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Pakistan Association of Anthropology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Special issue
Sci.int.(Lahore),27(2),1619-1624,2015
ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8

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EFFECTS OF DEPRESSION ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE


Shumaila Khurshid1, Qaisara Parveen1, M. Imran Yousuf1 & Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry2
1

Division of Continuing Education, PMAS-Arid Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan


2
Department of Anthropology PMAS-Arid Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Corresponding Authors Email: Shumaila_khurshid@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: The main aim of the present study was to find out the effects of depression on students' academic
performance. The proposed study was descriptive in nature. The target population of the study was comprised of all
Govt. Colleges Women of city Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Students studying in second year class were selected through
simple random sampling technique. Two questionnaires were used for data collection. Depression Screening Test by
Ivan Goldberg was used for measuring the level of depression and to find out the effects of depression on students
academic performance Academic Performance Rating Scale (APRS) for teachers was administered to take
teachers responses about students and students academic record was taken out from respective institutions. Data was
analyzed by using Chi-Square and paired sample t test. The result showed that there is negative effect of depression
on students academic performance whereas there is a significance difference between the academic performance of
the students having low, medium and high level depression.
Keywords: Comprised, Technique, Screening, Administered, Respective, Significance
INTRODUCTION
Depression is one of the emotional problems, and
hopelessness and helplessness are its main causes. Depression
is a prevalent problem among college's students across the
world and it effect on a students ability to perform activities
of daily life. Depression is marked by sad feelings among
college students which are known as a common mental
illness." National Institute of Mental Health [1] found that
during their college life many students experience the first
symptoms of depression. Depressed Students often feel sad
and reductions in academic performance. Untreated
depression usually interferes in day-to-day activities and lasts
for a long time.Depressed people ignore their own successes
and good traits, while exaggerating their faults and failures.
Students Academic performance which every individual
have to perform in all cultures has become an important goal
of the educational process. Students personality, education,
motivation, mental health and training also effect academic
performance. College life can be called a significant
transition period, where students experience many things first
time, in, for example new lifestyle, exposure to new cultures,
friends, roommates, different ways of thinking and also deal
with a unique amount of stress. Two first years in college can
be very stressful time for many students. When students
cannot manage these new first experiences, they become
depressed. There are negative effects of depression on student
success. Students success is negatively related with
depression, and depressed students exposed lower average
point and spend minimum time on homework [2].
So the present study was designed to determine the effects of
depression on students academic performance at 12 grade.
Following objectives are kept for the study.
1. To measure the level of depression of intermediate
students.
2. To identify academic performance of the students at
intermediate level.
3. To measure the effects of depression on students academic
Performance.
The following hypotheses are formulated and tested:
The Research hypotheses are as follows;

1. There is a negative effect of depression on students


academic performance.
2. There is significance difference between academic
performance of students having
low, medium and high
level depression.
The above hypotheses were tested through null hypotheses.
1. There is a no effect of depression on students academic
performance.
2. There is no significance difference between academic
performance of students having low, medium and high level
depression.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Depression is defined as psychiatric disorder and the common
mental illness of present century which is known as
psychiatric cold. Depression has negative effects on our
behaviors such as loss of interest, productivity, and social
contact. the 11th leading cause of death is suicide in United
States Suicide, which occurs approximately every 16 minutes
and Psychiatric disorder have diagnosed at the time of their
death in almost all the people who commit suicide [3-5].
Through positive mood we feel good, which this has positive
consequences and motivate us to do what we needs [6].
When an infant is separated from a primary attachment
figure, as in the Harlow studies of rhesus monkeys, the result
is not commonly despair and passivity, immune system is
also get harm, which lead toward depressive illness [7].
History of separations, rejections, and insecure attachments
can be associated with depressed people [8-10]. As we noted
earlier, however, people with a history of happy and secure
attachments may also fall into prolonged depression because
of the loss of a beloved lifelong partner [11]. When depressed
and non-depressed people asked to recall happier times, nondepressed people cheer up. But depressed people feel even
worse, as if the happy memory makes them feel that they will
never be happy again [12].
Depressed people exhibit a negatively explanatory style than
non-depressive people. Depression is linked with a negative,
pessimistic way of explaining and interpreting failure.
Stressed caused negative emotions may have various effects
on health. This is especially so far depressed or anger prone

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Pakistan Association of Anthropology, Islamabad, Pakistan


Special issue
ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8
Sci.int.(Lahore),27(2),1619-1624,2015

people. We become more friendly, our thought processes


open up, when we feels happy, we want to approach others,
and helpful to others [13]. When we are tired we often get
depressed. College students suffer symptoms of depression,
which affect their academic performance [14]. Depressed
mood also affects behavior. According to McCarthy et al.
(2008) depressed mood is a leading cause of suicide among
adolescents [15]. Women are more depressed than as men
[16], and social and environmental conditions can be the
main cause of this [17].
Major depression symptoms in more than 8,000 people
found in a community survey, which comprised on identical
symptoms of mental disorder including a terrible financial
investment, job failure and loss of social status and important
relationship in ones society [11]. When person mood is
swings from depression to mania it may associated with
bipolar disorder, in which person filled up with lots of energy
and they find themselves on top of the world, and can do
everything which they want to do [18]. In young children and
adolescents Bipolar disorder is now being widely diagnosed,
but symptoms can be different from adults, and the diagnosis
remains controversial in children. Though major depressive
disorder is more common than bipolar disorder, as many lost
workdays yearly its more claiming and dysfunctional [19].
The most frequently diagnosed psychological disorder is
Major depressive disorder. Although reported prevalence
rates vary widely, typical estimates suggest that as many as
13% women and 5% men experience depression during their
lifetimes [20]. Women experience depression more
frequently than men do. This discrepancy between rates of
depression in men and women has been observed to be
independent of race, ethnicity, social class, and country of
residence [21,22]. It is possible that female hormones may
participate in mood through some currently unknown
mechanism. Mood disturbances can be associated with
hormonal changes in women, including postpartum
depression and mood changes accompanying menopause
[23].There can be different level of depression range from
mild, moderate to severe, depend on the extent and the level
of functional impairment and/or disability impact of
symptoms and this will determine what level of treatment to
initiate [24].
Association between depression and academic performance
has been investigated by many researchers. Depression can
also affect student's academic performance in college [25].
There are negative effects of depression on student success.
Student success is negatively related with depression.
Depressed students usually spend less time on homework and
achieve lower grade point averages [2]. They dont have
distinct dimensions because Negative and positive affect are
interrelated [26]. A nationwide survey conducted by
American College Health Association on college students in
2011 at two and four year institutions and it concluded that
almost 30 percent college students found to be depressed
even it is difficult to perform function [27]. University
Counseling Center survey, completed in 2006, 91.6%
respondents was observed and investigated that an increase

number of students experiencing psychological problems in


the recent years [28]. In American Universities Depression is
a topic of major concern, so for enabling them to be
successful in their college careers health and counseling
centers for students, are implementing by many institutions
[29]. According to Heiligenstein and Guenther (1996)
increased risk for academic harm can be display by college
students having moderate levels of depression [30].
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was descriptive in nature. This research
was designed to study the 12 grade students depression and
its effects on their academic performance. The population of
this study was comprised of all Govt. Colleges for women of
city Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The study was delimited to the
students studying in second year. Sample of the present study
was consisted of 700 students studying in second year class
and their subject teachers, which was selected by simple
random sampling technique from 8 public colleges of city
Rawalpindi.
Instruments
After an extensive literature review in order to find out the
effects of depression, on students academic performance,
two Questionnaires were used. In order to measure the
depression Depression Screening Test was used which was
developed by the psychiatrist Ivan Goldberg, M.D(Goldberg,
1993). This questionnaire was consisted on 18 items and
scored on a 5-point likert scale, ranging from 1 (strongly
disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). In order to find out the effects
of depression on students' academic performance, "Academic
Performance Rating Scale [10], for teachers was used, for
taking up teacher's responses about students performance.
Teachers answered each item using a 1 (never or poor) to 5
(very often or excellent) likert scale format. Seven APRS
items (i.e., nos. 12, 13, 15, 19) were reverse keyed in scoring
so that a higher total score corresponded with a positive
academic status.
Data Collection
Data was collected by using survey method. Both
questionnaires were personally administered by researcher in
an organized way. Students were selected through random
sampling techniques. After filling questionnaire by students,
academic performance questionnaires of those students were
distributed among their teachers. The responses were taken
individually from students and teachers by visiting those
individuals personally in the classroom and staff room.
Questionnaires were administered to all students and teachers
included in the sample.
Data Analysis
The obtained scored were summarized separately by
calculating their average score, Chi-square and paired sample
t test. Chi-square was applied in order to find out the effects
of depression on students' academic performance. And paired
sample t test was applied in order to find out the significance
difference between academic performances of students
having high level depression.

March-April

Pakistan Association of Anthropology, Islamabad, Pakistan


Special issue
Sci.int.(Lahore),27(2),1619-1624,2015
ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The analysis and interpretation is a basic element of any
research. Generalizations are made on the bases analysis and
interpretation. This chapter deals with analysis and
interpretation of data as relating to the topic of the study,
collected and scored. The results of the current study are
tabulated below:

1621

performance, 152 students with medium level of depression


showed high academic performance
Third row exposed there is no students with low academic
performance. 67 students with high depression showed
medium academic performance and 16 students showed high
academic performance with high level of depression.
Symmetric Measures
Value

Table 1: Descriptive Statistics of Depression and Academic


Performance Paired Samples Statistics
Me
tVariable
Mea
Si
an
SD Std. tes p
s
n
g.
dif
t
Academi
7.9
c
49.43
51 0.30
Performa
71
59 054
14.7
33. >.
nce
0
671
07
05
8.1
Depressi
0.30
34.67
22
on
7
35
Table 2: Chi Square Calculation of Depression
and Academic Performance
Pear
Academic Performance
Asym
son
d p. Sig.
Dep
ChiLo Medi Hi Tot
f
(2Squa
w
um
gh
al
sided)
re
Low
2
51
22
75
Mediu
15
22
368
542 7.518
4
0
a
m
2
High
0
67
16
83
19
Total
24
486
700
0

Approx
. Sig.

Nominal by
Contingency
0.103
Nominal
Coefficient
0.111
N of Valid Cases
700
Figure 1: Ranking of relationship between Depression and
Academic Performance

Table 3:Difference between students academic performance of


students having low, medium and high level depression
Std.
Variables
N
Min Max
Mean
Deviation
Academic
700
21
72
49.4371
7.952
Performance

Table 1 is based on Descriptive Statistics. This table showed


the minimum and maximum scores, mean and standard
deviation of students academic performance and depression.
Minimum score of students academic performance is 21 and
maximum score is 72, mean score is 49.4371 and Std.
Deviation is 7.95159. Minimum score of students depression
is 8 and maximum score is 61, mean score is 34.6700 and
Std. Deviation value is 8.12235.
Table 2 is based on the effect of depression on students
academic achievement. Table showed that the probability of
the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.518) was p=0.011,
less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05. The null
hypothesis that there is no effect of depression on students
academic performance is therefore rejected. Table indicated a
low contingency coefficient of 0.103. Value for measuring
association between two variables is low which indicate a
relatively low association between depression and academic
performance.
Table 2 also shows the relationship of depression and cadmic
performance of students. First row tell us 2 student with low
level of depression exposed low academic performance, 51
students with low level of depression showed medium
academic performance and 21 students with low level of
depression showed high academic performance.
2nd row of table 2 showed that 22 students with moderate
depression showed low academic performance, 368 students
with moderate depression showed medium academic

Depression

700

Valid
N(listwise)

700

61

34.67

8.122

Table 3 indicated the difference between academic


performance of students having low, medium and high level
depression. This table showed the probability of the t test
statistic (t-test=33.066) was p=0.000(0.001), which is less or
equal than the alpha level of significance of 0.05. The null
hypothesis there is no significance difference between
academic performance of students having low, medium and
high level depression is rejected and we can say that there is
significance difference between academic performance of
students having low, medium and high level depression.
FINDINGS
Following were the main finding of the study:
1.
Moreover the probability of the chi-square test
statistic (chi-square=7.518) of depression and academic
performance is p=0.011, which is greater than the alpha level
of significance of 0.05. And the value of contingency
coefficient is 0.103 which indicate a relatively low
association between depression and academic performance. It
was concluded that there is no effect of depression on
students academic performance is found. So the null
hypothesis that there is no effect of depression on students
academic performance is rejected.

March-April

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Pakistan Association of Anthropology, Islamabad, Pakistan


Special issue
ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8
Sci.int.(Lahore),27(2),1619-1624,2015

2.
Further the findings exposed the probability of the ttest statistic (t-test=33.066) was p=0.000(0.001), which is less
or equal than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.
Therefore, the null hypothesis no 2, there is no significance
difference between academic performance of students having
low, medium and high level depression is rejected.
DISCUSSION
Academic performance is affected by a number of factors
including depression. Depressed mood also affects behavior.
Depressed people sometimes feel worthless.
The results of the study revealed that there is a negative effect
of depression on students academic performance. Further
results showed that there is a significance difference between
academic performance of students having low, medium and
high level depression. Result also showed that more students
with medium level of depression showed medium academic
performance, and few students with low and high depression
exposed low and high academic performance.
The above mentioned results are supported and found to be
inconsistence by the previous studies which are mentioned
below;
A study on mood disorders, especially anxiety, depression
and academic achievement was conducted by Al-Qaisy [31].
Two questionnaires one for measuring anxiety and second for
measuring depression were used for collecting data from 200
students. Result showed that Females found more anxious
and less depressed than male and males are more depressed
and less anxious than female. Positive relationship between
achievement and anxiety and negative relation with
depression were found.
Ubaet et. al., conducted a study to investigate the effect of
self-esteem on depression and bullying among adolescent
[32]. Sample was consisted on secondary schools students
studying in Selangor, Malaysia, which was comprised of 242
teenagers (age range 13 to 16 years). Three questionnaires
were used for data collection. No gender differences were
found between self-esteem of males and females. But a
Negative relationship between depression and self-esteem, a
low positive correlation between depression and bullying and
medium correlation between self-esteem and bullying and
were found.
In U.S. middle and high schools, Jones explored the
relationship of depressed mood and academic performance
[33]. In middle school, Negative effects of depression were
found on academic achievement. Findings revealed that
depressive students dont perform well academically. Further
depressed feelings were found to be consistent reductions in
GPA.
Owens et al. conducted a study in 2012 and expressed a link
of Anxiety and depression with academic performance [34].
They disclosed association of higher levels of anxiety and
depression with lower academic performance.
So it can be concluded that Students suffer with low and high
level of depression expose low academic performance. The
students have moderate level of depression showed medium
academic performance. And there was a significant difference

between the students academic performance having a high,


moderate and low level of depression.
CONCLUSSION
In the light of statistical analysis and studys findings, the
following major conclusions were drawn:
1.
The result showed that there is negative effect of
depression on students academic performance. So the null
hypothesis no 1 is therefore rejected.
2.
The result indicated that there is significance
difference between academic performance of students having
low, medium and high level depression. So the null
hypothesis no 2 is therefore rejected.
3.
RECOMMENDATIONS
In the light of the above conclusions and discussion the
following recommendations are made:
1. Health service should be made inside the colleges to
aware the students that even mild symptoms of depression
may be associated with lower grades and how they affect
the overall performance of students. The staff of the
student health service should be made fully aware to the
harmful effects of depression for planning different
activities about health-education related to students
problem.
2. The teachers need to be vigilant for the overtly depressed
students. Because they can judge students behavior in the
classroom and recognize that their academic performance
is suffering by depression.
3. Moreover, there is the need of the hour that students must
be aware with different psychological problems and their
effects. So awareness programs on these topics should be
conducted because these programs could be beneficial to
teachers in order to improve their interactions with
students and to understand students problems.
Suggestions for future research
The present study was limited in its sample that just consisted
on the female students studying in second year. In future
research is required to the following areas:
1. The research was aimed to investigate the effects of
depression on students academic performance in Govt.
degree colleges for women. So there is need to investigate
the effects of depression on students academic
performance in private sector colleges.
2. After the present research was conducted, further need
was felt to carry out a comparative study of depression.
3. Additional research is required to find out the effects of
depression on students overall development.
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Pakistan Association of Anthropology, Islamabad, Pakistan


Special issue
Sci.int.(Lahore),27(2),1619-1624,2015
ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8

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ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8
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