1. ‘We have no right to seize Sind, yet we shall do so and a very advantageous, useful, humane
piece of rascality it will be.’ Comment.
Importance of Sindh for British
1) The conquest of Sindh occurred as a result of the growing Anglo-Russian rivalry and the
consequent British fears that Russia might attack India through North West region.
a. To counter Russia, the British Government decided to increase its influence in
Afghanistan and Persia, to use Afghanistan as a buffer region.
b. It further felt that this policy could be successfully pursued only if Sindh was brought
under British control.
2) The commercial possibilities of the river Sindh were an additional attraction.
Sindh was annexed in 1843 after a brief campaign by Sir Charles Napier.
The annexation of Sindh was totally unjustified because of the following reasons
(1) Sindh was annexed despite the fact that Amirs who ruled Sindh had just signed an agreement in
1839, highly favourable to British. Amirs had done no wrong and annexation was nothing but brutal
(2) Sindh was annexed in spite of previous assurances that its territorial integrity would be respected.
Annexation was open violation of the existing treaty.
(3) Charge against Amirs was that they could not possibly be genuinely devoted to the Company.
Napier and Ellenborough held certain vague charges of disaffection in Amirs based on evidences
which were unsatisfactory. They accused Amirs for complicity with Afghans during the First Afghan
(4) One of the major reasons for the annexation of Sindh was the debacle of British in the First AngloAfghan War (1839-42). The British had felt the need for a conquest to compensate the loss of prestige
after their debacle in the First Anglo-Afghan War, which is rightly called the Afghan misadventure.
(5) This was the only war in the annals of British Raj which cannot be regarded in some sense or in
some degree defensive. This war also shattered the myth of British invincibility.
(6) Napier was an ambitious soldier who saw opportunity in making a name for himself. Napier
provoked the Sindhis into attacking British Residency in Hyderabad and war ensued.
(7) The annexation of Sindh was morally indefensible. Amirs had faithfully carried out the terms of
the treaties and have been loyal to British. The annexation was universally condemned. The Company
Directors disapproved of Napier’s Sindh policy though they had no courage to restore Sindh to Amirs.
Sir Charles Napier had written in his diary before the fighting began: “We have no right to seize Sind,
yet we shall do so, and a very advantageous, useful humane piece of rascality it will be”.
For his policy of annexation, Napier was awarded 70,000 Pound and governorship of Sindh.
2. It is wrong to criticize Germany as solely responsible for World War I and World War II.
Discuss critically.
The foreign policy of Kaiser William II antagonized all the European powers. He reversed the
calibrated foreign policy of Bismarck. He was over ambitious, as he wanted Germany to play an
important role not just in Europe but in the entire world. This created suspicion in the minds of the
European powers. His blind support to Austria in the Balkan wars antagonized Russia. His emphasis
on strengthening the navy was a direct challenge to Britain.
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#9, Plot No.2163, 12th Main Road, Anna Nagar West, Chennai – 40.
Ph: 044-43525468, 9176 787980, 7200010122


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#9, Plot No.2163, 12th Main Road, Anna Nagar West, Chennai – 40.
Ph: 044-43525468, 9176 787980, 7200010122

9) Use of Talisman which shows their belief in evil power. castanets are the musical instruments that have been found. Other European powers were equally responsible for it. 9176 787980. 1) Rise of extreme nationalism. were major events leading to the Second World War. was one of the reasons for increased conflicts. where the commoners lived ) 4) Present day Foreign Trade Policy can be traced back to Indus people’s trade with Mesopotamia and Egypt. Geographical reason: 1) River Cauvery’s upper catchment area lies in Karnataka and Kerala. 2) City planning and closed drainage system. 4. 3. Anna Nagar . followed by the European powers. major use of the river is by Tamil Nadu and the river flows through a larger area in Tamil Nadu. tambourine. German annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938. Nazis. 7200010122 www. 10)Drum. Ph: 044-43525468. priest doll. Suggest solution as to how the agriculture practice should be modified between the states of the Tamil Nadu and Karnataka in the background of Cauvery river issue. the raised platform of the city. paved the path for the World wars. However. They also rejected the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. So. where the affluent lived and the lower part of the city. but all the European powers were responsible for the two World Wars. Germany wanted to create a ‘Greater German Reich’ of all the German speaking people.SMART LEADERS IAS Further during the first and second Moroccan crises. 5) ‘Dancing Girl’ statue is an evidence for a similarity towards present day art and entertainment industries. 4) Deteriorating diplomatic relations between countries further accelerated the militarization. But. was a major event leading to the Second World War.smartleadersias. Germany was held responsible for causing the First World War. 6) Similarly. Plot No. created a charged atmosphere of suspicion and distrust. not only Germany. 1) Use of jewellery – use of gold. Highlight elements of continuity of culture from the time of IVC to modern times. 9) Economic and political crisis in Germany. 3) Social inequality which prevailed at that time and present day (Citadel. was another factor determining the foreign policy of countries. Colonial rivalry among the European powers. bronze. shells. Page 3 of 21 #9. was the major reason for the rise of Fascism and Nazism. in Europe after French revolution. 8) Ideological conflict between Capitalists.Cemetery outside the city 8) Dressing pattern that can be identified from the dancing doll. 6) Pottery structure and vessel structure. and Socialists. 3) European powers adopted conscription system. 2) Crisis of Serbian nationalism was another reason. This led to rise of militarism in Europe. Similarly. 5) Formation of secret alliances. and started re-militarization. it would be wrong to blame only Germany for the two World Wars. 7) Burial customs. the unjust Treaty of Versailles sowed the seeds for the Second World War. Germany adopted an aggressive attitude. Due to these reasons. 12th Main Road.2163. 7) Policy of Appeasement. rise of Nazism in Germany. Chennai – 40. while lower parts lie in the plains of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry.

Solution: 1. The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989 led to better relations between the superpowers and. Promotion of sprinklers and drip irrigation to save water. Going for inter-state collective farming groups. Smart Agriculture practices: Going by agro climatic regional plans. unemployment. Scientists. 7. 4. since India is the largest exporter of virtual water. water intensive crops like high yield paddy and sugarcane should be replaced by millets which are nutritious and less water intensive. like the one recently carried out with Japan and Israel. recharge aquifers. increase productivity. 2. inflation. most of the republics that had made up the USSR formed the CIS or Commonwealth of Independent States. Highlight the changing scenario in the world order after the disintegration of USSR. Of the states that made up the CIS. which were unsuccessful and led to a large gap between the rich and poor  High levels of corruption and crime became prevalent o Emergence of the Russian Mafia  People missed the aspects of a controlled economy: o No longer had state-funded healthcare. 9. Ph: 044-43525468. The effects of the collapse of the USSR on Russia: In 1991. also go for international exposure. Politicization of issue. in December of that year. to find ways to recharge water. 9176 787980. 12. 12th Main Road. 8. construction of small dams.2163. 7200010122 www. Wells near the basin should be recharged and a check on sand contractors must be made and desilting of lakes and dams must be carried out. reduce erosion and also provide livelihood to indigenous communities. . chose total independence. so water is scarce. The Baltic States.SMART LEADERS IAS 2) The river is dependent on South West monsoon in Karnataka and Kerala so they receive good rainfall and plenty of water but the river is dependent on North East monsoon in Tamil Nadu which receives only little rainfall. prevent soil erosion. from 2025 we will have to face water crisis. Ad hoc approach to judiciary. Plot No. 10. Go for water harvesting. Gorbachev and President Bush Senior agreed that the Cold War was over at a meeting on a warship off the coast of Malta. 11. Farmers should go for less water intensive crops and save virtual water. assured employment. 6. Proper usage of land 3. collapse of wages o Introduced reforms such as privatization (selling of government services to individuals). however. Anna Nagar West. the Russian Federation was the largest and it had many problems facing it:  Economic problems continued under Yeltsin (1990 – 1999) o Low production. controlled prices/wages o Had wanted freedom but not expected problems of capitalism Mikhail Gorbachev’s policies Problems of Communism Page 4 of 21 #9. Chennai – 40. preserving rain water on land to save water. Adding to this. 5. Creating additional reservoirs to store overflows from a healthy monsoon year. Afforestation: Planting trees which are not water intensive on the banks can help retain water levels.

who then had to support the East Page 5 of 21 #9. and worked because the Communist Party maintained strict control and did not introduce a policy of openness.2163. Effects of collapse of USSR on world communism: Communism had collapsed in the USSR and Eastern Europe. East Germany was far behind West Germany. economically and militarily  NATO was expanded to include many former Warsaw Pact countries after Warsaw Pact collapsed  American-style capitalism became the dominant feature of the global economy  The world order shifted from bipolar to unipolar  The world was rid of the threat of nuclear war between the two powers  The collapse of communism led to the increase in the popularity of American democracy as the way forward  World organizations like UNO and NAM became increasingly relevant  The disintegration of USSR marked the end of the cold war No rival to US domination:  The CIS was ineffectual – Russia was weakened by her internal problems  Britain and France never fully recovered after World War II o Lost colonial empires o Economic problems  Severe problems in reunified Germany o Economically. .smartleadersias. Plot No. Chennai – 40. Ph: 044-43525468. but had not suffered a complete global collapse. economic reforms similar to perestroika were introduced in China. Anna Nagar West. 12th Main Road. In the 1980s. China. This meant that China replaced the USSR as the dominant communist power in the world. 9176 787980. For example:  US-led invasion of Kuwait during the Gulf War in 1991 o Iraq had invaded Kuwait and US led an invasion to liberate Kuwait o US could throw its weight around without worrying about the consequences (and still does) The West treated the collapse of the USSR as a victory for the following reasons:  The triumph of capitalism over communism  The triumph of democracy over totalitarianism  The US was now in the dominant position ideologically. This resulted in an economic boom.SMART LEADERS IAS Corruption centralized administration Socialist pattern of economy Absence of competition No private property Cold war politics Nationalistic aspirations of the republics like Slovakia. Vietnam and North Korea. Cuba. Estonia. were all affected by their loss of Soviet support:  Cuba remained communist and suffered economic problems  Vietnam called itself communist but was becoming capitalist and profited from war tourism  North Korea remained strictly communist and isolated itself and was of great international concern Effects of collapse of USSR on the power of the USA: The collapse of the USSR meant that the United States was in the dominant position as the only superpower and it no longer needed to worry about Soviet reactions to its foreign policies. etc. 7200010122 www. however. Vietnam and North Korea remained communist states.

M. 9176 787980. Mr. Plot No.smartleadersias. Anna Nagar West. but only more uncertain.Bharath.SMART LEADERS IAS o Rise of Neo-Nazism.A.Sadik.U. the world was in a state of complication and unpredictability. and the threat of nuclear war had not disappeared – many countries still possessed nuclear weapons (Israel. The division between East and West had been replaced by a division between the North (developed countries) and the South (developing countries)  Some of our IAS Toppers with Mr.’ There were many civil and regional wars. 7200010122 www. often directed against Turks Formation of European Union (EU) that included most countries in West and Eastern Europe: o Formed in 1993 o Common citizenship. Chennai – 40. 12th Main Road. racism and xenophobia. Ph: 044-43525468. Page 6 of 21 #9. Former Civil Judge and our Founder-Directors Mr. currency o EU was a potential economic force.Sagayam . Iran and North Korea) and there are fears that they may be used in regional conflicts. It was no longer a ‘bipolar world.Sivarajavel & Mr. but suffered from (and continues to suffer from) severe economic problems  China was now the main communist power in the world o Had successfully liberalized the economy in the 1980s o Reduced government control and allowed some capitalist policies o Maintained strict control – crushed Tiananmen Square protests in 1989 o The 1990s brought massive economic growth in China The ‘New World Order’: After the end of the Cold War. such as the India-Pakistan conflict.S. The world was not more united.2163.S.

feasibility studies of seven of the links indicate interlinking is viable • Interlinking will prevent floods in north and east. • Complete use of existing and current irrigation projects is another bonus • These projects will generate power up to 34.Karthikeyan G Ms.000 crore and it is time consuming Interlinking may cause flooding and water-logging leading to salinity of soil Natural habitats.Sruti Vijayakumar Mr.SIVARAJAVEL    Cons Cost of the project is a hefty INR 5. How viable is the inter linkages of Rivers in India? Pros • Irrigation of millions of hectares of land previously not irrigated is a plus. droughts in the south and west • It will lessen dependency on monsoon for irrigation • It will ensure water supply to farmers throughout the year • Interlinking rivers will promote national integration SOCIOLOGY OPTIONAL OVERWHELMS IN IAS 2015 – 16 FINAL RESULT NAME Ms.Ram Krishnan R Mr. 12th Main Road.S. Chennai – 40.SMART LEADERS IAS 6.Saranya ARI Dr.000 MW • Flood control and better management of natural resources.Vaithinathan R Mr. Plot No.Sarveshwaran . the National Water Development Agency has considered 16 links in major river basins.Prakash B ALL INDIA RANK 7 37 268 301 381 420 655 701 906 OPTIONAL Sociology Sociology Sociology Sociology Sociology Sociology Sociology Sociology Sociology ALL THE ABOVE SUCCESSFUL CANDIDATES WERE MENTORED BY MR. diverting water from areas where flooding is more likely to areas which constantly experience drought • For peninsular India.Balachandar D Mr. • A major plus is “water balance”. 7200010122 www. flora and fauna will be negatively impacted by the interlinking and may lead to ecological imbalance Page 7 of 21 #9.Pavankumar G Giriyappanavar Mr. Anna Nagar West.60. Ph: 044-43525468.smartleadersias.2163. 9176 787980.

Military schools were established. 7200010122 www. • After the war. China constructed a road through Aksai Chin. interlinking is not the solution Change in water depth and temperature can open way for invasive species into natural habitats Change in flooding patterns will impact lifecycle of species. who resigned his government post to allow for someone who might modernize India's military further. The McMahon Line • Months after the Simla agreement.SMART LEADERS IAS          Massive drought during summer months is easily rectified through water conservation. who was seen as responsible for failing to anticipate the Chinese attack on India. connecting Xinjiang and Tibet. Chennai – 40. • India's policy of weaponisation via indigenous sources and self-sufficiency was thus cemented Page 8 of 21 #9.smartleadersias. Ex: KenBetwa initial focus on interlinking regional rivers No successful model has been proposed for the interlinking of rivers yet 7. • The unpreparedness of the army was blamed on Defence Minister Menon. which ran south of the Johnson Line in many places. China set up boundary markers south of the McMahon Line. Anna Nagar West. the main lesson India learnt from the war was the need to strengthen its own defences and a shift from Nehru's foreign policy with China based on his stated concept of "brotherhood". forcing them north of the disputed line Mutual under current was the boundary issue Confrontation at Thag La IMPACT: China • According to the China's official military history. Plot No. It results in encroachment of tribal areas leading to loss of livelihood for the tribals There could be extensive ecological and demographical damage from interlinking Water grid may be a more economically viable solution than interlinking of rivers. the war achieved China's policy objectives of securing borders in its western sector. 12th Main Road.2163. as China retained de facto control of the Aksai Chin. 9176 787980. India • The aftermath of the war saw sweeping changes in the Indian military to prepare it for similar conflicts in the future. Efforts were taken to strengthen the intelligence agencies. • Indians reacted with a surge in patriotism and memorials were erected for many of the Indian troops who died in the war. and placed pressure on Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal . Aksai Chin • In 1956–57. Tibet – Giving asylum to Dalai Lama The Forward Policy The aim of this policy was to create outposts behind advancing Chinese troops to interdict their supplies. negatively People will be dislocated Interlinking the rivers is tampering with nature. Ph: 044-43525468. Access the developments leading to the Indo-China war of 1962 and discuss its impact. affect soil quality and damage and erode areas Interlinking rivers will impact allied industries such as fishing. • Arguably. India abandoned the Forward Policy. and the de facto borders stabilized along the Line of Actual Control.

meaning they have turned water into an instrument of war. In future.VAITHINATHAN IAS (262/500) AIR-37 2014 – Mr. The effects of the drought combined with the long-standing grievances against the Assad regime to create conditions for violence.SIVARAJAVEL 2015 – – Page 9 of 21 Ms.SELVANAGARATHINAM IPS (240/500) 2012 – Mr. Between 2007 and 2010. Chennai – 40. ALL INDIA SOCIOLOGY TOPPERS MENTORED BY S. RAMKUMAR IFS (198/300) #9. A case study: The current Syrian tragedy provides an important case study of what happens to a society under severe water stress. India's overall water availability is running dry.ATUL KULKARNI IPS (286/500) 2013 – Mr. In 2015. With growing populations. Anna Nagar West.smartleadersias. wars would be fought on the issue of water .2163. The world is rapidly running out of clean . The country's water crisis is often attributed to lack of government planning. Since the onset of civil war. Once conflict began. 7200010122 www. increased corporate privatization. NASA’s satellite data revealed that 21 of the world’s 37 large aquifers are severely waterstressed. rebel groups found willing recruits from those regions most affected by drought. industrial and human waste and government corruption. SHARANYA ARI IAS (256/500) AIR-7 Dr. 9176 787980. Ph: 044-43525468. alternatively flooding areas or deliberately withholding water in order to punish civilians or prosecute their conflict against other combatants. Plot No. The Islamic State has been the most egregious offender. the effect of which was to decimate rural communities and drive hundreds of thousands off their land and into Syria’s cities. The Syrian case provides one reason why the water-security nexus has been receiving attention from the foreign and security policy communities. Some of the largest lakes and rivers on the globe are depleting at a very frightening pace.BASKARAN IPS (197/300) 2011 – Mr. where they were marginalized. When the "Arab Spring" began in 2011. combatants have "weaponized" water.V. 12th Main Road. Syria therefore was an especially vulnerable society.Critically analyze. moreover. researchers indicated that this crisis is only likely to worsen.SMART LEADERS IAS 8. and increased demands from agriculture and industry. Syria experienced one of the worst droughts in recorded history. R. Approximately 40 per cent of the entire population of the planet has little or no access to clean water and it is being projected that by 2025 two-thirds of humanity will live in water-stressed areas.

smartleadersias. Chennai – 40.Sagayam IAS The development of temple architecture under the Pallavas can be seen in four stages.  The Pallavas introduced the art of excavating temples from the rock.  The tradition of direct patronization of the temples began with the Pallavas.  In fact. 9176 787980. Plot No. Anna Nagar West. Vallam. Pallavas:  It was a great age of temple building. Ms. Page 10 of 21 #9. the Dravidian style of temple architecture began with the Pallava . Analyze the developments of Dravida style of architecture from the times of Pallavas.U. 2) The second stage: the monolithic rathas and Mandapas found at Mamallapuram. 12th Main Road. Ph: 044-43525468.  Narasimhavarman I took the credit for these wonderful architectural monuments. Mamandur. Tamil Nadu Rank-1) Felicitated by Mr. Cholas and Vijayanagara empires. 7200010122 www. 1) Mahendravarman I introduced the rock-cut temples. Tiruchirappalli.SMART LEADERS IAS 9. Siyamangalam and Tirukalukkunram. Mahendravadi.  It was a gradual evolution starting from the cave temples to monolithic rathas and culminated in structural temples. Sharanya Ari (AIR-7.2163. Our Student. Dalavanur. This style of Pallava temples are seen at places like Mandagappattu.

this was the even higher cost in lives and money suffered during the first three years of World War I. 7200010122 www. that was made by the Lost wax method is a feature of Chola architecture. Muktheeswara temple and Matagenswara temples at Kanchipuram belong to this stage of .  The chief characteristics of the Vijayanagara architecture were the construction of tall Raya Gopurams or gateways and the Kalyana mandapam with carved pillars in the temple premises. Cholas  They were famous for developing Tamil literature along with art and architecture.  These temples were built by using the soft sand rocks.  Large mandapams contain one hundred pillars as well as one thousand pillars in some big temples.  Many temples are having pillared mandapams namely arthamandapa.2163. 9176 787980. Vijayanagara Empire  The temple building activity further gained momentum during the Vijayanagar rule. there was a growing gap between economic progress and social and political stagnation. For Russia. 2) In each country. Rajasimha introduced the structural temples. In France’s case.  Gopurams of these temples were meaningful. Ph: 044-43525468. The Cholas followed the Pallava style of architecture.  They built enormous temples. mahamandapa and nandi mandpa.  The horse was the most common animal found in these pillars. Compare the elements of similarities and dissimilarities between the French and Russian revolutions. b.  Inner side of the external walls and the sanctum were beautified. They built temples not only for religious activities but also economic purposes. a. for example. o Kailasanatha temple at Kanchi and the Shore temple at Mamallapuram remain the finest examples of the early structural temples of the Pallavas.  The Bronze statue of Nataraja at the Chidambaram Nataraja Temple. Anna Nagar West. 12th Main Road.  Also.  Example. Plot No.smartleadersias. The chief feature of the Chola temple is the vimana. These mandapams were used for seating the deity on festival occasions. many Amman shrines were added to the already existing temples during this period. 3) In the next stage. the Brihadeeshwara temple at Thanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram temple. Page 11 of 21 #9. The Vaikundaperumal temple.SMART LEADERS IAS  The five rathas.  The sculptures on the pillars were carved with distinctive features.  The Madurai Meenakshi Amman temple and Tiruvananamalai temple are examples of Dravidian style of architecture. signify five different styles of temple architecture. Forces leading to the revolution 1) Both regimes were burdened by heavy debts incurred from wars. The mandapas contain beautiful sculptures on its walls. Chennai – 40. 4) The last stage is also represented by the structural temples built by the later Pallavas. popularly called as the Panchapandava rathas. Virupaksha temple Hampi 10. this was the debt incurred by its support of the American Revolution.  Chola temples are noted for the sculptures and ornamental works.

• The Russian revolution took place in 1917. these were Louis XVI and Nicholas II. 3) In each case new political ideas aggravated these frustrations. 5) Both revolutions started out with moderate regimes that kept one or more of the old regimes’ policies to maintain the look of continuity and legitimacy. whose economic progress from Peter Stolypin’s agrarian reforms contrasted with the repressive rights and privileges of the nobles. 9176 787980. b. Anna Nagar West. Though such theories are being put forth. Pre-Revolution:  There was no pre-revolution before the French revolution. This was only done to show the king the society’s displeasure.smartleadersias. 11. Both –violent revolutions 4) Both countries had weak leaders who let events get quickly out of control. the elements of spontaneity dominate the circumstances under which the revolt erupted. which kept the king as a figurehead and honored the royal . it was the Duma. b. In France and Russia respectively. this largely came from the peasantry. Causes of the Failure: (a) The revolt was highly localized and restricted to North India. a. that government was the National Assembly. Chennai – 40. For Russia. Ph: 044-43525468. The failure of the revolt was largely attributed to the unplanned nature of the revolt. a. • There was a pre-revolution before the Russian revolution. a. Discuss the elements of planning and spontaneity in the revolt of 1857. This pre-revolution took place in 1905. Resulting Political System:  French revolution laid the way for democracy. b. In France. which kept Russia in World War I Both revolutions made tremendous global impacts What is the difference between French Revolution and Russian Revolution? Period:  The French revolution lasted from 1789 to 1799. Regions beyond the river Narmada in the south remained largely undisturbed.SMART LEADERS IAS a. But certain theories of English historians say that the revolt was planned with the messages of rebellion being passed around by chappattis and with lotus petals inside bread slices. For the French this was the continued prominence and privileges of the noble class as opposed to the more liberal ideas and progressive economic practices of the middle class. In Russia. Planning: The revolt is considered to have burst in a largely spontaneous and unplanned manner.2163. 12th Main Road. In Russia it was Marxism. 7200010122 www. In France these were the ideas of enlightening philosophers such as Rousseau and Voltaire. • Russian revolution laid the way for communism. Plot No. Page 12 of 21 #9.

Anna Nagar West. 9176 787980. Discuss the achievements of Bhakthi and Sufi saints of medieval India. 8) They also promoted the empowerment of women. The people of one religion tried to understand the people of other religion. Chennai – 40. It helped in spread of the regional languages. 7) They did everything to establish brotherhood. At most places the rebels were encouraged to revolt against the local zamindars and money-lenders and did not have a larger goal to pursue. They extended an active support to the British to suppress the revolt. The above points go on to demonstrate the unplanned and spontaneous nature of the revolt of 1857. Similarities:  Both the religions emerged around the Indo-Gangetic doab  The source of both the religion is Vedic religion and both are indebted to Upanishads  Both Gautam Buddha and Mahavir belonged to princely families and not to priestly families. Harmony between the ruler and ruled developed. 6) The preachers also spread the principles of non-violence and noble philosophy. They lacked a spirit of nationalism. 1) The first and the foremost result was that it minimized the differences and distinctions between the Hindus and the Muslims.SMART LEADERS IAS (b) The revolt failed to embrace all the sections of the society. Ramdas. What are the parameters the meteorologists use in the prediction of the Indian monsoon?  Eastern jet stream intensity and the withdrawal pattern of western Jet Stream is considered  SOI (Southern Oscillation Index) and the behavior of Indian Ocean dipole  The occurrence of El Nino and La Nina around the South American coast  Abnormal heating of Tibetan plateau and the eventual temperature rise and fall in pressure over Tibet  The observations and values obtained from the MONEX experiments  The high pressure region created around the Madagascar region 14. Some of the Sufi saints of Medieval India were Ramananda.smartleadersias. and the revolt that burst forth. 12. 2) The caste system gradually lost its previous importance as the Bhakti preachers disregarded it. Ph: 044-43525468. Kabir.  Both deny the existence of God. rebelling against the cartridges. (e) The rebels lacked a common cause and had different goals. (c) The revolt spread rapidly in an unprecedented manner. Plot No. (f) The introduction of greased cartridges caught the Indian soldiers by surprise. 3) The spiritual life of the people became very simple and more developed than before. Mirabai.2163. love and friendship between the Hindus and Muslims. 7200010122 www. 5) Many rulers patronized it and brought secular state policy. They were also against superstitious practices. Discuss the elements of similarities and dissimilarities between Buddhism and Jainism. Many of the native rulers and the big zamindars refused to join the revolt against the British. 13. was a completely unplanned one. Modern educated Indians were suspicious of the . 4) The movement had a tremendous impact on the literature and language of the country. Page 13 of 21 #9. (d) The revolt was poorly organized and lacked coordinated planning amongst the leaders. They feared the opposition of the rebels in bringing about social reforms. 12th Main Road. etc.

com . Both the religions came as a sort of reform of Hindu religion. whereas Anga. Both taught in the language of the common people i. Beno Zephine. Both had three main religious texts.e. India's 1st visually challenged IFS Officer Page 14 of 21 #9. Ahimsa is the prominent principle of both the religions.2163. Tripitaka.smartleadersias. Both Buddhism and Jainism put stress on right conduct and right knowledge and not on religious ceremonial and ritual as the way to obtain salvation. Our Student. Both had their own three gems or 'Tri Ratna'.SMART LEADERS IAS            Both denied the authority of the Vedas and the necessity of performing sacrifices and rituals. i. Jainism was divided into Svetambara and Digambara. Both have accepted the theories of Karma. 9176 787980. Both of them were opposed to animal sacrifices. Buddhism was divided into Mahayana and Hinayana. and not in Sanskrit which was the language of the priests. 12th Main Road. Buddha in Pali language and Mahavir in Ardhamagadhi. Right knowledge and Right character. Both of them admitted disciples from all the castes and from both sexes. Vinayapitaka. 7200010122 www. Both the religions were later on divided into two sects. Dhamma and Sangha.e. The Tri-Ratna of Buddhism were Budhha. Chennai – 40. N. Tri Ratna of Jainism were Right philosophy. Ph: 044-43525468. Suttapitaka and Abhidhamma pitaka were the three religious texts of Buddhism. rebirth and Moksha.L. Anna Nagar West. Upanga and Mulgrajitha were those of the Jainism. Plot No.

Franklin D. Recovery. (10) Propagation: Buddhism spread to foreign countries whereas Jainism did not travel outside the boundaries of India. 12th Main Road. (9) Royal support and patronage: Buddhism received the royal support and patronage of kings like Ashoka and Kanishka.2163.smartleadersias. (5) Regarding Conduct: Buddhism emphasizes the eightfold noble path whereas Jainism emphasises Tri Ratna or 5 vows (6) Language of Religious texts: Most of the Jain texts are in Sanskrit and Prakrit whereas Buddhist texts are in Pali. 7200010122 www. But according to Jainism. Reform. Page 15 of 21 #9. Ph: 044-43525468. Plot No. 15. What was Roosevelt trying to achieve? Roosevelt had three basic aims which directed his actions: Relief. Millions of ordinary Americans faced unemployment. The laissez-faire politics of the Republican Party that had helped create the economic boom of the 1920s no longer seemed relevant. to get the nation back to work. Jainism believes in fasts and severest penance. America plunged into a severe economic crisis.  Encourage economic recovery. Chennai – 40. All over America people were living in poverty. Banks collapsed as loan repayments went unpaid and unemployment reached unprecedented levels. The 1930s would come to be referred to as the Great Depression. 9176 787980. Sangha is proper for attainment of Moksha and they hate self-mortification and severe penance.SMART LEADERS IAS Dis-similarities: (1) Difference regarding the concept of Moksha : According to Buddhism. Jainism is stricter in this connection. Anna Nagar West. Roosevelt was determined to help them. Roosevelt. In 1932. But Jainism could never receive strong royal support and patronage. Moksha is freedom from miseries and can be attained only after death. The New Deal The American Depression years After the calamitous Wall Street Crash in 1929. Discuss the new deal policy of Franklin D. Industries and businesses faced low demand for their products as people tried to save what little money they had. (4) Soul: Buddhists do not believe in the existence of soul whereas Jains believe in the existence of soul in every living being. (2) Means of attainment of Moksha: According to Buddhists. a man attains Moksha when he ends all the desires and can attain it while living in the world. because he promised to tackle America's many problems. (8) Caste system: Jains opposed it but Buddhism opposed and attacked vehemently.  Help the victims of the Depression. Roosevelt knew that he had to take action to encourage recovery. Roosevelt. The Depression was a disaster for America. the American people elected the Democrat. (3) Ahimsa: Though both emphasize the principle of Ahimsa. (7)Their connection with Hinduism: Jain religion is nearer to Hinduism whereas Buddhism followed the policy of keeping away from Hinduism. . and poverty.

however. were over. Page 16 of 21 #9. of the government doing as little as possible. The kingdoms and empires of the old order often ruled over a variety of ethnic groups. Ph: 044-43525468. rulers began to see that nationalism could also unify masses of people. New government departments set up to implement Roosevelt's policies. unified nation-states.2163. For example:  Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA): This helped the poor in a number of basic ways. How did nationalism in the 1800s work as a force both for disunity and for unity?  Nationalist movements were capable of tearing apart long-established empires. one of the worst affected areas of the country. Roosevelt's measures had at least held together the economy of the USA and provided relief to the victims of the Depression. The New Deal identified problems such as banking irregularities. 9176 787980.  Public Works Administration (PWA): This created jobs by paying unemployed people to build schools.  Gradually. They could also create new. 16. Realistically. The need to raise a US army also solved the unemployment crisis. Although the actual amount of success of the New Deal can be argued over. This was replaced by the Works Progress Administration in 1935.  Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA): This scheme brought hydro-electric power to seven states in the Tennessee Valley.SMART LEADERS IAS Reform the economic system. and tried to address them. Chennai – 40.  In addition to this. empires would split and crumble. There were two key elements in Roosevelt's plans to repair the economic damage caused by the Wall Street Crash.  Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): Similar to the PWA. The whole economic system would have to be altered so that there would never again be a Depression as bad as the 1930s. The days of laissez-faire. Roosevelt's public work schemes also helped to ease the burden of unemployment. creating many jobs. Roosevelt decided that direct action and intervention by the federal government would be necessary. the economy of the USA only fully recovered with the outbreak of World War II. ending the practices of cheap credit from banks and irresponsible share trading on the Stock Exchange. Also. Dams and power-plants were built. this department provided jobs to large numbers of young men in conservation schemes in the countryside. such as giving clothing grants and setting up soup kitchens for the poor. Plot No. American factories and farmers reaped the benefits. 7200010122 www.  Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA): This tried to help farmers by controlling farm production and stabilizing prices.  Those who wanted to restore the old order from before the French Revolution saw nationalism as a force for disunity. Conservatives of the old order reasoned that if each ethnic group wanted its own state. while some European nations turned to extreme totalitarian political systems as a response to the Depression.  National Recovery Administration (NRA): This tried to help industry and factory workers by increasing wages and improving hours and conditions. With European industry and agriculture shattered by the conflict. Roosevelt had preserved the democratic tradition of America. bridges and dams. These . To achieve these objectives. Effectiveness of the New Deal It could be said that Roosevelt's New Deal helped restore confidence to American companies and citizens. Roosevelt's administration carried out major reforms to the American Stock Exchange and the banking system. It was an attempt to end the over-production and falling agricultural prices that had crippled American farmers. Anna Nagar West. 12th Main Road.

SMART LEADERS IAS Unity:   Authoritarian rulers soon began to use nationalist feelings for their own purposes.smartleadersias.R.  All these territory and people had for centuries been pawns in a political chess game for these empires. 7200010122 www.U. depending on victories or defeats in war and on royal marriages. Plot No. 12th Main Road. It gave rise to the nation-state that is basic to our world today. They built nation-states in areas where they remained firmly in control. Dr.2163. Nationalism worked as a force for disunity. ethnic unrest threatened and eventually toppled these empires.  Land and ethnic groups moved back and forth. shaking centuries-old empires. and the Ottoman Empire of the Turks—were a jumble of ethnic groups. the Russian Empire of the . Anna Nagar West.  When nationalism emerged in the 19th century. Page 17 of 21 #9.Sagayam IAS Disunity:  Three aging empires—the Austro-Hungarian Empire of the Hapsburgs. Serbian nationalism o Unification of Italy o Unification of Germany Our Student. Chennai – 40. Ph: 044-43525468. Tamil Nadu Rank-2) Felicitated by Mr. But it also worked as a force for unity. 9176 787980.Vaithinathan (AIR-37.

The following factors contributed for its rise: Phase I: People who follow the same religion have same economic. the British authority considered the Muslims. 1) Communal violence 2) Partition of India 3) Poverty 4) Formation of new government 5) Unresolved boundary issue 6) Integration of princely states 7) Conduction of election 8) Problems of the society 9) Refugee problem 10)Official language 11)Constitution-making 18.SMART LEADERS IAS 17.smartleadersias. He also generated anti-Hindu feelings in the minds of the Muslims and told them to oppose the Indian National Congress. During the Great Revolt of 1857. Phase III: Interests of followers of different religions seen as mutually incompatible. Ph: 044-43525468. antagonistic and hostile and cannot co-exist at all. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries communalism grew rampant and that led at last to the partition of India in 1947. a British administrator in his book. On the other hand. communalism emerged among them for their self-protection and survival. 7200010122 www. With the suppression of the Revolt. For gaining the favour of the Muslims. the revolutionaries proclaimed Bahadur Shah II as the Emperor of India. Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Aligarh Movement: In order to bring awakening among the Muslims. British policy of 'Divide and Rule': The British policy of 'Divide and Rule' was largely responsible for the growth of communalism in India. 12th Main Road. Beck: William Hunter. Page 18 of 21 #9. Plot No. he established Anglo-Mohammedan Oriental College at Aligarh which was later on converted to the Aligarh Muslim University. This policy of Lord Curzon continued with vigor in the forthcoming years in several ways by the British Government and made the Muslim communalism strong. their traditional enemy. the principal of the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh. He envisaged that to be safe. That is why he wanted to unite the Muslims which made communalism strong. Communalism refers to an ideology on which communal politics rests. Mr. the Muslims should back the British rule. The Indian Musalman appealed the British to bring a change in their attitude towards the Indian Muslims.2163. Discuss any three problems that India confronted on 15th august 1947. Chennai – 40. Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal in 1905 and created a Muslim-dominated Province. Anna Nagar West. Policy of William Hunter and Mr. the British and the Indian Muslims came closer and it contributed to the growth of communalism. Beck. The Government tried to deal with the Muslims with scorn and contempt. advised the Muslims to support the British Government for their safety. Discuss the origin and emergence of communalism in India. So. Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan started the Aligarh Movement. To educate the . Phase II: Socio-economic and political interest of followers of one religion dissimilar and divergent from others. social and political interests The early apathetic policy of the British: Conquest of India by the British ended the glorious rule of the Mughals. Thus. 9176 787980.

money-lenders and middle-class professionals generated anti-Muslim sentiments. He convinced the Viceroy that the Muslim minority should be given separate electorate. Ph: 044-43525468. the Hindu landlords. 9176 787980. Communal electorate: In 1906 Sir Agha Khan headed a Muslim delegation and met Viceroy Lord Minto. 7200010122 . Chennai – 40. 12th Main Road. They demanded that seats should be reserved for the Hindus in the Legislature and government services. This brought the Muslims closer to the British Government and made communalism strong.SMART LEADERS IAS Hindu communalism: Communalism among the Hindus also served as a background for the growth of Muslim communalism. In the Page 19 of 21 #9. Anna Nagar West. Plot No. In 1870s.2163.smartleadersias.

Impact: 1) 2) 3) 4) Spread the idea of patriotism and nationalism.R. 5) Through sheer courage and self-sacrifice the young revolutionaries were able to inspire a large number of . 7200010122 www. he wanted the partition of the country and gave a clarion call to the Muslims on 16th August. Plot No. • The revolutionary terrorist movement was largely the outcome of the same set of causes which gave rise to the extremist wing in the national politics. they had different views. The state. it was the root cause for Page 20 of 21 #9. With the gradual march of time. They therefore tried to create a revolutionary spirit among the people of the country and impart necessary training to prepare them for any strike. • The revolutionaries believed that the British rule was destructive of all that is worthwhile in national life. imperialism and revolution. B. It aimed at generating better opportunities for the educated Muslims in politics and to put a check to the growing influence of the Indian National Congress. So. Anna Nagar West. Mohammad Ali Jinnah and extreme communalism: Mohammed Ali Jinnah was an educated Muslim leader who preached that Congress was the Hindudominated organization and it would fail to protect the interest of the Muslims. R. nationalism. 12th Main Road. Ambedkar were visionary leaders. Chennai – 40. Dr.R. Ph: 044-43525468. the Muslim League demanded separate electorate and other facilities from time to time and the British Government fulfilled them. who envisaged amelioration of downtrodden. The Morley-Minto reforms and the Montague Chelmsford reforms gave vent to this communalism. Ambedkar had divergent approaches and strategies for the amelioration of the downtrodden. Took the revolutionary spirit to the commoners. their one common aim was freedom from the British rule. The revolutionary movement was not confined to any particular part of the country. 9176 787980. as according to him. 19. On Varna system. Though it is difficult to pinpoint the political philosophy of the revolutionary terrorists in different parts of India. He opposed it. 7) The revolutionary terrorists succeeded in arriving at the basic elements of a socialist understanding of society.2163. However they had divergent approaches and strategies for achieving this common goal. 20. Discuss.  Both Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Activities of the Muslim League: Nawaz Salimulah Khan established the Indian Muslim League in 1906.SMART LEADERS IAS forthcoming elections separate electorate was granted to the Muslims.Ambedkar saw Varna system as discriminatory.smartleadersias. • Only the revolutionaries wanted quicker results and discounted the value of moderates and low-grade pressure. 1946 by saying 'larker lunge Pakistan' (We will take Pakistan by force) and that day was famous as the 'Direct Action Day'. Evaluate the role of revolutionary terrorists in the Indian freedom struggle. morality and Indian culture. B.political liberties. 6) They organized a number of secret societies to fulfill their objectives. Thus communalism reached its zenith with the demand for Pakistan. Mahatma Gandhi and B. Embedded a fear among the British through their bomb culture. religious freedom. but flourished in different parts of India as well as foreign lands. The League was instrumental in spreading communalism among the Muslims.

While Mahatma Gandhi wanted to eliminate caste discrimination. B. discrimination will persist till there is caste system. Chennai – 40. 9176 787980.Ambedkar prescribed socio-political method for this.Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi had the same goal of ameliorating the downtrodden people.R. Anna Nagar West.R. So. Their strategies for eliminating caste discrimination also differed considerably. Dr. they differed considerably in their approaches and strategies. However. both Dr. Ph: 044-43525468. Page 21 of 21 #9.SMART LEADERS IAS     the emergence of caste system. We must respect everyone as no duty is superior or inferior. We should focus on changing the hearts of people to eliminate this discrimination.2163. For him. everyone performs their duties. Mahatma Gandhi supported Varna system. as he interpreted it in terms of ‘Duty’. inter-caste dining.Ambedkar adopted a revolutionary approach for annihilating caste system.R. Plot No. On caste system also they had different . 12th Main Road. B. but retain caste system. Mahatma Gandhi prescribed moral spiritual method for this. He suggested inter-caste marriage. everyone is performing their duty and there should not be any status attached to it. While. For him. Dr. B. 7200010122 www.smartleadersias. For him. He gave the concept of ‘bread labour’.Ambedkar wanted to remove caste discrimination by eliminating the caste system itself. though. He has expressed this view in his book – Annihilation of Caste. Mahatma Gandhi adopted a reformative approach towards caste system. B. However. Dr. He also favoured economic and political empowerment of downtrodden.R. education etc.