Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirapalli

Supercritical Boiler and
Once through
Steam Generators
Design Aspects

HRDC – 1st June 2009

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirapalli

Contents
• Emerging Market Requirements
• Sub critical Vs Supercritical Boilers
• Once Through Boilers – Major systems
• Features of 800 MW Once Through Boiler

HRDC – 1st June 2009

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirapalli

Emerging market requirements

HRDC – 1st June 2009

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirapalli

Fuels for Steam Power Plants
Coal & Lignite:

• Abundant availability
• Lower cost
• Will continue as the main fuels in many countries

HRDC – 1st June 2009

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Emerging market requirements for Utility Units • High Reliability & Availability • Highest economically achievable plant efficiency and heat rate • • • • • Suitable for differing modes of operation Suitable for different quality of fuel Ability to operate under adverse grid conditions / fluctuations Minimum emission of Pollutants Lowest life cycle cost HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Tiruchirapalli Thermal Power Generation Higher cycle efficiency for : • Conservation of fuel resources • Reduction of Atmospheric Pollutants .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.SOX & NOX • Reduction in CO2 emission (linked to global warming) • Better economy in power generation where fuel costs are high and pollution control requirements are stringent HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Tiruchirapalli Measures to improve Plant Efficiency and / or Heat Rate Boiler side measures : • Minimum RH spray • Minimum SH spray (if tapped off before feed heaters) • Minimum flue gas temperature at AH outlet • Minimum excess air at AH outlet • Minimum unburnt Carbon loss • Reduced auxiliary power consumption HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Parameters for increasing Cycle Efficiency in PC-fired Units Increasing main steam pressure Increasing superheat and reheat temperatures Adopting double reheat Increasing the vacuum of condenser Increasing final feed water temperature. HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Tiruchirapalli Current Trends in Steam Parameters 1980s : Pressure increased from 175-180 bar to 225 bar. Temp raised to 565 Deg.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.C 1990s : Pressures raised to 285 bar.C not unusual today 255 bar 568/596 Deg C commonly used presently HRDC – 1st June 2009 .C 300 bar & 620 Deg. temp mostly around 540 Deg.

5% 170 / 565 / 565 1.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Heat Rate Improvement Parameters at Turbine Inlet (bar/oC / oC) % Improvement In Station Heat Rate 170 / 538 / 538 Base 170 / 538 / 565 0.0% HRDC – 1st June 2009 .0% 246 / 565 / 598 3.6% 306 / 598 / 598 5.1% 246 / 565 / 565 3.6% 246 / 538 / 565 2.3% 246 / 538 / 538 1.

Tiruchirapalli Reduction in Coal consumption and CO2 emissions Cycle parameters Heat rate improvement Savings in annual coal consumption Reduction in annual CO2 emissions Unit 500 MW 660 MW 800 MW Bar/0C/0C 170/538/538 246/538/565 246/565/598 % Base 2.6 tons Base 56000 96000 Base 61600 105600 tons HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.1 3.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Growth of unit sizes in India Rating Year of Introduction 60/70MW 1965 110/120MW 1966 200/210MW 1972 250MW 1991 500MW 1979 660MW 2004 800 MW 2006 HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Tiruchirapalli Increase in unit sizes to match increase in Cycle parameters Unit Size Steam Flow (t/h.) SHO Pressure (Kg/cm2) SHO/RHO Temperature (Deg.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. C) 30MW 150 63 490 60/70MW 260 96 540 110/120MW 375 139 540/540 200/210MW 690 137/156 540/540 250MW 805 156 540/540 500MW 1670 179 540/540 660MW 2120 256 568/596 800MW 2592 256 568/596 HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Subcritical Vs Supercritical Boilers HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Tiruchirapalli Steam generation process HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

For steam power plant. practical thermal cycle was suggested by Rankine. called Ideal cycle or Rankine cycle. but it is having practical difficulties.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Rankine cycle   The Carnot Cycle is theoretically most efficient. T 4 T1 p1 1 3’ T2 3 p2 2 3-3’ – BFP raises pressure from p2 to p1 3’-4 – Heating In feed heaters & economizer 4 -1 – Heating In boiler 1-2 – Work done in Turbine from p1 to p2 2-3 – Heat reduction in condenser S HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Rankine cycle with Superheater HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Tiruchirapalli Methods of increasing Rankine Cycle Efficiency  Raising supply temperature by super heating. Increasing the inlet temperature will raise the heat supply to the cycle more than the heat rejection.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.  Raising inlet pressure of steam : Increasing the pressure will mean increase in saturation temperature at which steam evaporates thus increasing the average temperature (T1) of heat addition. HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

 Regenerative Heating : Heating the feed water pumped to Boiler by bleeding steam from turbine. HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli (Contd. Also. more heat content of steam before IP Turbine.)  Dropping the final pressure (or temperature) at which heat is rejected. will improve efficiency..  Reheat Cycle : Reheating of steam in boiler after it has already expanded in HP Turbine will avoid moisture formation in LP Turbine.

Tiruchirapalli Trends in Operating Pressures Increased Operating Pressures are employed to improve Thermal Power Plant Cycle Efficiency Unit size increase has traditionally been associated with pressure increase Higher Unit Sizes (500 MW and above ) currently employ pressure cycles around 170 ata and above HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

C 540 540 540 Reheat steam flow t/hr.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.6 253.C 540 540 540 Feed water temperature 247.Cm(g) 155 178 178 Steam temperature at SHO Deg. Tiruchirapalli Boiler Parameters Raichur Bellary Ramagundam 210MW 500MW 500 MW 680 1625 1675 Steam flow at SHO t/h Steam pressure at SHO kg/Sq.2 1389.5 254.2 Steam temperature at RHO Deg.76 1387.C HRDC – 1st June 2009 . 597.7 Deg.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Boiler Water Circulating Systems Choice of Circulating system depends on Operating Pressure The density difference between water and steam provides the driving force for the Circulating fluid Higher pressures units warrant pumps to ensure circulation (Natural circulation not adequate) HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Types of Circulation HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Tiruchirapalli Natural Circulation Controlled Circulation HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

Tiruchirapalli Types of boilers  Drum type  Once-through type HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

the drum • Steam -water separation takes place in the drum • Separated water mixed with incoming feed water HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Drum type boiler • Steam generation takes place in furnace water walls • Fixed evaporation end point .

Tiruchirapalli Drum type boiler  Natural Circulation Boiler  Circulation thru water walls by thermo-siphon effect  Controlled Circulation Boiler  At higher operating pressures just below critical pressure levels.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. thermo-siphon effect supplemented by pumps HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli 210 MW Boiler – Typical Arrangement HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli 500 MW Boiler – Typical Arrangement HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Tiruchirapalli 500 MW – Arrangement Of Circulating System HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

Tiruchirapalli Comparison Of 210 & 500 MW Boilers 210 MW 500MW Furnace Double arch Single arch Upper furnace Open Panellete Type of circulation Natural Controlled Water wall tubing Plain tubes Rifled (63.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.5mm) tubes(51mm) 2 Trisector 2 Trisector (or) Air heaters 4 Bisector Mill arrangement Front or Rear Both sides or Rear HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Multiple-lead Rifled Tube HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.15 ºC) is an effort in that direction. there is a quest for efficiency improvement. HRDC – 1st June 2009 . Tiruchirapalli QUEST FOR EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT  Since the time thermal power stations have been engineered.  And supercritical parameters (Pressure above 225Kg/cm2 and temperature above 374.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli SC Steam generator Boiler Steam Pressure above the critical point 3 T Critical Point 221 bar Temperature 1-2 Pumping Process 2-3 Heat addition Rad. Heating in the Boiler 2 3-4 Expansion process in Turbine 4 1 4-1 Heat reduction in Condenser S Entropy Simple Supercritical cycle HRDC – 2 1st June 2009 .

HRDC – 1st June 2009 . this point is called Critical Point.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.  A Boiler operating at a pressure above critical point is called ‘SUPERCRITICAL BOILER’  A point where boiling water and dry saturated lines meet so that associated latent heat is zero. Tiruchirapalli Why Supercritical Pressure  The purpose of having high inlet steam pressure for turbine has already been discussed in this presentation.

Tiruchirapalli Pressure range Sub critical : Below 221 bar Super critical : 221 and above HRDC – 3 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

56 Kg / cm2  Temperature = 374.15 C HRDC – 1st June 2009 . Tiruchirapalli CRITICAL CONDITION Definition “CRITICAL” is a thermodynamic expression describing the state of a substance beyond which there is no clear distinction between the liquid and gaseous phase.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.  The critical pressure & temperature for water are  Pressure = 225.

Tiruchirapalli Once Through Boiler-Concept HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

inlet to SH outlet is kept same except at low loads wherein recirculation is resorted to protect the water wall system HRDC – 1st June 2009 . Tiruchirapalli The Concept The mass flow rate thru’ all heat transfer circuits from Eco.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

sensible heat is added in feed heaters. until water attains saturation temperature and flashes instantaneously to dry saturated steam and super heating commences. in effect. economizer and furnace tubes.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli SUPERCRITICAL BOILER  Supercritical pressure boiler has no drum and heat absorbing surface being. one continuous tube.’  The water in boiler is pressurized by Boiler Feed Pump. HRDC – 1st June 2009 . hence called ‘once through Supercritical pressure boilers.

CIRCULATION PUMP (LOW LOAD & START-UP) Once-through HRDC – 1st June 2009 . Tiruchirapalli Circulation Systems STEAM TO TURBINE STEAM TO TURBINE SH SH DRUM EVAPORATOR ECO.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. EVAPORATOR SEPERATING VESSEL ASSISTED CIRCULATION TYPE Drum Type FEED FEED ECO.

Tiruchirapalli Once Through Boiler  Once -through flow through all sections of boiler (economiser.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. water walls & superheater)  Feed pump provides the driving head  Suitable for sub critical & super critical pressures HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Tiruchirapalli Operating Pressure Range HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

Tiruchirapalli Once-thru Boiler Major differences from Drum type boiler : • Evaporator system • Low load circulation system • Separator HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Evaporator system HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Once -thru Boiler Evaporator system : • Formed by a number of parallel tubes • Tubes spirally wound around the furnace to reduce number of tubes and to increase the mass flow rate thru’ the tubes • Small tube diameter • Arrangement ensures high mass velocity thru the tubes HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Tiruchirapalli Spiral Tube Arrangement Features  Reduced number of tubes with pitch.  Increased mass flow.  Mass flow rate can be selected by number of tubes. HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

Furnace Wall HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Once -thru Boiler .

Tiruchirapalli Furnace Wall Designs Spiral Wall Configuration Vertical Wall Configuration HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Spiral Furnace Windbox Panel HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Vertical Furnace Wall Design Vertical tube furnace walls will provide all the operational benefits of the currently popular spiral design while significantly reducing the cost and construction time for the furnace and providing some reduction in pressure drop.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Vertical Wall Windbox Only a Few Bends at the Top and Bottom Straight Tubes HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. External support strap system is needed Fabrication and installation are more difficult. Tiruchirapalli Spiral Walls Furnace walls are not self supporting because the tubes are inclined. Above aspects tend to increase the cost. HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Vertical Wall Comparison  Spiral Furnace System Applicable for all size units  Benefits from averaging of lateral heat absorption variation (each tube forms a part of each furnace wall) Simplified inlet header arrangement Large number of operating units      Use of smooth bore tubing throughout entire furnace wall system One material utilized throughout entire waterwall system No individual tube orifices – Less maintenance & pluggage potential  Vertical Furnace Wall System Limited to larger capacity units (>600 MW depending on fuel)  Less complicated windbox openings  Traditional furnace water wall support system  Elimination of intermediate furnace wall transition header  Less welding in the lower furnace wall system Easier to identify and repair tubes leaks   Lower water wall system pressure drop thereby reducing required feed pump power HRDC – 1st June 2009 . Tiruchirapalli Spiral vs.

Ash hopper tubing geometry simplified Corners are easier to form Reduced pressure drop.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Vertical Wall Design . Transition headers at spiral/vertical interface are avoided.Advantages The tubes are self supporting. auxiliary power HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Tiruchirapalli Start-up and Low load system HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Once -thru Boiler  Low load circulation system :  At part loads once -thru flow not adequate to cool the tubes  To maintain required mass velocities boiler operates on circulating mode at low loads  Excess flow supplied by feed pump or a dedicated circulating pump HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli ONCE .THROUGH OPERATING RANGE HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

PUMP HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli LOW LOAD SYSTEM WITH CIRC.

Tiruchirapalli Once .thru’ Boiler Low load circulation system :  The excess flow over the once-thru flow separated in separator and – Returned to the condenser thru’ a heat exchanger or – Recirculated back to the boiler directly by the dedicated circulating pump HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

Tiruchirapalli Once -thru Boiler Separator :  Separates steam and water during the circulating mode operation   Runs dry during once-thru flow mode Smaller in size compared to drum in a drum type boiler HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

Tiruchirapalli Once -thru Boiler Advantages:  Better suited for sliding pressure operation  Steam temperature can be maintained over wider load range under sliding pressure     Quick response to load changes Shorter start up time Higher tolerance to varying coal quality Suitable for sub critical & super critical pressures HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

Modified Sliding Pressure Operation 3. Pure Sliding Pressure Operation 0 HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Sliding Pressure Supercritical Operation Pressure operation mode at boiler outlet 4350 1 psig) 3625 2900 2 2175 1450 3 725 1. Constant Pressure Operation 2.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Once -thru Boiler Requirements :  Stringent water quality  Sophisticated control system  Low load circulation system  Special design to support the spiral furnace wall weight  High pressure drop in pressure parts  Higher design pressure for components from feed pump to separator HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Tiruchirapalli Super Critical (Once thru) boiler enables :  Peak power generation with better TG  Quicker response to TG load changes  Better heat rate of lower loads efficiency levels HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

Tiruchirapalli Typical General Arrangement of Once Through Steam Generator Separators Collecting vessel LTRH HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Indian Coal fired 800 MW Steam Generator HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

0C Main Steam 2585 255 568 Reheat steam 2061 59. kg/cm2(g) Temp. t/h Pressure.53 596 HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli 800 MW Boiler Parameters Flow.

38) Volatile Matter % 24 Fixed Carbon % 32 HHV kcal/kg 4100 HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Fuel Analysis Proximate Analysis Design Coal Total Moisture % 12 Ash % 32 (Max.

Tiruchirapalli Features of Boiler Pulverised coal fired Once through. evaporator suitable for variable pressure operation Single reheat Tilting Tangential firing System Dry Bottom Balanced draft furnace Side mill layout HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

of Axial FD Fans Two Nos. Tiruchirapalli Features of 800 MW OT Boiler (Contd.) Dry Bottom Balanced draft furnace High performance Bowl Mills Two Nos. of Axial PA Fans Two Nos.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. of Axial ID Fans ESP to meet outlet concentration HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Side View of Boiler Arrangement HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Tiruchirapalli Plan View of Boiler Arrangement HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

Tiruchirapalli Spiral Tube Arrangement Features  Reduced number of tubes with pitch. HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.  Mass flow rate can be selected by number of tubes.  Increased mass flow.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Spiral Water wall Tubing Lateral Heat Flux Profile HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Transition Area Vertical Wall Tubes Vertical Tube Forgings Spiral Wall Tubes Spiral Tube Forgings 35 mm Vertical Tube Forgings HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Sliding Pressure Supercritical Design Spiral to Vertical Transition Area .Load Transfer Support Fingers SPIRAL WALL SUPPORT HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Tiruchirapalli Sliding Pressure Supercritical Design Spiral Wall Windbox HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.

000 lb/hr (2522 t/hr) SH Outlet Press: 3800 psig (262 bar) SH Outlet Temp: 1054°F (568°C) RH Outlet Temp: 1105°F (596 °C) Fuel: Sub-bituminous (PRB) HRDC – 1st June 2009 .Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Supercritical Boiler with Vertical wall Unit Mwe: 750 Max. Continuous Rating: 5.560.

Tubing 1 1/8” (28.D.Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tubing SIDE WALL RIFLED TUBING REAR WALL RIFLED TUBING FRONT WALL RIFLED TUBING SMOOTH TUBING FROM THIS ELEVATION ALL WALLS HRDC – 1st June 2009 . Tiruchirapalli FRONT WALL RIFLED TUBING SIDE WALL RIFLED TUBING Vertical Wall Sliding Pressure Supercritical Design SCREEN TUBES SMOOTH TUBING HANGER TUBES SMOOTH TUBING ARCH RIFLED TUBING 1 1/4” (31.8 mm)O.D.5 mm)O.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli Boiler Pressure Part Materials Tubing Oxidation Temperature Limits MATERIAL ASME ALLOY OXIDATION LIMIT Carbon Steel SA-178C/ D 454°C (850°F) Carbon-1/2 Mo SA-209 T-1A 482°C (900°F) 1 Cr-1/2 Mo SA-213 T-12 552°C (1025°F) 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo SA-213 T-22 593°C (1100°F) 2-1/4 Cr-1.6W-V-Cb SA-213 T-23 593°C (1100°F) 9 Cr-1 Mo-V SA-213 T91 649°C (1200°F) 9 Cr-2W SA-213 T92 649°C (1200°F) 18 Cr-8 Ni SA-213 TP304H 760°C (1400°F) 18 Cr-10 Ni-Cb SA-213 TP347H 760°C (1400°F) 18 Cr-9 Ni-3Cu-Cb-N SA-213 Super304H 760°C (1400°F) 25 Cr-20 Ni-Cb-N SA-213 HR3C 760°C (1400°F) SA-210 A-1/ C HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirapalli

Materials used in various pressure parts of
conventional boilers
Area of application

Material

ASME specification
Tubes

Pipes

Drum

Carbon steel / Low
alloy steel

-

SA 299

Water walls,
Economizer

Carbon Steel

SA192
SA210 Gr.A1
SA210 Gr.C

SA106 Gr.B
SA106 Gr.C

SH and RH

1 ¼ Cr ½ Mo

SA213 T11

SA335 P11

2¼ Cr 1 Mo

SA213 T22

SA335 P22

9 Cr 1 Mo ¼V

SA213 T91

SA335 P91

18 Cr 8 Ni

SA213 TP304 H

-

18 Cr 10 Ni Cb

SA213 TP347 H

-

HRDC – 1st June 2009

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirapalli

New materials for high temperature

A. Evaporators
• T12
• T23 and T24 : For 600 oC (SHO) /620 oC (RHO)

B. Superheaters and Reheaters
• T91 : for 550 oC (SHO)/570 oC (RHO).
• P91 : Upto 270 bar and 580 oC (SHO)
• P92 : Upto 290 bar and 600 oC (SHO)
• Austenitic steels Super 304H/TP347 HFG :

For

temperature 600oC (SHO)/620oC (RHO)
HRDC – 1st June 2009

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirapalli

Materials in typical 800MW

HRDC – 1st June 2009

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirapalli

Boiler Equipment Upgrades
500 MW DRUM TYPE

ELIMINATE
DIVISION PANELS
FLAT-BOTTOM
PENDANT
SECTIONS
SINGLE FIREBALL
FOR LARGE
CAPACITY UNITS
“SQUARE-UP”
FURNACE
50° HOPPER
SLOPE

800 MW Once Thru Supercritical
INCORPORATE ONCE-THRU
CIRCULATION SYSTEM, INCLUDING
VERTICAL SEPARATOR
REVERSE SLOPE
OF CONVECTIVE
PASS FLOOR
SMOOTH WATERWALL TUBE IN
SPIRAL CONFIGURATION OR
RIFLED WATERWALL TUBE IN
VERTICAL CONFIGURATION
WINDBOX TILT DRIVE
SYSTEM UPGRADE

TWO (2) REGENERATIVE
TRI-SECTOR AIRHEATERS IN LIEU OF
FOUR (4) BISECTOR
AIR-HEATERS

REPLACE RP MILLS
WITH HP MILLS

HRDC – 1st June 2009

Tiruchirapalli Summary CE/Sulzer (later ALSTOM) mono tube technology Sliding pressure in water walls over load range (rifled tubing affording water wall protection).Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Conventional vertical water wall construction Simplified startup system HRDC – 1st June 2009 .

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Tiruchirapalli HRDC – 1st June 2009 .