SMART LEADERS IAS

TEST – 2 EXPLANATION
GENERAL STUDIES MAINS
1. The poverty estimation in India has evolved into various methodologies which portrays the
extent of people below the poverty line in India. Discuss whether the poverty identification
and its eradication will be more effective if these methodologies targets geospecific regions
of poor than identifying poor households.
The objective of estimation of poverty is to identify those who cannot afford to minimum
standards of living and enable state intervention in providing livelihood opportunities.
But theconcept of poverty itself is ambiguous and its identification strategies has evolved
continuously since independence.
Beginning with the DadabhaiNaoroji’s poverty estimation in India till C.Rangarajan Committee
poverty estimation in 2012, the methodologies to identify the BPL has been many. It includes
poverty identification based on calorie requirements, purchasing power parity andcost of living. Al
these methodologies invariably identifies poor households based on these indicators.
It is well known that poverty is concentrated in pockets of rural and urban areas such as slums,
uncultivated agricultural lands. It thus becomes logical to arrive at poverty estimation at the level
of these geospecific pockets rather than conventional household level.
Challenges in identifying pockets of poor
 It necessitates a fundamental revamping of poverty indicators. It means a shift from
household based indicators to region specific indicators such as scale of agricultural
productivity, industries, etc.
 Such pockets may include those household who are not poor. This results in leakage of
governmental support and subsidies and further strain the purse of the government.
Advantages
 Region specific identification of poverty can be easier than identifying individual
households.
 Regions once identified as poor, can be specifically targeted for schemes and state support.
This provides avenue for tailoring the provisions of the scheme according to the needs of
the region rather than the traditional “one size fits all approach”.
 Monitoring of the scheme in terms of its implementation and output becomes easier.
The identifying of poverty is a politically and socially sensitive issue which should be humane
and just. It is also recognized that no poverty estimation based on households can be absolute
and needs constant revision. Region specific poverty and developmental issues is already
being looked at through “Special Category Status”. Such a large scale model, at the level of
State, can be replicated to the zones or districts or tehsils to identify poverty and lack of
development. At least, government should consider including region specific indicators, in
addition to household, to arrive at the poverty rate and further policy interventions.
2. “Like any other constitution, Nepal Constitution has loopholes. Suggestions are welcome,
dictation is not”. Critically correlate the Constitutional logjam and Economical blockade of
Nepal, with concerns of India.
Issues of Nepali Constitution:
 Provinces have been carved out keeping political interest and Demarcation does not follow
identity basis or geographic basis. The demand was for single identity basis federalism.
 Interest of Marginalized group have been not promoted
 Delineation of electoral constituencies in the Terai (where more than 50 per cent of Nepal’s
people live) which has not been done on the basis of the population in the plains;
 Other complaints relate to citizenship norms that disallow children of Nepali mothers married
to foreigners from inheriting Nepali citizenship.
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SMART LEADERS IAS

Women groups are also opposing for representations, citizenship and marriage issues =
created categories of citizenship = causing division = restricting empowerment
What are the concerns for India on recent Constitution?
 The present format of the constitution is not inclusive
 The past assurances have gone in vain.
 Aspirations of all regions and sections of society have not been met.
 India wants a stable Nepal; future instability can also lead to heavy in-migration in India.
 India has an open border with Nepal. Bordering states like Bihar had raised concerns of
violence in Terai region spilling over to India.
Economic blockade and Indian Concerns:
 The unofficial Indian blockade has led to petrol shortages in Nepal. Essential goods coming
into country from India are also blocked. People in Nepal are forced to cook in firewood stoves,
walk to offices, schools are shut, tourism has come down and public transport is in disarray
due to shortage of fuel. The blame game between the two countries has become bitter.
 Nepal’s new Prime Minister Oli Sharma has described the blockade of key border points with
India as more inhuman than a war. In the midst of this political crisis India has slammed Nepal
at the UN for human rights violations. Recently India called on Nepal at the UNHRC to
consolidate constitution building by accommodating all sections and emphasized that current
problems cannot be solved through force.
 India has also urged Nepal to investigate and take credible measures to prevent recurrence of
incidents of violence and ethnic discrimination in the country.
 Reeling under pressure, Nepal has warmed up to China to open border trade points for the
much needed supplies ahead of the festive season.
 Nepali government has every right to deal with internal unrest as it sees fit, but it should be
aware of the trans-national consequences of its action, given the open border that India and
Nepal have enjoyed for decades.
 While it is hoped the Chinese offer of oil will ease the immediate crisis for Nepal, it is hardly a
long-term and cost-effective solution for the country.
 The government and the major political parties in Nepal cannot shy away from their collective
responsibilities of addressing the political and constitutional issues raised by the agitating
parties.
It is the duty of the government and the ruling parties to reach out to the agitating parties, who
have recently joined the parliament, so that the problems can be resolved through negotiation.
3. Compare and contrast the features of democratic systems of India and USA.
Indian Constitution
1) Indian federation is not the result of an agreement between States.
2) There is only one citizenship for both the States and Union.
3) Each State sends M.P.s to the Parliament depending upon the population of the State.
4) There is no principle of equality between the states.
5) There are three Lists- Union List-(First List); State List (Second List); and Concurrent List –
(Third List). The Parliament can legislate only the subjects of the State List and Concurrent
List. The States are not sovereign. The Union can encroach upon State’s Lists.
6) No State can be separated from Indian Territory.
7) The Parliament, i.e. Center has been residuary powers.
8) There is only one Constitution for Union and States.
9) India achieved uniformity in basic civil and criminal laws, except personal laws in some
matters.

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there will be no Union at all. can separate itself with the Federal. decentralisation is vital to strengthen participatory democracy. 9176 787980. facilitate responsive governance and enable public service delivery.P. The Union is sovereign in their respective State legislative fields. 5) There is a clear division of legislative powers among Federal and Units.Ph: 044-43525468. facilitate responsive governance. irrespective of its population. 11)The word “Federal” is used in the Constitution very often. The Union is indestructible. if wants. The area. 8) There are two Constitutions. differing from State to State.s and in certain cases. 10)Union is based only the agreement. 7200010122. But the Union can not be changed. 14)No referendum is necessary. For the amendment of the Constitution.SMART LEADERS IAS 10)The Indian Union is an indestructible Union of destructible States.2163. Thus. When the States are separated. to diminish the area of any State. political and fiscal decentralisation was entirely left to the discretion of the State governments.another State Citizenship. 13)For the amendment of Federal Constitution. 2) There are dual citizenships. a referendum must be conducted. 4. Despite its uneven history in India. Simply the framers described “Union”. 7) The States have residuary powers. extent etc. 4) There is principle of equality between the States. 12)The Supreme Court of America has not been given such type of appellate jurisdiction. identity of a state can be changed by Parliament. Any State can separate at any time. ensure greater accountability and enable public service delivery according to diversified preferences of the people.  There are some who advocate decentralisation as an end itself while others take this as a means to strengthen the democratic fabric through participatory governance and responsive and accountable public service delivery. and to form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by uniting any territory to a partnership the of any State(Article 3) 12)The word “Federal” is not at all used in our Constitution. The Union and as well as each Unit is sovereign in its sphere. 9) There are different civil and criminal laws. to increase the area of any State. 11)The Central Government has been the power to form a new State. Anna Nagar West. Amendment to the Constitution can be made only with the consent of the people. 12th Main Road. and still now it is used very frequently. it is called that the American Union is an indestructible Union of indestructible States. Each is confined to its own sphere. Chennai – 40. Hence. American Constitution 1) American Federation is the result of an agreement between States. Strictly one can not trench upon the other’s area of power.one Federal Citizenship. 3) Each State sends equal number of representatives to the Senate. being the relation is based only the ‘Agreement ’. to alter the name of any State. 6) The State. to alter the boundaries of any State.com . the people need not give their consent. including appellate (Civil and criminal) jurisdiction. It is sufficient to get the majority of M. Plot No. administrative. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www.  The Constitution placed local governance in the State List (Entry 5). The possibility of greater visibility and linkage between revenue-expenditure decisions is supposed to ensure greater responsiveness and accountability. The States can be destructible. Page 3 of 22 #9. 13)The Supreme Court has been given very wide powers. Discuss  The rationale for decentralisation comes from the need to strengthen participatory democracy.smartleadersias. the majority of the State legislatures.

SMART LEADERS IAS        There are five important issues for understanding the legal framework for the decentralisation process in the country. the framework needs to be evolved to accommodate the demand for decentralisation.S. there should be clear mechanisms to ensure that States comply with the constitutional provisions. the constitutional framework does not (and perhaps should not) prescribe any pattern. Secondly.S. 9176 787980. Plot No.com . Most States have not complied with the requirement of having to appoint gram sabhas (243 A).Sadik.Bharath. 7200010122. First. Former Civil Judge and our Founder-Directors Mr.Sagayam IAS. Some of our IAS Toppers with Mr. it is important for intellectuals and the press to pressurise the States to comply with the Constitutional provisions like creation of planning authorities and appointment. Page 4 of 22 #9.Ph: 044-43525468. First.smartleadersias. on the financial side.2163. sustainable decentralisation comes from the demands of the people and advocacy should focus on a decentralisation agenda. Second. Chennai – 40. there are no easy mechanisms to ensure compliance of even the prescribed provisions of the Constitution by the States.M. local bodies do not have any independent revenues.A. Indeed. Even within the existing framework. ward committees (243 sabhas) district planning committees and metropolitan planning committees. 12th Main Road.Sivarajavel & Mr. Fourth.U. There is no separate list of tax bases assigned to them in the Constitution and they have to depend on the State governments to levy the taxes that the States choose to devolve. Third. particularly in the appointment and implementation of the recommendations of the SFCs. the Constitution assigns decentralisation including funding entirely to the discretion of State governments. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. Mr. it is important to have clarity in the assignment of functions and the local governments should have clear and independent sources of finance. Anna Nagar West. standard or model of decentralisation which again is left to the discretion of State governments. Third.

Since LPG gas is major source of fuel for most Indian kitchens thus their price matters a lot to common man.to exhort the better off sections of society to forego their LPG subsidy that can be utilised in providing subsidised LPG connections to the poor. the Government has launched the ‘GiveItUp’ campaign which is aimed at motivating LPG users who can afford to pay the market price for LPG to voluntarily surrender their LPG subsidy. The ‘Giveitup” campaign is a multipronged campaign to reduce the subsidy burden and to target the deserved families for LPG subsidies. comes this direct appeal from the PM. there can be no legal issues for cutting down the LPG subsidies. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. Indian diplomacy appears to have changed by mentioning Baluchistan and talking openly about the alleged human rights violations in the region.  The consistent high price of LPG despite a considerable decrease in international market demotivates the customers to let go off their subsidies. Plot No. Chennai – 40. Analyse the campaign for its strength and weakness and justify whether it will succeed in realizing its objective. easier with an assurance that the surrendered LPG subsidized can be received later upon request.  The lack of details and inadequate publication about this campaign led to low reach and poor reception. 7200010122. their other social benefits from the government will be automatically suspended.  The LPG subsidy is a much better candidate for 'targeted' subsidies (than.Ph: 044-43525468.com .SMART LEADERS IAS 5. say. Strength of the scheme  The PM through his slogan evokes a moral conscience of well-to-do families to surrender their LPG connections voluntarily and play a direct role in nation building. the uniques is its voluntariness and linking this campaign to corporate social responsibility motivating their employees to surrender their subsidized LPG connections. with the exception of Bangladesh Page 5 of 22 #9. This connects individual action to the overall growth of the country which was never tried before. According to sources at the petroleum ministry. Is this the beginning of a new diplomacy? Comment  India has never been drawn into Pakistan’s internal troubles or territorial disputes with other countries. The subsidy saved can be used for development activities thereby benefitting all citizens. the next step after achieving the one million mark would be to leverage the campaign on the social media. 40. 6. “The Give It Up Campaign” motivates well-to-do citizens to voluntarily surrender their subsidized LPG connection and purchase it in market price.  The campaign brings immense financial relief to the government by reducing the subsidy burden on LPG cylinders.smartleadersias. It is a very well-known fact that LPG subsidies hold major share in government expenditures because of which UPA 2 government reduced number of subsidized cylinder per connection to 6 which was later on changed to 12 due to political pressure. After the appeal of the ex-PM of India Lal Bahadur Shastri to the people to donate for the cause of the Indo-Pak War of 1965.000 crores during 2013-14. Accordingly. Anna Nagar West.  As it is a voluntary campaign.2163. LPG is a highly subsidized commodity in India and the subsidy burden was more than Rs. pleads only to above middle class families which will not affect the soul of the scheme."give it up" .  The campaign while aims to target the LPG subsidies to poor and deserved families. The government should make the campaign more popular. Prime Minister Narendra Modi coined the slogan . 9176 787980. 12th Main Road. the food subsidy) since the majority of households that benefit from it currently are those who can afford it anyway Weakness of the scheme  There is a popular negative perception about foregoing the subsidies that once they let go off.

Ph: 044-43525468. Change in Foreign policy?  Baluchistan Issue – Not new for India but this time more aggressively taken. The change is likely rooted in New Delhi’s recent moves toward equidistance between Beijing and Washington. What are the reasons for Beijing’s composure? Critically discuss  India – US Engagements are Obama as Chief guest for Republic day celebrations.  Global supporter of Human Rights can’t be a mute spectator of violation of the same in the next door. For example. Iran would take a “dim view” of India supporting Balochistan.  It shows India’s willingness to increase the cost Pakistan will incur for supporting terrorism in India  India can do a lot in terms of highlighting human rights violations in Balochistan.  U. 7200010122.  The stakes and risks are high with both India and Pakistan being nuclear powers  It is not an “attractive option” for India to indulge in a payback in Balochistan.S.SMART LEADERS IAS Delhi has in the past not backed claims in Kabul disputing the legitimacy of the Durand Line that separates Afghanistan from Pakistan. Beijing’s composure is based on three factors: (1) Indian foreign policy is independent and free of strategic commitments to other countries. Plot No. as the Chinese press coverage of Modi’s visit was void of hawkish language.  7. China is not too worried by expanding US-India Ties. Iran fears Baloch nationalism. but this movement has evoked limited response in China. LEMOA. most prominently the South China Sea.  India. Conclusion: Thus Panchsheel and Gujral doctrine of non interference is still India’s diplomatic tool though eventual departure to correct course and putting relations in right track should not be regarded as big departure. repeated visited of Modi to Washington.  Balochistan’s Makran coast is where China’s economic corridor through Pakistan connects with the Arabian Sea. no interference in Internal matter of countries  India is being more vocal about the Pakistan occupied Kashmir and try to shift the discourse from J&K to PoK. 12th Main Road. Benefits to India are not well defined and it would be difficult to predict what Pakistan’s reaction would be. Islamabad has also offered the Gwadar port as a naval base for China. Page 6 of 22 #9. Also.2163. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. India has also avoided embracing the secessionist movements in Balochistan and Sindh. is the site of frequent contestation between Tehran and Islamabad.  China remained calm about the deepening Indo-U. ties.  Even though it can be a risky affair but now in diplomatic arena India is taking bold steps. with India supporting Balochistan.smartleadersias.  Generally. (2) India has been cautious in its handling of China’s differences with the United States. India. It even backed Pakistan’s 1973 campaign. and (3) The focus of Chinese foreign policy is to the East and not the South. Chennai – 40. its case on terror might stand diminished. the weakest of these three countries.  International consequences to this strategic shift as well.S.com . in the recent phase of vibrant diplomacy trying to play an assertive power politics in the region. Anna Nagar West. and draws Sunni dissident groups fighting Iran’s Islamic Republic. seems to be engaged in a hedging strategy to gain concessions from its two more powerful counterparts.-India ties over the past few years have become increasingly close. 9176 787980. with the world seeing its actions as reprehensible. India can additionally join the unfolding Great Game in Balochistan — which hosts the Afghan Taliban fighting the Kabul government.

S. This further implies that China does not have to worry about India’s engagement with Washington. Ms.Sagayam IAS Page 7 of 22 #9. Still. India does not fully depart from the U. able to shift incrementally one way or the other depending on their actions’ impact on India. Tamil Nadu Rank-1) Felicitated by Mr. India supports the Chinese position only partially. but there is nothing to suggest that New Delhi backs China’s territorial claims in the area.U. India’s categorical refusal of the U.  By taking an ambivalent stand on the internationalization of the disputes. a communique issued by Indian Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj and her Chinese and Russian counterparts in April 2016. the fact that LEMOA was not signed during the June 2016 Modi visit and the sluggish development of the more consequential Communications and Information Security Memorandum of Agreement (CISMOA) suggests India will be cautious about engaging in strategic agreements with the United States.  Fourth.2163. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. among other things. the article argues that the statement was not specific enough to be understood in this way. 7200010122.  Third.S.Ph: 044-43525468.  Second.smartleadersias. it would allow the signatories to use each other’s bases for “resupplies. if LEMOA is concluded. Anna Nagar West. India thus walks a careful line between these two powerful states. 9176 787980.” and thus mark a significant development in Indo-U. 12th Main Road. suggestion of joint patrols in the Indian Ocean and the Asia-Pacific seems to be a critically important step that allayed Chinese concerns about India teaming up with the United States.  Finally. Our Student.SMART LEADERS IAS  First of all. military ties. This argument shows a striking parallel with the Chinese point of view related to the situation in that area. While the Indian prime minister’s vow of assistance in safeguarding the “freedom of navigation on seas” could be interpreted as a hidden reference to China’s behaviour in the issue. stance by reiterating its commitment to the freedom of navigation. Plot No.S. On the other hand. Chinese media accentuated that bilateral ties are improving and that India does not have hostile feelings against China. Chennai – 40.com . takes a stand against the internationalization of the South China Sea disputes and advocates that the issue should be solved by the involved parties. Sharanya Ari (AIR-7. the high-profile exchanges between China and India during Indian Defense Minister Manohar Parrikar and National Security Advisor Ajit Doval’s visits to Beijing seem to have succeeded in mutual trust-building. repair and rest.

2163. is said.  The challenge to the validity of Section 499 and 500 of the IPC was undoubtedly the biggest free speech issue to have arisen in recent times. by words either spoken or intended to be read. 12th Main Road. to defame that person. or with both. This truth-seeking endeavour marks an important philosophical justification for any state to recognize free speech as an inalienable right of its citizenry. makes or publishes any imputation concerning any person intending to harm.  The SC passed its judgement on a series of petition on Criminal defamation filed by famous politicians like A Kejriwal.  Such obfuscations prohibit the freedom of speech from performing one of its most essential functions: the pursuit of truth. In its judgement supreme court upheld the Sec 499 and 500 of IPC which amounts to criminal defamation and ruled that right to freedom of speech and expression is not absolute. Plot No. the court also relied on the expanded meaning of the right to life under Article 21. and Rahul Gandhi.  Positive side of the judgement: a.  The criminal defamation judgement is disappointing and reiterates the Supreme Court’s lukewarm commitment to free speech in recent times.  Sec 66A of IT Act was stuck down because it violates freedom of expression.  Section 500: Whoever defames another shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years. Defamation in India is both a civil and a criminal offence. 9176 787980. Anna Nagar West.  ‘defamation’ is one of the reasonable restrictions to free speech envisaged in the Constitution.  Present structure of law imposes arbitrary restrictions instead of reasonable restrictions and thus there will be regular arrests even for criticizing government. This judgement is a stern message to all those who consider freedom of speech as absolute and to think twice before defaming a person.com .  Section 499: Whoever. b. If defamation occurs in spoken words or gestures (or other such transitory form) then it is termed as slander and the same if in written or printed form is libel. Apart from Article 19(2). These two judgements are contradictory in nature. but this is not enough to justify retaining its criminal component. which has been interpreted as the right to live with dignity. an individual must have effective legal recourse. It is no answer to say that such legal recourse is available under the civil law.smartleadersias. This article deals with the issues associated with the supreme court ruling and its impact on free speech Page 8 of 22 #9. for the protection of his/her dignity. therefore. Key points:  Defamation refers to the act of publication of defamatory content that lowers the reputation of an individual or an entity when observed through the perspective of an ordinary man. 7200010122. except in the cases hereinafter expected. Subramanian Swamy. This judgement is viewed by some with positivity while others view this as an effective tool to silence dissent and free speech. Structure of section 499/500 dates back to 1860 and thus the law is not in tune with the present trends of promoting free speech  The court has sought to create an artificial balance between the fundamental right of free speech under Article 19(1) (a) and the right to reputation as part of one’s right to life under Article 21. or with fine. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www.Ph: 044-43525468. In this case the preference was not given to reputation of the person. Critically discuss the battle between "Right to reputation and Right to freedom of expression” in India today in the light of Supreme Court judgements. the court strikes down amendments by a democratically elected Parliament but upholds a colonial law is highly regressive. the reputation of such person. because the civil law is expensive to invoke and a defamed person in addition has to bear the burden of paying court fees on a civil suit. or by signs or by visible representations. Acts can be misused to settle political scores and thwart others’ freedom of speech. Chennai – 40. or knowing or having reason to believe that such imputation will harm.SMART LEADERS IAS 8. Defamation affects an individual’s dignity and.

U.Sagayam IAS Page 9 of 22 #9. Chennai – 40.Ph: 044-43525468. Politicians need to play politics in a more sensible and mature way to develop the country and not to set personal scores or with power motive. This judgement has come at a time when the judiciary is overburdened with crores of pending cases.com . Plot No. our entire discourse should focus on how to get these people out of poverty than settling insults in courts.smartleadersias. India is a country with still millions of people deeply engrained in poverty. Politics in a democracy should be fought by having constructive criticism of each other and not by maligning a person in a public domain. This being the crux of the judgement has to be viewed with more prudence as it tries to strike a balance between Freedom of speech & expression and individual reputation. 9176 787980.SMART LEADERS IAS  The Supreme Court has categorically mentioned through its judgement that the right to freedom of expression cannot be used to malign the reputation of the person. 7200010122. The motive to defame a person may be to gain undue advantage however there are instances where people have used this draconian section of 499 & 500 to malign the reputation of a person which is accumulated over years with much hard work and perseverance. The Supreme Court in its wisdom has given its judgement in true sense at a time when we need to focus on development and not on defamation.  Finally with this judgement the court has cautioned indirectly to not to take judiciary for granted in solving issues like defamation which are of not that important.2163. Our Student.  Through this judgement SC has given a right message to all the people who use defamation as per their whims and fancies.Vaithinathan (AIR-37) Felicitated by Mr. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. Anna Nagar West. This judgement is a stern message to all those who consider freedom of speech as absolute and to think twice before defaming a person. Media which expresses the above concern has a view that people with deep pockets can go on and on by dragging the person to court considering all forms of criticism as defaming.R. Dr. With the new judgement media needs to be more diligent and prudent while reporting issues that have serious implications. 12th Main Road.  However on the other side of the discourse they are sections arguing that it curtails any form of criticism.

The Rajasthan government also had imposed similar conditions in 2014 just before the panchayat elections in that state. Bottlenecks in attaining the better health index:  Poor implementation of the schemes at the ground level targeting the nutritional security for the children ie. according to it. 7200010122. The Act also stipulates that the candidate give a self-declaration that he/she has a functional toilet at their place of residence. Excluded from participation . district central cooperative bank or district primary cooperative agriculture and rural development bank. the minimum qualification shall be middle pass and for an S. As per NFHS-4 data released in 2016 revealed a grim picture about the health indicators for the children. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. the exclusion of women was more than 90%.com .  It is very clear that it discriminates against the poor. including Dalits and women.  The exclusionary measure is totally disastrous and anathema to the spirit behind the 73rd constitutional amendment as it goes against the interest of those very downtrodden sections for whose empowerment the landmark changes were brought about in 1992.2163.s). Is insisting on formal academic qualifications for elected representatives harnesses or hampers the spirit of democracy? Give your opinion in the light of the Haryana Panchayati Raj (Amendment) Act. 12th Main Road. 9176 787980.C.  The All India Democratic Women’s Association (AIDWA) was critical of the Supreme Court order which. the marginalized and women and denies them their fundamental right to contest an election  The Supreme Court’s judgment upholding the amendment has placed the right to vote and right to contest on a different footing.  The extent of the exclusion in relation to Scheduled Caste (SC) women was more than 80% while in a district like Mewat which is dominated by Meo Muslims.  According to Section 175 of the Act.SMART LEADERS IAS 9. For a woman candidate or a candidate belonging to the Scheduled Castes (S.34% cut in mid-day meal scheme. Page 10 of 22 #9. ICDS and MDM.C. 37% of under five children are stunted.  Haryana Panchayat Raj act and Haryana Panchayat act had been amended by laying down some qualifications for contesting the rural and urban local bodies elections. 10. woman candidate contesting for the post of panch.smartleadersias. Anna Nagar West. Plot No.  Reduction in budgetary allocation of about in 2016 budget that promotes nutritional food availability to the children. According to the survey. A budgetary cut of about 7% in Integrated Child Development scheme (ICDS) and 0.Ph: 044-43525468.Violation of equality of opportunity  The conditions imposed by the amendment to the panchayati raj law in Haryana have not only excluded a large section of the population from contesting elections but have also deprived voters of their right to choose. the minimum qualification to contest for the post of a sarpanch or panch of a gram panchayat or to that of a member of a panchayat samiti or zilla parishad is class 10 or its equivalent. The findings of fourth National Food Health Survey (NFHS-4) is quite disturbing in terms of health of children in India. In this context. it shall be fifth pass. analyze what are the bottlenecks in attaining healthy younger India and suggest suitable remedies.  Other disqualifying criteria include failure to pay arrears of any primary agricultural cooperative society. When no such criteria applies to members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) and Members of Parliament it is a clear discrimination to grass root level leaders. or failure to clear electricity dues. had long-term implications for socially and economically disadvantaged sections. Chennai – 40. 22% are wasted and 34% of children under the age of 5 are underweight.

2013 does not include such a vision for ensuring nutritional security for children. environmental and political costs involved should keep away from such issues. Page 11 of 22 #9. local bodies and government schools need to be conducted on the issue  Corruption should be addressed through inspections. being a welfare State. Gupta vs President of India and others (1981).2163. particularly ICDS and MDM. 11. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. 7200010122. 2005.  The right to food and nutritional security to all children need to be guaranteed through policy approach. It assumed wide powers in matters of protection of the environment. the judiciary has unhesitatingly shuffled into the roles of both the legislature and the executive. Doubled the entry tax on trucks entering Delhi.com . audits preferably social audits and mandating periodic reports on the implementation status of welfare programmes need to be placed The economic survey 2016 points out the importance of welfare schemes. 9176 787980. c. Critically comment 1) Indian Judiciary is one of the three pillars of the democracy other than Legislature and Executive. Trying to fix the air connectivity to Shimla. 6) The overzealousness of the judiciary and the neglect by the executive has been responsible for the destruction of the separation of powers between the judiciary. The national policyon children. Government need to reconsider the budgetary cuts for the vital supply line reaching the children and put in place effective apparatus for their better implementation. Judiciary has been increasingly becoming the first port of call for solving all problems. 3) The judiciary has appropriated for itself a role far beyond its primary duties of dispensing justice and interpreting laws. the legislature and the executive. 2) Though Indian constitution has envisaged separation of powers between these pillars judiciary has been accused of encroaching on the powers of legislative and executive authorities. This instrument allowed “publicspirited individuals seeking judicial redress” on a variety of matters. d.  Regular and periodic awareness programmes at the level of blocks. in dealing with the nutritional security of the children. 5) Through several judgements thereafter. e. Plot No.smartleadersias.P. The results of the NFHS-4 report are eye opening and the government need to become pro-active on this issue. Anna Nagar West. 4) A series of judgements. planning and relief as mandated by the Disaster Management Act. 7) Examples of such judicial acts: a.Ph: 044-43525468. 8) Courts which are ill-equipped to weigh the economic. should desist from making grant cuts for social sectors and the present cut need to be compensated with out-of-budget fund allocations. to move Indian Premier League matches out of Maharashtra given the drought in Latur and other parts of the state. concerns about the problem of pollution in the National Capital Region. 12th Main Road. Ban of registration of diesel vehicles. gave rise to a new legal instrument called public interest litigation. Directed the Centre to take proactive steps in drought mitigation as well as in assessment.SMART LEADERS IAS  Lack of institutional oversight on the scheme outputs  Issues in the quality of food supplied through angaanwadi centres  Widespread corruption at the lower branches of the government Remedies  India. ordering the creation of a National Disaster Mitigation Fund while national and state disaster response funds already exist b. most notably S. Chennai – 40.

China is our largest trading partner and bilateral trade is worth almost US$100 billion.sale of arms. This would take a serious hit with the Chinese placing various sanctions on the trade. Indian Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar and NSA Ajit Doval visited China and conducted high level meetings to establish trust between the two sides. The South China Sea holds immense energy prospects and the countries there want the Elephant to play an active part in countering the Dragon’s weight. in not antagonizing anyone while at the same time safeguarding India’s interests. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www.  We cannot brush away the concerns of the ASEAN countries.  Bad relations with China would be a disaster. o Militarily this translates to more confrontation along the LAC and more incursions by the PLA into the Indian side. o It also means more support to Pakistan on the Western theatre. o Economically.  Therein lies the importance of having an ambivalent stand.com . Anna Nagar West. 12th Main Road.2163. Beno Zephine. Plot No.L. o The Chinese navy with its submarines would become more assertive in India’s own backyard . India’s role in BRICS and AIIB would be in jeopardy. N. The refusal of India to the US proposal of Joint Navy Patrols in the South China Sea is seen as a further vindication of its tilt in policy. Chennai – 40. 9176 787980. the Indian Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj along with her Russian and Chinese counterparts released a joint statement which called for the resolution of disputes in the South China Sea directly by the parties concerned without external interference.  By ensuring that the leaders issue contradicting statements back to back (both in April). joint exercises .is important for us.SMART LEADERS IAS 12.Ph: 044-43525468. India would be more impacted as it imports more from China than what it exports with the trade deficit being almost US$ 45 billion. India's 1st visually challenged IPS Officer Page 12 of 22 #9. o All the improvement in diplomatic relations that has happened in recent times (Xi’s visit to India and Modi’s visit to China) would become null and void. Trade with those nations and defence cooperation . This ambivalent policy should continue as things stand. Why Assertive power politics in South China Sea is not recommendable for India? Critically discuss the stance of India in South China Sea dispute.smartleadersias. This is most significantly brought out in the following two points: o Support of the Chinese stance: In a recent RIC meet in April.the Indian Ocean. 7200010122. Our Student. the Indian policy makers have done a tremendous job so far. The String of Pearls would be implemented with more vigour. This was seen as a slight change in India’s stance regarding the matter.

RTE. Plot No. export and new ventures. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. being diverse country. India would be delighted to have a civilian partner to work with in Myanmar. 7200010122. The 42 MW dam. BCIM corridor – Win win situation To move away from the influence of China and to engage with other world leaders like India. Challenges 25% of seats in both houses reserved for Military representatives – Great unity among democratic leaders to bring constitutional amendments and other legislations – Hence. Page 13 of 22 #9. Hence. ULB. US. job creation. What are the opportunities and challenges that the new government faces? How can India lend its hand to the new government? Examine To transform Myanmar into peaceful society – With democratic functioning. India can assist to develop service Industry with the help of Industry collaboration (ASSOCHOM.2163. to reform and improvise the situation in a daunting task  Separatist movement by Ethnic minorities (20 of them) and their violent struggle – is a big challenge. Illegal arms smuggling. etc. Chennai – 40. weak business and industry. 9176 787980.Provide chance to bring development and to promote industry. UPSC can be replicated in Myanmar to deliver independent functions Progressive legislation and best practices – SHG. Need to bring them into democratic fold  Drug mafia. Food security mission provides valuable lesson to Myanmar 14. NASSOCOM and their counter parts)  Agriculture – Can help Myanmar to adopt modern agriculture technologies to suit their conditions with the help of ICAR and other premier Indian institutions  Establishment of Democratic institutions – India.com .Ph: 044-43525468. will boost the agricultural and industrial sectors of Herat. Kokang rebels . New. succeeded in taking all the groups together. poor infrastructure. infrastructure – Quality life Fresh reconstruction of society on genuine democratic setup – Great chance to implement real democracy Chance to address the issue Rohingya tribes and their acceptance into society Joint infrastructure projects like Kaladan project. poor exports and institutions. consensus and common ground with military junta is essential at the same time maintaining the democratic character  After effects of Economic sanctions from USA and western countries on the country are still lingering in the form of poor capital formation. EU. one of the few success stories in this war-torn country. PRI.SMART LEADERS IAS 13.Brings peace and triggers development Lifting of economic sanction from US and EU . Consensus and negotiation with Ethinic minorities like Kachin tribes. alternate economy and their nexus with politicians and Bureaucrats is a big challenge. 12th Main Road. services. Need systemic approach to this problem India’s role  Service sector and BPO – being a leader.smartleadersias. with an investment of over $275 million. CAG. state legislature. Valuable source to Myanmar to develop democratic institutions like Parliament.  Establishment of Independent institutions – Election commission. Anna Nagar West. RTI. Critically evaluate India-Afghan relationship with the recent inauguration of India – Afghan Friendship dam and other bilateral Infrastructural engagements  India’s policy of deepening its engagement in the post-Taliban Afghanistan through economic reconstruction will mark a milestone when Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurates a dam built with Indian aid in Herat province.

Delhi and Fathepur Sikri. healthcare. stable regime in Kabul is geopolitical insurance against Pakistan’s deep state. The Salma Dam stands in the heart of the province in western Afghanistan from where the Chisti Silsila or Chisti tradition of Sufism came to India and found an abode in Ajmer. India has finally offered its "guru dakshina" to the messengers of peace. But it remains cautious about making larger overtures on security and is wary of being sucked into a never-ending war.smartleadersias. Anna Nagar West. it has also signed the TAPI pipeline project that aims to bring natural gas from Turkmenistan through Afghanistan and Pakistan to India.com . Lately. metabolic or congenital disorders Page 14 of 22 #9. 15. Besides the infrastructure work India has initiated and completed. who work alongside ordinary Afghans to build a peaceful and prosperous Afghanistan. estimated to be over $2 billion has led to the culmination of major projects like the Zeranj-Delaram road. why should India even bother with Pakistan? Instead.Ph: 044-43525468. In fact. Mr. rural irrigation. Chennai – 40. Critically examine why the PCPNDT Act has not yielded success. mandatory sex identification and registration of a fetus will tackle the issue of female feticide? The main objectives of PCPNDT Act. 7200010122. the child sex ratio in India is alarmingly skewed. Salma Dam has become a reality. buses. the Pul-e-Khumri power transmission line. it should focus on the larger picture: Leverage the Afghan goodwill into geo-strategic gains and also learn lessons in developmental diplomacy from the Afghan experience and improve it diplomatic outreach as it seeks a larger global footprint. capacity building and training programmes and so on. Such caution is required. Afghanistan and Iran. The government in Kabul has been stretched in trying to stop Taliban advances over the past few months. it is tempting to bring in the Pakistan factor. Afghanistan is currently going through a particularly turbulent transition.2163. 12th Main Road. 9176 787980. Plot No. India is one of the closest regional powers that has invested in institution and infrastructure building in Afghanistan. 1994 are  Prohibition of sex selection before or after conception  Regulating the pre-natal diagnostic techniques for detecting the genetic. Despite having Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act since 1996. India has signalled a small shift in its policy by delivering M-25 attack helicopters to Kabul. Afghanistan has immense strategic potential. the parliament building in Kabul and several other projects covering schools. President Ashraf Ghani seems to have realised that a complete military victory is improbable. while Pakistan sends the jihadi militants who spill Afghan blood and destroy that beautiful country.SMART LEADERS IAS          India’s interest in seeing Afghanistan move towards greater peace and prosperity cannot be overstated. As the Chabahar agreement brought together India. Indian grants. For India. a friendly. Ghani is openly targeting Pakistan for supporting the Taliban. But it should not deter India from playing a bigger role in a country whose stability is vital for its regional ambitions and whose people traditionally count India as a well-meaning friend. electricity distribution. India is one of the closest regional powers that have invested in institution and infrastructure building in Afghanistan. compassion and harmony. More important. New Delhi should work to bring together more regional powers invested in Afghanistan’s stability and economic development. Both countries share concerns about Pakistan’s good-terrorist-bad-terrorist nuancing. This raises the question of whether New Delhi’s engagement should be limited to infrastructure development or whether it should expand its relationship. India’s interest in seeing Afghanistan move towards greater peace and prosperity cannot be overstated. Do you think rather than banning sex identification of a fetus through this Act. Modi goes to Afghanistan at a time when Mr. In building and completing the dam. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. But a little triumphalism apart. One can underline how India is sending engineers and doctors.

Ph: 044-43525468.com . 12th Main Road. Chennai – 40. Plot No. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. Anna Nagar West. 7200010122.2163.SMART LEADERS IAS Page 15 of 22 #9. 9176 787980.smartleadersias.

Identification of the blocks/regions with low child sex ration and focussing governmental efforts to alleviate the menace Mobilization of the civil society and incorporating them as a major partner in arresting the trend 16. the centralized nature of the Indian economy—even after liberalization—made biggest challenges to federation.  Federalist vision—one with an emphasis on decentralizing decision The challenges of maintaining a federation are many.  Despite the stringent provisions of the Act. This puts the states on more solid footing—an essential ingredient in building the atmosphere of cooperation needed for calibrating centre-state relations. rampant proliferation of unregistered diagnostic clinics which goes unnoticed  A passive resistance from the medical professional for effective implementation of the Act  Poor literacy and awareness campaigns on the issue to sensitize the public  Overburdened staff of the health authorities thus resulting in poor oversight Way forward Sensitisation and capacity building of the regulatory agencies on the importance of the Act. the child sex ration has deteriorated continuously for the second time. but the solution is no mystery: healthy debate and discussion. the PCPNDT Act was enforced poorly. as per 2011 census. This altered ratio suggests the sex preference during pregnancy. such as altering the states’ share of central taxes.SMART LEADERS IAS  To prevent the misuse of technology and tackle the issue of female foeticide Outcomes of the Act Despite the Act being in force. The Inter-state Council (ISC) can be the core component of cooperative federalism. The skewed sex ratio is a natural outcome. 12th Main Road.  NITI Aayog's Governing Council NITI Aayog’s Governing Council—it has a similar composition.smartleadersias. 7200010122. As compared to 2001 census. was dropped in the presidential ordinance establishing the ISC.2163. This is mainly due a hand-in-gloves attitude between the service providers and service seekers with no one to blow the whistle.  Addressing Inter. including the prime minister. Plot No. Critically discuss  Trust Deficit solver The council proved to be crucial in the implementation of many of the Sarkaria commission’s 247 recommendations. Anna Nagar West.com . But the ISC has constitutional backing. It should provide Page 16 of 22 #9. Chennai – 40. as against the NITI Aayog which only has an executive mandate. In past decades. according to 2011 census data. This got worsened to 917 per 1000.State Conflicts Clause A of Article 263. Thus. chosen cabinet ministers and chief ministers—that could address centre-state issues.  A check on advertisements for sex selection in popular media  A 2003 amendment to the Act also included ultrasound techniques under its ambit which covers the widely used tool for pregnancy related diagnostics. Challenges  Very low conviction rate against those who use the technology for wrong purposes. Positive outcomes of the Act  Increased registration of pre-natal diagnostic labs across the country  Check on misuse of latest medical technologies for sex identification and preference.Ph: 044-43525468. The vision of federation with emphasis on decentralised decision making and competition environment ISC must be a core component. which gave the council the power to investigate issues of inter-state conflict. 9176 787980. Just as importantly. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. the council helped bridge the trust deficit between the centre and the states. the child sex ratio was 927 female child per 1000 male child.

cuisine. religions. The centre was willing in principle to discuss and implement some of the Punchhi Commission’s recommendations on centre-state relations. 12th Main Road. administrative and financial heads. Plot No. Chennai – 40.  In addition. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. the relationship between the centre and states headed by rival parties have both come into prominence on occasion.com .  New Delhi’s ‘geographical trump card’. The open land frontier. 9176 787980. Critically examine the IndiaNepal relationship in the context of China in Nepal. would change the landscape even more drastically—all but mandates periodic consultation and assessment of the kind the ISC can provide. With regard to legislating on education and forests—both subjects that have been transferred from the state list to the concurrent list—the centre would do well to consult states more extensively and offer them greater flexibility.SMART LEADERS IAS greater opportunities to civil society institutions and the corporate sector to make their representations.smartleadersias. Page 17 of 22 #9. Nepal is naturally free to choose its partners. straddling five north Indian states and Nepal. created a suitable environment for an effective interaction between India and Nepal to restore momentum. among other linkages. The acceptance of the 14th Finance Commission’s recommendation to change the quantum of the funds allocated to the states from 32% to 42% of the tax pool was well received at the council meet. funding and execution of mega projects. Anna Nagar West. broadly falling under legislative.  Expectedly.  The impasse of approximately five months in India-Nepal diplomatic engagement ended with the recent six-day visit by Nepal’s Prime Minister K P S Oli to India. problems pertaining to the location. Tax devolution is another crucial issue. development of tourism will help States harness their growth potential. to promote better Centre-State and inter-State relations. And the Punchhi Commission has recommendations here as well—from fixing governors’ tenures to mandatory consultation of chief ministers before the appointment of governors and choosing individuals who have been outside active politics for at least a couple of years.  While.  ISC meet has shown some positive signs.and communication-strategy towards small neighbours is in urgent need of an overhaul. 7200010122. Even though the ISC’s mandate is very broad. as a sovereign nation.  This would require making the most of the available institutional mechanisms like Zonal Councils and the Inter-State Council. The recent crises in Uttarakhand and Arunachal Pradesh show that we are in the midst of one such phase again. its aspiration has generally been limited to discussing affirmative action. the Nepali leaders seem to have accepted the logic of geographical reality. the role of governors and.2163.  The ISC should be further strengthened to become the critical forum for not merely administrative but also political and legislative give and take between the centre and states. culture and marriage. is a fact which binds both these countries by language. climate change and natural disasters. currently on the threshold of being passed.Ph: 044-43525468. welfare subjects and administrative efficiency and coordination.  Over the decades. 17. “India must go beyond a mere demonstration of goodwill”. India’s diplomatic.  The Nepalese resentment against an exclusive dependence on India is not mitigated by an often-uncomprehending Indian attitude. and the Nepali Government’s realisation of the limitations of ‘China card’ in dealing with its southern neighbour. India’s External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj’s ‘Quiet Diplomacy’. ecosystems management. The goods and services tax. inter-State coordination on issues such as river water disputes. by extension. a number of chief ministers had much to say about adventurism by governors at the ISC meeting.

India considers Nepal mainly as a source of cheap. the missing infrastructure facilities within Nepal. and two. 12th Main Road. 9176 787980. and not always welcome. Exactly one month after his India-visit. Furthermore. geographical factors cannot be ignored and certainly without strengthening domestic institutions and facilities. New Delhi was also aware of ground realities and anti-India sentiments which were detrimental to a strong relationship between the two countries. The Nepalese resentment of dependence on India is not reduced by an often-patronising Indian attitude. The Madhesi parties. This paved the way for an easing of tensions between India and Nepal. "Constitution is a vehicle of Life. Hence. 7200010122. India seems not to have decided whether to treat Nepal as one of its neglected northeastern states or as a sovereign country. Nepal’s political uncertainty is a major impediment to achieving the desired results. Beijing has focused its policies vis-à-vis Nepal by trying to reduce its dependence on India in the political. Chennai – 40. the complex regional dynamics forced the Modi Government to rethink its approach towards its neighbourhood which calls for more than a mere demonstration of goodwill. not China. There was a realisation in Nepal. Plot No. that politically and economically. For India.SMART LEADERS IAS            The Nepali Government tried to play its northern neighbour against southern neighbour. India-Nepal relations will get the right momentum only after Nepal addresses its domestic political problems. as well as the Madhesi calling off their protests.smartleadersias. such an agreement would be of little use. described Mr Oli’s visit to India as unsuccessful. Discuss 1) India is the only country in the world with a written constitution that has been amended so many times in the six and a half decades since its inception in 1950. it is heavily southwardoriented. Also. too. particularly the task of making its Constitution more inclusive. but the voluntary offer by China to supply fuel during the present crisis demonstrates Beijing’s growing interests in Nepal. labour. The rapprochement between New Delhi and Kathmandu began with the first step was taken by the Nepali Government. Further. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. Mr Oli visited China. On earlier occasions. The failure of both sides to issue a joint statement at the conclusion of the visit. This time there was a change in China’s approach. 2) The fact that it has been amended for more than 100 times gives rise to 2 questions: Page 18 of 22 #9. its foreign trade is largely dependent on access to and through India. The consequences of the economic blockade by the agitators forced the Nepali Government to soften its stand.Ph: 044-43525468. and the inking of deals which had already been cleared in 2009. While Mr Oli showed some signs of pragmatism by visiting India first.com . and security arena. too. this attitude and perception must change. however. and hence. Anna Nagar West. Indeed. India was looking for a way-out to restore normalcy. and its spirit is always the spirit of Age. however. The most celebrated agreement of transit through China aims to “relax the obstacles created by geography” In reality. the distance and hence economic unviability. China had politely expressed its inability to send fuel to Nepal. It also underlines the fact that persistent engagement and dialogue with immediate neighbours in all circumstances should be the mantra for India for deepening ties 18. India’s key challenge in Nepal is to overcome the wave of anti-India sentiment. economic. were cited as some examples of why the visit failed to have any impact. India welcomed the developments as positive steps that helped create the basis for a resolution of the current impasse. It displayed some flexibility by agreeing to some of the core demands of the protestors.2163. implementing this agreement is a remote possibility due to two key reasons – one.

Chennai – 40. 9176 787980. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. Anna Nagar West.smartleadersias. 7200010122. Plot No.com . 12th Main Road.Ph: 044-43525468.SMART LEADERS IAS Page 19 of 22 #9.2163.

Chennai – 40. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. 1st constitutional amendment i. ii. c. To check constitutionality of legislation enacted by Parliament and State Legislatures a minimum number of Judges for determining constitutionality of laws was introduced. 7200010122.) 3 judgements that altered the course of Indian Constitution: a. b. It is the will of people to carve out their own destiny. this basic structure of the c.applied and evolved the basic structure doctrine of the Constitution. It provided against abuse of freedom of speech and expression. Amendment of fundamental rights a. Article 228A(No high court shall have the jurisdiction to declare any Central law to be constitutionally invalid. Jurisdiction of High Courts with respect to constitutionality of Central laws was curbed under Article 131 (Exclusive jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in regard to questions as to the Constitutional validity of Central laws) and c. Obliterating Fundamental right to property. to suit the needs of the political party in power.Restricted the size of the Council of Ministers (CoM) to 15 percent of legislative members & strengthened the Anti Defection laws b.Constitution is a living document and must reflect the growing aspirations of the people of India from time to time. This amendment set the precedent for amending the Constitution to overcome judicial judgments which purportedly impeded the fulfilment of the government’s responsibilities to particular policies and programmes.g: controversial 42nd amendment brought in by Indira Gandhi at the height of the Emergency. 9176 787980.Ph: 044-43525468. Minerva mills case . suggested that the primacy of the Directive Principles of State Policy over Fundamental Rights must be proclaimed once for all and no law giving effect to the Directive Principles should be called in question on the ground of infringement of any of the Fundamental Rights. Page 20 of 22 #9. Keshavanandha Bharathi case . including the right to liberty and equality. The procedure for such amendment is laid out in Article 368 of the Constitution and indeed can be said to protect the sanctity of the Constitution as well as to check the arbitrary power of Parliament. the constant and unending process by which the Constitution is being mutated and mutilated.SMART LEADERS IAS 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) a. 42nd amendment even introduced amends and altered provisions to check constitutionality of amendments: a.upheld that constitutional amendments through Article 368 were subject to fundamental rights issue b. validation of zamindari abolition laws. b. 91st Amendment 2004 .E.com . b. or seek to alter. and clarified that the right to equality does not bar the enactment of laws which provide “special consideration” for weaker sections of society.Provided for 27 percent reserrvation for other backward classes in government as well as private higher educational institutions. . Plot No. unanimously ruling that Parliament cannot exercise unlimited power to alter this basic structure or tread upon the fundamental rights of individuals. Some of the Recent amendments that live up to the spirit of age: a. 12th Main Road. Other point .2163. Anna Nagar West.the Constitution has a basic structure of constitutional principles and values and that the judiciary has the power to review and strike down amendments which conflict with. 2006 .smartleadersias. 93rd Amendment Act. The Swaran Singh Committee on Constitutional reforms appointed by the President of the Indian National Congress early in 1976. Gokalnath case .

gender. bringing accountability and an element of public scrutiny thus serving as a watchdog of a democracy. The already inimical attitude of Assam population to Bangladesh migrants may lead to ethnic clashes that will pose a law and order problem for both the nations.smartleadersias. The terrorist outfits who are at loggerheads with the Shia way if Islam may turn to attack India after strengthening their hold in Bangladesh. 12th Main Road. Despite being divided on many lines such as race. 8) Indian Constitution lives upto the age in the name of Constitutional amendments which when arbitrary have even been struck down by the Judiciary in the name of judicial review. They play an active role in policy making. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www. Anna Nagar West. 97th Amendment Act. it is not that all is beyond the control of governments of both India and Bangladesh. Smuggling cannot be checked effectively by the border forces on both sides.com . civil society serve as an important pillar in sustaining plurality of opinions and healthy criticism. It is highly recognized about the role of civil society in a democratic society.  The recent attack on a popular café in Bangladesh has revealed two things. civil society symbolizes a unity of minds and a collective action for larger good. A community of citizens brought together by common interests and objectives is termed as civil society. which is a hallmark of democracy.inserted article 43B related to promotion of co-operative societies d. In a democratic state. Chennai – 40. India can co-operate and offer needed expertise to her neighbour in this regard.2163.SMART LEADERS IAS c.  These isolated events are not of only Bangladesh’s concern but India’s as well.related to the Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) between India and Bangladesh. Page 21 of 22 #9. Civil society is usually comprised by middle class and they influence the policies of the government without being a part of governmental machinery. culture. 7200010122. Plot No.Ph: 044-43525468. hierarchy or ethnic. 2012 .  However. 19. concerted efforts be taken by the government. It is time that Bangladesh accepts and realises that it is under terrorist threat and instead of seeking political mileage. o The arms and drug mafia will become more active. Discuss the challenges faced by the civil society in India. The recent trend of increasing cases of sedition against the members of the civil society is a tell-tale example. Isolated attacks are an indication of imminent danger. o Bangladesh shares a long border with India. Bangladesh government must strengthen the security system and the ruling Awami League must provide ample space for dissent to the opposing voices and co-ordinate its efforts with the entire political spectrum to weed out extremist tendencies. The AQIS (Al Queda in Indian Subcontinent) will also turn to become a force to reckon with. 100th Amndment act 2015 . o India is home to second largest Shia population. 9176 787980. 20. The secular fabric of both Bangladesh and India will be torn subsequently. Critically discuss the need for India and Bangladesh to address the rising incidents of religious intolerance  Terrorist attacks on innocent people who don’t conform to the rigid interpretation of Islam of the fundamentalist have been a routine instance in Bangladesh for the past four years. Challenges faced by the civil society  The space for dissent and criticism is becoming more restricted with the might of the State falls on those who criticise the governmental actions or inactions. Any threat there can be used a means to launch attacks on the Indian soil.

com . Chennai – 40.SMART LEADERS IAS  Despite being characterised as a united force.  The recent emergence of government sponsored civil society (in Andhra Pradesh. 7200010122.  As such civil society with diverse base and objectives.smartleadersias. The issue of Dalits and cow vigilantism points to this radicalisation tendency of civil society groups.Ph: 044-43525468. 9176 787980.  The lack of role clarity and the sense of purpose  Lack of democratic principles in their functioning  Lack of institutional interaction with the State machinery Increased political tendency of the civil society organizations which becomes a proxy for political parties. where District Collector is the chairman) and retired government officials promoted NGOs colors the popular perception about the credibility of these organizations. becomes very fragmented. Plot No. Anna Nagar West. (RSS and VHP). Page 22 of 22 #9. recently civil society has become more radicalised and acts on fundamentalist principles. Thus they lack a concerted action and a coordinated approach to deal with a social ill. 12th Main Road. GS-Prelims & Mains Online Test Available Visit : www.2163.