CHAPTER 04 PERIODICITY

OF

ELEMENTS

Q1. State the following laws:
i.

Dobereiner’s law of triad
Modern periodic law

ii.

Newland’s law of octave

iii.

Answer:
i.

Dobereiner’s Law of Triad
It states that “the atomic mass of the middle element is nearly the
same as average of the atomic masses of other two elements.”

ii.

Newland’s Law of Octave
It states that “if elements are arranged in the order of increasing
atomic masses, then every eighth element has properties similar to
that of first element.”

iii.

Modern Periodic Law
It states that “the physical and chemical properties of all elements
are periodic function of their atomic numbers.”

Q2. Write three salient features of Mendeleev’s periodic table.
Answer:
Salient Features of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
1. It has 8 vertical columns called groups and twelve horizontal rows
called periods.
2. Elements in each vertical column have similar properties.
3. Empty spaces were left for undiscovered elements.
4. The group number indicate the highest valence attained by the
elements of that group.

Q3. Define:
i.
iv.

Answer:

Periodicity
energy
Electron affinity

ii.

Atomic radius
v. Electronegativity

iii. Ionization

Metalloids Answer: i. Metals ii. they show the properties of both metals as well as non-metals. v. ii. iv.i. ii. Atomic Radius It is defined as half the distance between two adjacent nuclei of two atoms. Periodicity It is defined as recurrence of chemical or physical properties at regular interval. they lose electrons to form cations. Metalloids These are the elements which exhibit dual character i. Q4.e. What are transition elements? Write any three characteristics/properties of transition elements. Ionization Energy It is defined as minimum energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom in its ground state. they gain electrons to form anions. Define the following terms: i. iii. Q5. Metals They are electropositive elements i. Electronegativity It is defined as the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared pair of electrons to itself.e. iii. Electron Affinity It is defined as the energy change that occurs when an electron is gained by an atom in the gaseous state. Non-metals They are electronegative elements i.e. . Answer: Transition Elements The elements of sub-group B are called transition elements because they show properties transition between two sets of representative elements. Non-metals iii.

form acidic solution.Properties of Transition Elements 1. They turn blue litmus red. Q6. 2. 4 They are malleable and 4. Answer: Difference between Metals and Non-metals Metals Non-Metals Physical Differences 1 All metals except mercury 1. 3 Metals have luster and can 3. They do not have luster and be polished. They have been placed in group VIIIA in the periodic table. They turn red litmus blue. About half of the non-metals are solids. 4. Examples are helium (He). 2. They have low melting and and boiling points. 3. Answer: Noble gases have zero valency. boiling points. 3. 2 They have high melting 2. In chemical reactions. They combine with oxygen to to form basic oxide. They are usually brittle and ductile and converted into are not malleable and ductile. They are less reactive than alkali metals such as sodium. 3. Chemical Differences 1. They are good conductors of heat and electricity. cannot be polished. are gases. When dissolved in water 2. Q7. krypton (Kr). Which elements have zero valency? In which group of the periodic table have they been placed? Also give their two examples. Write two physical and two chemical differences between metal and nonmetal. . neon (Ne). They form colored compounds. They combine with oxygen 1. form acidic oxide. argon (Ar). sheets and wires. When dissolved in water they they form alkaline solution. they show more than one valencies.

cesium (Cs) and francium (Fr). Q9. Q11. Answer: Names of Alkali Metals Lithium (Li). Which elements possess only one electron in their valence shell? What are they called? Name the radioactive element in this group. Lanthanides and actinides are the inner transition elements. sodium (Na). . potassium (K). They are placed at the bottom of the periodic table. rubidium (Rb). Francium (Fr) is radioactive in this group. have low melting points. form water soluble base. They are also called rare earth metals. Name the alkali metals of group IA of the periodic table and write their three general properties. are highly reactive metals. Fluorine has the highest electronegativity and it has the value 4. Answer: Elements of group IA possess only one electron in their valence shell. Properties of Alkali Metals     They They They They lose one electron and form univalent positive ions (M+). They are called alkali metals. Q10. How many periods and groups are there in the modern periodic table? Also state what are Lanthanides and Actinides? Answer: The modern periodic table contains seven periods and sixteen groups. Answer: Elements of group VIIA or halogens possess seven electrons in their valence shell. Which elements possess seven electrons in their valence shell? Name the element which has the highest electronegativity and give its value.Q8.

    . They all form diatomic molecules. They have large negative electron affinities. Answer: Properties of Group VIIA Elements They have high ionization energies.  They are never seen uncombined in nature. Write five general properties of the elements of group VIIA of the periodic table. The bonds in these diatomic molecules are non-polar covalent single bonds.Q12.

Answer: Ionic Bond A chemical bond which is formed by the complete transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another is called ionic bond.8 Cl2. Explain. Na 2. Formation of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) In the combination of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) atoms.8.8.8 Na+1Cl1- . What is ionic bond? How an ionic bond is formed between sodium and chlorine atoms resulting in the production of NaCl.7 Na+ + Cl- Na+ + e2. an atom of sodium (Na) transfers one outer most shell electron and becomes positive sodium ion (Na+) and an atom of chlorine gains that electron to complete its octet and becomes chloride negative ion (Cl-). Answer: Chemical Bond It is defined as “the force which holds atoms together in a molecule or crystal is called chemical bond. Define chemical bond.1 Cl + e2.8.” Q2.CHAPTER 05 CHEMICAL BONDING Q1.

7. 4. Polar Covalent Bond If the difference in the electro-negativities of bonded atoms is up to 1. Define covalent bond. 2. 3. Non-polar Covalent Bond If the difference in the electro-negativities of bonded atoms is zero. They are usually soluble in polar solvents. Q5. then the bond is pure covalent or non-polar bond. They have high melting and boiling points. Write any three characteristics of ionic compounds. Ionic compounds are solid at room temperature. Q4. Answer: Covalent Bond A chemical bond which is formed by the sharing of unpaired electrons is called covalent bond. Explain polar covalent bond and non-polar covalent bond. double and triple covalent bonds. Answer: Single Covalent Bond . Answer: Characteristics of Ionic Compounds 1. then the bond is called polar covalent bond. Define single. They do not conduct electricity but their solutions conduct electricity.Q3.

It is represented by two short line. It is represented by three short line. Answer: Characteristics of Covalent Compounds . Write down three common properties of covalent compounds. Example Triple Covalent Bond It is a covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared by the bonded atoms.It is a covalent bond in which only one pair of electron is shared by the bonded atoms. Example Q6. It is represented by single short line. Example Double Covalent Bond It is a covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared by the bonded atoms.

The polarity in covalent bonds is much lower than ionic bond. are insulators because they do not conduct electricity. The polarity in ionic bonds is much higher than covalent bond. Write three differences between ionic bond and covalent bond. liquid or soft solids. It is formed between two nonmetals that have similar electro-negativities. nitrogen atom of NH3 acts as a donor of electron pair and hydrogen ion (H+) of HCl accepts it to form NH4Cl as follows. 3. It is formed by the sharing of unpaired electrons. 3. It is formed by the complete transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another. It is formed between a metal and a non-metal. 2. Answer: Coordinate Covalent Bond A bond in which both electrons forming a bond are supplied by one atom only is called coordinate covalent bond. What is coordinate covalent bond? How is coordinate covalent bond formed between NH3 and H+ ion? Explain. Q8. are usually insoluble in polar solvents. Q7. Formation of Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) In the formation of ammonium chloride from ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) molecules. Covalent Bond 1. . Answer: Differences between Ionic Bond and Covalent Bond Ionic Bond 1. 4.1. have low melting and boiling points. They They They They are often gases. 2. 3. 2.

Coordinate Covalent Bond 1. It is associated with only covalent character. Answer: Differences between Covalent and Coordinate Covalent Bond 1. It is formed by one sided sharing of electrons. It is associated with ionic and covalent character. Answer: 1.Q9. Metallic Bonding Hydrogen bonding Dipole.Dipole forces iii. It is always polar. 4. Covalent Bond It is formed by the mutual sharing of electrons between atoms. It is denoted by short lines ( ). 3. Write three differences between covalent bond and coordinate covalent bond. 2. forces Vander Waal’s forcesv. It is denoted by an arrow ( ). 3. Q10. It may be polar or non-polar. Dispersion . 4. 2. Define the following: i. Metallic boning ii. iv.

6. 5. Hydrogen Bonding It is defined as the attraction between positive hydrogen of one molecule and negative part of other molecule is called hydrogen bonding.  They possess kinetic energy.  These molecules are in motion. . Q2.It is defined as the combination of electrostatic attraction between the electrons and positive nuclei of atoms is called metallic bonding. Define matter. 3. Answer: Matter It is defined as anything that has mass and occupies space is called matter. Answer: Kinetic Molecular Theory According to kinetic molecular theory  Matter is composed of tiny particles called molecules. Intra-molecular Forces These are the forces which hold atoms together in a molecule. 4. Dipole-Dipole Forces This is an attractive inter-molecular force resulting from the interaction of the positive end of one molecule with negative end of other. CHAPTER 06 STATES OF MATTER Q1. 2. Inter-molecular Forces (Vander Waal’s Forces) These are the attractive forces between the neutral molecules which hold them together at certain temperature. Dispersion Forces (London Forces) They are the weak attractive forces between temporarily polarized atoms (or molecules) caused by the varying positions of electrons during their motion about the nuclei. Explain the kinetic molecular theory in different states of matter.

2. 5. Fusion (melting) It is defined as a process in which state of a substance changes from solid to liquid. 3. Evaporation .Kinetic Molecular Theory for Solids  In solids.  Particles can move in all directions.  Particles can move in all directions. molecules or particles are tightly packed with one another. Melting Point It is defined as the temperature at which solid starts melting is called melting point. Freezing Point It is defined as the temperature at which liquid turns into a solid when cooled is called freezing point. Kinetic Molecular Theory for Liquids  In liquids.  Particles have only vibrational motion.  Solids have definite shape and definite volume. 4. Sublimation v. Evaporation viii. Boiling Point It is defined as the temperature at which vapor pressure becomes equal to external pressure and liquids starts boiling is called boiling point. Diffusion Brownian movement vi. Kinetic Molecular Theory for Gases  In gases. Q3. Boiling point ii. Fusion Freezing point iii. iv. molecules are lying away from one another.  Liquids have definite volume but do not have definite shape. Define: i. molecules are not tightly packed. Melting point Answer: 1.  Gases neither have definite shape nor definite volume. vii.

9.It is defined as the escaping of molecules form the surface of liquid is called evaporation. rapid and zigzag motion of suspended particles through the medium is called Brownian movement. Reason Since the molar mass of hydrogen is the smallest among CO2 and CH4 and it is lightest among CO2 and CH4. Sublimation It is defined as the change of state of a substance directly from solid to gas without passing through the liquid state is called sublimation. 6. Which gas from among CO2. 7. Brownian Movement It is defined as the continuous. Diffusion It is defined as the spreading of a substance through medium like air or liquid is called diffusion. 8. therefore according to Graham’s law. it will diffuse the fastest. Q4. Answer: Graham’s Law of Diffusion It states that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass or density. State Graham’s law of diffusion of gases. CH4 and H2 will diffuse the fastest and why? Give reason. . Vaporization It is defined as the change of state of a substance from liquid to gas is called vaporization.

CHAPTER 07 SOLUTION AND SUSPENSION .