МИТ УНИВЕРЗИТЕТ Семинарска работа по предметот Англиски јазик 1 Тема: Introducing personal development programmes Изработил: Ментор: Ивана Огненоска 306/14 м-р Анка Веселинова (март 2016) 2 .

and assessment systems that support human development at the individual level in organizations. develop talents and potential. build human capital and facilitate employability. techniques. it refers to the methods. When personal development takes place in the context of institutions. Personal development may include the following activities: improving self-awareness improving self-knowledge improving skills or learning new ones building or renewing identity/self-esteem developing strengths or talents improving wealth spiritual development identifying or improving potential building employability or (alternatively) human capital enhancing lifestyle or the quality of life improving health fulfilling aspirations initiating a life enterprise or (alternatively) personal autonomy defining and executing personal development plans (PDPs) improving social abilities 3 . manager. guide. Not limited to self-help. programs. the concept involves formal and informal activities for developing others in roles such as teacher. tools. life coach or mentor.Introduction Personal development covers activities that improve awareness and identity. enhance quality of life and contribute to the realization of dreams and aspirations. counselor.

Personal development Personal development can also include developing other people. Personal development planning is the process of creating an action plan based on awareness. learning programs. 4 . analysis of opportunities and risks. an individual often functions as the primary judge of improvement or of regression. measurement and assessment of progress. and a curriculum vitae (CV). organizational or personal— requires a framework if one wishes to know whether change has actually occurred. biological. values. It is presumed in education that undertaking PDPs will assist in creating self-directed independent learners who are more likely to progress to higher levels of academic attainment. also called an IDP (individual development plan) or a PEP (personal enterprise plan). and a feedback system to provide information on changes. usually includes a statement of one's aspirations. "personal development" labels a field of practice and research. assessment systems. tools and techniques. personal development plans typically include a portfolio containing evidence of the skills gathered over a particular timeframe. higher education reviews. Personal development plans are often a requirement for employee CVs. strengths or competencies. education. Any sort of development—whether economic. and alternative plans (Plan B). levels or stages that define milestones along a development path. strategies or plans for reaching goals. As a field of research. As a field of practice it includes personal development methods. management journals and business books. but validation of objective improvement requires assessment using standard criteria. career positioning. In higher education. Human-resource management also uses PDPs. This may take place through roles such as those of a teacher or mentor. personal development topics increasingly appear in scientific journals. education and training. In the case of personal development. goal-setting and planning for personal development within the context of a career. The PDP (personal development plan). assessment or coaching). Employees who participate in business training are often asked to complete a personal development plan. relationship or for self-improvement. reflection. Beyond improving oneself and developing others. and stages or steps to indicate how the plan is to be realized. Personal-development frameworks may include goals or benchmarks that define the end-points. political. Personal development plans may also include a statement of one's career and lifestyle priorities. either through a personal competency (such as the skill of certain managers in developing the potential of employees) or through a professional service (such as providing training.

psychology and psychotherapy. the connotations of the word have spread and often apply particularly to education. associated beliefs. meaningful roles. Spend on things you enjoy doing. such as recovery. emotional support. business. identity. Looking at your transferable skills. or emotionally—often with a substantial psychological basis. on the Internet as well as in person. Concepts and terms originating in self-help culture and Twelve-Step culture. finding additional time often poses a problem. Practical Steps to Personal Development Organising your time. Devote to your work. experiential knowledge. commonly distributed through the popular genre of self-help books. It could be that the changes you are thinking of making are to ensure you have extra time toSpend with your family. each with its own focus. Self-help often utilizes publicly available information or support groups. From early examples in self-driven legal practice and home-spun advice. Overcoming barriers to learning a new skill. Organising Your time. where people in similar situations join together. According to the APA Dictionary of Psychology. leaders. dysfunctional families. potential benefits of self-help groups that professionals may not be able to provide include friendship. and codependency have become firmly integrated in mainstream language. Producing a personal CV or resume. As well as featuring long-time members sharing experiences. Many different self-help group programs exist. these health groups can become support groups and clearing-houses for educational material. 5 . techniques. while selfhelp groups can be seen more as peer-to-peer support. Groups associated with health conditions may consist of patients and caregivers. Undertajing skills appraisal. Those who help themselves by learning and identifying about health problems can be said to exemplify self-help. proponents and in some cases. and a sense of belonging.An individual can often develop a five-year personal development plan to organize personal goals and to make them achievable within a certain time-period Self-help or self-improvement is a self-guided improvement —economically. If you are considering making changes in you life. intellectually.

organizational skills. there are two newer ways increasing in prevalence: consumer to business and consumer to consumer. martial arts. such as: newly invented offerings such as: Fitness.Devote to your education. However. Such skills are known as Transferable Skills a term wich is usually associated with a skill set that can be easily transferred from one job to another. For example. it can be very useful for your own benefit and will help you appraise the skills you have gained through education. Transferable Skills Many skills that you have learnt and developed either through work. communication. such as motivational books for self-help. The business-to-consumer market The business-to-consumer market involves selling books. Some programs are delivered online and many include tool’s sold with a program. meditation. Analysing your existing skills will help you to identify both skills and personal qualities that could be used in another field. 6 . Personal Curriculum Vitae CV Drawing up a CV is not only necessary when applying for jobs. education or your personal life can be successfully applied to other areas of your life. The main ways are business to consumer. business to business. recipes for weight-loss or technical manuals for yoga and martial-arts programs. courses and techniques to individuals. literacy and numeracy problem-solving and understanding the needs of others or emotional intelligence. However for the purpose of a personal CV or resume for your own reference and as a way to access you skills a simple format is all that is needed. good listening skills are important in many aspects of life. voluntary work. training. Further examples of transferable skills are IT skills. employment. leisure and other activities. beauty enhancement. weight loss. interpersonal skills. The personal development industry Personal development as an industry has several business relationship formats of operating. traditional practices such as: yoga. In turn it will help to highlight skills that you should work on developing. There are numerous different ways of setting out and presenting a CV or resume for the purpose of applying for a job.

workshops. Life coaching. not to mention smaller firms and self-employed professionals who provide consulting. to improve effectiveness. motivational speaking. to manage work-life balance or to prepare some entity for a new role in an organization. recruitment and organizational strategy have entered what they perceive as a growing market. with the institution or by the institution and the results are assessed. Time Management The business-to-business market The business-to-business market also involves programs – in this case ones sold to companies and to governments to assess potential. The goals of these programs are defined. A partial list of business-to-business programs might include: marketing and market development time management courses and assessment systems for higher education organizations for their students management services to employees in organizations through: training training and development programs personal-development tools self-assessment feedback business coaching mentoring Some consulting firms specialize in personal development but as of 2009 generalist firms operating in the fields of human resources. individual counseling. universities and business schools also contract programs to external specialist firms or to individuals. With the acceptance of personal development as a legitimate field in higher education.A partial list of personal development offerings on the business-to-individual market might include: Books. training and coaching. 7 . e-Learning programs.

test. Levinson proposed that personal development come under the influence — throughout life — of aspirations. is that positive psychology is not simply the focus on positive thinking and positive emotions. an international trade group launched in 2013 to support professionals in the self-help industry. a concept that influenced management under the heading of work-life balance. the International Association Personal Development Professionals. making the important point that aspirations look forward and do not limit themselves to unconscious drives or to childhood experiences. Personal development in psychology Psychology became linked to personal development starting with Alfred Adler (1870–1937) and Carl Jung (1875–1961). With all this sadness and horror. or opposed to it. which he called "the Dream": Whatever the nature of his Dream. leading to a win-win situation. What is positive psychology? I n today’s world. terrorism and the draining continuation of war. discover and promote the factors that allow individuals and communities to thrive’ (Sheldon et al. creativity. Furthermore. Levinson's model of seven life-stages has been considerably modified due to sociological changes in the lifecycle. the focus is not just on how to make individuals happy. flow. personal growth and ‘the good life’ fit into the modern-day agenda? This textbook will take you through the new science of positive psychology. natural disasters. wellbeing. unprecedented homelessness. Carl Gustav Jung made contributions to personal development with his concept of individuation. narcissistic approach. Positive psychology focuses on wellbeing. where in the world does a science based on testing happiness. wisdom. He also originated the concepts of lifestyle (1929 — he defined "lifestyle" as an individual's characteristic approach to life. which he saw as the drive of the individual to achieve the wholeness and balance of the Self.. economic recession.Additionally. What we hope to demonstrate. Adler refused to limit psychology to analysis. Daniel Levinson (1920–1994) developed Jung's early concept of "life stages" and included a sociological perspective. thereby perpetuating a selfcentred. but on happiness and flourishing at a group level as well. It’s much more 8 . If the Dream remains unconnected to his life it may simply die. and with it his sense of aliveness and purpose. society is facing extremely tough challenges in the form of global warming. throughout this textbook. imagination and characteristics of positive groups and institutions. in facing problems) and of self image. happiness. We will look at how individuals and groups thrive and how increasing the wellbeing of one will have a positive effect on the other. 2000). a young man has the developmental task of giving it greater definition and finding ways to live it out. personal strengths. which aims to ‘understand. It makes a great difference in his growth whether his initial life structure is consonant with and infused by the Dream.

mastery goal setting. Indeed. which focuses on characteristics of the ‘good person’ (for example. who founded the University of Berlin (since 1949: Humboldt University of Berlin) in 1810.qxd 5/27/11 11:42 PM Page 2 Authentic happiness and the good life 3 Positive psychology concentrates on positive experiences at three time points: (1) the past. Flourishing is defined as ‘a state of positive mental health. Contrary to criticism. Arthur 9 . creativity). to thrive. courage. wellbeing). though. (3) the future. group and community wellbeing. tolerance. demonstrating the usefulness of the discipline for individual. a science that focuses on the development and facilitation of flourishing environments and individuals is an important addition to the psychological sciences. Above all.. to prosper and to fare well in endeavours free of mental illness. Some people emphasize personal development as a part of higher education. 2009: 391). made a statement interpretable as referring to personal development: … if there is one thing more than another which absolutely requires free activity on the part of the individual. talent. Indeed. rather than languish. which focuses on concepts such as happiness and flow experiences. which studies positive institutions. which encompasses things like positive experiences and states across past. existing figures show that only 18 per cent of adults meet the criteria of flourishing. (2) the present. altruism.than that. positive psychology has challenged and rebalanced the deficit approach to living while connecting its findings to many different disciplines.mh education. society and individuals a new perspective on existing ideas as well as providing empirical evidence to support the phenomenon of human flourishing. higher levels of self-control and continued perseverance (Howell. positive psychology has been able to give the scientific community. Introduction to Positive Psychology. work ethic) (Positive Psychology Center. the area of positive psychology is focused on what makes individuals and communities flourish. Not only does positive psychology distinguish between wellbeing across time points but it also separates the subject area into three nodes: ■ the subjective node. love. ■ the individual node. During the 1960s a large increase in the number of students on American campuses led to research on the personal development needs of undergraduate students. Thus. Unsurprisingly. positive psychology is not a selfish psychology. Wilhelm von Humboldt. flourishing has several positive correlates such as academic achievement. and ■ the group node. 1998). committing acts of kindness and enhancing social connections enable individual and societal flourishing. 65 per cent are moderately mentally healthy and 17 per cent are languishing. Personal development in higher education Personal development has been at the heart of education in the West in the form of the Greek philosophers. present and future (for example. and in the East with Confucius. 2009). At its best. wisdom. it is precisely education. filled with emotional vitality and function positively in private and social realms’ (Michalec et al. citizenship and communities (for example. optimism. whose object it is to develop the individual. happiness. Throughout this textbook you will see how inducing positive emotions. MHBK034-c01_p01-21. contentment and satisfaction. with concepts including optimism and hope. centring on wellbeing.

performance and / or achievement and to plan for their personal. working on team projects and going abroad for work or exchange programs. business schools began to set up specific personal-development programs for leadership and career orientation and in 1998 the European Foundation for Management Development set up the EQUIS accreditation system which specified that personal development must form part of the learning process through internships. and the Euromed Management School in Marseilles: students must not only complete assignments but also demonstrate self-awareness and achievement of personal-development competencies. As an academic department personal development has become a specific discipline. to improve the capacity of students to understand what and how they are learning. and to review. educational and career development. a personal-development consulting firm.Chickering defined seven vectors of personal development for young adults during their undergraduate years: developing competence managing emotions achieving autonomy and interdependence developing mature interpersonal relationships establishing identity developing purpose developing integrity In the UK. As an area of research. usually associated with business schools. In 2001 a Quality Assessment Agency for UK universities produced guidelines for universities to enhance personal development as: * a structured and supported process undertaken by an individual to reflect upon their own learning. personal development draws on links to other academic disciplines: education for questions of learning and assessment 10 . personal development took a central place in university policy in 1997 when the Dearing Report declared that universities should go beyond academic teaching to provide students with personal development. plan and take responsibility for their own learning In the 1990s. The first personal development certification required for business school graduation originated in 2002 as a partnership between Metizo. * objectives related explicitly to student development.

embrace the invigorating force of continuous learning and personal development". to know when to change course.. regardless of where you started out. be their own chief executive officers. defined as: … the desire to become more and more what one is. while job security and good working conditions would fulfill the needs of the mass of employees. It's up to you to carve out your place. responsibility for development shifted from the company to the individual. employees should recognize that their work includes personal development and ". Another contribution to the study of career development came with the 11 . The 1997 publication of Ghoshal's and Bartlett's Individualized Corporation corresponded to a change in career development from a system of predefined paths defined by companies. creativity and skills of all employees". Since Maslow himself believed that only a small minority of people self-actualize — he estimated one percent— his hierarchy of needs had the consequence that organizations came to regard self-actualization or personal development as occurring at the top of the organizational pyramid. knowledge workers must. to become everything that one is capable of becoming. In 1999 management thinker Peter Drucker wrote in the Harvard Business Review: We live in an age of unprecedented opportunity: if you've got ambition and smarts. Management professors Sumantra Ghoshal of the London Business School and Christopher Bartlett of the Harvard Business School wrote in 1997 that companies must manage people individually and establish a new work contract.psychology for motivation and personality sociology for identity and social networks economics for human capital and economic value philosophy for ethics and self-reflection Personal development in the workplace Abraham Maslow (1908–1970). On the one hand the company must allegedly recognize that personal development creates economic value: "market performance flows not from the omnipotent wisdom of top managers but from the initiative.. But with opportunity comes responsibility. you can rise to the top of your chosen profession. and to keep yourself engaged and productive during a work life that may span some 50 years. Companies today aren't managing their employees' careers. As organizations and labor markets became more global. proposed a hierarchy of needs with self actualization at the top. On the other hand. to a strategy defined by the individual and matched to the needs of organizations in an open landscape of possibilities. effectively.

Organizations may also offer other (non-investment-oriented) programs to many or even all employees. money-management. sports. indicating that priorities of work and lifestyle continually develop through life. research staff and perceived future leaders. motivation and loyalty. martial arts. The 2007 study of women's careers by Sylvia Ann Hewlett Off-Ramps and OnRamps had a major impact on the way companies view careers. or getting feedback from a 360 questionnaire filled in by colleagues at different levels in the organization 12 . Personal development also forms an element in management tools such as personal development planning. Employees gain access to these investment-oriented programs by selection according to the value and future potential of the employee. and they use the results to design benefits programs. Further work on the career as a personal development process came from study by Herminia Ibarra in her Working Identity on the relationship with career change and identity change. counseling Many such programs resemble programs that some employees might conceivably pay for themselves outside work: yoga. and competencydevelopment. usually defined in a talent management architecture including populations such as new hires. Typical programs in this category include: work-life balance. preferences and problems. etc. As an investment. personal development programs have the goal of increasing human capital or improving productivity. positive psychology. Proponents actually see such programs not as a cost but as an investment with results linked to an organization's strategic development goals. sales staff. perceived key employees. NLP. assessing one's level of ability using a competency grid. perceived high-potential employees. personal effectiveness. innovation or quality. time management.recognition that women's careers show specific personal needs and different development paths from men. Employee benefits have the purpose of improving satisfaction. Employee surveys may help organizations find out personal-development needs. Personal development programs in companies fall into two categories: the provision of employee benefits and the fostering of development strategies. stress management. Typical programs focus on career-development. health programs. teamwork.

the narrativized .uk/openup/chapters/9780335241958. the imagined. References Introduction to positive psychology chapter 1.The more people read them.pdf What is personal development. Self-help writers have been described as working 'in the area of the ideological..skillsyouneed.Conclusion Criticism Scholars have targeted self-help claims as misleading and incorrect. Skills you need http://www. 'Salerno says that 80 percent of self-help and motivational customers are repeat customers and they keep coming back whether the program worked for them or not'. Others similarly point out that with self-help books 'supply increases the demand. there is also an underlying armature of moralizing'.although a veneer of scientism permeates their work. In 2005... the more they think they need them.mheducation...com/ps/personal-development.co.html 13 .more like an addiction than an alliance'. Steve Salerno portrayed the American self-help movement—he uses the acronym SHAM: The Self-Help and Actualization Moveent —not only as ineffective in achieving its goals. mh education https://www.. but also as socially harmful..