MODERN ARCHITECTURE

1803- 1879
1841 –1918
1856 –1924
1870 –1933
1887 –1953
1892 –, 1970
1910 –1961
1913 –2005

gottfried semper
otto wagner
Louis Henry Sullivan
Adolf Loos
eric mendelson
Richard Joseph Neutra
Eero Saarinen
Kenzō Tange

a visual emphasis on horizontal and vertical lines The Salk Institute complex in La Jolla. meaning that the true nature or natural appearance of a material ought to be seen rather than concealed or altered to represent something else  use of industrially-produced materials. a dictum originally expressed by Louis Sullivan. meaning that the result of design should derive directly from its purpose  simplicity and clarity of forms and elimination of "unnecessary detail"  materials at 90 degrees to each other  visual expression of structure (as opposed to the hiding of structural elements)  the related concept of "Truth to materials". California. adoption of the machine aesthetic  particularly in International Style modernism. by architect Louis Kahn. Gaining global popularity especially after the Second World War. Characteristics Common themes of modern architecture include:  the notion that "Form follows function".MODERN ARCHITECTURE  The concept of modernism is a central theme in the efforts of 20th century modern architecture. .

'fireproof' design. Modern architecture as primarily driven by technological and engineering developments. In 1796. Due to poor knowledge of iron's properties as a construction material.MODERN ARCHITECTURE Context 1. leading to widespread use of iron construction. The Crystal Palace. a number of early mills collapsed. foreshadowing trends in Modernist architecture. A further development was that of the steelframed skyscraper in Chicago around 1890 by William Le Baron Jenney and Louis Sullivan. was one of the first buildings to have vast amounts of glass supported by structural metal. the availability of newly-available building materials such as iron. and sheet glass drove the invention of new building techniques. followed in 1864 by the first glass and metal curtain wall. This kind of austere industrial architecture utterly transformed the landscape of northern Britain. which enabled them to accommodate much bigger machines. 1851. With the Industrial Revolution. 3. 2. . It was not until the early 1830s the section beam was introduced. Such construction greatly strengthened the structure of mills. a reaction against eclecticism and the lavish stylistic excesses of Victorian and Edwardian architecture.      Some historians see it as a social matter. steel.   The Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton at the Great Exhibition of 1851 was an early example of iron and glass construction. which relied on cast iron and brick with flag stone floors was used. leading to the description of places as "Dark satanic mills".

The work of some of these were a part of what is broadly categorized as Art Nouveau ("New Art").  Otto Wagner and the Vienna Secession in Austria.MODERN ARCHITECTURE Early modernism     In Italy: Futurism Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Around 1900 a number of architects and designers around the world began developing new solutions to integrate traditional precedents (classicism or Gothic. Antoni Gaudi in Barcelona. The work of Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright in Chicago. and Richard Neutra and Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow. among many others. all of whom trained under Peter Behrens. for instance) with new technological possibilities. In Soviet Russia: Constructivism Konstantin Melnikov In Western Europe Arts and Crafts movement Peter Behrens Expressionism Rudolf Steiner Modernism reaches critical mass Bauhaus Le Corbusier in France. can be seen as a common struggle between old and new. Victor Horta in Brussels.   In the United States Frank Lloyd Wright. Style Moderne: tradition and modernism Art Deco and Streamline Moderne Wartime innovation International Style Philip Johnson . and Walter Gropius and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in Germany.

In his textbook. such as the austere Neustiftgasse apartment block in Vienna. Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser shortly after they founded the "Vienna Secession" artistic group. was built. but only his urban rail network.and late-1880s. In 1896 he published a textbook entitled Modern Architecture in which he expressed his ideas about the role of the architect. In pursuit of this ideal. he had already designed several Jugendstil buildings. to which he contributed many landmarks. In the mid. In 1864. . From the ideas of this group he developed a style that included quasi-symbolic references to the new forms of modernity. like many of his contemporaries in Germany In 1894. he was well advanced on his path toward a more radical opposition to the prevailing currents of historicist architecture. Joseph Maria Olbrich. Jugendstil (Art Nouveau) it was inspired by natural forms and structures. not only in flowers and plants. His style incorporated the use of new materials and new forms to reflect the fact that society itself was changing. he joined Gustav Klimt. By the mid-1890s. he stated that "new human tasks and views called for a change or reconstitution of existing forms". Wagner was very interested in urban planning — in 1890 he designed a new city plan for Vienna.Otto Koloman Wagner             1841 –1918 Austrian architect urban planner known for his lasting impact on the appearance of his home town Vienna. he designed and built structures that reflected their intended function. he started designing his first buildings in the historicist style. when he became Professor of Architecture at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna. the Stadtbahn.  In 1897. Architects tried to harmonize with the natural environment.  Wagner died in Vienna in 1918. but also in curved lines.

” •The education of the architect: •Technically trained.” -Wagner . 22 to 26 years of age.Otto Wagner wrote Modern Architecture to create a new STYLE Three principle themes of Modernism:  A plea for simplicity in the accommodation of modern needs  The artistic and ethical ruin of eclecticism  The demand for a new style based on present technologies and methods of construction In his Book  Chapter 1: The Architect  Chapter 2: Style  Chapter 3: Composition  Chapter 4: Construction  Chapter 5: The Practice of Art  Chapter 6: Concluding Remark “Among the fine arts architecture alone is truly creative and productive. imagination. it alone is able to make forms that have no model in nature yet appear beautiful to man. taste. keen thinking •Qualifications for a professional: •Must have the ability to perceive needs •The title “Architect” •Misused by those who have no claim to it “We must become fully aware that the sole departure point for our artistic work can only be MODERN LIFE. in fact.

modernism affected all aspects of the aesthetics. instead of listening to the pulse of those who are alive and relieving their pains. even to the point of staying in step with fashion. • Architecture’s basis was no longer to be symbolic form. but construction and technology.Style “The artist has been content to dissect the dead with a magnifying glass and lancet. .” • The modern style is a response to the needs of modern man • He argues that the logical consequence of catering to these needs is that art. • Not only a building style. and artist. are then forced to represent their epoch and to conform to modern appearances and ideas.

as it provided self-containment. otherwise a painful uncertainty or aesthetic uneasiness occurs. was very important to Wagner. most easily and most naturally •Wagner stressed a need for symmetry.Composition •Emphasizes the human need for a visual resting point. whether from single or multiple viewing points. completeness and balance . •Viewing points: locations where the building can be seen most frequently. •The image to be perceived.

Decoration. leading to art-forms •The introduction of IRON was the main reason for this change of vision The Practice of Art. Urban Gardens. Illumination. material and construction are conveyed as the primitive “germs” of architectural production •Therefore. Fountains. new technical and material means needed new formal solutions “There are two conditions demanded by modern man that can be considered to be criteria: the greatest possible convenience and the greatest possible cleanliness. according to Wagner. Dwellings  Art in Industry and Production: Furniture. Railroads . Bridges.” -Wagner •Need. new purposes and materials lead to new methods of construction •Construction gradually acquires artistic value. Includes:  Representation through drawing City Planning: Streets. Squares. purpose. Clothing/ Fashion. Materials .Construction The Practice of Art •Wagner felt there was a break with the past because of the changes in modern construction methods.