:

glasses

pliers

trousers

sunglasses

pyjamas

underpants

To refer to a single item we say:

a pair of scissors

a pair of jeans

binoculars
scissors

braces
shorts

spectacles
trunks
jeans

pants
compasses
tights

a pair of glasses
a pair of tights

COLLECTIVE NOUNS

Are nouns naming a group of things, animals, or persons.

You could count the individual members of the group, but you
usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit.

A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun, and is roughly


the opposite of a countable noun.

E.g. flock, jury, committee, class etc.

GENDER

Distinguish the masculine, feminine and neuter gender.

Masculine: men, boys, and male animals (he/they)

Feminine: women, girls, and female animals (she/they)

Neuter: inanimate things, animals/babies whose sex we do not now


(it/they)

Exception: ships/cars are considered feminine. Countries when


referred to by name are also considered feminine.
E.g. Scotland lost many of her bravest men in two great wars.

GENDER SPECIFIC NOUNS


WRITE THE FEMININE FORM

Boy

Bachelor

Bridegroom

Father

Gentleman

Husband

Nephew

Son

Uncle

Widower

Duke

Earl

King

lord

Prince

Actor

Conductor

Heir

Hero

Host

Manager

Steward

Waiter

Bull

Cock

Dog

Duck

Gander

Lion

Ram

Stag

Stallion

Tiger

GENDER SPECIFIC NOUNS

Boy girl

Bachelor-spinster

Bridegroom-bride

Father-mother

Gentleman-lady

Husband-wife

Nephew- niece

Son- daughter

Uncle-aunt

Widower- widow

Duke-duchess

Earl-countess

King-queen

lord-lady

Prince-princess

Actor-actress

Conductor-conductress

Heir-heiress

Hero-heroine

Host-hostess

Manager-manageress

Steward-stewardess

Waiter-waitress

Bull-cow

Cock-hen

Dog-bitch

Duck-drake

Gander-goose

Lion-lioness

Ram-ewe

Stag-doe

Stallion-mare

Tiger-tigress

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS


COUNTABLE NOUNS

A countable noun has both singular and plural form

We can use a singular and plural verb with it

We can use numbers with it

We can use a/an before them

a)This is my bag.

b)These are my bags.

c)I bought some bags.

d)I bought three bags.

UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

An uncountable noun has only one form

We can use only singular verb with it

We cannot use numbers with it

We cannot use a/an before them

a)Here is some advice for you

However,we can count an uncountable noun indirectly by using a


phrase like a piece of,a bit of

a)He gave me two useful bits of advice.

b)I have read several interesting pieces of information.

A few uncountable nouns end in s,but they follow the normal rules
for uncountable nouns and have a singular verb

a)The news is very bad today.

TYPICAL UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Typical uncountable nouns:

Abstract ideas:life,fun,freedom,fear,thought

Activities:work,travel,help,dislike,sucess

Substances:water,air,coffee,plastic,beer

Human
feelings:pain,happiness,anger,pleasure,hope,courage,respect

Groups of items:furniture,luggage

SOME WORDS HAVE DIFFERENT MEANING WHEN THEY ARE IN


COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE FORMS
Countable:
Uncountable:
An iron (domestic appliance)
Some
iron(substance,material)
A wood(small area of trees)

A paper(newspaper)
A chicken(the animal)
A hair(single strand)
A help(a helpful person/thing)
A work(a work of
art/engineering)
A business(a company)

Some
wood(substance,material)
Some
paper(substance,material)
Chicken(the meat)
Hair(all together)
Help(in general)
Work(in general)
Business(in general

Certain words are always plural and take a plural verb:

Clothes,police,pants,trousers,pyjamas,

scissors,spectacles,contents,goods,jeans,
means,outskirts,surroundings,thanks,glasses,stairs,earnings etc.

Certain nouns can be followed by either a singular or plural verb but


it depends whether we think of the group as a whole (singular verb)
or its individual members

(plural verb).

I think the government is/are wrong.

Army,audience,class,company,crew,crowd,data,family,group,media,p
ress,public,staff, team

Some words are uncountable in English but countable in many


other languages;

accomodation, advice, behaviour, business,


cash,equipment,furniture,health,homework,information,knowledge,l
uggage,money, permission,rubbish,scenery,traffic,travel, weather,
work

Task 1;Choose from the words below to complete each


sentence.Decide if the word should be countable or uncountable.If
the word is countable,add a/an or make it plural as appropriate.

Chicken

a)Mary used to keep _________in her garden until they started to get
out.

dislike improvement language life success

b)A score of 40% may not be very good but it is certainly


______________on her last mark.

c)After so many previous _________,it was inevitable that one of the


films would be unpopular.

d)________is too short to worry about keeping your house spotlessly


clean.

e)I have had_________of green vegetables ever since I was a child.

f)Our students study both______ and literature in their English


degree.

COMPOUND NOUNS

This term refers to a group of words usually two - but sometimes


more - joined together into one vocabulary unit that functions as a
single "part-of-speech

Compounds can be written as:

one word:(earring,tablecloth)

with a hyphen (-):(pen-name,baby-sitter)

two or (tin opener,bank account,human being,science fiction)

more separate words(a milk chocolate bar,an air-traffic controller)

There are no clear rules when the compounds are written as one
word or with a hyphen.

For instance,both letter box and letter-box or golf course and golfcourse are correct

COMPOUNDS CAN CONSIST OF THESE COMPOSITE FORMS

noun + noun (bathroom, headache)

possessive noun + noun (ladys maid)

adjective + noun (blackbird, madman)

verb + noun (dance team)

noun + verb (daybreak, sunset)

gerund + noun (dining-room,drinking water)

noun + gerund (housekeeping,film-making)

verb + preposition (sit-ins)

verb+ adverb (breakdown)

noun+prepositional phrase (son-in-law)

preposition + noun (download)

THE PLURAL FORM

Normally the last word is made plural:

e.g. a grown-up - grown-ups,a coal mine-coal mines,an office worker-office


workers

Where man and woman is prefixed both parts are made plural:

e.g. a Woman driver women drivers

The first word is made plural with compounds formed of verb + er


nouns + adverbs: hanger-on hangers on

And with compounds composed of noun+ preposition + noun

e.g. Sister-in-law sisters-in-law

COLLECTIVE NOUNS

Is a unique class of nouns which denote a group of people, animals,


objects, or concepts or ideas as a single entity

Are countable and may be used in plural

e.g. All the committees have now made their decision.

Can take singular or plural verbs:

Singular if we consider the word to mean a single group or unit:

e.g. Our team is the best

Or plural if we take it to mean a number of individuals:

e.g. Our team are wearing their new t-shirts.

Many singular nouns have very unique collective forms. While most
people are familiar with the more commonly used collectives such as
a class of students or crowd of people, there are a large number
of less common collectives.

herd of antelope

flock of birds

kindle of cats (kittens)

clowder of cats

herd of cattle

brood of chickens

school of fish

army of frogs

flock of geese

pack or kennel of dogs

pod of whales

colony of ants

pack of wolves etc.

PROPERTIES OF NOUNS
WHAT ARE NOUNS

A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and


abstract idea.

Belongs to the set of open-class items.

No one can make a complete inventory of nouns in English

PROPERTIES OF NOUNS

There are three properties of noun:


a) Gender is a grammatical distinction of sex indicating whether the
noun denotes a male or a female or is sexless.
b) Number- denotes the distinction of one from more
c) Case is a grammatical form which denotes the relation of a noun to
some other words in the sentence.

TYPES OF NOUNS

the proper noun

the common noun

the concrete noun/the abstract noun

the countable noun/uncountable nouns

the collective noun

GENDER
Distinguish:

the masculine gender

the feminine gender

the neuter gender

English nouns follow natural gender.

Nouns denoting male beings are masculine, nouns denoting female


beings are feminine and inanimate (sexless) things are neuter.

Nouns denoting either female or males are of common gender


(e.g. teacher, friend)

Masculine: men, boys, and male animals (he/they)

Feminine: women, girls, and female animals (she/they)

Neuter: inanimate things, animals/babies whose sex we do not know


(it/they)

Exception: ships/cars are considered feminine. Countries when


referred to by name are also considered feminine.
E.g. Scotland lost many of her bravest men in two great wars.

THERE ARE THREE WAYS OF MARKING GENDER


1. By adding a suffix (-ess) or a new word
lion

lioness

tiger

tigress

turkey-cock

turkey-hen

2. By prefixing a word:
tom-cat

she-cat

he-bear

she-bear

male elephant female elephant


3. By a different word whose gender is known by its meaning:

boy

girl

man

woman

brother

sister

cock

hen

gender-specific nouns
write the feminine form:

Boy
Bachelor
Bridegroom
Father
Gentleman
Husband
Nephew
Son
Uncle
Widower
Duke
Earl
King
lord
Prince
Actor
Conductor

GENDER SPECIFIC
Boy girl

Bachelor-spinster

Bridegroom-bride

Father-mother

Gentleman-lady

Husband-wife

Nephew- niece

Son- daughter

Uncle-aunt

Widower- widow

Duke-duchess

Earl-countess

King-queen

lord-lady

Heir
Hero
Host
Manager
Steward
Waiter
Bull
Cock
Dog
Duck
Gander
Lion
Ram
Stag
Stallion
Tiger
He-goat

NOUNS
Heir-heiress
Hero-heroine
Host-hostess
Manager-manageress
Steward-stewardess
Waiter-waitress
Bull-cow
Cock-hen
Dog-bitch
Duck-drake
Gander-goose
Lion-lioness
Ram-ewe
Stag-doe

Prince-princess
Actor-actress
Conductor-conductress

Stallion-mare
Tiger-tigress
She-goat

NUMBER OF NOUNS

If a noun is countable it can take the plural form.

The plural of nouns is formed by adding s to the singular form,


which is pronounced [s] or [z ].

[s] if the preceding sound is voiceless

[z ] if the preceding sound is voiced.

[b],[d],[g],[m],[n],[],[l],[v],[],[z],[],[r], [d],[w],[j] are voiced. The


other consonants [p],[t],[k],[f],[],[s],[ ],[h],[t ] are voiceless.

The plural of nouns ending in [s], [z], [ ], [t ],[d] is formed by


adding es which is pronounced [iz].

class classes
bush- bushes
garage- garages
bridge- bridges
bench- benches

The plural of nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant is formed


by changing the y into i and adding es which is pronounced [z].

city- cities
story- stories
family-families
BUT:

If y is preceded by a vowel it remains unchanged and only s [z] is


added.

key- keys
boy-boys

The plural of nouns ending in f or fe is formed by adding es or s


and changing f into v.

knife-knives

leaf-leaves

wife-wives

calf- calves

half-halves

life-lives

loaf-loaves

self-selves

sheaf-sheaves

shelf-shelves

thief-thieves

wolf-wolves

BUT

Nouns ending in -ff, -oof, -ief do not change f into v and only-s is
added.

Cliff- cliffs
Handkerchief - handkerchiefs
Some nouns have two plural forms:
Hoof-hoofs-hooves
Staff-staffs-staves
Wharf-wharfs- wharves

NOUNS ENDING IN O + ES

The plural of nouns ending in o is formed by adding es.

Potato-potatoes
Negro-negroes
Echo-echoes

BUT,

Piano-pianos

Solo-solos
Tobacco-tobaccos

PLURAL FORM EN

There are some nouns which make the form by adding en

These are:
ox-oxen
child-children
brother- brethren

CHANGE OF THE ROOT VOWEL

The plural of some nouns if formed by changing the root vowel:

man-men
woman-women
goose-geese
tooth-teeth
foot-feet
mouse-mice
louse-lice

SAME FORM IN SINGULAR AND PLURAL

Some English nouns have the same form in the plural and in the
singular.

Sheep-sheep
Fish-fish
Deer-deer
Swine-swine

Some nouns are used only in the singular:

Chemistry

furniture

Knowledge

information

Some nouns are plural in form but singular in meaning;

advice

News

physics

Phonetics

statistics

E,g.;The news is very bad today.

Some nouns are used only in plural:

scissors

mathematics

trousers

spectacles

Scissors are in the drawer.

Some words which retain their original Greek or Latin forms make
their plurals according to the rules of Greek and Latin'

crisis, crises I kraisis/, /'kraisnz/

phenomenon, phenomena

erratum, errata

radius, radii

memorandum, memoranda

terminus, termini

oasis, oases /au'eisis/, /au'eisrz/

But some follow the English rules

dogma, dogmas

formula, formulas (though formulae is used by scientists)

Sometimes there are two plural forms with different meanings


appendix,

appendixes or appendices (medical terms)

appendix, appendices (addition/s to a book) index, indexes (in


books), indices (in mathematics)

Musicians usually prefer Italian plural forms for Italian musical terms:
libretto, libretti
tempo, tempi

But s is also possible, librettos, tempos.

gymnasium, gymnasiums

CASE

Case is the grammatical function of a noun or pronoun.

Nouns may be said to have three cases:

the nominative: John broke the window. (who?)

the objective: John broke the window. (what?) and

the possessive : This is Johns car. (the genitive


case or possessive case is also called the second case or Saxon
Genitive)

The Possessive Form

We can express possession:

1) Adding -s
-

To form the possessive we add an apostrophe + s to a singular noun,

e.g. Singular + 's


-

my friend's name

we add an apostrophe to a plural noun ending in s;

e.g. s-plural + ' my friends' names


-

and we add an apostrophe + s to a plural not ending in s.

e.g. Other plurals + 's the children's names

But after a surname ending in s, we can add just an apostrophe:


Perkins' room/Perkins's room, Yeats' poetry/Yeats's poetry.

We use the possessive form to express a relation, often the fact that
someone has something or that something belongs to someone

Julia's coat means the coat that belongs to Julia. But we do not say
the with a singular name.

NOT: the Julia's coat

Placing the of-pattern after the noun


We normally use the of-pattern with things:
e.g.the end of the film

In general we are more likely to use the possessive form with people
rather than things and to talk about possession rather than about
other relations

We normally use the possessive with people and animals: my


friend's sister

But we use the of-pattern with people when there is a long phrase or
a clause: It's the house of a wealthy businessman from Saudi
Arabia.

The s genitive is also used to:

to express purpose: A children's playground

For Geographical names: Europes future

To express time: Have you seen yesterday's newspaper?

without a following noun when we talk about

someone's home or shop (local genitive):


We're all meeting at Dave's
I was sitting in the waiting-room at the dentist's

DOUBLE GENITIVE

Is consisted of s and the of-pattern. Usually has a partitive meaning:

A work of Shakespeare's
A friend of his fathers

Give the plural of the following nouns:

Body

honey

Speech

negro

Child

foot

Bag

cage

Tomato

enemy

Man

box

Solo

life

Deer

joy

Woman

thief

Kidney

echo

Tooth

ox

Month

country

Rjeenje:

Bodies

honeys

Speeches

negroes

Children

feet

Bags

cages

Tomatoes

enemies

Men

boxes

Solos

lives

Deer

joys

Women

thieves

Kidneys

echoes

Teeth

oxen

Months

countries

Give the rules for the formation of the plural of all the nouns used in
the following sentences:

a)Deer are found in many countries.

b)Last week three women came and each of them bought several
pieces of furniture made of wood.

c)The cook bought seven geese for the boys.

3. Give the singular of:

taxes

parties

hills

children

skies

knives

ideas

calves

heroes

brothers

mice

famillies

brethren

geese

torpedoes

play-grounds

1 Fractions
a In fractions we use half, quarter or an ordinal number.
a/one half 1 one and a half
2/3 two thirds 21/3 two and a third
a/one quarter 63/4 six and three quarters
4/5 four fifths 15/16 fifteen sixteenths/fifteen over sixteen
b With numbers less than one, we use of before a noun phrase.
Two thirds of the field was under water.
We get a quarter of the profits.
With numbers above one, we can use a plural noun.
We waited one and a half hours.
I'd like six and three quarter metres, please.
NOTE
a With one and a half/quarter etc + noun, there is an alternative pattern.
one and a half hours/an hour and a half
one and a quarter pages/a page and a quarter

b The word directly before the noun is singular. Compare these phrases.
three quarters of a metre
six and three quarter metres
Here are some common fractions (partitive numerals[3]):
1/16
one sixteenth
1/10 or 0.1

one tenth

1/8

one eighth

2/10 or 0.2

two tenths

one quarter or (mainly American English) one fourth

3/10 or 0.3

three tenths

1/3

one third

3/8

three eighths

4/10 or 0.4

four tenths

one half

6/10 or 0.6

six tenths

5/8

five eighths

2/3

two thirds

7/10 or 0.7

seven tenths

three quarters or three fourths

8/10 or 0.8

eight tenths

7/8

seven eighths

9/10 or 0.9

nine tenths

15/16

fifteen sixteenths

2 Decimals
We use a decimal point (not a comma). After the point we say each figure
separately.
0.2 '(nought) point two'
7.45 'seven point four five'
15.086 'fifteen point oh/nought eight six'
NOTE Americans say 'zero' instead of nought' or 'oh'.
Percentages
Save 10%! ('ten per cent'
an annual return of 14.85% ('fourteen point eight five per cent')
18 per cent of the total
Ordinal numbers
We form most ordinals by adding th to the cardinal number, e.g. ten tenth.
Twenty, thirty etc have ordinals twentieth, thirtieth etc. First, second and
third are

irregular.
1st first
8th eighth
2nd second 9th ninth
3rd third
12th twelfth
4th fourth 13th thirteenth
5th fifth
20th twentieth
5 We also use numbers to identify someone or something, for example on
a credit
card, passport or ticket. We read each figure separately.
Express Card 4929 806 317 445
'four nine two nine, eight oh six, three one seven, double four five'
Call us on 0568 92786
'oh five six eight, nine two seven eight six'
You've missed out a nought here.
Twenty, thirty etc have ordinals twentieth, thirtieth etc. First, second and
third are
irregular.
21st twenty-first
22nd twenty-second
54th fifty-fourth
100th hundredth
347th three hundred and forty-seventh
Two to the power of n, written as 2n
two raised to the power of n

PREPOSITIONS
POSITION

A preposition usually comes before a noun phrase.

into the building

without a coat

Some prepositions can also come before an adverb.

until tomorrow

at two o'clock

through there

at once

We can also use some prepositions before gerund.

We're thinking of moving house.


NOT We're thinking of to move house.

A word such as a noun, pronoun or gerund following a preposition is


said to be the object of the preposition.

The preposition and its object form a prepositional phrase.

He owns the house on the corner.

The prepositional phrase functions as an adverbial.

I waited for Max outside the bank.


Max went into the bank and I waited outside.
We must be ready before their arrival.
We must be ready before they arrive.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE

Most prepositions of place say where something is or where it is


going.

Position: There was a barrier across the road.


Movement: The boy ran across the road.

At usually expresses position, and to expresses movement.

Position: We were at the caf.


Movement: We went to the caf.

As a general rule, in and on express position, and into and onto


express movement.

Position: We were sitting in the caf. She stood on the balcony.


Movement: We went into the caf*. She walked onto the balcony.
- After lay, place, put and sit we do not usually use into or onto:
They laid the body on a blanket. Tom sat down in the armchair.

ABOVE and OVER


There was a clock above/over the entrance.

We do not normally use above to mean horizontal movement.

The plane flew low over the houses.

And we do not use above for an area or surface.

Thick black smoke hangs over the town.

We prefer over before a number.

There are well over fifty thousand people in the stadium.

But we use above with a measurement that we think of as vertical,


such as temperature.

Temperatures will rise above freezing

BELOW, UNDER

Below is the opposite of above; under is the opposite of over.

Belowabove

underover

We met at the entrance, below/under the clock.

We do not normally use below for a horizontal movement or for an


area or surface.

The town lies under a thick black cloud of smoke.


Cf. : Temperatures will fall below freezing.
There are well under ten thousand people in the stadium.

TOP AND BOTTOM

On top of is a preposition.

There's a monument on top of the hill.

We can also use top and bottom as nouns in phrases like these.

There's a monument at the top of the hill.


The ship sank to the bottom of the sea.

THROUGH, ACCROS AND ALONG

You go through a tunnel, a doorway, a crowd of people, and so on.

The water flows through the pipe

You go from one side to the other across a surface such as a


playground, or a line such as a river. E.g. You can get across the
Channel by ferry.

We use along when we follow a line. You go along a path, a road, a


passage, a route and so on. E.g. We cruised along the canal for a
few miles.

TO, TOWARDS AND UP TO

We use to for a destination and towards for a direction.

We're going to Doncaster. My aunt lives there.


We're going towards Doncaster now.

Go/come/walk + up to usually expresses movement to a person.

A man came up to me in the street and asked me for money.


NEAR, CLOSE and BY

Near, near to and close to mean 'not far from'.

Motherwell is near Glasgow, NOT: by Glasgow


We live near (to) the hospital/ close to the hospital.

Near and close can be adverbs.

The animals were very tame. They came quite near/close.

The preposition by means 'at the side of' or 'very near'.

We live (right) by the hospital. Come and sit by me.

IN FRON OF, BEHIND, BEFORE, AFTER and OPPOSITE

When we talk about where something is, we prefer in front of and


behind to not before and after.

There's a statue in front of the museum,


NOT before the museum

Before usually means 'earlier in time', and after means 'later in


time'. But we also use before and after to talk about what order
things come in.

J comes before K. K comes after J.

BETWEEN and AMONG

We use between with a small number of items that we see as


separate and individual.

The ball went between the player's legs.

Among suggests a larger number.

I was hoping to spot Marcia among the crowd.

Complete:
01. Look, it's nearly midnight. It's ....................... time we went.
02. Medicine should not be placed ......................... reach of small children.
03. You should not do it because it is ....................... the rules.

04. The mother divided the birthday cake ....................... the children at
the party.
05. The tourist hired a car in order to travel ........................ the
countryside, sightseeing.
06. The yacht was riding ............................ anchor in the bay.
07. The salesman did not have to pay for his car as it was
provided ........................... his company's expense.
08. She is rather old-fashioned and ........................... the times.
09. It was such an extremely bad thing to have done that it
was ..................contempt.
10. It stands .......................... reason that success requires hard work.

Choose the correct prepositions.


I'm Peter and I live.. Germany. .summer I like to travel .
Italy, because .. the weather and the people there. Last summer
I took a plane. Munich to Rome. . the airport we went
to our hotel bus. We stopped .a small restaurant for a
quick meal. The driver parked the bus . the restaurant.
Nobody could find the bus and the driver, so we waited .the
restaurant one hour. The driver was walking .the small
park the restaurant which we did not know. So we were very
. angry him. But my holidays were great. We sat campfires
and went dancing ..the early mornings.

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME: AT, ON, IN

We use at with a particular time such as a clock time or meal time.

at half past five


at that time

at the moment

We also use at with holiday periods of two or three days.

at Christmas

at breakfast (time)

at Thanksgiving

at the weekend

We use at with someone's age.

A sporting career can be over at thirty.

We use on with a single day.

on Tuesday

on 7th August

on that day on Easter Sunday

On can also mean 'immediately after'.

On his arrival, the President held a press conference.

We use in with longer periods.

in the next few days


in July

in 1992

in the summer holidays in spring


in the 19th century

We also use in with a part of the day.

in the afternoon

in the mornings

BUT we use on if we say which day.

on Tuesday afternoon
evening of the 12th

on Friday mornings on the

An exception is at night. Compare these sentences.

I heard a noise in the night. (= in the middle of the night)


The windows are shut at night. (= when it is night)

We do not normally use at, on or in in phrases of time with last, this,


next, every, later, yesterday and tomorrow.

I received the letter last Tuesday.


NOT on last Tuesday

We can use other prepositions.

After this week I shall need a holiday.

In informal English we can sometimes leave out on before a day.

I'll see you Monday.

We do not use a preposition with these days (= nowadays).

It's all done by computers these days.

AT
- with a particular time (a
clock time or meal time)
- with holiday periods of 2 or 3
days
- with someones age
ON
-a single day
- Immediately after

IN
-with longer periods
-a part of the day
- in/ at night

FOR and SINCE


We use:
for + length of time
since + time when.
for two years
since 1990

for a week

since last week

We do not normally use for before a phrase with all or whole.

It rained all day/the whole day.

TILL, UNTIL and BY

We use till/until to say when something finishes.

Jim will be working in Germany till/until next April.

We can use not... till/until when something is later than expected.

Sue didn't get up till/until half past ten.

By means 'not later than'.

I'm always up by eight o'clock. (= at eight or earlier)

OTHER MEANINGS

Beside
1. Next to; at the side of: I sit beside her in class.
Besides
1. Also; as well as: We study other languages besides English.

Paying attention to the meanings of the prepositions, fill in the


blanks with the most appropriate prepositions chosen from those
given in brackets. For example:
She made a speech _____ the future of the school. (about,
around)
She made a speech about the future of the school.

1. This train travels from London ______ Paris. (at, to)


2. We stood at the back ______ the theater. (of, on)
3. She went to Rome __________ France. (versus, via)
4. The store is open daily ________ Monday to Friday. (for, from)
5. I took my hat ________ the table. (of, off)
6. He looks ________ his brother. (despite, like)
7. The children ran ________ the school. (of, out of)
8. He opened the box ________ a screwdriver. (at, with)
9. I will work _________ five o'clock. (until, up)
10. We walked __________ the restaurant. (despite, past)
11. At three o'clock we reached the top _______ the hill. (of, off)
12. You have delivered all of the papers __________ this one. (between, but)
13. The bank is _________ the school. (opposite, out of)
14. __________ the danger, he decided to climb the mountain. (despite,

except)
15. The treasure was hidden __________ the earth. (under, up to)
16. A comes __________ B in the alphabet. (before, behind)
17. I went to work ____________ my umbrella. (out of, without)
18. When it is heated, water changes _________ steam. (in, into)
19. Nocturnal animals usually sleep __________ the day. (during,
underneath)
20. The squirrel ran _________ the wall. (along, among)

SUFFIXES
-NESS (NOUNS FROM ADJECTIVES)

-ness is one of a number of noun suffixes. It is used to


make nouns from adjectives, although not every adjective
can be modified in this way.

Here are some common adjectives whose noun forms are


made by adding -ness: goodness, sadness,weakness,
forgetfulness

Note what happens to adjectives that end in y:

ready-readiness

happy-happiness

-ITY (NOUNS FROM ADJECTIVES)

-ity is a noun suffix that is formed from adjectives. Here are


some adjectives whose noun forms are made in this way:
probability, possibility,
scarcity,creativity,curiosity,generosity,equality,necessity

-TION/-SION (NOUNS FROM VERBS)

-tion, or, less frequently -sion are noun suffixes that are used
to make nouns from verbs.

Here are some common verbs whose noun forms are made
by adding -tion/sion:

admission, information, description,


addition,pollution,donation,complication,
reduction etc.

-MENT (NOUNS FROM VERBS AND ADJECTIVES)

-ment is another suffix that is used to make nouns from


verbs and occasionally from adjectives: appointment,
enjoyment, replacement, arrangement, etc.

-ANCE / -ENCE (NOUNS FROM VERBS AND ADJECTIVES)

-ance and -ence are suffixes that are used to make nouns
from adjectives and sometimes from verbs: absence,
appearance, importance, existence, etc.

-SHIP (ABSTRACT NOUNS DENOTING DIFFERENT KINDS OF


RELATIONSHIP)

friendship, kinship, membership, partnership

-HOOD (ABSTRACT NOUNS DENOTING DIFFERENT KINDS OF


FAMILIES)

Childhood, motherhood, priesthood, neighbourhood, etc.

-ER (FOR PERSON WHO DOES AN ACTIVITY)


-er/-or(for things which do a particular job)

Writer,teacher,worker,shopper

-er can be used with a wide range of verbs to make them


into nouns

Pencil-sharpener,bottle-opener,projector

ER /-EE
er/-ee can contrast each other meaning:
-er(person who does something)
-ee(person who receives or experiences the action) e.g.
employer/employee

-IST (PERSON) / -ISM (ACTIVITY OR IDEOLOGY)

Used for peoples politics,beliefs and ideologies and


sometimes their professions e.g.:

Marxism,Buddhism,journalism,anarchist,physicist,terrorist

-IST

Often used for people who play musical instruments

Pianist,violinist,cellist

PRONOUNS

A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun.

make your sentences less repetitive

TYPES OF PRONOUNS

Personal pronouns

Possessive pronouns

Demonstrative Pronouns

Interrogative Pronouns

Relative Pronouns

Indefinite Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to


indicate person, number, gender, and case.

Subjective Personal Pronouns: I, you, she, he, it, we, you, they.

Objective Personal Pronouns: me, you, her, him, it, us, you,
them.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

used to substitute a noun and to show possession or ownership:


mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs

e.g. The bag on the floor is mine.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun.

this" and "these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or
in time

"that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away in space or
time.

e.g. This must not continue.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

used to ask questions

"who," "whom," "which," "what"

with the suffix -ever form: "whoever," "whomever," "whichever,"


and "whatever

"Who" acts as the subject of a verb,

"whom" acts as the object of a verb


(e.g. Whom do you think we should invite?)

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause

"who," "whom," "that," and "which; "whoever," "whomever," and


"whichever

e.g. The man who told me this refused to give me his name.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

refers to an identifiable but not specified person or thing

all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, each,


everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none,
one, several, some, somebody, someone

e.g. Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

refers back to the subject of the clause or sentence; they are used
for actions we do by ourselves

Sue cut herself.

She forced her to eat it. (she and her refer to different people)
vs. She forced herself to eat it. (She and herself refer to the
same person)

Emphasizing pronouns: Ann herself opened the door.

I have hurt myself.

myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves,


yourselves, themselves

e.g. Tom and Ann blamed themselves for the accident.

Practice
1.Put in myself,yourself,ourselves etc.or me,you, us etc.

a)Julia had a great holiday. She enjoyed.

b) Its not my fault. You cant blame .

c)What I did was really bad.Im ashamed of

d)Weve got a problem. I hope you can help

e)Can I take another biscuit? Of


course.Help.

f)You must meet Sarah. Ill introduce ..

g)Dont worry about us. We can look after ..

h)I gave them a key to our house so that they could let
..in.

i)I didnt want anybody to see the letters,so I burned


.

Reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another.

E.g. Tom and Ann blamed each other.


Each other-usually refers to two subjects
One another-more than two subjects
Each other/one another vs.reflexive pronouns
Ann and John blamed each other for the break-up of their marriage (Ann
blamed John and John blamed Ann.)
Ann and John blamed only themselves for the break-up of their marriage.
(they both blamed the two of them and nobody else.)

Possesive adjectives &possesive pronouns (my/mine) basic


difference

EACH/EVERY

Each can be a determiner and a pronoun. Every is only a determiner.

DIFFERENCES IN MEANING

Each and every are similar in meaning and in some contexts both
are possible:

Every / Each person in the group was fit and healthy.

We use each when we are thinking of all the separate individuals in


the group:

Each person chose a diferent route to the beach.

Every refers more to the group as a whole (it is closer in meaning to


all):

Every route was of about the same length.

We use each to talk about two or more things, but we can only use
every for more than two:

Two routes, each one avoiding steep hills, looked particularly


attractive.

In some of the following sentences each and every are


possible; in others we can use only one of them. Cross out
any words we cannot use.

1. You will each / every receive a name badge on arrival.

2. Not every / each participant will necessarily be interested


in each / every seminar.

3. Nearly every / each time I see her, she's wearing that blue
and yellow floral dress.

4. You can record each / every event that takes place in this
little book.

5. Each / Every of these containers contains something, but


not every / each one has something valuable in it.

6. You have every / each right to be dissatisfied with every /


each member of your team.

7. If you don't listen carefully to his every / each word, he'll twist
you around his little finger.

8. As every / each day passes, the situation seems to grow


worse.

ONE / ONES

One denotes any person in a very general way. One often wants to
know more than one does.

One is used in place of countable nouns in the singular and in the


plural to avoid the repetition of the noun,especially after a second
adjective. Plural is formed by adding s.

These gloves are not very good. I want some better ones.

The genitive case is formed by adding s:

One has to do ones best.

Very formal ,we can use pronoun you instead.


You have to do your best!
Put in the pronouns.
There's no need to shout. I can hear you.
1 You and I work well together..................... 're a good team.
2 We've got a bit of a problem. Could.. help ... , please?
3 This is a good photo, isn't ...............? ~ Is Jessica in. ?
4 Who did this crossword? ~ .I did.. this morning.

5 Is this Vicky's bag? ~ No,. didn't bring one. It can't belong to


.
6 ..'m looking for my shoes. Have seen ? ~ Yes,
... re here.

Complete the conversations. Put in a reflexive pronoun (myself,


yourself, etc).
Matthew: I'll get the tickets, shall I?
Emma: It's OK. I can pay for myself.
1 Olivia: I've got lots of photos of my children.
Linda: Yes, but you haven't got many of . , Olivia.
2 Rita: Did you have a good time at the Holiday Centre?
Laura: Well, there wasn't much going on. We had to
amuse
3 Emma: Why has the light gone off?
Matthew: It switches ................................... off automatically.

Put in an emphatic pronoun, e.g. myself, yourself.


Of course I know about Matthew and Emma. You told me yourself.
1 The princess...................................visited the children in hospital.
2 The song .wasn't very good, but the title of the song
became a popular phrase.
3 The visitors were welcomed to the school by the headmaster..........
4 The pilots ........................... are nervous of flying because of terrorist
threats.
5 You all know that no one can take your decisions for you.
You ........................... will have to decide.

Put in each other, ourselves or themselves.

We could all do more to keep healthy. We don't look after


ourselves properly.
The hostess introduced the two guests to each other.
1 The two boxers did their best to knock ................................. out.
2 We talk to ................. in French because it's the only language
we both know.
3 People who talk to .. ......may get strange looks from other
people.
4 The guards who shot a gunman claimed that they were
defending
5 Luckily we managed to get two seats next
to..

Once there were four managers. Their names were: Somebody,


Everybody, Anybody, and Nobody. They were very busy people, but
whenever there was an important job to be done, Everybody was
sure that Somebody would do it. Anybody could have done it, but
Nobody did. When Nobody did it, Everybody got angry because it
was Everybody's job. Everybody thought that Somebody would do it,
but Nobody realized that Nobody would do it. So consequently
Everybody blamed Somebody when Nobody did what Anybody could
have done in the first place.

For example, Everybody had a good idea. Nobody thought nobody


would follow it through. Somebody thought anybody could work on
it. Anybody thought everybody should do it. Everybody thought
someone would do it. So nobody did anything. Everybody thought
anybody could win something. Anybody thought somebody should
win. Somebody thought everybody would win. Nobody thought
nobody would win. What did they win? Nothing!

Complete each of the following sentences with (a) an


emphatic pronoun or (b) the combination by + emphatic
pronoun depending on the meaning.

1. Poor Timothy looks so lonely, sitting all ________ in the corner.

2. Were you quite _________ when you undertook this work? Its clear
that you dont like the job.

3. Were you quite __________ in the church? Didnt anyone come in to


listen to you playing?

4. Did James do this work __________ or did his sister help