# LESSON PLAN

Co-Teaching Lesson Plan (Direct Instruction)
Performance Assessment 2
Teachers: Danielle Boles

Subject: Pre-Algebra (Block 4)

Date: September 19, 2016
Standard:
Mathematics: 8.EE.C.7. Solve linear equations in one variable.
a. Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the
case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a
and b are different numbers).
b. Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive
property and collecting like terms.
Connections: 8.F.3; 8.NS.1;
6-8.RST.3; ET08-S1C3-01

Objective (Explicit): Students will be able to accurately create a table of values (ordered pairs) from a given equation, interpret the information from their
table of values, and graph simple linear equations.
(Student-Friendly): I can create a table of values given an equation and interpret the information in order to graph the linear equation.
Essential Question: How can you recognize a linear equation? How can you draw its graph?
Evidence of Mastery (Measurable):
Exceeds: Students will be able to correctly create a table of values and decipher that information in order to graph a linear equation. Look for whether or not
students are following the steps we discuss in class, plugging in the correct x- and y-values, and a correct graph. Students who exceed mastery level aren’t
making mistakes in their work and may have gone back to check their work.
Number of students who have exceeded mastery expectations:
Meets: Students will be able to correctly create their table of values and graph with accuracy. There may be minor errors, but nothing that impacts the overall
outcome of the problem. I will be looking for accuracy in their math, their ability to decipher the difference in x- and y-values, and their ability to graph the
equation/table of values.

Number of students who have met mastery expectations:
Falls Far Below: Students will be able to meet the learning goal at an unsatisfactory level and will need either re-teaching or small groups. These students
have not necessarily demonstrated that they are able to understand what the questions are asking. They have not fully grasped the ideas behind the lesson
and may need some remedial help with graphing linear equations.
Number of students who fall far below mastery expectations:
Sub-objectives, SWBAT (Sequenced from basic to complex):

SWBAT recall what they know about ordered pairs and graphing them on a coordinate plane.

SWBAT practice graphing linear equations using both previous knowledge on graphing.

SWBAT identify the factors that go into finding each ordered pair from a given equation and graphing to form a linear equation.

SWBAT interpret information from an equation in order to make a table of values and graph the linear equation.

SWBAT summarize information gathered about each linear equation in order to accurately make a table of values and graph the linear equation.

Key vocabulary:

Linear equation: an equation whose graph is a straight line

Solution: All the points on a line

Remedial Vocabulary:
 Equation: a statement that the values of two mathematical expressions are
equal (indicated by the sign =).

Materials:

Document Camera: A tool which will be used to project
problems and notes on the screen for students to follow along
with.

Writing Utensils, Pencils, Highlighters: So students can
maintain accurate records and note taking

Coordinate Plane: The plane determined by a horizontal number line,
called the x-axis, and a vertical number line, called the y-axis, intersecting at
a point called the origin. Each point in the coordinate plane can be specified
by an ordered pair of numbers.

Whiteboards and markers: Used during independent
practice as checks for understanding

Materials envelope (with notecards): To be used during the
activity to give students a manipulative to solve each linear
equation, make a table of values, etc.

Ordered Pairs: a pair of elements a, b having the property that ( a, b) = (u,
v ) if and only if a = u, b = v.

Linear Equations Note Guide: To be used with the
SmartNotebook notes. Students will be able to follow along
and write only the necessary information.

Linear Equations Activity Guide: Students will be prompted
a series of questions in order to make them think about the

activity and what they are doing.

Linear Equations Assessment: Students will demonstrate
their understanding of the lesson with their exit ticket
questions.

Opening (state objectives, connect to previous learning, and make relevant to real life):
The teacher will start out by stating the objective for the day as well as the agenda. “Today, we are going to be talking about graphing linear equations. This
sounds complex, but I am so confident that you will all be able to accomplish this. Think back to last year (or even the first day of school) when we have
worked with graphing ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. We are going to be doing some of that and bringing equations into it. Based on how well you all did
with solving equations, I know you will all be great with this.” Then the teacher will begin by asking the students to recall what we talked about during the
previous chapter and last year in regards to coordinate planes and ordered pairs. Teacher will touch on prior knowledge by asking students what ordered pairs
are, what the difference between x- and y-values are, what direction x-values go, what direction y-values go, etc. The teacher will connect the discussion of
probability to real life experiences. “For example, we can use graphing of linear equations to analyze different things in life: How many Snapchats will you
send per day? Per year? How many texts per minute will you send at a constant rate?” Students will begin to think of other situations and how this is
something relevant in their every day lives. The teacher will use the PPE Model (Paraphrase, Praise, Extend Thinking) in order to provide academic feedback
for each student who is participating in the discussion. Ask students if they have ever worked with graphing lines and what some examples from the real world
are. Students will be inclined to raise their hands and talk about experiences with linear equations.
Hook:

Instructional Input

Questions to think about when holding the discussion. Prompt the students to think about:

Where are linear equations found in the real world?

Why do you think learning about graphing a linear equation is important to everyday life?

What careers are linear equations and situations found in?
Teacher Will:

Student Will:

Pass out the Graphing Linear Equations Note Guide so students are able
to follow along and have the majority of the information with them.

Follow along with the note guide and write down the notes as they
appear on the SmartNotebook

Go through the SmartNotebook and highlight key information and
vocabulary so the students are able to quickly locate it on their Note
Guide.

Highlight or underline key information already provided, fill in the
blanks for answers not provided yet.

Key information includes: lesson objective/learning goal for the
day, key vocabulary, Use questioning to ask, "What does linear
mean? What does equation mean? Let’s connect our two
definitions to try and figure out what a linear equation is!”,
Example problems students should be writing down, etc.

Prompt students to use the actual vocabulary when they are
talking about linear equations (both new vocabulary and old
vocabulary)

When teacher gets to example problems, begin think aloud.
Think Aloud: “Alright, I’m going to demonstrate how I would like you all
to work these problems out. These are my expectations for problems like
this unless stated otherwise. Pencils are down, voices are off, and eyes
are on me. See things through my mind for a minute in order to complete
this problem with me. I would like full participation on this. I’m going to
think about the relevance first. Why would I need to know this? Oh, that’s
right, because linear equations will help me in the real world. All right,
let’s take a look at the problem. I notice that the problem asks me to
make a table of values, plot my ordered pairs, and connect the dots into
lines. I am going to think back to what I know about graphing and ordered
pairs. The easiest way to start is by making a table of values. A table of
values will allow me to visualize where my ordered pairs or coordinates
are coming from. Okay, perfect. It makes sense to do this first. I will now
plug in my equation and find all of my coordinates. So now that I found
my table of values. Once I have my table of values, I am going to graph
them. I know from previous math that my x-values are telling me to go
either left or right and my y-values are telling me to go up or down. I can
use this information to plot my points. I know my points are going to make
a straight line when working with linear equations, so that’s a great way to
check my answers. (Teacher graphs the points on the line and uses
vocabulary from the day’s lesson: linear equation, solution, etc.) Now that
I have completed the experimental probability, I can refer back to the
problem to make sure I have done all the things I know I should do. First,
I am given my equation to solve. I made my table of values to plug in
numbers in order to find solutions (ordered pairs). That looks great, I am
checking my math again to make sure all my negatives and positives are
correct, great. Okay, now the final step is to look at my graph and make

Listen as the teacher begins the think aloud and notice the
approach/questioning the teacher is using in order to solve these
problems.

sure it looks like a linear equation’s graph is supposed to. (Teacher will
write this on the docucam to model how to complete the problems and
graph their linear equations).” (This process will be completed twice with
two separate problems. One will be a word problem asking the same
exact questions and the other will be a standard linear equation without
the wording. The teacher will demonstrate BOTH ways in order for
students to grasp the concepts given two different types of problems.)
Teacher will then display some “you try” problems. During this time, the
teacher will do some checks for understanding and make sure the
students understand the process by walking around and visiting each
student.

with the note guide and problems projected on the Document
Camera (students will do this on their own note guides):

Display two actual problems on the board (one without the extra
wording to start, then one with the wording)

Teacher will walk around the room in order to monitor and assist
students that need to be monitored or students who have their
hands raised.

Make sure to ask students what their steps were in completing
this problem

Select two students with exemplary work to come up to the
document camera and explain their thinking in solving the
problems. REINFORCE their thinking and provide them
feedback!

Work diligently with their note guides and follow along with the teacher.

Exemplary Student Responses:

For each of the two problems, students will have to create
their tables and graph the equation accurately

Students will be asked to come up to the document camera to
explain their thinking in solving the problem. The two students
will have answers that show their understanding and will be
able to use wording that other students may understand.

“The first thing I did was analyze the problem and check back
to my notes on what to do after we look at the problem. I know
I have to make a table of values first so I did that by choosing
three numbers and plugging those three numbers into the
original equation and solving for y. After I solved for y, I found
my ordered pairs and was able to plot those points on my
coordinate plane to form my line.”

Co-Teaching Strategy/Differentiation
Co-Teaching: One teach, one observe
Extra Support: Students who need extra support will be checked on frequently during the instruction. These students may be reminded several
times to stay on track or highlight and underline with the teacher. Other students from the back (Calvin, Mason, Joel, etc.) may move forward or sit
on the floor to take notes if they cannot see.

Intense Support: Students who need intense support will be given extra help during the note guide and checked on more frequently to see they are
on the right track.
Struggling Learners:

CF, MB, and JG appear to be never paying attention or struggling, but they work well together

CR, KK, and HB tend to ask questions to make sure they are right. They constantly doubt themselves and want to make sure they’re right.
These three students specifically think they’re struggling leaners and like the verification from the teacher they are on the right track. Most
of the time they are.

AH is a smart student, but he needs a lot of help with problems with fractions. He comes into office hours for help frequently, but during
class, he is a little reluctant to ask the teacher questions. AH also has severe panic attacks since he moved from Kentucky, so keep an eye
on him during group work or anything that might feel competitive.

Reluctant Learners:

Some of the boys get chatty and will need to be reminded to stay on topic, but this class is overall really smart and will pay attention

SN is very chatty in groups and will need to be reminded not to distract her peers. She is very smart and innovative, but has a hard time
paying attention and really likes attention on her.

Visual and Kinesthetic Learners:

KK likes to know what to write at which time and is very organized. Be sure to highlight key information.

CR and HB need to actually see the teacher do a problem before he knows how to do it on his own, but pick it up very quickly after. Make
sure they are playing close attention during modeling.

Color code x- and y-values throughout the table of values (red/blue, etc.) in order for students to follow along with x- and y-values.

Guided Practice

Overall, fourth block is a great group of students and they love to have fun. Make sure the students who appear to be off track are called on
throughout the lesson to keep them engaged.
Teacher Will:

Student Will:

Restate the objective and learning goal for the day: “Alright, so far we
have discussed why a linear equation is important and what we use it for.
We have also talked about the difference between x- and y-values and
how to plot our solutions of our linear equations onto our coordinate
plane. Now we are going to do a quick activity. First thing’s first. When

Listen as the teacher explains the learning goal for the day,
explanation of the activity, and behavioral expectations.
Repeat back the directions and behavioral expectations.

you hear your name called, come grab your notecard. I will give you guys
about five minutes to make a table of values and graph the points You will
all get different problems and be asked to find your groups after. When
you are done solving your problem, you need to turn your notecard over
and wait for directions so I know you are ready to move on.”

Refer back to the directions displayed on the whiteboard as needed.

Wait five minutes for students to finish and give them a specific time.
Fourth block likes to know exactly what time you will want to stop them.
Explain the activity to the students as follows:

Each person will receive a specialized notecard with their name
on it

Work on their own to find the answer on their notecard
When instructed, they will get up silently and find their new group
members.

They will work on their own quickly to solve the equation.

When everyone has graphed and made a table of values, you
may get up and find your new group at one of the tables. Your
new group members had the same problem as you and you need
to find the graph and table of values on the piece of construction
paper in the center.

When the students get into their new groups, they will wait for
further instructions to activity part 2.

When in new groups, they will wait for further instruction.

Pick one of the seats in the group and call it the “hot seat”.
Students in the “hot seat” (one per group) will be asked to get up
to get their materials for activity part 2.

Listen as the teacher goes through activity part 2

Explain activity part 2 as follows:

Student in hot seat will need to get up and grab an envelope and
activity guide for their group members.

When each group has an envelope and activity guide, they will

Each group will be instructed to open their envelope and sort
their new notecards into the same columns. They will be given 4
equations, 4 tables of values, and 4 graphs and asked to sort

them into colums or rows (group them together however they
wish)

There will be a notecard set (one equation, one table of values,
one graph) for the teacher (you will model that this set goes
together and why)

Students will have prompts on an activity guide that will help
them follow along with the activity.

Allow the students to chat and work together (they work very well
when the class is loud and it’s okay)

Teacher will be circulating the classroom and providing academic
feedback to the students as needed
Teacher will explain behavioral expectations within group members
Ask the students to repeat what they are supposed to be doing to check
for understanding with directions/behavior expectations
Survey each of the groups and check their work (they should all be
working together, but showing me their own individual work)
After about 15-20 minutes, teacher will call students back together
Co-Teaching Strategy/Differentiation
Co-Teaching: One teach, one observe
Each notecard (from activity part 1) will have the students’ names on them. This is for the simple fact that the teacher is controlling the new groups.
There will be a student who typically exceeds, a student who typically falls far below, and two students who are average in each group ideally.
Extra Support: Students who need extra support will be checked on frequently during the guided practice. They will likely need to be reminded to
work with their groups. These students will need extra questions and scaffolding to help them reach the learning goal.
Intense Support: Students who need intense support will be noted and grouped up with students at a higher level.

CF and CR

AH, LH, and JL

KK, SA, and SN

HB and MB

Struggling Learners:

At this point in the lesson, the reluctant learners should be more engaged. If they are still reluctant, go over to encourage them to keep
going and working. These students love to have fun during their work, so guided practice should be a breeze for them.

Reluctant Learners:

Again, students should be fine at this point. Make sure the boys are collaborating with their groups (at this age, they forget the girls have
voices and ideas to pitch in sometimes)

Make sure students are still working along with their groups and following their activity guide.

Visual and Kinesthetic Learners:

Students who prefer visuals will be reminded to think back to the teacher’s experimental probability problem and view the examples on the
board.

As far as the worksheet goes, there needs to be visuals and reminders throughout

Don’t give them too wordy of answers or feedback, just make sure they can visualize the expermint and what the teacher is doing

Independent
Practice

ENFORCE: “If you are not done with the activity, that is okay. Don’t freak out! We will have more time to practice, but we are running out of time. I
am more worried about if you did one equation right rather than all of them with silly mistakes. Quality NOT quantity with this. It’s important we take
our time.”

You need to enforce this throughout the lesson. This is our classroom environment and they will feel more comfortable and less stressed
out

AH has anxiety/panic attacks so please make sure he is okay during group work and not falling behind or getting stressed out. He may
come into office hours and does frequently.

Teacher Will:

Student Will:

Recap the lesson by talking about why the guided practice activity was
significant to today’s lesson and the real world (insert closure here when
presenting lesson!)

Listen and participate in any discussion the teacher opens up during a
closure.
Complete the independent practice on their own without any help in

Explain to the students that they will need to complete the independent
work on their own, without any help from their peers or the teacher.

order to demonstrate their understanding with today’s lesson.

Each student will receive an exit ticket that has two problems (one is a
word problem and one is the equation itself. The students will work on
their own to create a table of values and a graph for their linear
equations.
Example problems are as follows (use discretion to monitor and adjust):
1. Make a table of values and graph: y = 2x + 1

Turn their exit to the turn in basket and work on extension problems if
they need.

2. Fast forward 20 years and you are a pilot! You are on your way to
land your plane, causing it to descend at a constant speed. Your
elevation is represented by y = - 100x + 800, where x is the
number of seconds it takes to land your plane. Make a table of
values and graph your linear equation.
Display problems on the board for students who finish early.
After all the students have completed the exit tickets, the teacher will
close the lesson and the bell should be ringing soon.
Co-Teaching Strategy/Differentiation
Co-Teaching: One teach, one observe
Extra Support: Students who need extra support will be able to use their note guides.
Intense Support: Students at an intense support level will be given the first couple of steps to the problem in order to help them out.
Struggling Learners:

These students will receive a different exit ticket with assistance (keywords underlined, highlighted, small notes in margins, etc.) if the
teacher feels they will need it (HB, AH, KK, CR)

Reluctant Learners:

The learners who were reluctant during guided practice and instruction will likely not be as reluctant now. The best way to work with the
reluctant learners during the exit ticket is to encourage them to do their best.

Visual and Kinesthetic Learners:

Students may stand up at any point to get their energy out (SN, SA, etc.)

Ask them to recall the model and think aloud we did in class

Ask them to recall the activity and what they may have done with their group members

Closing/Student Reflection/Real-life connections:
“Today, we are going to be talking about graphing linear equations. We thought back to last year (or even the first day of school) when we have worked with
graphing ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. We were able to use our prior knowledge to bring equations into it. Based on how well you all did with solving
equations, I know you all tried your best to be great with this.” All students should be participating in this discussion since we have done instruction and guided
practice relevant to this conversation. Provide academic feedback to students that are participating using the PPE (paraphrase, praise, and extend thinking)
model. Allow students time to think and help them reach that higher level thinking through discussion while also highlighting the key questions from the start of
the day*. Wrap up the lesson by thanking the students for their hardwork and participation and recap all necessary information during this discussion. Assign
homework and give them any upcoming reminders.

* Questions to think about when holding the discussion. Prompt the students to think about:

Where are linear equations found in the real world?

Why do you think learning about graphing a linear equation is important to everyday life?

What careers are linear equations and situations found in?