Nile Basin Capacity Building Network ‘NBCBN’

Hydropower Development
Research Cluster

GROUP II
REGIONAL POWER INTEGRATION IN
HYDROPOWER
By
Dr. Alexander Kyaruzi
Dr.Zelalem Hailu
Dr. Raymond J. Mngodo
Dr. S. H. Mkandi

Mr. Gerard Ntungumburanye
Mr.Michael Kizza
Eng. Johnson Malisa

Coordinated by

Prof. Sibilike K. Makhanu
Scientific Advisor

Prof. Bela Betry
UNESCO-IHE

2005

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Modern societies strongly depend on reliable, affordable and sustainable energy supplies. In fact,
Energy is an obligatory input for most production processes and other economic activities and an
essential component of our way of life. Many of the Nile Basin countries are among the least
developed in the World in spite of their important potential in natural resources. They strongly depend
on the development of their still very limited energy supply systems, using locally available,
competitive and renewable resources--such as Hydropower-- to achieve further steps in their
sustainable social and economic growth. Recent developments on a regional and worldwide scale
indicate a growing interest in the development of Hydropower as a sustainable and highly competitive
option for the supply of electrical energy and a growing interest in the development of interconnected
regional (international ) grids. An example is the Power Pool in phase of development involving
several countries of Africa and of the Nile Basin. The challenges to be faced by such developments
are major and require the promotion of capabilities in planning, design, implementation and operation
of medium to large scale Hydropower installations and their integration in interconnected regional
grids.
The objectives to be achieved within the scope of Theme 2, on “Regional Integration of Power in
Hydropower” aim, on one side, at improving the availability and dissemination of relevant data and
information related to the development of hydropower potentials and their implications on the
management of water resources and, on the other side, the development of reference criteria and
concepts aimed at the regional integration of Hydropower systems. Theme 2 was established along the
lines defined in the NBCBN-RE Cairo Workshop (November 2002) and the Hydropower Cluster
Launching Event ( Dar es Salaam, November 2002).
.
The report on Regional Power Integration in Hydropower covered selected issues related to
hydropower in six of the 10 Nile basin countries: Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi and
Ethiopia. One or two river basins were chosen in each country based on their international importance
and relevance to the Nile basin. Thus the following rivers were studied: River Mara and Rufiji in
Tanzania; River Nzoia in Kenya; River Nile in Uganda; River Ruvubu (Upper Kagera) in Burundi;
River Rusizi and Nyabarongo in Rwanda and River Abbay (Blue Nile) in Ethiopia.
The issues studied covered inventories on meteorological, hydrological and human capacity data
bases. Case studies in hydropower issues were studied as well as the interconnectivity criteria for the
region.
In a first phase of activities attention has been focused on the following topics:
• Inventory of meteorological and hydrological data in selected river basins of the region
selected taking into account their importance in the planning of hydropower in the
country and for regional power integration.
• Inventory of relevant sources of data and information related to the development of
hydropower resources in the river basins of the region of the Cluster.
• Inventory of capacity building needs in the countries of the Cluster.
• Inventory of the legal framework for power sector management in each selected country
and for interconnectivity.
A summarized account of the work done so far and the achievements so far is presented in the
Research Report and corresponding Country reports.
In summary, major achievements up to the present date include:

An increased co-operation between water professionals in the countries participating
Theme 2.
An appreciation of the available data on meteorological and hydrological aspects, their
quality, accessibility and general application for hydropower planning.

Regional Power Integration in Hydropower
i

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster





An appreciation of the existing human capacity in hydropower sector and the need to
build capacity for training requirements.
The level of development of legal framework in each country and management strategies.
The market demand and future projections for power demand.
Strategies for power supply including integration of different power sources in each
country and the export/import of power.
An appreciation of the challenges facing different countries in the provision of power for
the present and the future and hence the necessary studies to achieve equitable and
effective power distribution in the Nile basin countries.

Future activities to be developed in Theme 2 include:

Continuation and completion of the inventory studies started during phase 1 to cover the
remaining countries in the Nile basin and possible harmonization with other regions.
• Development of unified methodologies and procedures for the assessment of power and
energy generation capabilities in river basins.
• Development and dissemination of reference data and criteria to guide technical aspects
of regional integration.
Promotion of training activities in the context of scope of Theme 2

Regional Power Integration in Hydropower
ii

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster SYMBOLS AND ACRONYMS NBCBN Nile Basin capacity Building Network NBI Nile Basin Initiative NBCBN-RE Nile Basin Capacity Building Network for River Engineering MOWD Ministry of Water Development RIPH Regional Integration of Power in Hydropower Regional Power Integration in Hydropower iii .

...........1............. 38 Description of the Projects.............. 35 Electricity Sector Status............................................. 9 Scope and Limitations .............5........................................................... 32 Uganda.........................................................................................3 3..........................................................................................9 3.. 17 Description for River Nzoia Basin......3.................................................2 3................2................................................................................. 42 Capacity Building Needs ............................................................................3 Objectives of the Study...............................................2........3.....1 Hydropower Scenario in Africa ......................................................2.......................................................................................................................... 36 Uganda Power Demand Forecast.......................3......................................................................................... 9 Coordination of Theme II ........................................................................ Private Sector Participation and Its Capacity .................................................................................................................................................................... 37 HYDROLOGY .....................................................................................4 3......................................... 55 Inventory of Energy Data Base and Sources of Information ..............................................................................................................................1........................................ 11 PROJECT RESULTS .................1 3.............................. 22 Inventory of Capacity Building Needs................................................1 3....................................................................... 11 2..........3 3............................................................. 12 Data Availability..... 6 1...1 3...................4..3................................. 53 Inventory of Data Bases and Sources of Information ...1...................................3...........................................................................................................................................................3........................6 2 3 Organization of Hydropower Cluster.......2... 24 Local Power Practice ............4............................................................................................1 3........................................................................3 Case Studies From Selected River Basins .......... 11 2.............................................. 14 Kenya ...........................................................................................3 3.......................... 35 Power Sector Reforms In Uganda......... 9 1....................................................................2...................4 Market Expansion and Interconnectivity............................................................2................................ 33 Introduction............................ 14 Regional Power Grid Interconnectivity .....................NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION...................7 3...........................................................3 3.......................................................6 3..................................................................1 3...................................2 Inventory of Meteorological and Hydrological Data Bases .................................................................3.......................... 12 Case studies ......7 3.........................................................................................................................4.............................. 54 Inventory of Meteorological Data Base and Sources of Information ...........................................5 Tanzania ........................................................... 59 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower iv .............. 11 2.............6 3........2 Justification for Study ...............................4 NBCBN Concept .......6 1........3............................................................ 58 Ethiopia ....................................... 55 Burundi Electricity Billing System................................................... 30 Capacity For Financing Arrangements ................................8 3.................................2 3. 27 Billing Systems......................... 9 1...........................................4 3.............................8 3..........12 3.................................5 3..........................11 2.................... 26 Power Utility Standards ................................... 36 Existing and Potential for East African Power Cooperation....................................4 3............. 8 1.............................................4 3.......................................................3 3.... 53 Inventory of Hydrological Data Base and Sources of Information................2 3....... 10 METHODOLOGY ... 30 Institutional Arrangements.................. 9 1..................1 1.....................................................2..........................................................5...................................................................2.......5 Existing Legal Framework ........................................................................................................1 Selected River Basins.......2 1.................................. 33 Government Policy ........ 48 Burundi....................................................................................................................4............ 17 Case Studies of the River Nzoia Basin ............................1 3..............5 3...............................................................4...2 3... 11 2...5 Cluster and Research Group Organization ................................................................3.........2 3...................................

.................................................................................................... 67 4.......67 4........................................................................................................... 644 The Djibouti Market ...........68 APPENDIX I: TANZANIA REPORT APPENDIX II: KENYA REPORT APPENDIX III: ETHIOPIA REPORT APPENDIX IV: PROGRESS REPORT BY COUNTRY Regional Power Integration in Hydropower v . 67 4............................................................ 644 The Sudan Market..........67 5.......................................................................................5.......................................... 67 4...................................................................NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 3.......... 67 PLANS FOR FUTURE ACTIVITIES ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Planning activities..................................1 3....................................................2 Topics For Future Research ..................5..........................................................................5....3 Future Vision .5..................... 67 4................................................................................. 655 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.........................4 Inventory of Hydrological Data........................5 Human Capacity ...3 3............. 67 6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS............... 59 International Interconnections .............3 Inventory of Meteorological Data ......... 67 5..................................................................................2 3.67 7 REFERENCES ...................1 Main Findings of Phase 1 Study...................................................................................................................... 67 5...............................................................4 4 5 Current Power Sector Policy And Infrastructure In Ethiopia .................................6 Case Studies ....................2 Regional Integration Criteria ........................................................................................................................ 67 4.........................

which has suffered a long-term civil war. which demonstrates clearly the need for a substantial increase in capacity. Benin. Niger. As far as large scale plans are concerned. To underline the important role hydro is playing in the region. Congo.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 1 INTRODUCTION 1. has had most of its power facilities damaged or destroyed and the Liberia Electricity Corporation regards development of the country’s large hydro potential as a major hope for the basis of economic recovery. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 6 . and only 11 MW of the country’s 32 MW of capacity is currently in service. at a water resources development project.8 kWh. Swaziland. Rwanda. which could have a capacity of between 6 and 39 GW (although there is no firm schedule for implementation of this scheme). Its technically and economically feasible potential is calculated to be up to 419 TWh/year. Tanzania and Uganda. the Central African Republic. the Democratic Republic of Congo has the largest potential in Africa. To look at some specific examples. which the Government regards as a high priority for the country’s social and economic development. Cameroon. where hydro already supplies 89 per cent of electricity. it is contributing more than 80 per cent of electricity in Angola. with a capacity of 125 MW. is now planned. Ethiopia. Mozambique. there are now plans for the country’s first hydro plant. based on the plans reported in the year 2000 survey. Rep. In Chad. with the development of another 100 MW hydro plant. of Congo. Liberia. Burkina Faso is undertaking a water management programme for Nakanbe River (which could later be extended to other basins) and this is likely to lead to further hydro development. Burundi. for completion in 2005. at 14 kWh/year. There are also many more medium scale (40 – 100 MW) and small schemes planned. Lesotho. where per capita consumption is even lower. Ghana sees hydro as the main priority with the construction of the 400 MW Bui scheme likely to proceed. 2000). Tanzania. are: Ethiopia. as a foundation for their future progress. Mali. Benin. Dem. of countries where future hydro development will make a major impact. Kenya. detailed financial studies have been conducted for four of them. Mali has up to 800 MW of new hydro capacity planned in the long-term. There is altogether nearly 2000 MW of new hydro capacity under construction in 17 African countries. or as the backbone to future development. the first hydro plant. Namibia. Annual per capita electricity consumption there is at present only 48. Malawi. and future plans include La Grand’ Inga. Ghana and Liberia all place great importance on the development of their hydro resources. and it is notable that since our survey last year. There are planned hydro projects (which have at least reached the feasibility study stage) in 30 African countries. with a capacity of 6 MW.1 HYDROPOWER SCENARIO IN AFRICA Africa continues to be the area of the world where hydropower has the potential to play the greatest role in future economic development. where per capita consumption is 25 kWh/year. Mali. is planning to increase the country’s installed capacity by more that 100 per cent. Ghana. with several medium-sized projects at the feasibility stage. production from hydropower plants throughout Africa has increased by about 2000 GWh/year (Hydropower and Dams World Atlas. At least 3000 MW could also be obtained from up-rating and refurbishing existing plants. The key countries for future activities. Uganda and Zambia. Several countries describe their hydro potential as one of their most valuable resources.

including the 90 MW Lower Fufu scheme. Gilget Gibe and Tis Abbay II. and Malawi could implement 365 MW of hydro capacity. which already has 180 MW of hydropower under construction has seven future schemes at the feasibility stage. and the 110 m-high Asialou Arch dam was recently completed for irrigation and hydropower. Tunisia has many small and medium-scale dams under way in mountainous areas. Kenya has several new schemes planned. and considers exploitation of the potential in the Nile basin as a priority. Zambia and Zimbabwe have two major binational schemes planned. the largest of these is Stigler’s Gorge (1400 MW) and the others are in the range of 40 to 250 MW. there are four more projects in Uganda with capacities ranging from 180 to 642 MW. In Southern Africa. Namibia may develop two multipurpose water schemes on the Kunene river. and two medium-scale schemes are at the feasibility study stage. however. pre-feasibility studies are still underway for phase II of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project. Guinea. with plans for about 200 MW.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Sudan has identified technically feasible hydro projects totaling nearly 4800 MW of capacity. are currently under construction. In Morocco. Cameroon has plans for 600 MW of new capacity and also a number of refurbishment schemes. On the last 15 km to the sea there is a Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 7 . Water supply and irrigation have been the major priorities for the water resources development projects under way in much of northern Africa: Morocco. It is the only major river in the world that has a significant slope in its lower course. In the longer-term. Ethiopia is experiencing a major increase in demand of electricity. Algeria reports plans for 30 large dams by 2010and another 20 subsequently. and in Algeria there are 13 dams under construction for these purposes. Batoka Gorge which is to include a 181m-high RCC dam and twin 800 MW powerplants for each country. Eritrea. In Uganda. a number of private schemes are planned. and Devils Gorge which would provide 600 MW each – Zambia now has three major refurbishment schemes in progress at Kafue Gorge. totaling 460 MW. and a 450 MW pumped-storage scheme planned. Morocco also has about 90 MW of hydro under construction.”1 “The Congo is the world’s second largest river system. Two other countries with significant hydro potential. reports plans to develop more hydropower. including the 290 MW Bujagali scheme on the Nile. and Tanzania. Two important projects. seven major dams are under construction for irrigation and water supply. Eritrea and Sierra Leone. have been impeded in developing projects by economic difficulties and war. Nigeria has nearly 5000 MW planned for the medium and long-term. A 73 m-high RCC dam was recently completed there. of a total of nearly 200 identified sites for hydro development. where the 75 MW Garafiri project recently began operation. which would involve five more dams as well as tunnels and pumping stations. starting with the 104 MW Kaleta scheme. which could go ahead soon. The Egyptian power sector there is undergoing considerable growth. Eighteen projects are now proposed. Mozambique has about 2000 MW planned for implementation over the next ten years. Kariba and Victoria Falls. where hydro provides 99 per cent of electricity. Egypt is continuing with its programme of installing hydropower at its Nile barrages. and capacity has doubled in the last ten years. for water supply. which has ideal conditions for hydro schemes. including the Zungeru (950 MW) and Mambila (3900 MW) projects. after the Amazon. Algeria and Tunisia. lacks the necessary infrastructure. for irrigation and water supply.

” (Kenya’s hydropower presently developed is under 1. Central and Southern Africa with SADEC. Even when this could be possible. regional socio-economic blocks are a precursor to river basin development.424 MW.” “The development of Inga 3 is inextricably linked to the development of the Western Power Corridor to transmit power from DRC southwards through Angola. Theme II on Hydropower Development therefore intends to address the above important issues.” “With the impending demise of the excess thermal capacity in the region. the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) has under its portfolio a Western Africa Power Pool (WAPP). The theme on hydropower is indeed of a global nature and hydropower is to play a leading role in the acceleration of economic development and the uplifting of the lives of people in the Nile Basin. practices. West Africa boasts of ECOWAS. which involves building a dam across the river. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 8 .000 MW). through its national power company is a member of the Southern Africa Power Pool (SAPP). Also. The theme “Regional Integration of Power in Hydropower (RIPH) was therefore initiated under the Hydropower Development. The Grand Inga scheme.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster difference in altitude of 102 metres in a series of rapids that makes Inga the biggest source of hydropower in the world. In Africa. Gabon and Cameroon to Nigeria. and the policies.000 MW. future markets and legal frameworks. Botswana and South Africa as South Africa will provide a large proportion of the market for the off-take of power. The Nile Basin Capacity Building Network for River Engineering (NBCBN-RE) was initiated to create an environment in which professionals from the water sector sharing the same river basin could have the possibility to exchange ideas and practices. regional bodies have emerged with focused agenda in the recent times. Namibia.2 JUSTIFICATION FOR STUDY The planning for the use and development of international river basins such as the Nile River has not been well coordinated. the development of Inga makes huge economic sense and will certainly become more than just an interesting topic of discussion at conferences. The WAPP will constitute the balance of the market as power is planned to be transmitted northwards through the Republic of Congo. “Inga I was commissioned in1972 with an installed capacity of 351 MW and Inga 2 in 1982 with an installed capacity of 1. there needs to be an understanding among the concerned countries on the way that each country is using hydropower. Based on the Nile Basin. In order to share the hydropower resources.500 MW. The Congo.”2 1. Corporation among the regional bodies is then possible through the African Union (AU). the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) links the political arms of the countries in the Nile Basin. diverting the flow into an adjacent valley. The pool is made up of the national utilities of all continental members of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) with a total installed capacity of 45.000 MW. has the potential to generate 39. Inga 3 is planned to have an installed capacity of 3. at the level of Ministers and Permanent Secretaries. Eastern Africa with the East African Corporation and Eastern Africa with the Intergovernmental Organization on Development (IGAD).

these efforts will not be utilized to the full potential without baseline data on the practices of each country. c) To promote establishment of data bases on hydropower. Kenya. 1. each cluster being hosted by one of the Nile Basin Countries.5. At present. Mtalo (Tanzania) and Prof. Under the main theme of Hydropower Development are two sub Themes: Theme I: Research on Small Scale Hydropower Development.4 NBCBN CONCEPT The Nile Basin Capacity Building Network for River Engineering (NBCBN-RE) is established as a regional programme to build and strengthen capacity in the Nile riparian countries for an environmentally sound development and management of the Nile River Basin. F. River intake and main conveyance systems for water supply/irrigation (Ethiopia). Theme II: Regional Integration of Power in Hydropower. and training in energy studies and d) To recommend a suitable criteria for harmonization and integration of power development strategies for regional interconnectivity and industrialization. 1. seven river basins were selected in the six participating countries. training and research. Mtalo as the Country Coordinator. Theme II is therefore urgently required to encompass the 10 Nile Basin countries and the whole of Africa.2 Coordination of Theme II In order to carry out the activities of Theme II. 1. Makhanu (Kenya) respectively.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Already. b) To facilitate institutional training through the existing NBCBN-RE framework in the hydropower sector. Rwanda.5. Uganda. Storage regulation works (Uganda). regional initiatives have been developed to interconnect countries or groups of countries.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The study on “Regional Integration of Power in Hydropower” had four objectives: a) To assist the Nile basin countries in identifying the human capacity in each country in the area of hydropower development. F. However. research. Burundi and Ethiopia. S. Sediment Transport and erosion (Sudan). six research clusters are hosted by the following key note countries:Hydropower development (Tanzania).1 Organization of Hydropower Cluster The Hydropower Development Cluster is hosted by Tanzania under Prof. 1. K. GIS and modeling (Egypt) and Flood Management (Kenya) Each cluster is formed with 3 to 4 countries in order to carry out research activities in the cluster theme. Researchers in both themes are drawn from Tanzania.5 CLUSTER AND RESEARCH GROUP ORGANIZATION Clusters are established under key research themes. Membership is open to a network of national and regional capacity building institutions and professional organizations active in education. Group Coordinators for Theme I and II are Prof. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 9 . 1.

Sibilike K. S. and the theme was coordinated by Prof. Makhanu Western University College of Science and Technology 2 Tanzania Dr. Casmir Museruka Kigali Institute of Science. human capacity and documented literature. Gerald Ntungumburanye Geographic Burundi 5 Rwanda Dr. Zelalem Hailu Addis Ababa University Institute of The full list of researchers and their contact details is included in the Annex. Makhanu from Kenya.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS This study focused on the inventory of metrological and hydrological data. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 10 . Phase 1 of the study has therefore laid the background for further study in this area of regional power sharing.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster A lead researcher was earmarked in each country. Michael Kizza Makerere University. K. Alexander Kyaruzi University of Dar es Salaam 3 Uganda Mr. 1. Kampala 4 Burundi Mr. In addition only 6 of the 10 Nile Basin countries were covered. The coordination of the study was then arranged as follows: S/n Country Lead Researcher Institution 1 Kenya Prof. Management and Technology 6 Ethiopia Dr.

3 CASE STUDIES FROM SELECTED RIVER BASINS Documentation on case studies in the selected river basins was made with full details for metrological and hydrological data bases.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 2 METHODOLOGY 2. The description of the data base was given including the title. 2. • • • • • • Tanzania – Rivers Mara and Rufiji Kenya – River Nzoia Uganda – River Nile Burundi – River Ruvubu (Upper Kagera River) Rwanda – River Rusizi and Nyabarongo Ethiopia – River Abbay (Blue Nile) 2. Further a brief evaluation on the reliability. and future interconnectivity among countries and regions. and date of publication. 2.2 INVENTORY OF METEOROLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL DATA BASES Data bases on meteorological information were compiled for each selected river basin and in each country. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 11 . From this information it would be possible to visualize the future power scenarios vis-à-vis availability of hydropower. 2. Plans for interconnectivity were documented. applicability and usefulness of the document was made.1 SELECTED RIVER BASINS Eight river basins were selected for the present study. publisher. one in each of the four countries except in Rwanda and Tanzania where two river basins were studied. The rivers were chosen based on their international importance and relevance to the Nile Basin. whether electronic or hard copy.5 EXISTING LEGAL FRAMEWORK The existing legal framework for each country were documented for harmonization. Its location was then documented as well as the format in which it was stored.4 MARKET EXPANSION AND INTERCONNECTIVITY Information on market expansion and projected power demand needs was documented for each country studied. Case studies provided detailed information for the site studied and information would be very useful for planning purposes. Accessibility and availability was documented for future planning.

The proposed system involves storage reservoirs and cascade power plants. “MARA RIVER PROJECT: Pre-feasibility Study of the Possibility of Land and Water Use in Mara River Valley for the Development of the Mara Region in the United Republic of Tanzania. discharge regulation. All proposed projects appeared to be difficult to jointly implement due to trans-boundary effects. aimed at electric power generation. does not have significant falls. That report did not fully address itself to all possible environmental concerns related to hydro and irrigation development in the Mara river basin. • Kishanda valley project in the Kishanda valley • The Kyasolo project on the lower stretch on the Kagera River • Kakono Project on the lower stretch of the Kagera River Generally the Kagera river hydro potential is almost not utilized at all in Tanzania. • Height of the dam approx.1 PROJECT RESULTS TANZANIA 3. Under the East African Co-operation spirit. i) The Kishanda Project The United Nations study considered this project as a multi purpose.1 Case studies Lake Victoria Basin There are two river catchments that have hydropower potential in the Lake Victoria Basin. development interventions whose effects cut across boarders should either be undertaken jointly by respective members or by one member in consultation with and after consent by other affected members. drainage of swamps in the middle and lower reaches of the Kagera River.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 3 3. as river Mara has a bigger portion of its catchment in Kenya. The United Nations study proposed layout and basic parameters for this project as follows: Dam It is located in the stretch between the Charhiet Falls and the transition of Lake Rushwa into the Kagera river. providing a water supply for nearby villages. Kagera River Due to the gentle gradient the Kagera River. and appraisal of data existed at that time. 2. with annual energy production potential of over 400 GWh. analysis. Interconnection between Kenya and Tanzania could readily made and reduce investment cost through project co-financing and power pooling. 45-50 m • Length of crest 300-400m Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 12 . Various studies have been carried out in the past to assess the Kagera river hydropower Potential that could be harnessed to cater for power needs of all countries sharing the river.1. The United Nations Final report “Planning the development of the Kagera River Basin” Volume II of 1973 provide the existing information as an inventory. The three potential hydro sites in Tanzania are. 1. It could therefore be beneficial if this project is revived and possibility to develop it jointly with Kenya considered. flood protection.” The available hydropower potential is assessed to amount to about 100 MW. but has a stable average flow of about 200 m3/s on the Tanzania section. Mara River The Mara river hydropower potential is described in a pre-feasibility study report by BEOGRAD of 1980 titled. development of fishing and job opportunities during construction.

Hydropower Station The power station has a potential of: • Capacity: 200-300 MW • Head: 125 meters. • Reservoir capacity: 17. Kilombero. • Length of the crest. It has several large tributaries (Ruaha. Luwego and Mbarangandu) and many small others.000 million. approximately 90 m. flood protection. • The head approximately 70 m. The United Nations study proposed layout and basic parameters for this project as follows: Dam • Proposed to be rock fill dam on the Kagera River in the Kakono profile • Height of approximately 75 m • Length of the crest approximately 200 m. and backwater ends at the Rusumo Falls. m3. • Reservoir maximum volume: • Reservoir area: 170 Km2 3. development of fishing and tourism. Hydropower Station • Power station proposed to be at the toe of the dam. discharge regulation. before descending to the flat lower plains. meandering down to a large delta area vegetated by mangrove forests. Stiegler's Gorge. flood protection.100 million M3 ii) The Kyasoro Falls Project The United Nations study considered this project as multipurpose project aimed at. power generation.900 million. Hydropower Station • Proposed to be with the head of 76 m. • Installed capacity: 200MW. discharge regulation and development of fishing. RUFIJI BASIN The Rufiji River is the largest river in Tanzania with a huge catchment area comprising most of the south-eastern part of the country. approximately 700 m. • Height of the dam. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 13 . iii) The Kakono Project The United Nations study considered this project as multipurpose project aimed at Power generation. which in turn receives relatively high annual rainfall. and improvement in water supply for population in the neighbourhood of the reservoir. and finally flowing out through several mouths into the Indian Ocean.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Water transfer to this scheme • Channel from Lake Rushwa in the Mukyonza profile will transfer water from the Kagera river through lake Rushwa into the Kishanda valley. • Installed capacity is approximately 105 MW. The United Nations study proposed layout and basic parameters for this project as follows: Dam • Dam is proposed to be rock-fill dam on the Kagera River in the Murongo Gorge. The tributaries meet and pass through a relatively narrow passage. • Tunnel in the Bugara profile will transfer water from the Kishanda valley into the hydropower station. • Reservoir: maximum volume of 1. m3.

9 3.o Upper Kihansi 3557 40.9 18 Horconsult Phases 3&4 Downstream Kihansi (Acres) Ruhudji Three Step 162 945 108. however the process is slow and will take time to finish.8 39.3 1 14 Siegier's Gorge 160 617 70.1.7 39.5 3100 351.Phase III 350 1700 205 1530 174 TOTAL 1400 5880 670.Ngeneyo 250 26.1 23. Phase 1&2 45 438 510. there are some gaps on the available data.4 STIEGIER'S Iringa Project .2 18.7o 17 0.7 Inventory of Data Availability The Ministry of water and Livestock.8 6780 175.3 .5 18 Horconsult.4 641 73.1 .7 5.Phase I 300 2150 245.Tosamaganga 10 55 6.3 Regional Power Grid Interconnectivity Tanzania Electric Supply Company (TANESCO) Power System Electrical Power System consists of generation. In this report power development for Tanzania is discussed by looking at hydropower potential in all basins and other options.5 2150 245. transmission (power grid) and distribution of electrical power to consumers. moreover.0 1030 117 16.8 21.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Table 1 below shows the existing major hydroelectric power plants and some potential sites that have been given a high priority for development in the near future Another source studies done by TANESCO Power Company is the Power Master Plan 2001 update.5 4.8 21.3 4.9 36.6 5.Phase II 750 1950 222. Normally electricity is produced in centralized basis. which is allowed by law to transmit and distribute electrical power in Tanzania. Priority Potential Projects. Basically there are two groups of generating plants. 3.1.7 1.2 30. Power/Energy and Water Balance Summary (Acres 1985) Project Power and Energy Water balance Installed Firm Firm Average Average Power Spill low Total Capacity Energy Energy Energy Energy Flow Flow c c 3 3 (MW) GWh/yr MW GWh/yr MW m /s m /s m3/s Lower Kihansi 200 75 111 1000 114 13. The data is currently being digitized. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 14 . Some flow rate data for both rivers are available in the above-mentioned offices.5 6.3 18 Masigara 250 1195 135 1540 176 27. transmission and distribution systems are used to link all generating power stations and consumers.6 .Ibose 35 180 20. hydro power plants and thermal generating plants (thermal groups all generating plants other than hydro) (Reznikov. which means that the individual power stations supply energy to a common power grid.3 16.7 34 Rumakali 80 490 56 505 58 30.6 .2 Data Availability Table 1. 3. TANESCO is the only utility.8 42 .6 Mpanga 204 1185 135 1225 141 13. the Department of Meteorological and other government agencies has some information on rainfall data in both Rufiji River basin and Lake Victoria Basin (Mara river basin). 1985).5 17.

The major ones are 220kV and 132 kV systems. 66 and 33 kV transmission systems. 1997). 132. there are several thermal power plants.2: Hydropower representation of TANESCO Power System Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 15 . Musoma. For the transmission of power there are 220. The National Grid is not connected to any neighboring country. Total installed capacity for grid hydro power plants is 560 MW and for thermal power plants is 202 MW. Kihansi power station is in Kihansi River. NYUMBA YA MUNGU Pangani River NEW PANGANI FALLS HALE Great Ruaha River KIDATU INDIAN OCEAN Rufiji River MTERA Little Ruaha River Kilombero River Kihansi River Ruhudji River Figure. There are also Diesel power stations at Mwanza. Tabora. Dodoma and Mbeya (Tuntufye. Nyumba ya Mungu. 1. In addition to that.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster In TANESCO grid (interconnected) power system. The TANESCO Hydro Power System The TANESCO Hydro power System can be represented as follows. there are six major hydro power stations. while maximum demand is around 440 MW. Hale and New Pangani Falls power stations are in Pangani River while Mtera and Kidatu power stations are in Great Ruaha River. a gas turbine power station and Diesel power station at Dar es Salaam.

6 41 45 4 Francis 3 Pelton 2 Francis 204 180 8 22 68 1. Lesotho Electricity Corporation (LEC) of Lesotho 7. Electricidade de Mocambique (EDM) of Mozambique 3. Empresa Nacional de Electricidade (ENE) of Angola 4.200 2 Francis 2 Francis Regional Interconnection There are two regional interconnections: A The Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) with the following members: 1.150 474 47 125 407 40 21 41 7.81 0. Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA) of Zimbabwe B The East Africa Interconnection. Botswana Power Corporation (BPC) of Botswana 2.200 m3] Maximum discharge capacity of spillways 4. ZESCO Limited of Zambia 12. ESKOM of the Republic of South Africa 6.43 1964 NEW PANGANI FALLS 1995 Run of the Run of river the river 72 170 130 15 34 35 0 144 24 42. NAMPOWER of Namibia 8.128 0. Electricity Supply Commission of Malawi (ESCOM) of Malawi 5. Swaziland Electricity Board (SEB) of Swaziland 10.55 6.700 [106 m3] Active storage of the reservoir [106 3.2 8. with the following members: Uganda Kenya Tanzania Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 16 .000 [m3/s] KIDATU 1980 Regulated 175 KIHANSI NYUMBA HALE YA MUNGU 2000 1969 Run of the Regulated river 850 27.300 0.2 350 200 400 340.000 818 1. Societe National d’Electricite (SNEL) of the Democratic Republic of Congo 9.1 0. Tanzania Electricity Supply Company Ltd (TANESCO) of Tanzania 11.5 310 167 1.000 280 6.06 1.8 125 1 1.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Table 2: TANESCO Hydro power stations data MTERA Year of 1988 completion Type of power Regulated station Gross head [m] 100 Mean annual 120 inflow [m3/s] Design flow 96 [m3/s] Number of units 2 Type of turbine Francis Installed 80 capacity [MW] Average annual production [GWh] 419 Height of dam 50 [m] Length of dam crest [m] 260 Volume content of dam 3.

h/yr) (GW.h/yr) 1. Also the East Africa interconnection does not connect the Tanzanian grid to Uganda or Kenya.Provide Standards and Operating Guidelines 3. Four Agreements Govern SAPP • Inter-Governmental Memorandum of Understanding . was to be found economically justifiable. The upper Nzoia River. could contribute to the generation of hydropower. Appendix Volume 2. Advantages of Grid Interconnectivity • Coordinate the planning and operation of the electric power systems among the member utilities. The document also contains information on the pre-feasibility study of the Nzoia-Kerio Water transfer scheme. However the north western park of Tanzania (Kagera Region is supplied power from the Uganda grid. Report submitted by Kerio Valley Development Authority Physical Location: Library.2 3. The reason for the Kerio Valley Development Authority (KVDA) to further their research on Nzoia River was the rivers upper region potential for hydropower generation. The upper region of River Nzoia is adjacent to the Kerio Valley. (KPLC) 5. has five significant hydropower potential areas. River Project Capacity (MW) (GW. November 1981.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster In SAPP Tanzania grid is yet to be interconnected. which lies in The Lake Basin. diversion of the upper Nzoia River flow. The report also gives the mean monthly discharge co-efficients and the discharge co-efficients for the dry months of 5-year return period for various gauge stations within the Nzoia Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 17 . This was if the interbasin transfer.Establishes the specific Rules of Operation and Pricing • Operating Guidelines . • Increase system reliability through emergency support when required. • Provides forum for solutions to electric energy problems in the region. A 330kV line is planned to connect the Zambia grid to Tanzania grid. • Reduce both capital and operating cost through co-ordination. the potential sites for hydropower in Kenya according to drainage basins. and Lighting Company 4. Physical Location: 2.Enabled the establishment of SAPP • Inter-Utility Memorandum of Understanding .2. in detail. Kenya Power 3. Kenya and Uganda grids are already interconnected. because of the available flow and its geographical situation above and alongside the Elgeyo Escarpment. Ministry of Nzoia Hemsted Bridge 60 297 307 Nzoia Rongai 12 52 72 Nzoia Lugari 15 62 86 Nzoia Webuye Falls 30 115 170 Nzoia Anyika 25 95 125 Subtotal Nzoia 60 297 307 The Plan document recommends a reconnaissance level study of the Hemsted Bridge and Webuye Falls projects on the river Nzoia.Establishes SAPP’s Management and Operating principles • Agreement Between Operating Members . feasibility studies are currently underway to see the viability of interconnect Tanzanian grid (from Arusha) to Kenya grid (to Nairobi). Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free Description: Water Resources Study for the Kerio Valley Basin. June 1987. Installed Firm Energy Average Energy No.1 KENYA Case Studies of the River Nzoia Basin Hydropower Potential S/N Reference Evaluation Summary of contents 1 The National Power Development Plan (NPDP) gives. Description: Kenya National Power Development Plan (1986 – 2006). Prepared by Acres International Limited River Nzoia basin. notably by using the fall from the Elgeyo Escarpment for energy generating purposes. Library.

mean discharges. However. Nyando. April 1981. The feasibility of the plant sites was evaluated basing on the Technical factors. Mara and Migori. Infrastructural factors and economical factors. economic parameters and multi-purpose possibilities. I: Preliminary Survey Report. Ministry of Energy Kapkateny Moiben 4A2 4B1 4B2 4B3 Format: Printed Report 28 240 170 66 Access Fee: Free S/N Reference Evaluation Summary of contents 1 The information contained in the document is old and some of it could be outdated. mean of annual maximums. frequency of minimum and maximum discharges. Kuja. The selected hydropower potential sites were evaluated. Arror. Ministry of Energy Format: Printed Report Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 18 . duration of flow. minimum discharges. Description: Small Scale Hydroelectric Scheme in South-West Kenya. Description: Water Resources Study for the Kerio Valley Basin. Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free The identified plant sites of the Nzoia River basin and the tributaries are as shown Description: below: Small Scale Hydroelectric Schemes River Site code Catchment area (km2) in South West Kenya. The socio-economic environment of the regions and the hydrological information of the plant sites are also given. Report submitted by Kerio Valley Development Authority Physical Location: Library. Sondu. accessibility and construction possibilities. I: 41 8340 Preliminary Survey Report: Kuywa 4A1 138 Physical Location: Library. Perkerra. November 1981. Yala. By Imatran Voima Oy Ivo Consulting Engineers and Finconsult Consulting Engineers Physical Location: Library. Muruny. Nzoia. The plant site was recommended for feasibility study. The hydrological information given in the document include: -Extreme and observed values of river discharges. was one of the selected plant sites. mean of annual minimums. the information and data can be used in the planning studies and in the development of hydropower projects in the Basin. maximum discharge. the present power consumption potential. total available head. maximum and minimum discharges and their return periods. This was based on the duration of the flow. in Nzoia Basin.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Energy Basin. Nzoia 42 3840 April 1981. Ministry of Energy Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free Ten rivers in the Lake Basin and Kerio Valley. and design flood. Teremi falls/kuywa.

1983-1988. Sectoral Report. Access Fee: Free A summary of the cost estimates. Ministry of Water Development The document contains information on Hydropower projects that were planned to be undertaken within the planning period. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 19 .NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Access Fee: Free Description: Small Scale Hydroelectric Schemes in South West Kenya. Webuye falls. Ellegirini Kiboro Integrated Water Mukulusi Resources Planning. but also contribute greatly to flood amelioration downstream of River Nzoia. It was found out that Webuye falls project was to have considerable effect on not only on power generation. Preliminary Survey Report: Physical Location: Library. The power by the project was not to be fed into the national grid. Also the estimated plant investment cost for Teremi falls and Nzoia/Kuywa have been given. but attest to the viability of mini-hydros and their effects on rural community. for Sondu/Miriu and Webuye projects. can be used in the future planning. The projects were to impact on promotion of rural electrification. Complete feasibility study of Teremi falls had been done and funds Format: Printed Report earmarked for the implementation. These projects are Sondu/Miriu lower dam. Ministry of Energy Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free Dam Sites S/N Reference 1 Evaluation Summary of contents The potential and existing dam sites along the River Nzoia Basin are as follows Description: EXISTING DAM SITES AT POTENTIAL DAM SITES AT The Study on the National Water Master Twin Rivers Kipkaren Plan. Both Webuye and Teremi falls lie in River Nzoia basin. Moiben July 1992 Lower Moiben Moi's Bridge Physical Location: Hemsted Bridge Library. Republic of Kenya Physical Location: Library. though old. agro-industries and Irrigation. The data and information contained in the document. and cost estimates for feasibility studies of Teremi and Mau Forest are given. Teremi Falls and Mau Forest in order of priority. Ministry of Water Development Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free Description: Lake Basin Development Authority: Five Year Development Plan. April 1981.

P KPC. Plan. The survey Description: was carried out between August and December 1990. P. The potential dam sites and their status (H). which involved: The Study on the National Water Master Arrangement to sub-letting the work to local survey or contractor. July 1992 Dam site River Catch’t Purpose Responsible Develop’t area agency stage Physical Location: (km2) Library. LBDA M/P 4 Moi’s bridge Nzoia 858 W MOWD Pre-F/S Access Fee: Free 5 Rongai Nzoia 4709 I. Pref-F/S: Pre-Feasibility Study. Ministry of 1 Moiben Moiben 188 W MOWD Pre-F/S Water Development 2 Lower Nzoia 644 P KVDA M/P Moiben Format: Printed Report 3 Hemsteds Nzoia 3752 I.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster S/N Reference Evaluation Summary of contents The information given in the report about the dam sites in the River Nzoia Description: basin is sufficient for future planning and development of the sites. Ministry of Water Development Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 20 . P LBDA M/P 12 Teremi Kuywa 138 P LBDA F/S 13 Rambula Nzoia 11849 I. July1992 Physical Location: Library. The Study on the National Water Master Plan. on River Nzoia was covered in the Survey. F/S: Feasibility Study Rambula dam site. P MOWD Where. I: Irrigation. W LBDA M/P 6 Sergoit (1) Sergoit 390 W MOWD M/P 7 Sregoit (2) Sergoit 659 W MOWD M/P 8 Kerita Kerita 104 W MOWD M/P 9 Kisongoi Kisongoi 119 W MOWD M/P 10 Webuye Falls Nzoia 8420 P. By are as given in the table below: JICA. JICA. profile survey and leveling survey for establishment of site (K): Topographic Survey of Dam Sites. Supervision of survey work executed by contractors. Sectoral Report The document contains the details on the existing dam sites. W: Water Supply. M/P: Master Plan. the on-going dam sites and potential dam sites. Ministry of Water Development. Republic of Kenya. Dam Development Plan. Sectoral Report Aerial photography and control point survey for photogrammetric mapping. datum. P: Hydropower. I LBDA M/P 11 Lugari Nzoia 830 I.

used for the planning and development of the water related projects within the Basin Transfer Studies Lake Basin. the Water management and lower and upper Nzoia sub-sector. Teremi Dam: Which is proposed for Hydropower development The National Water Master project Plan. By Interconsult. Hemsted Bridge Dam. development of the Nyando and Nzoia River Basin. Volume III. Labour and Agriculture. Part 2: Action Plan by Lake Basin Development Authority Province/District. By 3. development that can be developed within the basin is done in detail. It details the following issues: Description: 1. Report. The description of the sub-areas: Description: Pre-investment Study for the Boundaries. Description of Nzoia/Yala basin and the executing agency being The III. Rome. Nzoia River Basin Pre-Investment Report. The description of the river catchments and the potential water projects Catchement. The Water resources study for Nzoia Basin and the executing agency JICA. climate and soil details from the Agronomic standpoint. Ministry of Water Development Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free The document contains detailed information on the Rivers in the Lake Basin Description: Lake Basin River region. July 1992 is Ministry of Water Development 4. United Nations Environmental programme (UNEP) Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 21 . and Webuye falls dam. October 1983 Physical Location: Library. population.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Existing Hydropower Sites Reconnaissance Studies S/N Reference 1 Evaluation Summary of contents The description of the Nzoia river catchement basin in terms of administrative set-up. Basin The information and data contained in the document is reliable enough to be Water Balances and Inter. March 1985 Physical Location: Library. River profiles Studies and Water Supply Plan. Main report. Ministry of Water Development Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free The document contains information on the potential water source for future development for each district. Volume 2. Physical Location: Library. The potential water sources for future development: Mushangumbo dam.

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster

3.2.2

Description for River Nzoia Basin

COUNTRY:

Kenya

BASIN:

River Nzoia Basin

Location
River Nzoia lies in the western region of Kenya. The catchment area is bounded by latitudes 1o 30’N
and 0o 30’S and Latitude 34o E and 35o 45’E. The catchment area may be divided into two subcatchments, Lower Nzoia and Upper Nzoia sub-basins.
Lower Nzoia
Latitude:
Longitude:

0o 04’N and 0o 11’S
33o 57’E and 34o 14’E

Upper Nzoia
Latitude:
Longitude:

0o 04’N and 0o 55’S
34o 55’E and 35o 10’E

Brief Description of the River Nzoia Basin
River Nzoia flows into Lake Victoria just North of Yala swamp and rises from Cheranganyi hills in
the East with tributaries feeding it from mount Elgon in the North. The basin covers an area of about
12000km2 and a total length of 275km. River Nzoia basin transgresses many regions thus land use
will vary accordingly. In the lower regions of Budalangi the soils are poorly drained and mainly of
clay type due to the frequent flooding. Thus, agriculture is not very prevalent in the area. However,
note that in the agro-ecological zones Budalangi area is marked LM4, the marginal cotton zone.
Lower Nzoia
Lower Nzoia is of 125.4 km2 in area and lies at the altitude of 1,130m to 1225m Above Sea Level.
The area is generally flat and swampy. The permanent swamps cover a total area of 25 km2.
Main Land Use
Livestock rearing and fish farming are common activities. Agro-economic conditions are generally
poor throughout the sub-area with exception of Bunyala pilot irrigation scheme. Cotton is practically
the only crop produced for the market. Maize farming is done on small scale for the local market only.
Sugar-cane farming is practiced on small farms.
Most roads are not tarmacked, which poses a serious problem in the communication network.
Upper Nzoia
Upper Nzoia basin covers a total area of 170.5 km2. The landform is hilly with steep slopes. The subbasin lies between the altitudes of 1625metres and 1825metres Above Sea Level. The minimum and
maximum elevations are 1917m ASL and 4300 ASL.
Main Land Use
Crops are generally grown on scattered hill-side plots separated by extensive rangeland. Main crop
grown is hybrid maize, followed by sunflower. Other crops are beans and cassava. A cattle rearing is
also practiced. The roads in the upper Nzoia basin are in fair conditions making communication fair.
The Hydrology of River Nzoia Basin
The mean monthly rainfall trend represents two maxima and minima over the year. The First and
Second maxima occur from April to May and July to November respectively. The minimum and
maximum mean monthly rainfall is 20mm and 200mm respectively. The mean annual rainfall is

Regional Power Integration in Hydropower
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NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster

between 1000 to 1500mm. The isohyets are 45 inches on entering Lake Victoria, 60 inches at Mount
Elgon and 50 inches around Cherangani hills 50 inches.
The highest river discharges occur between May and September while the lowest river discharges
occur between January and March. Annual Runoff: 310mm and Runoff ratio; 21.7%
The rivers within the river Nzoia basin are River Nzoia, River Kuywa and River Moiben. Both rivers
Kuywa and Moiben drain into River Nzoia, which drains into Lake Victoria. Moiben River has a
catchment of 262 km2, the upper and lower river Nzoia have 1470 and 8420 km2 catchement areas
respectively. The middle Nzoia river, Nzoia at Moi's bridge has a catchement area of 1470 km2.
Other Features
Floods
River Nzoia is characterized with flooding in its lower reaches. The river floods frequently, annually.
This is due to the large catchment area versus one river to let the water into the lake. There is intense
erosion in the upstream region due to deforestation. The soil blocks the channel or fills it, hindering
the free flow of water. Deposition of the material eroded in the upstream takes place in the
downstream. The deposition is intensive due to the low gradient of the riverbed. The deposition
reduces the depth and thus the capacity of the river, which eventually results into flooding. Dykes
have been constructed over 32 km stretch in the downstream of the river Nzoia to contain the flood
problem
Design Flood: Flood discharge of 117m3/s is obtained from the flood envelope curve applicable to the
Lake Basin. One of the stations within the basin is considered favorable since it has an automatic
stage recorder and lies downstream of the River Basin covering an area of 1180km2. The 25 and 50
year return period peak discharges from the station are 1100m3/s and 1360m3/s respectively. It is
considered that these values can be taken as valid for the end reaches of the Nzoia where periodic
flooding occurs. It is evident that discharges of this order are likely to result in floods involving
several hundred millions cubic meters thus flooding very large areas.
In Reference (LBDA) the development of the Webuye falls project was a to be implemented as a
multi-purpose project: for hydropower generation and for amelioration of the flood in the downstream
of River Nzoia.
Erosion and Sedimentation
Erosion in the upper catchment area of the basin is due largely to deforestation. Erosion in the lower
reaches of the basin is caused by the progressive movement of the meanders causing bank materials to
be moved downstream. Erosion in the upper catchment area leads to mass sedimentation in the lower
areas. The solution lies largely in the control of erosion in the upper catchment.
Annual sediment delivery in river Nzoia is between 158,400 to 326,350 tonnes (Dunnes, 1974).
Reference Materials and their Sources
1.

Angwenyi George, 1979: Water Resources of the Lake Basin, a Research Paper. University of
Nairobi. Location: Nairobi University Library

2.

Dunnes Thomas, 1974: Suspended sediment data for the rivers of Kenya US department of
Geological Sciences, University of Washington. Location: Nairobi University Library

3.

Interconsult, 1980: Pre-Investment Study for Water Management and Development of Nyando
and River Nzoia Basins. Location: Library, Ministry of Water Development

4.

Republic of Kenya, Lake Basin Development Authority: Fiver Year Development Plan, 19831988

5.

MOWD, 1981: Western Province Annual Report

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NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster

6.

MOWD, 1980: Gauge height and Flow records. Location: Library, Ministry of Water
Development

7.

MOWD, 1979: National Water Master Plan Stage 1. March 1979. Tibbets Abbert McCarthy
Stratton. Location: Library, Ministry of Water Development

8.

MOWD, 1976: Report on Nzoia River Flood Protection, Bunyala Location

9.

MOWD, 1973: Surface Water Resources in Kenya, June 1973. Location: Library, Ministry of
Water Development

10. Proposal for a pre-investment study for water management and development of the Nyando and
Nzoia River Basin July 1978. Ministry of Water Development: Location: Library, Ministry of
Water Development
11. Water Resources Study for the Kerio Valley Basin. November 1981. Report submitted by Kerio
Valley Development Authority. Location: Library, Ministry of Energy
3.2.3

Inventory of Capacity Building Needs

Inventory of Existing Human Resources in Hydropower Development
S/N Reference
1

Evaluation Summary of contents

The Kenyan hydropower development sector is majorly controlled by KenGen,
which does the work of generating, and KPLC, which buys from KenGen and
Description:
Annual KenGen Report, other IPPs and distributes the power.
2001/2002
The staff existent at KenGen is as shown in the Table
2001/2002
2000/2001
Physical Location:
Technical
1096
1129
Library, KenGen
Non-Technical
452
458
Management
540
531
Format: Printed Report
Total
1548
1587
Access Fee: Free

Regional Power Integration in Hydropower
24

Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 25 . KPLC programmes on energy are not available in the country’s institutions of higher learning. specialized training Energy. Ministry of energy and regional development should build up a small cadre of staff skilled in the review and assessment of feasibility levels of future generating plants in thermal. Acres International Limited Physical Location: Library.. Engineers and Architects. Polytechnics. Description: National Water Master Plan Stage 1. Volume IV: Organization. Master Planning And Cooperation Arrangements S/N Reference 1 Evaluation Summary of contents The document only gives a general situation for need of manpower in the energy industry. The courses offered and level of training are also included. geothermal and hydroelectric power fields. (NEP) Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free Description: Kenya National Power Development Plan (1986-2006). Appendix Volume 2. It does not give specific skilled human resource required in the energy Description: National Energy Policy. 2003 Technologies and policy issues in the energy sector are highly dynamic. et. Ministry of Energy The power plan document indicates the areas where skilled human resource is required. The local institutions. Ministry of domestic capacity to undertake such tasks. There is therefore a need to continuously train and upgrade human resource capacity to keep up with these dynamics. There is no specialized training for the hydropower sub-sector. specialized research and Physical Location: consultancy services have largely been internationally sourced due to inadequate Library. Increase the number of staff hydrologists at the Ministry of Water and Development and provide computer training advancements for all professional staff 3. al. Hydrometrists. Manpower and Training. In Kenya’s energy sector. and Water Resource Engineers are required. Technical institutes. The following recommendations are proposed in the document: Increase the staff numbers in the planning department of KPLC and provide thorough training in power system planning and analytical methods 2. 1. By Tippets –Abbet. June 1987. that train manpower relevant for water and energy sectors are also included in the document.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Inventory of Required Human Resources in Hydropower Development S/N Reference Evaluation Summary of contents 1 The document details the need of skilled human resource in water resources. Physical Location: Library. Universities. Ministry of Water Development Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free Inventory Of Human Resources Capacity Development Needs In Hydropower Needs: Training Needs. Hydrological Experts/Hydrologists. Facilities. sector. In addition. The document also contains the duties of the required persons.

power alcohol. provides energy needs of the traditional sector including rural communities and the urban poor. commercial and industrial sectors c. 2. and restructuring that have been initiated in the energy industry. Energy Source Biomass Petroleum Electricity Others Energy 68 22 9 1 consumption (%) There is 3000MW of hydroelectric power potential in the category of micro to small projects that are considered uneconomic to exploit. Energy Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free The energy sector in Kenya is dominated by petroleum and electricity as the prime movers of the modern sector of the economy while wood fuel. enhanced agricultural production. Includes wood fuels and agricultural residues d. Generate revenue for system operation and expansion through tariff increases. Ministry of employment creation and improved rural-urban balance. Create competition by liberalizing generation. Fossil fuels: mainly used in transport. The distribution of energy consumption on national level is as given in the table below: Significant reforms and restructuring were affected in the power sub-sector by the Government of between 1994 and 2000 in order to: 1. The main sources of energy in Kenya are: a. and biogas. Enhance productivity and the efficiency of service delivery and. The company continues to focus on enhanced training and development and the creation of a good working environment in order to desire the best performance from its staff. Biomass: from forest formations. 5. accelerated Library. equitable distribution of national income. Other renewables: wind energy.4 Local Power Practice Introduction S/N Reference 1 Evaluation Summary of contents The document describes the general layout of the energy infrastructure in Kenya. alleviation of poverty through provision of basic Physical Location: needs. KenGen The document only gives the general statement of the company concerning the need for training and development of the specialized human resource. 3. the latest significant reforms Description: National Energy Policy. the feasibility studies of these projects may establish economic viability and the Government encourages development of such projects by communities and investors alike. Rationalize the operations of sub-sector players. However. It describes in details the main sources of power. The company’s staff consists of both locally and internationally trained Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free 3. industrialization. Draft 2003 The overall national development objectives of the Government of Kenya are accelerated economic growth and rising productivity of all sectors. Electricity: its consumption is low at 121/kWh per Capita b. small hydros. Broaden the financial resource base for power sub-sector.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Description: KenGen Annual Report and Accounts 1999 Physical Location: Library. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 26 . 4.2.

Geothermal xii. Distribution i. foreign national standards can be referenced. General Regulation Board. Electrical machines Internet: iii. Internal combustion generators www. Electromagnetic interference iv. Bio-energy 2. Electricity meters iii. ASTM or ITU can be referenced.ke iv. Transmission i. Power transformers iii. Wind energy generation v. Solar photovoltaic Format: Printed Format vi. where there are neither International nor Kenyan standards. Quality systems i. Standard voltages vii. Similarly. Electromagnetic compatibility and harmonics 3. Electricity i. Transformers a. Hydropower Access Fee: ix. Conductors ii. Environmental management systems ii. Generation Library. Reliability and dependability 6. Decentralized systems viii. Instrument transformers 5. Safety v. Miscellaneous Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 27 . Metering i. Fuel cell systems and Electronic vii. the international (KEGCSE) standards of IEC.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 3.2. General ii. Switchgear iv. Quality management systems iii. General b. Transformers vi. Nuclear Free x. In cases where there are no Kenyan Standards. Battery installations xi. Fluctuations 4. General ii. ii.kebs. IEEE.5 Power Utility Standards References S/N Reference Evaluation Summary of contents 1 Description: The Kenya Electricity Grid Code and Standards The following Standards are found at the Electricity Regulatory Board offices in Nairobi. Earthing/lightning protection viii. There are standards on: Physical Location: 1. ISO.co. Cables/conductors iii.

storage pumps and pump turbines – Tendering documents – Part 4: Guidelines for technical specifications for Kaplan and Propeller turbines 18. Kenya Standard – Hydropower systems design code – part 8-2: Specific design requirements for Pico hydropower systems (≤5kW) 12. storage pumps and pump turbines – Tendering documents – Part 5: Guidelines for technical specifications for tubular turbines 19. CD/04/01-5/03. CD/04/01-1/03. ANSI/IEEE Std 1010. CD/04/02-6/03. Kenya Standard – Hydropower systems design code – part 8-1: Specific design requirements for micro hydropower systems (≤300kW) 11. CD/04/02-1/03. CD/04/01-2/03. Kenya Standard – Hydropower systems design code – part 1: general design requirements 4. KS IEC 60041. Kenya Standard – Hydraulic turbines. CD/04/02-2/03. Kenya Standard – Hydropower systems design code – part Physical Location: 2: Symbols and Glossary of terms Library.ke 6. IEEE guide for control of Hydroelectric Power Description: Plants The Kenya Electricity 2. storage pumps and pump turbines – Tendering documents – Part 6: Guidelines for technical specifications for storage pumps 20. IEEE Std 1020. storage pumps and pump turbines – Tendering documents – Part 3: Guidelines for technical specifications for Pelton turbines 17. Kenya Standard – Hydropower systems design code – part Access Fee: 6: Electrical design Free 9. Kenya Standard – Hydropower systems design code – part 9: Installation. CD/04/01-9/03. Kenya Standard – Hydropower systems design code – part and Electronic 5: Mechanical design 8. Kenya Standard – Hydropower systems design code – part Regulation Board. Kenya Standard – Hydraulic turbines. IEEE Guide for control of small Hydroelectric Power Grid Code and Standards Plants (KEGCSE) 3. 3: Guidelines for public safety at hydropower sites and dams Internet: www. CD/04/02-4/03. Kenya Standard – Hydraulic turbines. Kenya Standard – Hydropower systems design code – part 4: Resource analysis and design of hydropower harnessing structures Format: Printed Format 7. Kenya Standard – Hydraulic turbines. CD/04/02-5/03. CD/04/01-3/03. storage pumps and pump turbines – Part 1: General and annexes 15. Kenya Standard – Hydropower systems design code – part 10: Mini-grid design 14.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster S/N Reference 2 Evaluation Summary of contents The available specific standards on hydropower are as follows: 1. CD/04/01-10/03. Kenya Standard – Field acceptance tests to determine the hydraulic performance of hydraulic turbines. Kenya Standard – Hydraulic turbines. operation and maintenance 13. CD/04/02-3/03. CD/04/01-8-1/03. Electricity 5.co. storage pumps and pump turbines – Tendering Documents – Part 2: Guidelines for technical specifications for Francis turbines 16. Kenya Standard – Hydropower systems design code – part 7: Environmental impact analysis and mitigation guidelines 10. Kenya Standard – Hydraulic turbines. CD/04/01-7/03. storage pumps and pumpturbines Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 28 . CD/04/01-8-2/03. CD/04/01-4/03. CD/04/01-6/03.kebs.

Internet: www. Grid Code and Standards 23. KS IEC 60193. Description: 22. Energy conservation laws. company. 5.ke 1. Description: Study on Kenya’s energy demand. Electricity is governed by the Electric power Act. 1982 6. Consumer Information Network S/N Reference Evaluation Summary of contents 1 The document details the Government Acts that govern issues of the power sub-sector. KenGen and other Independent Power Producers (IPPs). Electricity KEGCSE creates a link between ERB with other power sub-sector players. Final report. National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) 3. Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM) 4. The Act was approved on 22nd December 1997 and became effective as from 9th January 1998 The 85-page Electric Power Act addresses issues on licensing of activities by power players. 24. IEEE Guide for the Rehabilitation of Hydroelectric Power Plants Physical Location: Library. KS IEC 60308. Electronic Access Fee: Free Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 29 . Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) 2. distribution and supply of electric power. which include: 1. Electricity Power Producers.co. Format: Printed Format 3. transmission. Supply of electric power.erb. Electricity Regulatory Board (ERB). transmitting. KenGen. 1997 Physical Location: Library: Ministry of Energy. small-scale industries and services establishment. Ministry of Energy Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free Description: The Electric Power Act. Environmental Management and Coordination Act. Access Fee: The code and standard steering committee on the other hand consists of: Free 1. Kenya Standard – Guide for commissioning. Taxation laws in relation to pricing of electricity.kebs. IEEE Std 1147. The Act applies to every public or local authority. supply and policy strategy for households. Forest Act (Cap 385). KS IEC 60545. and to all works or apparatus for any or all of these purposes. 1997. distributing. Regulation Board. 2. Kenya Standard – Hydraulic turbines. Electricity Regulatory board.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster S/N Reference 1 Evaluation Summary of contents 21. 3. Format: Printed Format. which include: Internet: www. supplying or using electrical energy. September 2002 Physical Location: Library. operation and (KEGCSE) maintenance of hydraulic turbines. Ministry of Energy (GoK). Kenya Standard – Code of testing speed-governing systems The Kenya Electricity for hydraulic turbines. which directly regulates the generation. person or body of persons generating. Kenya Power and Lighting Company (KPLC) and and Electronic 4. Electricity Regulation Board.org The Electric Power Act is very detailed and elaborate. 2. 4. storage and pumpturbines – model acceptance test. Geothermal resources Act. Since the process of production would always effect the environment in the immediate and far vicinity thus intertwined in the environmental laws. Water Act (Cap 371).

2. KenGen. Promote competition in the sub-sector where feasible. healthy and safety regulations. c. e. 2. 1. The roles and responsibilities of each institution. It provides an enabling environment to all economic operators and other Physical Location: sub-sectors. Electricity Regulation Board. Electronic Access Fee: Free 3. Implements the rural electrification programme.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 3. Set. Private Sector Participation and Its Capacity S/N Reference 1 Evaluation Summary of contents The National Energy Policy details the government and non-governmental institutions that are major players in the generation and supply of power in Description: National Energy Policy. an autonomous. Economic policy: to ensure efficient resource allocation such that the KPLC. Draft 2003 The Governments activities in the power sub-sector are limited to formulation and articulation of policies through which: a.erb. by: objectives: The Ministry of Energy. review and adjust the consumer tariffs. d. Social policy: re-allocation of costs based on cross-subsidies between consumer categories to meet socio-economic requirements of specific Library. April 2002.6 Billing Systems S/N Reference 1 Evaluation Summary of contents The document contains information on the billing standards and procedures for Description: the electricity power in Kenya. e. Ministry of b. Training of manpower Energy c. Mobilizes the financial resources for system expansion. Prepares the country’s Least Cost Electric Power Development Plan (LCPDP). 1997 Physical Location: Library: Ministry of Energy. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 30 . Ministry of customer groups. Access Fee: Free The Electricity Regulatory Board (ERB). Kenya. Internet: www. Enforce environmental. Financial policy: changing levels to attain financial targets and ensure the long term financial viability of the supplier.org Format: Printed Format. b. consumer pays for the costs incurred by the supplier. Format: Printed Report d. Library. Physical Location: 3. Energy Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free Description: The Electric Power Act. independent subsector regulator.7 Institutional Arrangements. Approve Power Purchase Agreements. and KenGen. Resolve consumer complaints. was established in 1998 under the Electric Power Act to: a.2. Update Study on electricity Tariffs in The electricity tariffs are generally set under the guidelines relating to policy Kenya.

I. Company generating Ownership Capacity Percentage Bondet. Electricity 3.5 Internet: www.(KenGen).4%.1 Regulation Board. Each IPPs is responsible for the operation and maintenance of its own power plant.7 Company Ltd. Kenya Electricity Generating Government of 951 83. F.8 Format: Printed Total 1136 100 Format. IPP 74 6.org 4. KPLC is the only licensed public electricity supplier has energy purchase contracts with Independent Power Producers (IPPs) and KenGen. KPLC has a virtual monopoly in Transmission. OrPower 4 Inc. Development Plan Tsavo Power Plant. Westmont.1% and the Government under the rural electrification programme for 0.O.A) Power Ltd IPP 56 4. and KPLC in which state interest stands at 51% of the equity are the principal players in the power sub-sector. The Description: producers generate power and sell to Kenya Power and Lighting Company. Kenya Physical Location: 2. the only Reforming the licensed public supplier. The table below shows the Five power Producers. providing 187. Since power generation was liberalized in 1996. the private sector for 16. Electronic Access Fee: Free Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 31 . IberaAfrica (E. their Electricity Sub-sector ownership and installed capacity.erb. The response by the private sector in the area of Electric power development since liberalization of power generation segment in 1996 has been lukewarm due to the requirements of capital intensive and large volume of funds needed. production and OrPower 4 which is a geothermal plant providing approximately June 1987. Appendix Volume 2. Tsavo Power Company Ltd. and installed Nyang. Acres International Limited Physical Location: Library. IPP 43 3. four IPPs with a combined installed capacity of 187MW are currently in operation. 5. (MW) November 2003 1. Description: Kenya National Power Five IPPs are now operating.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster KenGen. Westmont Power (K) Ltd. S/N Reference 1 Evaluation Summary of contents The document details the Private power producers in Kenya and the respective type of power produced. Kenya Power and Lighting Company (KPLC) Format: Printed Report Access Fee: Free The document describes in detail the main five power producers in Kenya.K. They are IberaAfrica.5MW. a state owned company. distribution and supply. Prepared by 12MW of power. KenGen accounts for more than 81.9 Library. to build a competitive industry in Kenya. The role of the IPPs is expected to grow over time in generation. IPP 12 1.8% of the total installed capacity. distribution and supply of electricity. Mumias Sugar Company which deal with thermal power (1986 – 2006).

GTZ. SIDA. November 2003 The ESI is a capital-intensive industry with high-level technology in control and switchgear. The report describes the funding arrangements for the power sub-sector activities and projects and the private sector funding for IPPs. FAO. universities. Bondet. JBIC. GAT. Internet: www.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 3. e. I.O. JICA.2.K. F. Karimi. NORAD. IDRC.org Format: Printed Format. Electricity Regulation Board. Traditionally funding has been obtained from donors. EEC. KfW. The funding of energy research and development in Kenya is by collateral funding through Government Ministries. UNESCO. Format: Printed Format. CARE and Private companies are also involved in funding the energy activities. It details the organizations and companies. Electronic Access Fee: Free Description: Inventory of Energy Research Activities in Kenya by Zakayo M. July 1988 Physical Location: Library. Funding may also be by International and Bilateral Agencies such as USAID. OXFAM. TDG.8 Capacity For Financing Arrangements S/N Reference Evaluation Summary of contents 1 The document details the capital requirements of the Electricity Supply Industry (ESI). IDA.erb. which are on the forefront in funding the energy projects and the funding procedures. ICO and Non-Governmental Organization such as ACTION AID. Kenya National Council of Science and technology (NSCS) The document contains information on the funding arrangements for the research and development activities in the energy industry in Kenya. ODA. IFC. and Nyang. ICRAF. research institutions. Electronic Access Fee: Free Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 32 . EIB etc. UNICEF.g. Description: Reforming the Electricity Sub-sector to build a competitive industry in Kenya. WB. WB. The industry needs large infusions of development capital hence the need for offshore funding. such as. Physical Location: Library.

The energy sector is characterized by heavy dependence on biomass resources. which provide 94% of the total energy needs. small-scale industries like lime.3 UGANDA 3. Uganda consumes energy at rate of slightly more than 5 million tons of oil equivalent per annum. Electricity contributes 1% of the total energy consumed. namely petroleum. Only 6% of Uganda’s estimated population of 24 million has access to electricity (a figure which is low by international standards). The table below gives an energy balance for the country for the year 2002. Biomass is the most important source of energy for households.3. electricity. It is a major component of the country’s infrastructure supporting both economic and social development. wood fuel and new and renewable sources. tobacco and fishing.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 3. brick and tile making and a number of agro-based industries like tea. Adopted from Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development Annual Report 2002 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 33 .1 Introduction The energy sector in Uganda is divided into 4 sub-sectors.

8 206. May 2004).8 39.8kWh which translates to 1 kWh costing approximately 22 US cents on the existing thermal generators.5 63.3 Final 206.6 5166. Uganda has a comparative advantage in the region with its abundant hydropower potential though less than 10% has been exploited.3 Transport 23.7 Industrial 182.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Liquid Fuels SUPPLY Production Imports Exports Total Supplies Electricity Fuel Wood Total 83.6 Miscellaneous Total 206. It takes one litre of diesel (1 litre = 86 US cents) to generate 3. Figure 3-1: Uganda Power System (2002) Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 34 . The government operates thermal plants with a total capacity of 2. cleaner and a more environmentally friendly source of electricity. The country has two hydro plants which provide it with over 99% of its electricity requirements.5 Domestic 3.6 4920.0 -20.1 Commercial 6.2US cents (1 US $ = 1850 Uganda Shillings.7 182.0 4920. 1996 4920.0 4920.13MW in isolated upcountry areas far from the national grid. The choice of hydropower remains the only option for Uganda’s electricity needs.7 Consumption Adopted from Kennedy & Donkin.8 0 4920.3 4967.5 Note • All figures in Thousand tonnes of Oil Equivalent (ktoe) • Conversion from GWh to ktoe assume 1 ktow = 12.1 6.8 CONVERSION Losses 0 23.5 206.8 39.6 206. These economically non viable plants are expected to be phased out by 2005.7 Consumption CONSUMPTION 6.3 24.8 3.3 5166.5 5189.0 23. On the other hand the national average tariff for 1 kWh is approximately 9.0 5003.0 6.8 -20.278GWh Hydropower is generally cheaper.

It is still a government utility and will remain so for some time. transmission and distribution of electricity as well as being the regulator. Another key objective is to maximize opportunities for export of power to neighbouring countries once the internal demand is adequately met.000 new connections in their first year of operation. • Uganda Electricity Distribution Company Limited (UEDCL). Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 35 . which is charged with completing former UEB projects. The operation and maintenance agreement is that Eskom will run the two Ugandan hydropower dams owned by the UEGCL for 20 years and they are to do their business by selling capacity (bulk) not the energy sent out. a government utility until 1999.3 Power Sector Reforms In Uganda The Uganda power sector was the monopoly of Uganda Electricity Board (UEB).000 customers. • The promotion of efficient utilization of energy resources and execution of rural electrification programmes. mini-hydros further away from the grid are also being developed with investments from the private sector to reach distant local markets. This World Bank funded project will inject US $ 375 million over a period of 10 years with the goal of increasing rural access from 1% to 10%. UEB was established by the Electricity Act of 1964 and was responsible for generation.3.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 3.2 Government Policy The overall policy objectives of Uganda government in the energy sector are to:• Improve the quality and quantity of energy supply through appropriate sector reforms and establishment of an enabling legislation. the government policy is to promote private sector participation in the development of both conventional and renewable energy resources. In parallel.3.000 customers with off grid solar. The purpose of the first project is to subsidize private investment in the rural network expansion – Energy for Rural Transformation (ERT) program.The power from the Bujagali project will meet the core demand for Uganda’s energy needs as well as support the rural electrification strategy. The second program is a three-year pilot program aiming at connecting 2. As a result UEB ceased to exist and the following were put in place: Creation of an independent regulatory body called the Electricity Regulatory Authority (ERA). The business (not the assets) of UEGCL was privatised on concession terms to Eskom Enterprises Africa. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is promoting the Uganda Rural Electrification Company Ltd with mini hydros in Bushenyi and Mbarara. Uganda is currently pursuing two rural electrification projects. Unbundling of UEB into 4 bodies: • Uganda Electricity Generation Company Limited (UEGCL). In expanding access to energy services. The aim of the new Act was to open up the generation and distribution sectors to private investors. Liberalisation in the power sector in 1999 resulted in repealing of the Electricity Act 1994 and enactment of the Electricity Act 1999. Solar power is useful for low consumption areas that are far from the existing grid. which is responsible for 99% of all generation in the country at the two operating power stations. This equates to additional 500. The third prong of Uganda’s strategy is to increase low cost hydro generation. There exists an opportunity of vending by the private sector with subsidies from government. 3. a consortium of South African and UK companies on concession terms requiring them to make 60. The company was recently sold to Umeme Ltd. • Uganda Electricity Board Statutory. Bujagali is fundamental to make the first two prongs successful. which is mandated to distribute and sell power to end-users. • Uganda Electricity Transmission Company Limited (UETCL) that is responsible for power transmission at 132kV and above including exports to Kenya and Tanzania and it buys most of the power from power generators.

The 94 per cent of the population. The power demand and energy utilisation figures for Uganda domestic use and exports were based on sales figures for various categories of consumers. remote urban centres. Table 3-1: Uganda Power Demand Forecast Year 2002 2010 2015 Power demand 2. The electric grid extends across the southern part of the country to cover Masaka. This indicates a power deficit of 10 MW.716 Figure 3-2: Electricity Demand Forecast for East Africa.4 Electricity Sector Status The electricity sub-sector contributes 1% of the total energy consumed in Uganda. Exports to Tanzania are connected through the Masaka line. In the smaller. Domestic power demand is estimated to be growing at 8 per cent per annum. and Jinja to the west of Owen Falls Dam and Tororo to the east where it connects with the Kenyan system and to the northern line running up to Lira.3. electricity is produced using diesel-oil generators. While those to Rwanda are through the Mbarara line.3. Long distance transmission is through 132 KV and 66 KV lines. 3. Although 40% of the country’s population lives in the area covered by the electricity grid. Earlier work was done by Kennedy & Donkin Power Ltd. Their report entitled ‘Hydropower Development Master Plan’ came out in November 1997 and covered the period 1995 to 2020.766 forecast (GWh) 2020 7. which is a constraint to investment and economic diversification. transmission and distribution The distribution of electricity in towns is through 33 KV and 11 KV power lines. only 6% of Uganda’s population has access to electricity – 5% in urban areas and 1% in rural areas. However. peak hour production of 290MW while the peak demand currently stands at over 300MW.5 Uganda Power Demand Forecast Uganda has carried out some efforts to forecast the demand for electricity. an optimisation study in another load forecast was conducted by Electricite De France. EDF looking at the hydrology of Lake Victoria and the load forecast. Table 1-1 shows the power forecast for Uganda until 2020. which is not yet reached. factoring in population growth and economic growth indices appropriately for High. Because it was felt that Kennedy and Donkin did not take into account certain parameters and assumptions.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 3.050 4. there has been a positive development from load shedding every other day to once a week due to the additional 120MW from the Owen Falls Extension. which is primarily generated by Nalubaale and Kiira dams in Jinja. Kampala.302 5. Base and Low scenarios. leading to load shedding. in association with Sir Alexander Gibbs & Partners Ltd and Kananura Melvin Consulting Engineers. represents a potential market for increased electric power generation. With the commissioning of unit III of the Owen Falls Extension (OFE). 1999 – 2020 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 36 .

under the auspices of the Secretariat of the Commission for East African Cooperation. Reduction in imported fuel requirements for power generation. One of the outcomes of the meeting was a proposal for the development of a regional power sector master plan. Emergency support and.4 is an East Africa map showing the interconnected system and potential interconnections. Uganda could also share its electricity with Tanzania through radial 132 kV connectors or higher levels (100 to 200 MW) of electricity requiring a 700 km 220 kV interconnection from Kampala (Kampala – Mwanza). except for local supply to smaller centres in border regions. 1. (TANESCO ACRES. 3. East African Power Cooperation The three East African countries decided to plan for the combined development of their power systems. The line has a capacity of carrying 80MW. Uganda also currently supplies the north western portion of Tanzania via a 132 kV line from Masaka to Bukoba. 2. if and when future hydro resources currently under negotiations are constructed. However.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 3. The Arusha – Nairobi interconnection could also be used to exchange electric power between Tanzania and Uganda (wheeling through Kenya) via a 500 km long 220 kV line from Kampala to Nairobi. At the present time neither Uganda nor Kenya have surplus energy available for export. 4. Reduction in capacity and reserves requirements in the individual systems. via a 132 kV double circuit line from the Owen Falls hydropower plant. 2001). these studies need to be updated in order to unify the EA potentials as well as development of an interconnected system through an East African Power Master Plan. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 37 . Potentials for electricity sharing between Kenya and Tanzania exist through a 350 km and a 400 km long 220 kV interconnection between Arusha and Nairobi and between Dar es Salaam and Mombasa respectively. 1999).3. Uganda may have surpluses in future. Potential Interconnections Interconnections between Kenya. Another option is a 500 km 220 kV line from Kenya to Tanzania (Olkaria – Mwanza). which has been in existence for a number of years. a meeting of the High Level Tripartite Task Force of Energy Experts was held in Arusha 30-31 March 1998. Figure 3. The benefits to be accrued from such combined development and interconnections include.6 Existing and Potential for East African Power Cooperation Existing Interconnections Between the East African Countries Uganda supplies power to Kenya through an interconnection between the two countries. Uganda and Tanzania have been studied previously and have the potential for significant economic and operational benefits. Optimisation of the utilisation of hydropower generation facilities in the area. In consideration of the above facts. As a follow-up to this agreement EAC has solicited funds from the World Bank for carrying out a comprehensive feasibility study of the power sector to establish the East Africa Power Master Plan (East African Community.

Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 38 . River Nile Hydrology The outlet of Lake Victoria is commonly accepted as the source of the Nile.3.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Figure 3-3: East African Grid Systems and Potential Interconnections 3. But difficulties were experienced because of disagreements in gauging data between two measuring stations downstream on the Nile (Namasagali and Mbulamuti).9 meters.7 HYDROLOGY Introduction Most of Uganda is green all year round and lakes and rivers cover a third of it. The mean annual rainfall for most of the country is 1000mm with 500mm in the North East and 2000mm in the Lake Victoria region. Rwanda and Burundi. A major climatic event from 1961-1964 caused the lake level to rise by about 2 meters. Tanzania. The new derived rating curve became known as the “Agreed Curve”. The annual flow of the Nile at the source with Lake Victoria (assuming no man-made developments) is determined by the correlation between the lake level at some predetermined point and the “rating curve” for Rippon Falls which was the natural topographic control that originally formed the lake. which is equivalent to a discharge of 1. Kenya.044m3/s into the Nile. The present estimated Lake Victoria operating level is 11. River Nile forms the only outlet of Lake Victoria whose inflows include rainfall and drains from the surrounding countries of Uganda. The model was finally calibrated based on the existing Rippon Falls rating curve and accepted by as being reasonable. A model study was then used to extend the rating curve to cover these higher unexpected lake levels. With a surface area of about 67 000 km2 Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Africa and one of the largest in the world.

more detailed studies of Lake Kyoga outflows and the derivation of net basin supply series for use in system analyses. The IH review concludes that they believe that it is unreasonable to propose any hypothesis regarding errors in data or rejection errors in data or rejection of data or selection of a subset of the data as representative of the long term condition. particularly since the rise in lake level over the period 1961-1964. 1970 3. The simpler the solution to the water balance. indeed. 1990 The hydrological review of Nile flows has comprised an overview of the previous studies. Review of the Conclusions of the Different Studies Acres reached the conclusion that the lake outflows before the construction of Owen Falls dam were unreliable and have in the past been seriously underestimated. commencing with a review of Acres conclusions in view of their significance for hydropower planning on the Nile. Without better evidence. Until the construction of the Owen Falls dam. 1985 and 1993 4. By international agreement the dam has been operated as if natural conditions governed the outflow. Subsequent sections present the results of bringing the records for Lake Victoria up to date. They concluded that decisions on hydropower development should therefore be based on the higher net basin supply series from 1961 onwards. which determines the relationship between outflow and lake level. Following completion of the dam. Owen Falls Extension feasibility study report. anecdotal evidence suggests that. It is evident that the assumption that the later high flow period of record represents the long-term average outflow for energy generation seriously overestimates the firm energy unless the Acres hypothesis (i. some 3 km upstream of the dam. Also. These studies include: 1. The Acres findings are very far reaching in their effects and merit careful consideration given the possible investments on the Nile in Uganda over the coming decades and the important contribution the lake outflows make to flows in the main Nile down to Cairo. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 39 . it is dangerous to assume that the net basin supply of recent decades is a reliable measure of the long-term value. unless the proposed change adds to out ability to describe the hydrology of the lake over the period for which data are available. although lake levels may have been as high in 1878 as 1964. Water Development Department. tributary inflows. being representative of the true long term flow regime. The average flow recommended by Acres is nearly double the average that persisted according to the records over the first five decades of this century. the relationship between outflow and lake level being known as the “Agreed Curve’. indeed at the simplest level there are more years of low outflows than of the higher outflows in the record since it began in 1896. United Kingdom. Institute of Hydrology (IH). The hydrology of the Lake Victoria basin has been studied in some detail. the more likely it is to be accepted. Acceptance of the high flow regime since 1961 as the basis for planning could result in a substantial overestimation of the potential generating capacity at Owen Falls and elsewhere if the acres findings are not valid. Acres. Acres estimated that the likelihood of a return to outflows as low as those observed in the period 1900-60 is very small.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Outflows to the Nile are therefore the result of the balance between direct rainfall on the lake. hydro-power station in 1954 the outflow has been controlled by a combination of releases through the turbines and the sluices in the dam. World Meteorological Organisation (Hydrometeorological Survey). especially as they also contend that the current Agreed Curve is not a reasonable representation of the natural rating curve for Ripon Falls prior to the construction of Owen Falls dam. 1968. Uganda (De Baulny and baker). and estimates for the lake rainfall. the lake level dropped rapidly in the next few years. lake evaporation and the hydraulic control. tributary inflows and. outflow was determined by the natural barrier of the Ripon falls. outflows should be derived in a consistent way throughout the historical period. underestimation of flows by the Agreed Curve) is correct. 1984. 1974 and 1982 2.e.

prior to 1912 and form 1980) the only way in which a flow record may be derived is by correlation between Lake Victoria outflows and Lake Kyoga outflows.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster The most consistent conclusion is that: • The Nile flows increased during the sixties and were maintained at rates higher than normal by increased rainfall during the sixties and seventies. • There is no evidence that the Nile flows will stabilize around a level higher than the longterm average. Both records exhibit the rise in flows after the rise in Lake Victoria levels after 1961 and are very similar in form. It may be noted particularly that the Masindi Port record is based on few gaugings in the early years and is not supported by on site gaugings in the period 1946 – 1970. based on a composite rating.e. Studies were undertaken in the late 1940s at the time of the Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 40 . The intermittent measurement of discharges at Masindi Port and the shifts in ratings which have occurred at this site means that less confidence can be placed in this record than that at Kamdini. However. and at Fajao and Paraa below Murchison Falls and above the inlet to Lake Albert. The historical level series for Lake Kyoga. as recorded at Masindi Port is shown on figure 5. rating curves have been developed for both Masindi Port and Kamdini. Lake Kyoga Outflows The main river gauges below Lake Kyoga are at Masindi Port just downstream of the lake outlet. as recorded at Masindi Port and Kamdini. For the Lake Kyoga outflows a composite record has therefore been derived as follows: 1896 – 1911 by correlation with Lake Victoria.3 Lake Victoria Regulation and International Agreements The possibility of using Lake Victoria to regulate flows in the Nile for the benefit of riparian states has been considered on many occasions. the conclusions reached by Acres are not supported by the evidence of the flow series downstream of Lake Kyoga. For other periods (i. at Kamdini about 80 km below the lake. The fact that the flow series have been derived independently provides further conclusive evidence that the Agreed Curve gives realistic estimates of the Lake Victoria outflows – i. which can be obtained for the Lake Victoria outflow record. at Fajao irregularly since 1932 and at Kamdini since 1940. The Kamdini record is available for the period 1940 – 1980. • The operation of the Owen Falls Dam has not had a significant effect on lake levels.2. Several previous studies have shown that with the data available the best estimate.e. Discharge measurements taken at various stations between Lake Kyoga and Lake Alber are largely concentrated in the period 1940 – 1978. 1912 – 1939 from Masindi Port flow record 1940 – 1980 (Jul) from Kamdini flow record 1980 (Aug) – 1995 by correlation with Lake Victoria The discharges of the Kyoga Nile. the revised outflows provide improvement in certain periods. From these measurements. with very limited measurements in 5 individual years during the earlier years. are shown on Figure 5. Consistent regular measurements had ceased by 1978. although the Masindi Port gauge has recently been rehabilitated and measurements re-commenced in January 1996. is as follows: • 1896 – 1939 Agreed Curve lake levels • 1940 – 1956 Namasagali discharge measurements • 1957 – 1991 Turbine/sluice releases The overall conclusion is that the Agreed curve provides a good estimate for Lake Victoria outflows over the full 100-year series (1896 – 1995). adjusted for contemporary gaugings either at the site or downstream and provides the most consistently reasonable record on the Kyoga Nile. Planning for future hydropower development in Uganda should therefore recognise that lake levels and corresponding outflows cannot be assumed to continue at as high a level as those experienced over the last 30 years. Levels have been measured at Masindi Port since 1912.

000GWh/year. Tanzania. including the Acres studies of Owen Falls Extension (1990) and the Uganda Water Action Plan. development delayed because of environmental issues To be developed into a leisure/tourist centre Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 41 .68m 3 Agreed Curve level for 630 m /s 10. Table 3-2: Summary of major hydro sites on the Nile No.30m (end Feb 1994) Present level 12. Further studies were undertaken in 1958 and 1960 by a technical consultant to the Egyptian Ministry of Irrigation and later.01 m (end May 1996) The current studies confirm that over the period 1896 – 1961 a continuous outflow of 630m3/s could be achieved or a flow of 660 m3/s with 95% reliability on a monthly basis. and indeed in Uganda itself. would have a significant impact on the flows of the Nile downstream and the resulting hydropower potential. following the rise in lake levels. Only 300MW of the country’s hydro potential has been developed. Site Current Maximum Project proposed installed potential installed capacity River Remarks (MW) capacity (MW) 1 Nalubaale 180 - - Nile In service 2 Kiira 120 - 200 Nile 120MW installed. the Egyptian Organisation for the Nile Waters in 1972 and as part of the WMO Hydromet studies in the mid 1970s. nor are there any international agreements for such projects. planned to go on line in 2008. Upstream Riparian Water Demand It is recognised that substantial future consumptive water demand in the upstream countries (Kenya. However. With lake levels remaining relatively high since the early 1960s the natural outflow has never dropped as low as these figures and the question of what happens if lake levels do fall has not been resolved. More recent studies have also considered regulation of Lake Victoria.27m Agreed Curve level for 750 m3/s Minimum level since 1961 11. Hydropower potential on the Nile is estimated to be more than 2750 MW. In most of the regulation plans developed since 1948 a firm flow at Owen Falls in excess of the 505 m3/s figure has been adopted and this is reflected in the power planning reports prepared for UEB since 1955. most prominently through the 200 MW Bujagali hydroelectric project. A figure of 630m3/s has generally been assumed since 1966 for hydropower planning purposes although there is no formal international agreement to this effect. although without explicitly identifying the level of reliability. More to be installed 3 Bujagali - 320 250 Nile 4 Kalagala - 450 350 Nile Negotiations in progress. there are no definitive programmes of committed developments of sufficient size to have a noticeable effect downstream. Other regulation plans have considered higher target outflows of up to 750m3/s.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster original planning of the Owen Falls development. Any reduction in Lake Victoria outflows due to upstream consumptive use would have a noticeable effect downstream as well as on all the proposed Nile schemes. The lake levels as measured at the Jinja gauge corresponding to various flow rates are as follows: Agreed Curve level for 505 m3/s 10. New generation capacity will be provided competitively by the private sector. with firm annual generation of over 20. by the Uganda Water Development Department in 1968.99m 11. Over 98% generated by the hydroelectric plant at Owen Falls (the 180 MW Nalubaale station and the 200 MW Kiira station with five 40 MW units of which three have been installed) on the Victoria Nile. Rwanda and Burundi). A tentative international agreement in 1948 provided for a firm average discharge for power at Owen Falls of 505m3/s and this figure formed the basis for the design of the scheme. Hydropower Potential on River Nile Uganda's future power development is based on increasing use of the country's available hydropower potential.

namely.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 5 Busowoko 6 - - 230 Nile 300-350 150 Nile 7 Karuma (Kamdini) Ayago (North) - 310-400 - Nile Less economically viable with development of neighboring sites Ready for development but depends on what happens to Bujagali Not developed 8 Ayago South - 230-250 - Nile Not developed 9 Murchison Falls - 450-550 - Nile Not developed Total (Max) ≈2750 The decision to construct the Bujagali project at Dumbbell Island means that the head available at Busowoko reduces to less than 15m. Northern schemes. where the river falls about 100m over a distance of 150km. and Kalagala. They include Bujagali. which makes it unfeasible. 1. Thus northern schemes are based on tunnels that bypass the steeply sloping sections of the river. located on the section of the river between the Nalubaale (Owen Falls) dam and Lake Kyoga. 3. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 42 . They include Murchison. located on the section of river Nile between Lake Albert and Lake Kyoga where the river falls about 400m over a distance of 90km. The reservoir would back up to the tail water level of the next scheme upstream. 2. The slope of the river in the northern section is considerably steeper than in the southern section.3. Southern schemes. and this combined with the general topography has led to fundamentally different scheme layouts being adopted for the two areas. The profile of Lake Victoria between Nalubaale dam and Lake Albert is shown on Figure 1-5 below. For southern schemes. and Kamdini and Karuma. Ayago. with additional head being provided by upstream dams. These schemes would be built in cascade and in full development.8 Description of the Projects Introduction The sites that were reviewed for hydropower development on River Nile fall into two clearly defined areas. the most favourable layout comprises of a dam with integral powerhouse.

Nile Figure 3-5: Longitudinal profile of Victoria Nile from Owen Falls to Lake Albert Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 43 .NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Figure 3-4: Location of hydropower sites along R.

The table below shows the principle features of the proposed project Table 3-3: Principle features of the Bujagali project Item Units Proposed Layout Initial Ultimate Power Generatin Plant Installed capacity Output Average Design Head Average Flow Maximum Flow nr x MW MW m m3/s m3/s 6x40 240 23 660 1316 8x40 320 23 660 2119 Static Water Levels Upstream water level average tailwater level Gross static head masl masl m 1111.5 1087 24. and the construction of about 100 kilometers of 220 kV and 132 kV transmission lines and associated substations.5 1087 24.5 1111. 8 kilometers downstream from the Owen Falls Extension. The table below shows the principle features of the project Table 3-4: Principle features of the Kalagala project Item Units Proposed Layout Initial Ultimate Power Generatin Plant Installed capacity Output Average Design Head Average Flow Maximum Flow nr x MW MW m m3/s m3/s 7x45 315 28 660 1344 10x45 450 28 660 2190 Static Water Levels Upstream water level average tailwater level Gross static head masl masl m 1088 1059 29 1088 1059 29 Civil Engineering Works Intakes nr 7 10 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 44 .5 Civil Engineering Works Intakes Powerhouse length Powerhouse height (Crest to draft tube) Powerhouse loading bay Spillway capacity Spillway crest elevation Spillway gates Spillway gate width x length nr m m nr m3/s masl nr m 6 125 50 1 3700 1098.5x15 8 Kalagala Project This is a potential 315 MW. It is mutually exclusive with Bujagali because the cumulative environmental impacts of the two projects would be unacceptable. Therefore plans for implementing it are currently on hold.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Bujagali Project The proposed Bujagali Hydropower Project includes a 200MW run-of-the-river hydropower plant at Bujagali. The project will be developed and constructed on a Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) basis by the private sector. $680 million project on the Nile downstream of Bujagali.5 4 9.

3 123. upstream water level with dam masl Approx.5x15 Karuma Project The Karuma site has a hydropower potential of more than 300MW.with dam MW Average Design Head without dam MW 14 25 Average Design Head with dam MW Average Flow m3/s 480 480 Maximum Flow m3/s 577 576 Static Water Levels Approx.3km. or the modified scheme. A double circuit 220kV transmission line will be constructed from Karuma to Masindi and a single circuit 132kV line to Lira as part of the project.3 480 642 25 480 856 1028 1028 14 480 609 1017 992 32 996 21 996 32 996 32 3 3 3 4 3x7. The table below shows the principle features of the different options for development.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Powerhouse length Powerhouse height (Crest to draft tube) Powerhouse loading bay Spillway capacity Spillway crest elevation Spillway gates Spillway gate width x length m m nr m3/s masl nr m 140 55 1 3700 1075 4 9. which utilises the shortest practicable length of tunnel of 1. Power tunnels are the shortest practicable length to exploit the head available at Karuma Falls. which takes advantage of all the head available over the whole stretch giving a tunnel length of 3. The two options are either a basic scheme. a project to tap 150MW has been selected for development.8 90 36 19 3x8. Table 3-5: Principle features of the Karuma project Base Load Schemes Item Units Extended Basic tunnels Power Generation Plant nr x Installed capacity MW 3x23. However. dam height m Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 45 Peak Load Schemes Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 3x45 68 3x45 4x45 135 180 25. The project is ready for implementation and is being promoted by Norpak Power Ltd. upstream water level without dam masl Approx.8 Surface powerhouse length m 90 Surface powerhouse height m 36 Surface powerhouse width m 19 Approx.1 3x42.2 112 36 20 20 4x8.without dam MW 69.1 Output .2 112 36 20 3x8.6km.6 Output . average tail water level masl Gross static head m 1017 1024 996 21 Civil Engineering Works Intakes nr 3 nr x diamete Power tunnels r 3x7.2 112 36 20 20 .

without dam MW Average Design Head .5km downstream of the Ayago confluence while those for the South scheme would be situated about 3.5km upstream of the confluence.with dam MW Average Flow m3/s Maximum Flow m3/s Static Water Levels Approx.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Ayago Project Both Ayago North and Ayago South projects are similar except that the South scheme does not involve the construction of a dam.2 141 31 21 2 4 10 5200 30 43.5 380 590 844 765 79 844 765 79 3 4 3x7. dam height Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 6x38 143 6x38 8x38 228 304 58 380 434 57. upstream water level without dam masl Approx. The intakes for the North scheme would be situated about 0.2 141 31 21 1 3 10 5200 30 4x7.5 330 371 . average tailwater level masl Gross static head m Civil Engineering Works Intakes Power tunnels Powerhouse machine hall length Powerhouse machine hall height Powerhouse machine hall width Loading bays Tailrace tunnels Tailrace tunnel diameter Tailrace tunnel length Approx.without dam MW Output . The North scheme is designed for three-phase development for a peak load scheme.2 m 108 m 31 m 21 nr 1 nr 3 m 10 m 5200 m Table 3-7: Principle features of the Ayago South project Base Load Schemes Item Units Phase 1 Power Generation Plant Installed capacity Output Design Head Average Flow Maximum Flow nr x MW MW MW m3/s m3/s Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 46 6x39 234 73. upstream water level with dam masl Approx.with dam MW Average Design Head .5 380 410 826 765 61 nr 3 nr x diameter 3x7. The tables below show the major features of the two projects Table 3-6: Principle features of the Ayago North project Peak Load Schemes Item Units Power Generation Plant Installed capacity nr x MW Output .

upstream water level Approx.5 2x8.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Static Water Levels Approx.0 Power tunnels Powerhouse machine hall length m Powerhouse machine hall height m Powerhouse machine hall width m 106 78 109 109 142 30 32 30 30 30 20 21 21 21 21 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 47 . Table 3-8: Principle features of Murchison Falls project Base Load Peak Load Schemes Schemes Item Units Secon Phase First Phase 1 Phase 2 d 3 Power Generation Plant Installed capacity Output . In all cases an underground powerhouse is proposed to house all turbines. upstream water level with dam Approx.5 8x52.0 masl masl m 625 65 625 65 nr 3 2 nr x diameter 3x6.0 3x7.without dam Output .5 197 6x52. tailwater level Gross static head Civil Engineering Works Intakes Power tunnels Powerhouse machine hall length Powerhouse machine hall height Powerhouse machine hall width Loading bays Tailrace tunnels Tailrace tunnel diameter masl masl m 852 765 87 nr nr x diameter 3 3x6. average tail water level Gross static head Civil Engineering Works Intakes nr x MW MW MW 6x37 222 4x55. The development of a double circuit 220kV transmission line to Masindi and a single circuit 132kV line to Lira is proposed.with dam Average Design Head without dam Average Design Head with dam Average Flow Maximum Flow Static Water Levels Approx.5 315 420 MW 60 60 60 MW m3/s m3/s 380 421 380 421 380 421 80-88 380 421 80-88 380 421 masl 690 690 690 718 718 625 65 625 93 625 93 3 3 4 3x7.2 m 103 m 29 m nr nr m 20 1 3 9 Murchison Falls Project The maximum potential for this site is about 450MW. Different schemes are proposed with or without a dam and power outputs of 197-420MW. The table below shows the principle project features of the project.0 4x7.5 222 6x52. upstream water level without dam Approx.

• Inadequacies within government institutions to plan for and monitor the sector and carry out appropriate research and development due to ƒ Understaffing in key areas ƒ Budgetary constraints ƒ Lack of appropriate curricula in energy studies at institutions of higher learning. the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development recognises that the key issues that affect the supply and consumption/demand of energy in the country include. Uganda Electricity Transmission Company Limited (UETCL) and the Uganda Electricity Board (UEB Statutory). • Low quality of electricity supply and customer service • High technical and non-technical losses • Very low electricity coverage in the country. government institutions and the private sector. especially in the rural areas. Rural Electrification Agency (REA). The changes resulted into the following structural changes. • Inadequate public financing to develop electricity supply projects to match growing demand. • Unbundling of Uganda Electricity Board into four corporate bodies namely: Uganda Electricity Distribution Company Limited (UEDCL). • The generation and distribution business of UEGCL and UEDCL were sold by concession to ESKOM Enterprises of South Africa and Umeme Ltd a subsidiary of the Commonwealth Development Corporation (CDC) of United Kingdom respectively. On the other hand. • Other institutions created are: Electricity Regulatory Authority (ERA). the key issues are related to. and Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 48 .5 1800 1 3 8 1800 1 3 7 1800 1 3 7 1800 40 2 4 7 1800 40 3. Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and Electricity Disputes Tribunal (EDT). which are among others expected to increase effectiveness and efficiency in the sector. • Inefficient supply and use of energy resources due to neglect of the sector during the country’s years of economic and political turmoil. Uganda Electricity Generation Company Limited (UEGCL). • Inadequate information on energy supply and demand as well as the country’s resource potential. • Inadequate coordination and information sharing among the various projects. • Inefficient commercial operations including ƒ Lack of accurate customer database ƒ Inadequate systems and controls for meter reading. Rural Electrification Board (REB).9 Capacity Building Needs Over the past 5 years the Electricity sector underwent comprehensive reforms. Within the power sector in particular. • Lack of information on the cumulative environmental and social impacts arising from cascading power generating stations along the Nile River. • Lack of appropriate mechanisms to enable modern and efficient energy services to be accessed by the rural population.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Loading bays Tailrace tunnels Tailrace tunnel diameter Tailrace tunnel length Approx. • High subsidy cost of the power sector arising from its inability to service its long-term debt.3. dam height nr nr m m m 1 3 6.

regulate. monitor and evaluate activities of private companies in the energy sector so that resources are developed. The polytechnics and technical institutes in the water and energy sectors do not address the personnel requirements of hydropower development specifically. evaluation and choice of technology options. On the other hand. it has been noted that there is no single institution in the country that offers engineering training in hydropower related courses. etc. construction and operation. Institutional Set-up The ministry of energy and mineral development is charged with. • Developing incentives to retain local human resource in the energy sector. • To provide policy guidance and ensure effective development. exploitation and management of energy resources • To achieve its mandate the ministry requires a wide-ranging array of skills and specialities ranging from engineers. the following tasks. exploited and used on a rational and sustainable basis. Most of the professionals employed in this field have obtained their training outside the country. provision and utilisation of energy and mineral resources. • To acquire. electrical engineering and mechanical engineering are offered while this trend is also exhibited at postgraduate level. • Building capacity of regulatory agencies to provide even handed and predictable regulation. It is the strategy of government under the Energy for Rural Electrification (ERT) project to avail capacity building services across all fields necessary for the development of the rural electrification business which may include. • Building capacity at national and local levels for better formulation and implementation of energy policies and programmes. financial analysis. scientists. economists. planning. investment promotion. • Creating a transparent legal and regulatory framework for the sector. High electricity tariffs due to the past very low or no investment in power generation and distribution coupled with a very low operational efficiency The main policy goal in the energy sector is to meet the energy needs of the Ugandan population for social and economic development in an environmentally sustainable manner. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 49 .e. Training At all stages of hydropower development.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster ƒ • High accounts receivable. • Involving all stakeholders in the formulation of new policies in the energy sector. there is potential for building on the available skills and personnel through capacity building programs. i. product development. At degree level only Bachelor’s degrees in civil engineering. One of the objectives of government is to improve energy governance and administration by: • Clarifying the roles and functions of the various institutions involved in the energy sector and increasing the roles and functions of the private sector and other NGO’s and communities. financial advisory services. support to the organisation and management of community utilities. market assessment. among others. project finance. process and interpret technical data in order to establish the energy resource potential of the country. • To create an enabling environment in order to attract investment in the development. design. tariff setting and accounting procedures. • To inspect. there will be more demand for personnel that are specifically trained to accomplish the tasks. Hydropower development requires personnel that are trained to handle the different levels and aspects of its development. geologists. With increased private sector participation in the power sector. preparation of business plans. these skills are necessary. technical advisory services. However.

Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development Printed Report The document studies the feasibility of a proposed additional powerhouse at the existing Owen Falls generating station on the Victoria Nile at Jinja. sectoral performance. current power situation. The document makes a strong for integrated power development as a mechanism for mitigating green house gas effects 5 Energy Sector Investment Guide (2004) Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development Printed report The report reviews opportunities for investment in the Uganda energy sector. climate change and impacts on the energy sector. and internet www. planning criteria. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 50 . Uganda Investment Authority. hydrology of the Nile. due to excess reservoir capacity. demand and supply side objectives as well as a short and medium term priority policy actions. demand forecasts.c om/energy. Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development. CEEST. hydropower potential of different sites on and off the Nile a least cost development plan and EIA of different development scenarios 3 Owen Falls Extension feasibility study report. 2003 Makerere University Printed Report The report details an overview of the East African energy sector. 6 The Energy Policy for Uganda (September 2002) Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development Printed report The document reviews the energy sector in Uganda. including the government policy.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Table 3-9: Sources of information on Energy and Power Sector in Uganda No Description Location Format Evaluation and summary of contents 1 Uganda Energy Assessment (1996).ugandainvest. ongoing investment activities and programs as well as roles of the main players in the sector. potential and existing markets as well as investment opportunities 2 Hydropower Development Master Plan (July 1996) Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development Printed report in 7 Volumes The document gives detailed information about the power sector in Uganda including an energy development strategy. 1990 Acres International.pdf Printed report and web document The document details the energy sector in Uganda. main policy goals of the ministry. demand forecast up to 2020. It also includes a load forecast for Uganda electrical system and a review of hydroelectric projects at other sites on the River Nile in Uganda 4 Options for green house gas mitigation in an integrated East African power development.

distribution. transmission. awareness raising and promotion 8 The Electricity Act (1999) Library. a publication of the availability of meteorological and hydrological data in Uganda..ug/ Printed report and web document The document constitutes the first Rural Electrification (RE) Strategy and Plan covering the period 2001 to 2010. It also outlines the objectives of the RE strategy and details governments demand driven policy approach for RE as well as programs for long term capacity building. Lands and Environment (May 2001) Water Resources Management Department. Both Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 51 . and import of electrical energy in Uganda. The document in particular reviews reforms in generation. 11 Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development Annual Report 2002 Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development Printed document The document gives an overview of the activities and outputs of work of the ministry in 2002. export. Printed document The Electricity Act sets the framework and guidelines to regulate generation. transmission. Table 3-10:Hydrological and meteorological sources of information and databases No Description Location Format Evaluation and summary of contents 1 Hydro-climatic Study. seasonal rainfall patterns.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 7 Rural electrification strategy and plan (February 2001) Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development and http://www. Ministry Hard copy The documents summarise water resources monitoring activities annually. Lands and Environment Hard and Soft Copy The document is a report of an investigation of the hydroclimatic conditions in Uganda. 9 The New Strategic Plan for Power Sector Restructuring and Privatization.go. 2 Hydrological Year Books (released annually) Water Resources Management Department. Ministry of Water. Parliament of Uganda. distribution and the market structure 10 Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development Annual Report 2001 Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development Printed document The document gives an overview of the activities and outputs of work of the ministry in 2001. sale.energyan dminerals. and an analysis of the annual patterns and variability. Ministry of Water. 1999 Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development Printed document The Strategy Plan was been formulated to address the key problems in the power sector. and in particular those of very poor financial and commercial performance by the UEB and the need to finance a relatively large investment Programme.

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster of Water. atmospheric pressure and sunshine hours. The database also contains data from 119 stations for monitoring trends in surface and groundwater quality. Lands and Environment Database HYDATA is a database of hydrological data maintained by WRMD. Included in this database are data from both surface and groundwater resources. temperature. and pollution Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 52 . There are currently 70 surface water. and 16 groundwater-monitoring stations in Uganda. Prior to 1977 Uganda had over 1000 rainfall station were data was recorded on daily basis of which about 130 are currently operational. The database also has data from 17 agrometeorological stations in Uganda. Lands and Environment surface water and groundwater monitoring are covered 3 Hydrometeorological Survey. Observations at climatological stations include rainfall. Ministry of Water. Lands and Environment Database CLICOM is a database of meteorological data maintained by UMD. World Meteorological Organisation 1982 Uganda Meteorological Department Hard Copy The report is a summary of observations at hydrometeorological stations all over the country 4 CLICOM Database Uganda Meteorological Department (UMD). Ministry of Water. 5 HYDATA database Water Resources Management Department (WRMD).

• To the West: foothills of Eastern parts of the Congo-Nile crest. It is located in the central plateau and depressions of north of BURUNDI of which altitude ranges between 1000m up to 2300m.1 BURUNDI Inventory of Data Bases and Sources of Information Watershed Characteristics in Burundi Nile River Basin . The Burundi Nile basin watershed lies between 2o15'S and 3o55'S of latitude and 29o30 E and 30o35E of longitude. North West. feeding from there to the NILE river.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 3. altitude 2000m-2200m.4. (altitude 1200m-1600m).4 3. These foothills lead to the massifs and ranges of mountains making up the crest. altitude 1250-1500m resulting in the valleys of Eastern. altitude 2000 to 2500m. Hydrological Balance Mean of Water Resources Per Year Watershed Mean Imported Imported discharge discharge discharge National from from territory Rwanda Tanzania (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) Ruvubu Kanyaru 108 21 25 Kagera 8 134 Exported discharge to Rwanda (m3/s) Exported discharge to Tanzania (m3/s) -112 4 -46 -142 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 53 . a) Location. • To the South-East and East: narrow old peneplains. The borders of the watershed are: • To the North. altitude 1600 to 2300m. • To the South: foothills (altitude 1800m-2000m) of the BURURI-RUTOVU massif. and North-East: peneplains of Rwanda and Tanzania natural region. (c) Hydrography. Many tributaries flow into the Nile river through RUVUBU and KANYARU. b) Relief.KAGERA river inside BURUNDI and KAGERA river outside the country which in return flows into Lake VICTORIA. Burundi has 2 major watersheds: one of CONGO basin and another for NILE basin. altitude 1250m up to 1600m.

lateritic. 961 MWh 3. These two rainy seasons lasts from midSeptember to December immediately followed by January. The schisto-quartz rocks are characteristic of the basin.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster This table shows that the mean discharge of the Nile basin in the part of Burundi territory is around 137 m3/s. discharge measurements and rating curves parameters. most of these soils are favourable for agriculture. The Nile basin occupies the northern part of Burundi. the high population density is found in areas with fertile soils. central natural region and is characterized by the presence of wood savanna.375 in rural area. which is generally a short dry season. clay or sandy. which the equivalent is 355. General Data For Ruvubu River Basin • Total Population: 6. which pass through the exutory point of the basin of Ruvubu per month. The Nile basin in Burundi have a tropical climate but moderate by altitude. lithogenic.3 hm3 of the mean per year). d) Climate. collocate and coffee. Bananas’ local brew and coffee are the essential sources of population income. The following characteristics are: • The mean annual temperature is a function of topography and ranges between 18oc and 20o c.1 hm3 of mean per month. bananas. The main crops matching with these soils are among others. • Number of customers for hydropower in 2002: 31.1 Inventory of Hydrological Data Base and Sources of Information Hydrological Data Nº Name of Site 1 2 MPANDA KABU 16 3 4 MULE NYEMANGA Hydrological Station MPANDA KABURANT WA MULEMWE SIGUVYAYE Location Format Availability Date of Reference 1979-1993 1979-1995 All hydrological National Electronic Accessible on database is data in official 1974-2002 located in computer demand at a 1974-2002 Geographic in fee Institute of ACCESS BURUNDI 2000 (IGEBU) All Hydrological Stations have gauge-height. southern and western part of KIRIMIRO.3 millions inhabitants of which about 95 % live in rural area. beans. The long rainy season starts in February to May followed by a long dry season from June to around mid-September. we have 112 m3/s (290. 454 of which 30.4. f) Population distribution. During the dry season. the short and long rainy season. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 54 . 079 are in urban centres and 1. The rainfall regime is characterized by two rainy seasons. the population practices farming activities in the marshlands to get subsistence food and other needs. Also. The average population in the Nile basin area is 115 habitants per square kilometre. Thus. e) Soil and Vegetation. maize. manihoc. • Rate of national electrification: 2% • Consumption of hydropower per capita: 20 KWh/year • Total consumption 2002: 119. The soils are either rocky. • The annual rainfall amounts reach 1000m up to 1200m.

Imbo Region in 50 pages official FAO.4. Hard copy. NYAMUSWAGA Documents Accessible on 1986 USAID Development in 99 pages. P. fee for photocopies. BURUNDI Hydrology of (IGEBU) Documents Accessible on 1974 PRUVOT. Station with Rainfall and Temperature data 2. demand at a Region Hard copy. demand at a 64 tables fee for and 33 photocopies. Roma and 184 demand at a annexes. Provisional Documents Accessible on 1969-1971 PRUVOT. Roma Report on Imbo pages. 1 2 3 4 5 3. Station with all Meteorological parameters 3. Inventory of Meteorological Data Base and Sources of Information Meteorological Data No. P. demand at a IGEBU Geographic for Institute of Hard copy fee photocopies. official Study 3 annexes. fee for Hard copy photocopies. Name of Site Meteorological Station 1 MPANDA BUJUMBURA2 2 KABU 16 RWEGURA2 3 MULE BUTA1 4 NYEMANGA BURURI1 Location Format Availability Date of Reference 1979-1993 All Meteorologic 1979-1995 al National Electronic Accessible 1974-2002 database is data in on official 1974-2002 located in computer in demand at a Geographic ACCESS fee Institute of 2000 BURUNDI (IGEBU) Legend 1. demand at a IGEBU Hard copy. fee for photocopies. figures. Hydrological Documents Accessible on 1988 Hydrology Basins Directory in 210 official Service of of BURUNDI pages. Hydrological in 120 official FAO.2 Description Location Format Availability Date of Evaluation Reference Hydrological year Documents Accessible on 1978-1990 Hydrology books in 12 official Service of volumes.4.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Hydrological Studies No.3 Inventory of Energy Data Base and Sources of Information We have considered all the development hydropower projects (including those which are not in the RUVUBU basin) because they are part of national interconnected grid. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 55 .

Last report in November. 1998 Documents in 110 pages each. Hard copy. Hard copy Accessible on official demand at a fee for photocopies 2000 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 56 Study aimed on all forms of Energy with special accent on Hydropower. Ministry of Energy and Mines. 4. Main document + Annexes.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster No . Hard copy. General Direction of Water and Energy Documents available: Main document + Annexes in many volumes. Studies made by HYDROPLA NFICHTNER group. Hydropower Development Study of Mule 34 on MULEMBWE Study Reports on prefeasibility in the Ministry of Energy and Documents available in 3 volumes. Em = 30 GWH/year Executive Study Reports in the Ministry of Energy and Mines. General Direction of Water and Energy Document in 124 pages available. The study has to be updated because of many changes upto now. Document in 148 pages. 2. including annexes available. General Direction of Water and Energy 6. Description Location Format Availability Date of reference Evaluation 1. 1996 Prefeasibility and feasibility study made by SOGREAH respectively in December 1993 and November 1995 Prefeasibility study made by BEROCAN 1Int in April 2000 . 3. The first document of Master Plan has been done by EDF (France)in December 1988. Hard copy 19902002 19971998 19891996 Hydropower Development Study on MPANDA River Pi = 10. Hard copy. Hard copy 5. Accessible to 1994autorised officers 1995 on demand at a fee for photocopies. Hydropower Development Study of Kabu 16 on KABURANTW A River Pi = 20 MW. Hydropower Resources Development Study in BURUNDI. Annual report for 2003 will be soon ready.1983 Ministry of Energy and Mines..4 MW. LAHMEYER Int. Accessible on official demand at Documents a fee for photocopies available: Main document + Annexes in 3 volumes. General Direction of Water and Energy Accessible on official demand at a fee for photocopies. General Direction of Water and Energy Document in 156 pages available. By BEROCAN Int. Accessible to 1980autorised officers 1983 on demand at a fee for photocopies. Em = 117 GWH/yr Study Reports on feasibility in the Ministry of Energy and Mines. Hard copy Accessible on official demand at a fee for photocopies 19931995 7. Assessment Study of Energy Sector in BURUNDI. National Electrification Master Plan revised by SOGREAH in 1995. with annexes is available. Ministry of Energy and Mines. Annual reports of REGIDESO (National Light and Water Supply Company in Urban Area) General Direction of REGIDESO BUJUMBURA Accessible on official demand at a fee for photocopies.

It has to be updated. Accessible on official demand at a fee for photocopies 1998 Made by ICM (InfraConsultMunchen) and published in 1998 9. (Hydropower Interconnection from East Burundi to West Tanzania: KIBONDOKIGOMAKASULUUVINZA) Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 57 Preliminary Study was made by NORCONSU LT in 1976. Regional Master Plan for Energy Development Documents available in the Ministry of Energy and Mines and EGL (EGL: Great Lakes Energy Supply co Documents available in REGIDESO Documents available in many volumes. Em = 418 GWH/yr Study Reports on prefeasibility in the Ministry of Energy and Mines and SINELAC Headquarters.4 MW to 2.8 MW Feasibility Study in the Ministry of Energy and Mines and REGIDESO Documents available in 142 pages. Hard copy Accessible on official demand at a fee for photocopies 20012003 Interconnectivity Projects Hydropower Development Study of RUSUMO falls: Regional Project: RWANDABURUNDITANZANIA Pi = 61. This Study was made by TRACTEBE L and published in 1992 . the others by TRACTEBE L from 1987 to 1999. (SINELAC: Great Lakes International Light Supply Company) Documents available in many volumes + Annexes (hard copy) and on CD in SINELAC Headquarte rs. Accessible on official demand at a fee for photocopies.Technic al Study has to be updated. 12.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 8. Project of Electrification of West TANZANIA.5 MW. Hard copy Accessible on official demand at a fee for photocopies 991-1993 Made by EGL and TRACTEBE L and published in 1993. Hard copy Accessible on official demand at a fee for photocopies 19761999 10.5 MW. Technical Report Document available. General Direction of Water and Energy The power of NYEMANGA hydropower plant overtakes from 1. For CD contact SINELAC Headquarters 1992 11. Documents available: Main document + Annexes in many volumes. Em = 413 GWH/yr Executive Study Report in the Ministry of Energy. Hydropower Development Study of RUZIZI III on RUSIZI River Regional Project: RWANDABURUNDI-RDC Pi = 82 MW. Em = 72 GWH/yr Mines. River Pi = 12.

under construction and in the planning stage Burundi Electricity Billing System Low Tension (i) Domestic purposes • 0-150 KWh: • 151-300 KWh: • 301-750 KWh: • 751 KWh and over: (ii) Commercial purposes • 0-300 KWh: • 301-1000 KWh: • 1001 KWh and over: 32 FBU/KWh 36 FBU/KWh 67 FBU/KWh 100 FBU/KWh 91 FBU/KWh 100 FBU/KWh 108 FBU/KWh (iii) Administration 100 FBU/KWh Medium Tension Fixed bounty on subscripted power (Puissance souscrite): Over bounty (Surprime): 5088FBU/KW/Month 2544FBU/KW/Month Energy (utilization de la Puissance souscrite ou de la pointe) • 0-150 hours/month: 96 FBU • 151-450 hours/month: 61 FBU • 450 and over: 41 FBU DGHER (Customer Medium Tension of REGIDESO): 42 FBU/KWh (DGHER: General Direction of Hydraulics and Rural Energies) Public Lighting: 100 FBU/KWh NB: Rate: 1$ = 1080 FBU Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 58 . Scale: 1/500 000 3. existing interconnecti vity grid.4.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 13.4 Map available in the Ministry of Energy and Mines and in REGIDESO Original map or copy available in REGIDES O Accessible on official demand at a fee for photocopies 1998 Map with existing hydropwer plants. Map of National Electric Grid.

0 - - 7. Koka Awash II Awash III Finchaa Melka Wakana 43.0 - - 43. relaxes the last remaining restrictions on investment in power generation but confirm EEPCo’s monopoly in the transmission and distribution of electricity for the interconnected system (ICS).2002 1988 Tis Abay I Tis Abay II Aluto Langano 11. Interconnected System The Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCo) was established as a corporation by Proclamation 18/1997.0 128. The key features of this policy included the creation of the Ethiopian Electricity Agency (EEA) and the promotion of the role of the private sector in electricity generation. small-scale hydropower. This remains the main formal Government policy statement today though a range of policies have been clarified or refined through subsequent legislation such as the Investment Law.3 11. EEPCo is currently owned by the Ministry of Infrastructure and is responsible for generating. Table 1 ICS Power Supply in Ethiopia NAME HYDRO DIESEL GEOTHERMAL TOTAL COMYR G.0 128. transmitting and distributing electricity.0 153.5 ETHIOPIA 3.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 3. together with the associated Regulation 84/2003. particularly.0 1960 1966 1971 1973.0 153.0 7.3 1964 2001 1999 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 59 . which consists of mini-hydropower plants and a number of isolated diesel generating units that are widely spread over the country. Figure 1 shows the coverage of the ICS in the country. Investment legislation (Proclamations Nos 37/1996 and its amendment Proclamation 116/1998) took a step toward the liberalisation of the electricity market and allowed domestic and foreign investors to invest in hydropower without any size restriction and domestic investors to invest in non-hydro generation below 25 MW. Power generation that supplies the ICS may therefore be undertaken either by EEPCo or by private companies selling electricity to EEPCo. namely.0 32. Another important component of the 1994 policy was the focus on hydropower and.4 73. Presently the Corporation maintains two different power supply systems. The Agency was successfully created in the year 2000 and has begun to create the conditions that will help attract private investment. The revised Proclamation 280/2002.0 32. While Table 1 and Table 2 show the features of various mixes of power sources in the ICS and SCS.2 32. Non-hydro generation above 25 MW was to remain the sole domain of the state. and the SelfContained System (SCS).C. the Interconnected System (ICS).1 Current Power Sector Policy And Infrastructure In Ethiopia Policy The Ethiopian government’s formal policy in the energy sector was issued in May 1994.5. which is mainly supplied from hydropower plants.2 32.4 73.

93 1975.0 1.00 - 5. 95 Negele Borena - 0.94 0.88 8.3 3.87 1975.C. 94.85 1991.3 1.93.15 13. 71. 98 Others - 8.1 22.3 3.01 Figure 1 Interconnected System of Ethiopia Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 60 . 91.3 2.0 3.94 1970.4 1.1 502.3 1.88 '67-'98 Sub Total - 13. 84 - Yadot 0. 98 Asayita - 0.0 1.86 - Grand Total 6.32 1.00 1991. 84 Asosa - 0. 76.3 4.3 1.80 1994 Sub Total 6.35 - 0.00 1992 Dembi 0.00 1. 95 1984 1962. 95.0 2. 91.4 1.6 2.3 4.5 2.2 Table 2 SCS Power Supply in Ethiopia Plant Name Hydro 7. 91.85 0.5 2.35 1991 Sor 5. 1958 1965 1992. 92.86 13. 95 Bonga - 1.86 20. 92 1998 1984.32 1972.15 - Dubti - 1.80 - 0. 95 1975.1 Diesel Total COMYR G.87 0.0 3.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Alemaya Dire Dawa Adigrat Axum Adwa Mekele Shire Lalibela Nekempt Ghimbi Grand Total 472.15 - 6.0 2. 88.95 1975. 94.3 1. 74.

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Isolated Networks For isolated networks. Before the 1990s. including: • • • • • the Ministry of Infrastructure the Ethiopian Investment Authority the Ministry of Water Resources the National Standards body (QSAE) the Environment Protection Agency Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 61 . Strict foreign exchange controls are administered by the National Bank of Ethiopia such that an importer is required to apply for a permit and obtain a letter of credit for 100% of the value of imports before an order can be placed. Proclamation no. EEA (Ethiopian Electric Agency) has a much wider responsibilities than many economic regulators elsewhere. independent regulators have been established to perform economic regulation in countries that have privatised their utilities and/or introduced competition. and • regulation of abuses of monopoly power in semi-competitive electricity • markets.was passed in 2003 which established the REB with the Ethiopian Rural Energy Development and Promotion Center (EREDPC) as the secretariat. • restrictions on repayment of legally entered into external loans and supplied and foreign partner’s credits. Related activities may include • market creation and governance (where competition is possible). a Rural Electrification Secretariat (RES) and a Rural Electrification Fund (REF). The primary function of an economic regulator is to set prices for monopoly activities. • rules for issuance of import permits. the private sector is permitted to invest in generation and distribution. Ethiopia is taking steps to reduce the burden of business licensing and to reform the investment code to make it more investor friendly. A Rural Electrification Strategy has been adopted by the Ministry of Infrastructure and issued in May 2002 which allows for grid extension by EEPCo but also the development of isolated grids by the private sector. or could be. Investment Climate In The Power Sector In Ethiopia The climate for foreign investors in the electricity sector improved with the passing of the new Ethiopian Investment Law in 2002.the Rural Electrification Fund Establishment Proclamation . Since the late 1980s. 317/2003 . There are no restrictions on the local content or technology transfer requirements of foreign investment or restrictions on the repatriation of foreign earnings or capital though the IMF did mention that a number of barriers continue to exist that it recommended should be eliminated. Historically. The role of EEA and other institutions in relation to each of the regulatory or other functions that EEA is. The strategy calls for the design of an institutional structure for rural electrification including a Rural Electrification Board (REB). andthe requirements to provide a clearance certificate from the National Bank of Ethiopia (NBE) to obtain import permits. • performance (cost efficiency and service quality) of the utility. Regulatory and Policy Framework Independent electricity regulators exist throughout the world because of the need for independent economic regulation. independent regulators only occurred where utilities are privately owned. virtually the only country with independent regulators was the US where investor-owned utilities were the norm. local communities and electric supply cooperatives. involved with. These barriers included: • a tax certification requirement for repatriation of investment income.

the anti-trust regulator is given responsibility for regulating the market. properly allocates responsibility for policy making to the Ministry and regulation to the Agency. utilities would have no direct incentive to keep costs low. However. • ensure the enforcement of laws. the situation is not so clear and for such utilities. because prices are linked to costs. It is therefore recommendable that the regulator’s role include responsibilities in relation to the creation and governance of the market relationships. Electricity Market Regulation There is often overlap between the role of an anti-trust regulator and that of the economic regulator for electricity. implement same. • undertake studies and research. combined with Proclamation 86/1997. In particular. prepare plans and budget and. in most countries the economic regulator does play a role in regulating the market. There is currently no anti-trust legislation and no anti-trust agency in Ethiopia and there is. The cost efficiency of privately-owned. no overlap with EEA. monopoly utilities must be regulated by the independent regulatory agency. such as the UK. collect and compile statistical data. • give assistance and advice. For state-owned utilities. including a national audit office or a ‘contract’ as formerly practiced in France with EdF). Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 62 . cost efficiency can be regulated in any one of the following ways: • a Government audit office. • identification of gaps or overlaps in regulatory responsibilities. regulations and directives of the Federal Government. • by the Ministry that owns the utility (there are several variants of this option. In others. This Proclamation. • by the Governing Board of the utility. therefore. upon approval. without pressure from regulators. This is because costs are passed through to customers and. such as Germanyand New Zealand. the anti-trust regulator shares responsibilities with the economic regulator and when the market becomes competitive the responsibility passes to the anti-trust regulator. Cost efficiency must therefore be regulated and an independent regulator is the only body able to do this. to Regional executive organs. the Ministry shall: • initiate policies and laws. as necessary. • by the independent regulator. • recommendations on roles and responsibilities of EEA in relation to other agencies. the economic regulator should be keen to encourage cost efficiency in utilities. Cost Efficiency Regulation Electricity prices should clearly be regulated by the economic regulator but. Not all economic regulators in all countries have a role in the governance of the electricity market. • enter into contracts and international agreements in accordance with the law. In some countries. Policy making The Ministry of Infrastructure is designated by Proclamation 256/2001 as the Ministry with responsibility for policy making in the electricity sector.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster • • • • • • the Rural Electrification Board the Regional Governments the Ministry of Labour the Society of Ethiopian Electrical Engineers the Ministry of Mines National Bank of Ethiopia (NBE) Main matters of scrutiny include: • a review of the powers and responsibilities of EEA and other regulatory agencies under existing legislation.

in addition to the Agency. For similar reasons. such as EEPCo. conducting efficiency audits and performance audits. including EEPCo. service debts and earn a reasonable return on investment. An important concern is whether EEA has any effective sanction over EEPCo to encourage cost efficiency. of the annual and longterm corporate targets of the enterprise.. EEPCo is not motivated by profit and therefore price setting is unlikely to be an effective tool to encourage efficiency.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Current Responsibilities Of Cost-Efficiency Regulation In Ethiopia There are three bodies. However. As a state-owned company. in consultation with the Board. The Board of any Public Enterprise. monetary sanctions (fines) are unlikely to be effective. implicitly or explicitly. in the case of EEPCo.to promote the development of efficient. is the Ministry of Infrastructure. If there were more private companies that needed to be regulated then there would be a good argument in favour of giving responsibility for regulating cost efficiency in the entire sector (including EEPCo) to EEA. The Ministry of Infrastructure as owner of EEPCo has responsibilities that include approval of investment plans of EEPCo and the approval. EEPCo’s governing Board also has responsibilities for budgeting and. Who should have responsibility for cost efficiency regulation? Who should have responsibility for regulating the cost efficiency of the state-owned EEPCo? The options are: • EEA • Government through the Auditor General. ensure EEPCo’s efficiency and approve its investments and budgets. comprises between three and twelve members of which not more than one third can be elected by the workers. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 63 . Its responsibilities include the auditing of accounts. The Ministry and/or the Board would monitor costs. EEA is mandated in Proclamation 86/1997 with responsibility “. but this is not yet the case. EEA’s role would be to accept the costs submitted to it by EEPCo and set/approve prices that cover costs. high quality and economical electricity service” but the Proclamation does not mention further the role of the Agency in relation to monitoring the cost and management efficiency of EEPCo and other electricity companies. it is doubtful whether a genuine independence of regulation is attainable. The remainder are appointed by the Supervising Authority which. that have some responsibility for ensuring cost efficiency of EEPCo and other state-owned utilities: • the Auditor General • the EEPCo Board • the Ministry of Infrastructure The Auditor General is charged with monitoring the cost efficiency of Government offices and organizations. then cost-plus pricing methodology would be appropriate (rate-of-return regulation). reliable. Independence Of Regulation We note that toward the end of 2003. the EEPCo Board and the Ministry of Infrastructure? If the Ministry of Infrastructure and the EEPCo Board continue to have responsibility for regulating cost efficiency. the Agency has drafted a new Proclamation that provides many of the characteristics of regulatory independence. for ensuring the cost efficiency of EEPCo.

particularly between the executive and the legal system. • separation of powers. but generally has limited power to issue Directives independently of the Ministry. The Agency is accountable to the Ministry and its General Manager is appointed by the Government on the recommendation of the Minister and the General Manager does not have a fixed term and could be replaced at the discretion of the Minister.and 60-MW units). and cannot be considered independent of policy makers. • a functional commercial framework. Of the thermal generation. • a supply of well qualified staff able to carry out the various functions. that often over-ride the interests of investors and ultimately lead to a long-term decline in investment and deterioration in the electricity supply system. • a good commercial law framework and some competition policy basis. when expanded as planned. In the absence of an independent regulator. Independence is less important where the utility is state-owned and where the stateis the shareholder of the utility though it does remain of considerable importance to commercial banks that need assurance that their loans will be serviced. For the independence to be valuable. The following provides an overview of these prospects.5. as does EEPCo. This surplus energy provides an opportunity for export sales if there is a suitable market for it. including Directives on pricing methodology.5-MW diesel units and the 11-3 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 64 .2 International Interconnections The Ethiopian Power System. An independent regulator is also important where the transmission or distribution company is obliged to offer third-party access to independent producers. as domestic demand grows. will have energy continually available that is surplus to Ethiopia’s needs. usually to maintain low prices. license fees and “monies from other sources”. 3. Adependent regulator is likely to be influenced by short-term political factors. EEA reports to the Ministry of Infrastructure. this being about 60% hydro energy and 40% thermal (1100 Gwh). Then eighboring states of Sudan and Djibouti may provide such a market. declining from higher values immediately after new generation is added to relatively low values. just before the next generating station is added.5. other conditions need to exist: • effective political and economic institutions. It is unlikely that licence fees will cover EEA’s budget and it will not be easy to introduce financial independence of EEA. There is currently only one electricity company (EEPCo) and even when small distributors are licensed their license fees will be relatively low. thereby reducing the average unit cost of energy through a higher level of utilization of the Ethiopian plant from its inception.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Is EEA Independent? Independence essentially means that regulation is distanced from policy making. it gives assurance to the private companies and investors that revenues will cover costs and provide a reasonable return on investment. Independence is also less important to private investors if their revenues are guaranteed through long-term Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) though again they will wish assurance that EEPCo will have the revenues to meet their contractual commitments in the PPAs and will therefore normally require sovereign guarantees. EEA does have limited authority to issue Directives. about 74% was from steam plant (33. such banks will seek sovereign guarantees. The amount of surplus energy available will vary through time. Importance of Independence Independence is an important quality for a regulator who regulates prices of privately owned utilities. This is not the situation today in Ethiopia but it is possible that it will be introduced in the future. These are all key areas where independence needs to be introduced. The EEA budget is a mix of Government funding. • a well functioning legal system and sound courts.3 The Sudan Market Sudan’s National Electricity Corporation (NEC) power system in 1999 generated about 2290 Gwh. 3. 9% from 10.

Sudan and/or Djibouti would then plan to have new plant in place to meet not only their own needs immediately thereafter but also the thermal generation needed by Ethiopia in2013 and 2014 to be able to defer investment in new hydro generation in its system.5 MW to 12 MW capacity. comprising 16 diesel units ranging from 2.4-. Future generation additions to 2010 were planned to be 2 x 6 and 4or 5 x 15 MW units to provide a total system installed capacity of 102 or 114 MW.and 20-MW units). The closest connection points between the Ethiopian and Djibouti systems are about 300 km apart. 15. Potential Benefits to Participating Parties The most obvious and direct benefits of interconnection between Ethiopia and Sudan and/or Djibouti would be: • revenues to Ethiopia from otherwise under utilized capability which would lower Ethiopia’s long term unit energy costs and • lower unit energy costs for the receiving system(s) from displacement of more expensive thermal energy generation. In the period 2007 to2012. the Electricité de Djibouti system experienced suppressed demand .4 The Djibouti Market In 1999. however. however. This corresponds to an annual energy production of 450 to 500 Gwh/yr at 63% load factor and 80% unit availability. Forecasts beyond this horizon are not available. the surplus Ethiopian energy would permit deferral of installation of new thermal plant in the receiving system(s). Recent study.5. assuming an overall plant operating capacity factor of 33% for all thermal plant as experienced in 1999. The closest connection points between the Ethiopian and the Sudan system are in excess of 400 km distant. its year 2000 generation was all-thermal. Subsequent plans for installation of a 300-MW steam station in eachyear from 2011 to 2014 and ongoing retirements would bring the total netsystem thermal additions to 1680 MW by 2015.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster remainder from an assortment of gas turbines (10-. The current NEC generation expansion plan calls for net thermal plantcapacity additions (new plant less retired plant) totaling 580 MW by 2005followed by the 1000-MW Merowe hydroelectric power project in 2006 and2007. although reinforcement of the transmission system within Djibouti beyond this point may be required to be able to effect imports from Ethiopia. The steam and diesel units operated with an overall plant operating capacity factor of about 33%. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 65 . A less obvious and indirect energy benefit is the potential for deferral of investment in new generation in the participating systems through agreement for energy exchanges via the system interconnection(s). provides estimates of an unconstrained demand for 2001 of 255 to 260 Gwh at a load factor of about 61%. provides estimates of an unconstrained demand for 2001 of 255 to 260 Gwh at a load factor of about 61%. 3. 13. As Djibouti have no hydroelectric power resources.Recent study. It is clear that by 2007 and beyond to 2012. Sudan will have ‘displaceable’ thermal generation far in excess of the hydro energy surpluses expected to be available from the Ethiopian system in each year of that time frame. and reinforcements beyond this point from Roseires to the main load center in Khartoum would be required within Sudan to be able to effect imports from Ethiopia. Djibouti clearly represents a relatively limited market potential for Ethiopian urplus energy with its total demands in the time frame in which energy would be available from Ethiopia being of the same order of magnitude as the Ethiopian surplus. These additions would bring the system thermal capability from the current level of about 1100 Gwh per year to about 2775 Gwh in 2007 and about 5960 Gwh in 2014. The same study projects this demand to grow to between 330 to 360 Gwh by the year 2007 and to between 360 to 425 Gwh with a load factor of about 63% by the year 2010.

This cycle of exchanges could repeat indefinitely into the future with investments alternating between new thermal plant in Sudan and/or Djibouti and new hydro generation in Ethiopia until Ethiopia’s economic hydro resources are all developed. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 66 . coordinated investment programs and coordinated system operation. and the participating system(s) would realize more economic energy over the long term as a consequence of delayed investment in thermal plant in their system(s).NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Ethiopia would eliminate the need for an early investment in thermal plant. It is clear that the energy exchange option would require a very serious commitment to international cooperation in the power sector. including both coordinated planning for generation expansion.

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4.6 CASE STUDIES 5 PLANS FOR FUTURE ACTIVITIES 5.5 HUMAN CAPACITY 4.4 INVENTORY OF HYDROLOGICAL DATA 4.1 PLANNING ACTIVITIES 5.2 TOPICS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 5.1 MAIN FINDINGS OF PHASE 1 STUDY 4.3 INVENTORY OF METEOROLOGICAL DATA 4.3 FUTURE VISION 6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 67 .2 REGIONAL INTEGRATION CRITERIA 4.

1979: National Water Master Plan Stage 1. 1979: Water Resources of the Lake Basin. Dunnes Thomas. Ministry of Water Development 7. MOWD. University of Washington. Water Resources Study for the Kerio Valley Basin. Angwenyi George. Ministry of Water Development 6. Tibbets Abbert McCarthy Stratton. 1980: Pre-Investment Study for Water Management and Development of Nyando and River Nzoia Basins. Ministry of Water Development 4. 1980: Gauge height and Flow records. Ministry of Water Development 8. Report submitted by Kerio Valley Development Authority. Interconsult. Location: Nairobi University Library 2. 1974: Suspended sediment data for the rivers of Kenya US department of Geological Sciences. Ministry of Water Developemnt: Location:Library. Location: Library.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 7 REFERENCES 1. a Resaerch Paper. Ministry of Water Development 5. Location: Library. Location: Library. Ministry of Energy Regional Power Integration in Hydropower 68 . Location: Library. MOWD. November 1981. Location: Nairobi University Library 3. MOWD. Location: Library. March 1979. Proposal for a pre-investment study for water management and development of the Nyando and Nzoia River Basin July 1978. 1973: Surface Water Resources in Kenya. June 1973. University of Nairobi.

APPENDIX I TANZANIA REPORT .

The proposed system involves storage reservoirs and cascade power plants.” The available hydropower potential is assessed to amount to about 100 MW.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 1 1. with annual energy production potential of over 400 GWh. development interventions whose effects cut across boarders should either be undertaken jointly by respective members or by one member in consultation with and after consent by other affected members. The United Nations Final report “Planning the development of the Kagera River Basin” Volume II of 1973 provide the existing information as an inventory. 1. but has a stable average flow of about 200 m3/s on the Tanzania section. Interconnection between Kenya and Tanzania could readily made and reduce investment cost through project co-financing and power pooling.1 POTENTIAL HYDROPOWER PROJECTS IN LAKE VICTORIA BASIN AND RUFIJI BASIN. flood protection. Under the East African Co-operation spirit. development of fishing and job opportunities during construction. All proposed projects appeared to be difficult to jointly implement due to trans-boundary effects. Kagera River Due to the gentle gradient the Kagera River. 2. analysis. TANZANIA LAKE VICTORIA BASIN There are two river catchments that have hydropower potential in the Lake Victoria Basin. Mara River The Mara river hydropower potential is described in a pre-feasibility study report by BEOGRAD of 1980 titled. i) The Kishanda Project The United Nations study considered this project as a multi purpose. ¾ Kishanda valley project in the Kishanda valley ¾ The Kyasolo project on the lower stretch on the Kagera River ¾ Kakono Project on the lower stretch of the Kagera River Generally the Kagera river hydro potential is almost not utilized at all in Tanzania. 45-50 m Length of crest 300-400m Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Tanzania Report A1 . aimed at electric power generation. Various studies have been carried out in the past to assess the Kagera river hydropower Potential that could be harnessed to cater for power needs of all countries sharing the river. providing a water supply for nearby villages. That report did not fully address itself to all possible environmental concerns related to hydro and irrigation development in the Mara river basin. “MARA RIVER PROJECT: Pre-feasibility Study of the Possibility of Land and Water Use in Mara River Valley for the Development of the Mara Region in the United Republic of Tanzania. and appraisal of data existed at that time. The United Nations study proposed layout and basic parameters for this project as follows: Dam Height of the dam approx. discharge regulation. It could therefore be beneficial if this project is revived and possibility to develop it jointly with Kenya considered. drainage of swamps in the middle and lower reaches of the Kagera River. The three potential hydro sites in Tanzania are. as river Mara has a bigger portion of its catchment in Kenya. does not have significant falls.

000 mill. Luwego and Mbarangandu) and many small. with a reservoir of 17. Hydropower Station The power station proposed to be at the toe of the dam with the head approximately 70 m.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster It is located in the stretch between the Charhiet Falls and the transition of Lake Rushwa into the Kagera river. Installed capacity is approximately to 105 MW. meandering down to a large delta area vegetated by mangrove forests.2 RUFIJI BASIN The Rufiji River is the largest river in Tanzania with a huge catchment area comprising most of the south-eastern part of the country. flood protection. Stiegler's Gorge. M3 Reservoir area . Tunnel in the Bugara profile will transfer water from the Kishanda valley into the hydropower station. It has several large tributaries (Ruaha. development of fishing and tourism. The tributaries meet and pass through a relatively narrow passage. which in turn receives relatively high annual rainfall. 200 m. Reservoir Maximum volume of 1. flood protection. Hydropower Station: The power station proposed to be with the head of 76 m. discharge regulation and development of fishing. Hydropower Station The power station has a potential of: Capacity .200-300 MW Head . and finally flowing out through several mouths into the Indian Ocean.170 Km2 ii) The Kyasoro Falls Project The United Nations study considered this project as multipurpose project aimed at Power generation. The United Nations study proposed layout and basic parameters for this project as follows: Dam: The dam is proposed to be rock fill dam on the Kagera River in the Kakono profile with the height of approx.3. improvement in water supply for population in the neighborhood of the reservoir. and an installed capacity of 200MW.100 mill. Reservoir maximum volume . Water transfer to this scheme Channel from Lake Rushwa in the Mukyonza profile will transfer water from the Kagera river through lake Rushwa into the Kishanda valley. The length of the crest to about 700 m. 75 m and length of the crest approx. m3 1. The United Nations study proposed layout and basic parameters for this project as follows: Dam The dam is proposed to be rockfill dam on the Kagera River in the Murongo Gorge. discharge regulation.900 mill. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Tanzania Report A2 . iii) The Kakono Project The United Nations study considered this project as multipurpose project aimed at Power generation. m3 and backwater ends at the Rusumo Falls. before descending to the flat lower plains. Kilombero. The height of the dam to be about 90 m.125 meters.

5 17.o 3557 40.3 16.1 .6 5.1 Tanzania Electric Supply Company (TANESCO) Power System Electrical Power System consists of generation. 3 3. however the process is slow and will take tame to finish. transmission (power grid) and distribution of electrical power to consumers. The data is currently being digitized. which is allowed by law to transmit and distribute electrical power in Tanzania.1 23.6 .3 1 14 Siegier's Gorge 160 617 70. Power Spill low Total Capacit Energy Energy Energy Energy Flow Flow y (MW) GWh/yr MWc GWh/yr MWc m3/s m3/s m3/s Lower Kihansi 200 75 111 1000 114 13. Power/Energy and Water Balance Summary (Acres 1985) Power and Project energy Water balance Installed Firm Firm Aveg.2 30. which means that the individual power stations supply energy to a common power grid.5 6. moreover there some gaps on the available data.5 18 Horconsult.5 4.9 18 Horconsult Phases 3&4 Downstream Kihansi (Acres) Ruhudji Three 162 945 108. Aveg.1. Table 1 Priority Potential Projects.8 39.Ngeneyo 250 26.7 1.3 4.6 .Phase II 750 1950 222. TANESCO is the only utility.8 6780 175. the Department of Meteorological and other government agencies has some information on rainfall data in both Rufiji River basin and Lake Victoria Basin (Mara river basin). In this report power development for Tanzania is discussed by looking at hydropower potential in all basins and other options.5 2150 245.9 36.7 2 INVENTORY OF DATA AVAILABILITY The Ministry of water and Livestock.3 .Ibose 35 180 20. transmission and Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Tanzania Report A3 .7 34 Rumakali 80 490 56 505 58 30.8 21.9 3.Phase III 350 1700 205 1530 174 TOTAL 1400 5880 670.6 Mpanga 204 1185 135 1225 141 13. Normally electricity is produced in centralised basis.Tosamaganga 10 55 6.7 5.1 REGIONAL POWER GRID INTERCONNECTIVITY TANZANIA SITUATION: 3.2 18. Some flow rate data for both rivers is available in the above mentioned offices.3 18 Step Masigara 250 1195 135 1540 176 27.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Table 1 below shows the existing major hydroelectric power plants and some potential sites that have been given a high priority for development in the near future Another source studies done by TANESCO Power Company is the Power Master Plan 2001 update.4 641 73.5 3100 351.0 1030 117 16. Phase 1&2 Upper Kihansi 45 438 510.8 42 .7 39.Phase I 300 2150 245.8 21.7o 17 0.4 STIEGIER'S Iringa Project .

there are six major hydro power stations.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster distribution systems are used to link all generating power stations and consumers.43 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Tanzania Report A4 HALE 1964 Run of the river 72 NEW PANGANI FALLS 1995 Run of the river 170 . Musoma.1: TANESCO Hydro power stations data MTERA Year of 1988 completion Type of power Regulated station Gross head [m] 100 KIDATU KIHANSI NYUMBA YA MUNGU 1980 Regulated 175 2000 1969 Run of the Regulated river 850 27. a gas turbine power station and Diesel power station at Dar es Salaam. The TANESCO Hydro power System can be represented as follows. Basically there are two groups of generating plants. 132.2: Hydropower representation of TANESCO Power System Table 1. Hale and New Pangani Falls power stations are in Pangani River while Mtera and Kidatu power stations are in Great Ruaha River. Total installed capacity for grid hydro power plants is 560 MW and for thermal power plants is 202 MW. In TANESCO grid (interconnected) power system. The major ones are 220 and 132 kV systems. Tabora. The National Grid is not connected to any neighboring country. 1985). For the transmission of power there are 220. there are several thermal power plants. hydro power plants and thermal generating plants (thermal groups all generating plants other than hydro) (Reznikov. 1. 66 and 33 kV transmission systems. Nyumba ya Mungu. Dodoma and Mbeya (Tuntufye. while maximum demand is around 440 MW. Kihansi power station is in Kihansi River. There are also Diesel power stations at Mwanza. 1997). In addition to that. NYUMBA YA MUNGU NEW PANGANI FALLS Pangani River HALE Rufiji River KIDATU Great Ruaha River INDIAN OCEAN MTERA Little Ruaha River Kilombero River Kihansi River Ruhudji River Figure.

However the north western park of Tanzania (Kagera Region is supplied power from the Uganda grid.000 6.1 0.6 41 45 2 Francis 4 Francis 3 Pelton 2 Francis 2 Francis 80 204 180 8 22 68 419 1.000 280 6.2 8.55 4.700 167 1.5 310 3.06 1.81 0.200 125 1 1.2 260 350 200 400 340. Also the East Africa interconnection does not connect the Tanzanian grid to Uganda or Kenya.000 818 1.2 120 130 15 34 35 0 96 144 24 42. feasibility studies are currently underway to see the viability of interconnect Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Tanzania Report A5 .200 2 Francis REGIONAL INTERCONNECTION There are two regional interconnection A The Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) With the following members 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 B Botswana Power Corporation (BPC) of Botswana Electricidade de Mocambique (EDM) of Mozambique Empresa Nacional de Electricidade (ENE) of Angola Electricity Supply Commission of Malawi (ESCOM) of Malawi ESKOM of the Republic of South Africa Lesotho Electricity Corporation (LEC) of Lesotho NAMPOWER of Namibia Societe National d’Electricite (SNEL) of the Democratic Republic of Congo Swaziland Electricity Board (SEB) of Swaziland Tanzania Electricity Supply Company Ltd (TANESCO) of Tanzania ZESCO Limited of Zambia Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA) of Zimbabwe The East Africa Interconnection.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Mean annual inflow [m3/s] Design flow [m3/s] Number of units Type of turbine Installed capacity [MW] Average annual production [GWh] Height of dam [m] Length of dam crest [m] Volume content of dam [106 m3] Active storage of the reservoir [106 m3] Maximum discharge capacity of spillways [m3/s] 3.150 474 47 125 407 50 40 21 41 7.300 0. with the following members Uganda Kenya Tanzania In SAPP Tanzania grid is yet to be interconnected. A 330kV line is planned to connect the Zambia grid to Tanzania grid.8 3.128 0.

Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Tanzania Report A6 .4 FOUR AGREEMENTS GOVERN SAPP ¾ Inter-Governmental Memorandum of Understanding . 3.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Tanzanian grid (from Arusha) to Kenya grid (to Nairobi).Enabled the establishment of SAPP ¾ Inter-Utility Memorandum of Understanding .Establishes SAPP’s Management and Operating principles ¾ Agreement Between Operating Members – Establishes the specific Rules of Operation and Pricing ¾ Operating Guidelines – Provide Standards and Operating Guideline. Reduce both capital and operating cost through co-ordination Increase system reliability through emergency support when required. Kenya and Uganda grids are already interconnected. Provides forum for solutions to electric energy problems in the region. 3.3 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ADVANTAGES OF GRID INTERCONNECTIVITY Coordinate the planning and operation of the electric power systems among the member utilities.

APPENDIX II KENYA REPORT .

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster

1

HYDROLOGY FOR RIVER NZOIA

a) Inventory of databases on metrological information for River Nzoia.
Description:

MET/1401

Monthly Weather Summary for temperature, rainfall and evaporation.
Location:

Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Kakamega.
Ministry of Transport and Communications Meteorological Department.

Format:Files and folders in shelves.
Availability:

Accessible to officers at a cost of Ksh.200 to authorized persons by photocopy.

Date of Reference:

Records from 1998 – 2001

Evaluation: N/A
b) Monthly Weather Summary for the year 1998
Temperature / Month

Jan

Feb.

Mar.

April

May

June

July

28.60C
14.70C
6.90C

29.80C
870C

28.40C
15.30C
10.10C

27.80C
15.10C
8.00C

26.20C
13.60C
9.00C

25.60C
13.80C
8.60C

15.50C
14.60C
14.20C

15.10C
14.00C
13.20C

17.50C
17.00C
17.00C

17.80C
17.90C
17.60C

16.50C
16.30C
15.20C

15.80C
16.00C
16.20C

204.2
122.0

818
142.8

130.2
168.7

268.8
118.9

291.7
126.8

158.1
102.9

139.3
100.0

12
Nil
Nil
14

9
Nil
Nil
10

11
1
13

18
1
23

22
28

19
26

14
1
24

6.4
78%
59%
93.4

8.1
848.0
844.3
75%
47%
73.7

8.4
846.6
842.8
67%
42%
-

7.3
846.9
843.2
79%
56%
72.0

6.7
848.0
844.9
8.4%
6.3%
54.2

55.4

847.9
845.4
88%
60%
51.4

Mean maximum
26.90C
Mean Minimum
15.00C
Lowest gross minimum for the 7.50C
month
Mean 0600Z dew point
16.20C
Mean 0900Z dew point
15.90C
Mean 1200Z
15.70C
Rainfall and Evaporation
Total rainfall for the month (in mm)
Total Evaporation for the month
(in mm)
No. of rainy days
No. of hail days
No. of days with ground frost
No. of days with thunder
Other Parameters
Mean sunshine (in hours per day)
Mean radiation
Mean pressure at 0600Z
Mean pressure at 1200Z
Mean R/H at 0600Z
Mean R/H at 1200Z
Mean Wind run (in KM/Day)

Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Kenya Report
B1

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster

c) Monthly Weather Summary for the year 1999

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar Apr

May Jun

Jul

Aug Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Mean maximum 29.8

30.9

30.2

28.1

26.8

26.4

26.9

26.2

28.1

27.3

28.9

28.4

Mean Minimum

13.2

13.0

14.5

15.1

14.6

13.7

13.8

13.4

15.1

14.5

14.8

13.9

Lowest gross
minimum
Mean 0600Z dew
point
Mean 0900Z dew
point
Mean 1200Z dew
point
Rainfall and
Evaporation
Total rainfall
(mm)
Total Evaporation
(mm)

3.50C 54

8.7

-

-

10.0

94.0

-

-

10.2

-

-

11.8

10.7

13.7

16.1

16.6

15.7

15.4

15.5

14.9

15.9

14.8

13.3

9.1

7.5

11.6

14.7

16.4

15.6

15.5

15.5

14.2

15.4

13.3

11.3

9.1

5.7

10.8

14.8

16.3

15.7

14.8

15.0

14.1

15.1

12.8

11.8

34.8

34.3

499

105.8 224.9 118.7 138.2 182.1 50.9

-

-

188.9 142.3 125.2 121.4 177.4 129.8 146.4 130.7 157.2 163.7

No. of rainy days 3

6

12

12

26

20

16

19

9

20

7

7

-

2

1

1

2

1

-

-

-

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

7

17

23

29

24

17

22

13

25

11

14

-

87

8.1

6.1

59

7.0

-

-

-

6.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Temp (oC)

No. of days with
hail
No. of days with
ground frost
No. of days with
thunder
Other
Parameters
Mean sunshine
(HR/day)
Mean radiation
Mean pressure at
0600Z (mf)
Mean pressure at
1200Z ( mf)
Mean R/H at
0600Z
Mean R/H at
1200Z
Mean Wind run
(KM/day)

264.5 100.4 102.8

844.3 845.2 844.6 845.1 846

846.4 845.9 846.5 845.3 843.8 845.0 845.8

840

843.8 843.4 843.6 841.4 840.0 841.4 841.9

840.9 840.4 841.4 843

58% 56% 66% 77% 82% 81.3% 87% 87% 66% 78% 73% 64%
32% 34% 35% 51% 56% 56.4% 52% 55% 50% 75% 43% 42%
103.9 109.6 100.2 78.6

65.6

58.8

Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Kenya Report
B2

59.1

63.7

84.9

71.5

88.1

88.3

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster

2

HYDROLOGY FOR RIVER NZOIA

Description –

Serial No. 01
Nzoia River returns from Webuye station
IDA2
Hydrological information – Gauge Heights (G/HT)

Location:

Ministry of Water Resources & Development office Kakamega

Format:

Files and folders in drawers

Availability:

Accessible to authorized people at a cost (not specified) per data given.
Can either be photocopied or printed.
Date of Reference: Records from 1980 – 1987
Some information lacks from their files.
Evaluation:

Reliable data 1983.

March (Max. 115, Min.092)
Date

G/HT.1

G/HT.2

April (Max.136, Min.096

Time 1
( a.m.)

Time 2
( p.m.)

Date G/HT.1

G/HT.2

Time 1
(a.m.)

Time 2
(p.m.)

1

108

107

8.00

4.05

1

-

-

-

-

2

105

107

7.30

3:00

2

099

-

8:05

-

3

100

103

10:35

4:10

3

-

-

-

-

4

098

098

7.45.

3:00

4

-

-

-

-

5

098

098

8:15

-

5

105

106

8:00

3:00

6

108

108

7:15

2:45

6
7

095

095

8:15

2:45

7

110

111

11:30

3:00

8

094

096

8:00

3:00

8

115

115

8:15

3:00

9

096

096

7:35

2:25

9

113

-

8:25

-

10

096

095

8:50

3:45

10

-

-

-

-

11

095

092

8:00

1:00

11

101

097

8:25

-

12

091

-

9:35

-

12

097

097

8:25

4:00

13

096

097

12:00

2:45

13
14

102

102

8:15

3:45

14

097

099

8:00

2:00

15

104

105

8:00

2:15

15

102

104

8:00

4:00

16

106

107

8:00

2:15

16

100

-

8:00

-

17

114

115

8:00

3:15

17

-

-

-

18

112

112

10:00

4:00

18

104

100

8:00

3:00

19

110

-

-

19

101

100

7:00

4:00

-

20

098

098

9:15

3:00

3:45

21

098

098

7:45

4:00

20
21

106

105

8:00

Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Kenya Report
B3

m.) Time 2 (p.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 22 093 093 8:00 3:00 22 099 097 - - 23 092 093 7:45 3:15 23 100 - 8:15 - 24 090 091 12:30 4:10 24 108 - - 25 089 088 8:15 3:55 25 111 108 9:55 3:10 26 091 088 8:00 - 26 128 126 8:15 3:00 27 132 133 8:00 2:45 27 28 090 - 8:00 4:00 28 125 128 8:00 2:00 29 089 092 8:00 3:15 29 136 135 7:45 3:00 30 100 096 7:45 2:10 30 134 - 31 102 100 8:15 3:55 June 1983 (Max.) Time 2 (p.2 1 Time 1 (a. 192.2 Time 1 (a.m.) 1 2 122 3 118 4 121 2 177 175 8:15 3:45 116 3 168 165 8:00 4:00 111 108 4 - - - - 5 102 108 5 - - - - 6 124 128 6 158 154 8:00 4:10 7 - - 7 146 144 8:25 4:15 8 - - 8 140 138 8:00 4:10 9 158 160 9 131 138 8:15 3:00 10 159 157 10 - 135 8:00 4:00 11 159 158 11 - - - - 12 158 155 12 - - - - 13 154 153 13 165 168 8:00 3:45 14 - - 14 160 158 7:00 3:00 15 - - 15 158 152 8:00 3:45 16 146 145 16 146 142 8:15 4:10 17 132 134 17 135 132 11:45 4:25 18 138 136 18 - - - - 19 135 135 19 - - - - 20 133 132 20 131 - 8:00 3:45 21 - - 21 132 - 8:15 4:00 22 - - 22 128 - 8:00 3:00 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Kenya Report B4 .1 G/HT.124) May 1983 Date G/HT. Min.) Date G/HT.m.1 G/HT.m.

) Time 2 (p.m.m.224. 194) Time 1 Time 2 Date G/HT.) 1 172 174 1 200 202 8:15 4:00 2 - - 2 204 206 8:00 5:00 3 - - 3 220 224 8:15 3:45 4 184 182 4 238 236 8:00 3:40 5 178 177 5 226 224 8:00 4:00 6 160 167 6 - - - - 7 164 160 7 - - - - 8 154 153 8 194 198 10:30 4:10 9 - - 9 208 201 9:15 3:00 10 - - 10 215 210 8:15 4:35 11 134 137 11 209 206 8:10 3:45 12 136 136 12 220 224 8:50 4:00 13 - - 13 - - - - 14 134 134 14 - - - - 15 133 132 15 254 259 8:00 4:10 16 - - 16 268 274 8:00 3:00 17 - - 17 290 284 8:35 4:35 18 148 150 18 315 325 8:00 3:45 19 160 165 19 324 328 8:00 4:10 20 174 178 20 - - - - 21 183 184 21 - - - - 22 180 181 22 366 312 8:00 3:15 23 - - 23 335 348 7:45 2:25 24 - - 24 360 366 8:00 4:45 25 190 191 25 358 354 8:45 3:00 26 194 193 26 330 332 8:00 4:45 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Kenya Report B5 .2 Time 1 (a. Min 132) Date G/HT.1 G/HT.2 August 1983 (Max 366. Min.1 G/HT.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 23 147 148 23 126 - 8:00 4:00 24 174 178 24 128 - 7:00 3:15 25 182 186 25 - - - - 26 218 208 26 - - - - 27 192 190 27 148 147 7:00 3:15 28 - - 28 166 168 9:15 4:00 29 - - 29 192 193 10:05 5:10 30 214 196 30 175 174 8:00 2:00 31 198 196 31 July 1983 (Max.

1 G/HT.2 October 1983 (Max.m.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 27 196 198 27 - - - - 28 204 203 28 - - - - 29 220 224 29 325 322 8:00 3:00 30 - - 30 322 329 8:25 3:55 31 - - 31 323 320 8:00 September 1983 (Max.94. 1.1 G/HT.) Time 2 (p.2. Min.340.80) Time Time 2 Date G/HT.2 Time 1 (a. 160) Date G/HT.m. Min.) 1 318 9:00 1 - - - - 2 340 2:10 2 - - - - 3 - - 3 2654 254 8:00 4:00 4 - - 4 260 264 8:00 3:10 5 308 3:10 5 268 270 9:15 4:00 6 314 2:00 6 278 280 9:00 3:00 7 318 12:20 7 282 280 9:00 3:00 8 324 8:00 8 282 180 8:15 2:00 9 338 12:45 9 - - - - 10 - - 10 - - - - 11 - - 11 294 290 8:00 4:35 12 294 11:45 12 266 280 8:35 4:10 13 284 3:00 13 285 284 8:00 3:40 14 278 2:45 14 280 278 8:45 4:35 15 265 8:00 15 275 272 8:40 3:00 16 276 8:35 16 - - - - 17 - - 17 - - - - 18 - - 18 264 261 9:45 3:30 19 284 3:10 19 266 263 8:15 4:10 20 288 2:20 20 268 262 8:00 5:10 21 264 3:10 21 - - - - 22 - - 22 240 242 8:00 3:15 23 160 3:35 23 - - - - 24 - - 24 248 246 8:15 2:40 25 - - 25 254 253 8:00 3:15 26 - - 26 252 251 8:00 4:10 27 252 3:10 27 252 249 8:00 3:10 28 278 3:30 28 250 246 8:35 3:15 29 272 3:45 29 - - - - 30 270 4:35 30 - - - - 31 242 288 8:10 2:15 31 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Kenya Report B6 .

235.172) Date G/HT.2 Time 1 1 220 228 1 172 8:30 2 228 227 2 166 8:45 3 226 227 3 - - 4 230 228 4 - - 5 - - 5 160 9:45 6 - - 6 150 10:40 7 235 233 7 158 11:50 8 232 231 8 156 8:40 9 228 226 9 156 8:30 10 222 220 10 - - 11 218 216 11 - - 12 - - 12 - - 13 - - 13 - - 14 226 224 14 146 11:15 15 222 219 15 146 11:10 16 216 218 16 139 10:55 17 224 222 17 - - 18 218 216 18 - - 19 - - 19 141 12:15 20 - - 20 143 12:45 21 214 212 21 143 10:25 22 210 208 22 143 11:45 23 208 204 23 150 12:30 24 204 202 24 - - 25 192 194 25 - - 26 - - 26 - - 27 - - 27 154 1:50 28 174 - 28 147 1:45 29 173 - 29 152 11:45 30 172 - 30 147 10:25 31 - - 31 - - Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Kenya Report B7 Time 2 .2 December 1983 (Max. 139) Time Time 2 Date G/HT. Min.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster November 1983 (Max. Min.1 G/HT.1 G/HT. 172.

2 Time 1 Time 2 .1 G/HT.2 Time Time 2 Date 1 195 9:15 1 2 190 8:15 2 3 180 11:00 3 4 192 12:25 4 5 196 11:15 5 6 - - 6 7 198 9:30 7 8 218 3:30 8 9 198 9:15 9 10 196 7:30 10 11 194 10:00 11 12 189 10:00 12 13 - - 13 14 184 10:15 14 15 170 10:00 15 16 162 10:15 16 17 150 10:00 17 18 144 11:50 18 19 135 11:30 19 20 - - 20 21 132 10:00 21 22 138 9:15 22 23 128 10:15 23 24 127 9:00 24 25 128 10:15 25 26 - - 26 27 128 10:20 27 28 138 9:15 28 29 135 8:30 29 30 134 9:45 30 31 134 10:00 31 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Kenya Report B8 G/HT.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster July 1980 Date G/HT.1 August 1980 G/HT.

2 Time 1 1 088 12:15 1 089 1:00 2 - - 2 088 8:30 3 085 8:30 3 085 4:20 4 084 9:00 4 084 4:00 5 084 9:30 5 082 8:30 6 085 9:30 6 082 7:35 7 088 12:00 7 - - 8 088 11:40 8 081 2:30 9 - - 9 080 9:45 10 090 9:00 10 082 1:00 11 090 8:30 11 078 2:30 12 090 9:30 12 - - 13 088 1:30 13 077 1:30 14 087 9:15 14 - - 15 087 11:30 15 074 2:00 16 - - 16 072 12:45 17 106 1:30 17 071 9:30 18 103 1:45 18 070 12:55 19 102 12:35 19 072 12:00 20 103 12:00 20 072 8:30 21 125 7:45 21 - - 22 117 12:30 22 072 9:35 23 - - 23 070 1:00 24 107 9:00 24 068 9:30 25 107 8:30 25 - - 26 105 1:15 26 - - 27 100 10:00 27 065 7:15 28 095 8:00 28 - - 29 - - 29 065 5:30 30 - - 30 064 12:00 31 - - 31 063 12:00 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Kenya Report B9 Time 2 .1 G/HT.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster November 1980 (Max 125. min 084) Date G/HT. min 063) Time 1 Time 2 Date G/HT.2 December 1980 (Max 089.1 G/HT.

min 053) Date G/HT.2 Time 1 1 - - 2 062 12:00 3 063 9:30 4 - - 5 - - 6 076 2:30 7 072 8:35 8 071 1:30 9 071 7:45 10 068 1:30 11 - - 12 065 1:00 13 063 12:35 14 060 12:15 15 059 2:35 16 059 9:15 17 059 12:00 18 058 12:30 19 058 12:00 20 058 12:45 21 056 7:00 22 055 2:40 23 055 1:15 24 057 12:00 25 - - 26 055 8:15 27 054 11:30 28 054 12:15 29 054 11:45 30 053 12:00 31 053 - Time 2 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Kenya Report B10 .NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster January 1981 (Max 076.1 G/HT.

of Water Free The Study on the National Ministry Water Master Plan. the responsible agency and the planning stage. Library Report (K): Topographic Survey of Dam Sites. References S/N Reference 1. Reference 3 Rambula dam site. of Water Free The Study on the National Ministry Water Master Plan. Library Report. Sectoral Development. Republic of Kenya. Library Report (H): Dam Development Plan.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 3 CASE STUDIES OF THE RIVER NZOIA BASIN Dam Sites Summary Reference 1 The potential and existing dam sites along the River Nzoia Basin are as follows EXISTING DAM SITES AT Twin Rivers Ellegirini POTENTIAL DAM SITES AT Kipkaren Kiboro Mukulusi Moiben Lower Moiben Moi's Bridge Hemsted Bridge Reference 2 The document has inventory of the dam schemes identified in the country. The survey was carried out between August and December 1990. Ministry of Water Development. (2) aerial photography and control point survey for photogrammetric mapping. the catchment area. which involved (1) arrangement to sub-letting the work to local survey or contractor. JICA. JICA. industrial water supply and hydropower generation. July1992 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Kenya Report B11 Access Fee . Sectoral Development. Integrated Water Resources Planning. Republic of Kenya. Sectoral Development. 1992 3. Ministry of Water Development. on River Nzoia was covered in the Survey. of Water Free The Study on the National Ministry Water Master Plan. The details for each site include the river along which the site lies. See the attached sheet. profile survey and leveling survey for establishement of site datum. (3) Supervision of survey work executed by contractors. July 1992 Physical Location 2. the purpose for which the dam is planned for. The dam sites identified along the River Nzoia basin are given and their characteristics described in detail. The dam schemes are for domestic.

The basin covers an area of about 12000km2 and a total length of 275km. Lower Nzoia: Latitude: Longitude: 0o 04’N and 0o 11’S 33o 57’E and 34o 14’E Upper Nzoia Latitude: Longitude: 0o 04’N and 0o 55’S 34o 55’E and 35o 10’E 3. Cattle rearing is also practiced. Other crops are beans and cassava. River Nzoia basin transgresses many regions thus land use will vary accordingly. Main Land Use Crops are generally grown on scattered hill-side plots separated by extensive rangeland. Main crop grown is hybrid maize. The landform is hilly with steep slopes.2 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE RIVER NZOIA BASIN River Nzoia flows into Lake Victoria just North of Yala swamp and rises from Cheranganyi hills in the East with tributaries feeding it from mount Elgon in the North. Thus agriculturae is not all that prevailant in the area. Maize farming is done on small scale for the local market only. Main Land Use Livestock rearing and fish farming are common activities. Lower Nzoia Lower Nzoia is of 8500 km2 in area and lies at the altitude of 1. Upper Nzoia Upper Nzoia basin covers a total area of 1500 km2. Cotton is practically the only crop produced for the market. The minimum and maximum elevations are 1917m ASL and 4300 ASL.130m to 1225m Above Sea Level. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Kenya Report B12 . The area is generally flat and swampy. followed by sunflower.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 3. The sub-basin lies between the altitudes of 1625metres and 1825metres Above Sea Level. Agro-economic conditions are generally poor throughout the sub-area with exception of Bunyala pilot irrigation scheme. Sugar-cane farming is practiced on small farms. which poses a serious problem in the communication network. The roads in the upper Nzoia basin are in fair conditions making communication fair.1 DESCRIPTION FOR RIVER NZOIA BASIN COUNTRY: Kenya BASIN: River Nzoia Basin LOCATION River Nzoia lies in the western region of Kenya. In the lower regions of Budalangi the soils are poorly drained and mainly of clay type due to the frequent flooding. but note that in the agro-ecological zones Budalangi area is marked LM4. Lower Nzoia and Upper Nzoia sub-basins. The catchment area is bounded by latitudes 1o 30’N and 0o 30’S and Latitude 34o E and 35o 45’E. The catchment area may be divided into two sub-catchments. The permanent swamps cover a total area of 25 km2. the marginal cotton zone. Most roads are not tarmacked.

The mean annual rainfall is between 1000 to 1500mm.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 3. The solution lies largely in the control of erosion in the upper catchment. It is evident that discharges of this order are likely to result in floods involving several hundred millions cubic metres thus flooding very large areas. The desposition is intensive due to the low gradient of the riverbed. It is considered that these values can be taken as valid for the end reaches of the Nzoia where periodic flooding occurs.350 tonnes (Dunnes. Deposition of the material eroded in the upstream takes place in the downstream. River Kuywa and River Moiben.4 OTHER FEATURES Floods River Nzoia is characterized with flooding in its lower reaches. Erosion and Sedimentation Erosion in the upper catchment area of the basin is due largely to deforestation. One of the stations within the basin is considered favorable since it has an automatic stage recorder and lies downstream of the River Basin covering an area of 1180km2. 21. Moiben River has a catchment of 262 km2. 3.400 to 326. The isohyets are 45 inches on entering Lake Victoria.7% The rivers within the river Nzoia basin are River Nzoia. Nzoia at Moi's bridge has a catchement area of 1470 km2. hindering the free flow of water. annually. Erosion in the upper catchment area leads to mass sedimentation in the lower areas. There is intense erosion in the upstream region due to deforestation. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Kenya Report B13 . The river floods frequently. 1974). The highest river discharges occur between May and September while the lowest river discharges occur between January and March. Dykes have been constructed over 32 km stretch in the downstream of the river Nzoia to contain the flood problem Design Flood: Flood discharge of 117m3/s is obtained from the flood envelope curve applicable to the Lake Basin. The middle Nzoia river. Both rivers Kuywa and Moiben drain into River Nzoia. The deposition reduces the depth and thus the capacity of the river. Erosion in the lower reaches of the basin is caused by the progressive movement of the meanders causing bank materials to be moved downstream. The upper and lower river Nzoia has 1470 and 8420 km2 catchement areas respectively. The minimum and maximum mean monthly rainfall is 20mm and 200mm respectively. The soil blocks the channel or fills it. The 25 and 50 year return period peak discharges from the station are 1100m3/s and 1360m3/s respectively. This is due to the large catchment area versus one river to let the water into the lake. The First and Second maxima occur from April to May and July to November respectively. which drains into Lake Victoria. Annual Runoff: 310mm and Runoff ratio. which eventually results into flooding. 60 inches at Mount Elgon and 50 inches around Cherangani hills 50 inches.3 THE HYDROLOGY OF RIVER NZOIA BASIN The mean monthly rainfall trend represents two maxima and minima over the year. Annual sediment delivery in river Nzoia is between 158.

APPENDIX III ETHIOPIA REPORT .

36 0.48 2.57 132 18 23 43 15 23 39 6 - 97.73 14. which are now parts of the Eritrea Basins.470 5.930 36.170 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C1 75% Dependable Surface Water (Bm3) 51. The Master plan study was made for all the fourteen basins including the Mereb-Gash.346 202.102 74.182 160.042 112.696 90.NO Name of Basin Area (km2) Technical Potential (Gwh/yr) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Abbay Wabi Shebelle Genale-Dawa Awash Tekeze Omo-Ghibe Ogaden Baro-Akobo Danakil Rift valley Lakes Aysha 201.213 77.121 74. not all the works and documents could be investigated for and compiled in the short academic term and hence only maser plan studies are reviewed in this report. Cesen and EELPA apart from the consultants who studied the country's river basins master plan.223 78. Barka-Anseba.58 4.51 HP Potential Sites 4.46 8.440 9. WAPCO identified Three hundred and fourteen hydropower sites.001 78.1 INTODUCTION: Ethiopia has numerous rivers capable of producing tremendous hydropower. The country has earlier been divided into 14 major river basins and now into 11 major river basins with the three basins being part of Eritrea.697 171.136. A countrywide and basin wise integrated master plan studies were made at different times and by different consultants and by the Ministry of the Water Resource On purpose of the assignment given to determine the potential hydropower sites of the country.34 4.10 5.2 HYDROPOWER SITES IDENTIFIED WITH THE COUNTRY WIDE WATER RESOURCES MASTER PLAN STUDY BY WAPCOS A Preliminary Water Resources Development Master Plan for Ethiopia was made by the India Consultant called Water and Power Consultancy Services (WAPCOS) from April 988 to June 1990 where the Ethiopian Valleys Development Studies Authority represent Ethiopian Government as employer and also provided the technical counterparts.739 2.002 52. 1. which shows Two Hundred Ninety Eight Sites in the current Ethiopia.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 1 INVENTORY OF LARGE HYDROPOWER POTENTIAL SITES IN ETHIOPIA 1. the writer has reviewed the country wide as well as the basin wise master plan studies. surface Water Resources and Potential Hydropower Sites S.820 5.880 800 - Total 1.270 4. However. Hydropower potentials have been investigated at different levels by Acres. UNDP. collected and compiled the relevant data available. and the Red Sea Basins.560 18. Table (1-1) River Basins in Ethiopia: Areas.20 299 .

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster The potential sites have been marked on plate HP-1 (vol. June 1990 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C2 . WAPCO. which is an A1 size reserved drawing and also too illegible to copy in reduced scale. Figure (1-1) River Basins in Ethiopia Source: Preliminary Water Resources Development Master Plan for Ethiopia Final Report. X).

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 1.3 ABBAY BASIN The French Consultant BCEOM in association with BRGM and isl consulting Engineers conducted a master plan study for integrated development of the Abbay River Basin in 1999. BCEOM. BCEOM identified about 26 potential hydropower sites. Figure (1-2) Location Map of Abbay Basin Source: Abbay River Basin Integrated Development Master Plan Project. April 1999 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C3 . which are indicated in Table 2 and Fig 2. Phase 3 Executive Summary.

4 29.5 29.3 40. Currently the Master Plan study has identified 21 potential hydropower sites.3 26.1 39. with 5 new sites identified apart from the 16 potential hydropower sites earlier identified by WAPCO.6 Energy (GWH/yr) 213 232 246 256 258 260 348 349 392 490 505 655 656 859 407 430 435 207 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C4 .5 84.4 85. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 21 Site Name WS 2 WS 3 WS 4 WS 5 WS 6 WS 7 WS 8 WS 9 WS 10 WS 11 WS 12 WS 13 WS 14 WS 15 WS 16 WS 17 WS 18 DK 1 Power (MW) 29.8 53.7 39.7 39.7 39.5 28.3) Potential Hydropower sites in the Wabi Shebele River Basin No.8 44. Table (1.6 74 75 98 46.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Table (1-2) Hydropower Identified Projects in the Abbay River Basin Name of Power Scheme Code in the Models Installed Capacity (MW) Type of Project Aleltu Beles Dangur Chemoga Yeda Dabana Fettam Finchaa Lower Didessa Lower Guder Neshe Tis Abbay Upper Beles Upper Dabus Upper Didessa Upper Dindir ALEL BELD CHEY DABA FETT FINC LDID LGUD NESHB TANA UBEL UDAB UDID UDIN 418 120 630 60 125 100 300 70 30 60 382 40 100 30 Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir 1.4 THE WABI SHEBELE RIVER BASIN The Master Plan Study for the Integrated Development of the Wabi Shebele River Basin is currently being made the Water Works Design Enterprise.

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Figure. (1-3) Location Map of Wabi Shebelle Basin Source: Preliminary Water Resources Development Master Plan for Ethiopia Final Report. June 1990 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C5 . WAPCO.

Draft Phase III Report Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C6 .Water Allocation and Utilization .NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Figure (1-4) Potential Hydropower sites in the Wabi Shebele River Basin Source: Wabi Shebele River Basin Integrated Development Master Plan Study Project.

Table (1-4)Identified Potential Hydropower and Multipurpose Sites Site No. Ministry of Agriculture and Small Hydropower Investigation Team. The study identified an altogether 31 potential dam sites for irrigation.(1-5) Location Map of Genale Dawa River Basin Source: Genale Dawa River Basin Integrated Development Master Plan Project Reconnaissance Phase Main Report.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Figure. June 2000 1. The potential hydropower and multipurpose sites are listed in Table 5 below. Sub Riber GDH15 Basin Genale GDH16 GDH17 GDH18 GDH19 GDH20 GDH21 GDH22 Genale Genale Genale Dawa Dawa Dawa Dawa GDH23 Dawa Genale Genale Genale Awata Awata Awata Melka Guba Dawa GDH25 GDH26 GDH27 GDH28 Dawa Dawa Dawa Dawa Dawa Mormora Kilkile Afelata Genale Co-ordinates Nearest Town Wereda Zone Access Purpose Bale 20 MP Liben Liben Borena Borena Borena Borena Liben 15 8 20 20 20 20 25 HP MP HP MP MP MP MP Liben 10 HP Borena 25 15 10 30 MP MP HP HP F N 040361 410161 Golgol 040561 050431 050371 050441 050501 050581 040431 410301 390341 390421 390101 380541 380431 390281 Bander Bidre Baltige Shakiso Hinde Hinde Wata Dege Meda Welaber Adola Adola Arero Liben Liben Liben Adola 040511 390211 Duka Tal Lliben 050071 050471 050041 050361 380581 380451 380431 380271 Gora Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C7 .C (1989 and WAPCOS Preliminary Water Resources Development Master Plan for Ethiopia.R. hydropower and integrated development. P. The report reproduced investigations by (ACRES. 1982) Power planning study.5 THE GENALE DAWA RIVER BASIN The Reconnaissance Phase Genale Dawa River Basin Integrated Development Master Plan Study was made by the Ministry of Water Resources in the year 2000 which incoorporated the Dam and Hydropower aspects.

the identified potential hydropower projects are shown in Table 6.(1-6) Location Map of Awash Basin Source: The Awash River Master Plan Study.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 1. The Master Plan Study envisaged the feasibility of several hundred small hydropower plans in the basin with average capacities of 100 to 200kw which would increase the 1574 GWh/yr total hydropower potential of the basin.6 THE WABI SHEBEL RIVER BASIN Figure. however the master plan reports that hydropower potential of the basin is 50% more than what is indicated in the table Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C8 . Sir Williams Halcrow & Partners Ltd.

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Figure. Sir Williams Halcrow & Partners Ltd. Table (1-5) Hydropower potential in the Awash Basin Site Awash III Awash IV Gross (GWH) 165 167 Hydropower Potential Installed (MW) 32 34 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C9 .(1-7) Potential Hydropower Sites Source: The Awash River Master Plan Study.

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Figure.7 THE TEKEZE RIVER BASIN The Netherlands Engineering Consultants. which are considered the most feasible ones in terms of physiography. The consultant selected 10 sites out of the 15 potential sites identified by WAPCO and made ground checking for these sites.(1. NEDECO inassociation with DHV consult made the Integrated Master Plan Study Of the Tekeze River Basin in 1998. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C10 .8)Location Map Source: Tekeze River Basin Integrated Development Master Plan Project Executive Summary. of which tow were finally evaluated as the best ones (TK4. the Netherlands Engineering Consultants (NEDECO) February 1998 1. 221 MW). The consultant selected 5 sites. 85 MW and TK7.

the Netherlands Engineering Consultants (NEDECO). February 1998 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C11 .NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Figure(1-9)Dam Sites Source: Tekeze River Basin Integrated Development Master Plan Project Executive Summary.

9 99.267 1430.415 Embama 8 TK-8 Tekeze 336.3 ND-37-05 Figure (1-10) Location Map of the Omo Ghibe River Basin Source : Master Plan Study Final Report Document by Richard Woodroofe & Associotes in association with mascot ltd.189 islamage Abi Adi Abi Adi 384.424 1577. TK= wapcos numbering 115.000 (Map 7 8 9 10 1340.2 ND-37-14 94.267 3 TK-3 Tekeze 443.339 1570.000 11 ND37-137 ND37-114 ND37-102 ND37-90 ND-37-10 ND-37-05 122.699 9 TK-9 Tekeze 288.7 ND-37-05 34.593 1583.654 1493.5 ND-37-14 ND-37-10 ND-37-10 2 TK-2 Tekeze 444.038 1472.989 1 TK-1 Tekeze Power (MW) Map/photo numbers Noting 1:250.972 Humera 254.10 1:100.199 Humera 10 TK-10 Tekeze Note:only larger Hunting schemes are presented.279 1364.278 1392.1 ND-37-14 - 65.9 ND-37-14 - 87.719 1529.308 - 43.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Table(1-6)Dam sites in the Tekeze River Basin proposed by different consultants Teknr Source River Near by town Coordinates Easting 1 2 3 6 Hydropower Projects Selected by WAPCOS 444.3 112.4 136.834 4 5 6 7 TK-4 TK-5 TK-6 TK-7 Tekeze Tekeze Tekeze Tekeze 457. December 1996 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C12 .214 472.022 459.

Dema (35 MW. 231 GWh).1847). The potential to develop a hydropower network on individual rivers with schemes situated downstream of a regulating reservoir is shown in table 8 below. 154 GWh). at the headwaters. 1022 GWh) Gojeb No independent regulating reservoir.The higher value in brackets refers to a higher crest level at the dam.664 GWh) NB-The higher value in brackets refers to potential generation downstream of Halele reservoir. 288 GWh). Halele (110 MW. Omo Gojeb. OM 18 975 MW. 505 GWh-155 MW. 2446 GWh).scale (>100 MW): medium . 311 GWh –100 MW. 688 GWh) NB. 1073 GWh-180 MW.OM21.8 THE OMO GHIBE RIVER BASIN The Omo Ghibe river basin has the second largest hydropower potential of all the river basins next to the Abbay river basin. and the smaller to generation downstream of roro regulating reservoir) Gilgel Gibe River Gilgel gibe regulating reservoir Gilgel gibe (66 MW.2624 GWh) OM15 (295 MN. Table (1-7) Potential Hydropower Sites Gide River Halele or roro regulating reservoir.273 GWh) of fofa (233 MW. have been identified to supply electricity in the Basin: large . Wabe No independent regulating reservorr.Daka (65 MW. 491 GWh) OR RORO (15mw. and small-scale developments (up to 15 to 20 MW) Mini-hydro and very small-scale development up to 1 MW are feasible. OM14 and OM15 has in fact not taken into account the regulating effect of Gojeb reservoir. koto (62 MW. technically. 65 gwh) Werabesa (450 MW. 1285 GWh NB-The analysis for OM 12.282 GWh) Simini (53 MW. 19979 GWh-210 MW. regulating reservoir Gojeb (55mw. 441 GWh ) Welkite DS 13 (115 MW. small-scale plants are practical along the highland plateau. 1181 GWh ) or OM6 (195MW.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 1.OM14 (600 MW. 1508 GWh-270 MW.scale (up to 100 MW). Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C13 . 931 GWh) Alati (240 MW. 323 GWh-35 MW. varying in scale. OM12 (420MW. Three types of hydropower projects. 153 GWh) NB-The higher value in brackets refers to a highe rcrest level at the dam. Each scheme incorporates a regulating reservor Welkite OM10 (70 MW. Each scheme incorporates a regulating reservoir. 803 GWh) Derbu (345 MW.

(1-11) Potential Dam Sites Source: Master Plan Study Final Report Document by Richard Woodroofe & Associates in association with mascott ltd. December 1996 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C14 .NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Figure.

Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C15 . 13 below.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Figure (1-12) Location Map Source: Baro-Akobo River Basin Integrated Development Master Plan Study. Final Report Executive Summary by TAMS and ULG Consultants LTD. The TAMS (New York)-ULG (UK). Executive Summary report describe the basin as being endowed with plentiful potential hydropower resources more than sufficient to meet the projected demands of the entire nation for many decades to come. who made the Master Plan Study of the basin. which are indicated in Fig. The Master Plan Study identified about 22 potential hydropower sites. the basin is the third in terms of abundant surface water and hydropower potential. May 1997 1.9 THE BARO AKOBO RIVER BASIN According to the countrywide master plan study by WAPCO.

Final Report Executive Summary by TAMS and ULG Consultants LTD. May 1997 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C16 .(1-13)Potential Hydropower Sites Source: Baro-Akobo River Basin Integrated Development Master Plan Study.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Figure.

NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 1. The location of potential hydropower sites in the basin are indicated in Fig.000 GWH without regard to the potential location of power plants. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C17 . Cesen report suggested an energy potential in the Bilate-Sagan-Dana basin of some 50.(1-14) Location Map Source: Preliminary Water Resources Development Master Plan for Ethiopia Final Report.10 THE RIFT VALLEY LAKES BASIN Reconnaissance Master Plan For the Development of the natural resources of the Rift Valley Lakes Basin was made Sir William Halcrow & Partners Ltd and the reports compiled in August 92. WAPCO. June 1990 Halcrow referred to the major power planning studies by Acres. for the basin being notably only for the absence of potential for hydropower development. Figure. Halcrow's report states other sites in the other basins are far more economically attractive. UNDP and Cesen. 15 below.

June 1990 Water resource potential of these basins as the WAPCOS report indicates is almost negligible. . It was reported that Dam site selection was not possible because of the absence of a large-scale map. However. The report states that because of the short field visit made and the absence of useful topographic maps. WAPCO.000 for these basins. 1:50. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower – Ethiopia Report C18 . sedimentation problem and unavailability of suitable dam sites development of hydropower in these basins seems unlikely.000 scale map. it is not possible to make confirmative conclusion on the absence of suitable dam sites.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Figure (1-15) Location Map Source: Preliminary Water Resources Development Master Plan for Ethiopia Final Report. the currently existing topographic map being a 1:250. The Reconnaissance phase Master Plan Study of these so-called dry basins was made from June 1999 to May 2000 by the basin development study department of the Ministry of Water Resources itself. due to shortage of water.

APPENDIX IV PROGRESS REPORT BY COUNTRY .

All this information is available at the Water Resources Department of Ministry of Water and Livestock Development in digital format. The references have been cited in published documents and their location or source identified. for Mara River basin. Development of Criteria for Power Connectivity Information gathered on power inter connectivity has been achieved by 95%. There are three potential sites on the Kagera River and the site on Mara River. the remaining 1% is for additional updated data to be included within a month from now. This work accounts for 95% of the planned work. is from 1938 to 1990 with mass of the main having data between 1970 – 1988. The National Energy Policy document has been discussed. As for Rufiji basin. Ministry of Energy and Minerals and at TANESCO. rainfall data ranges from 1922 – 1990. Hydropower Integration Criteria Documentation and discussions and integration criteria are on-going. However. Mara river and Rufiji river.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster 1 PROGRESS REPORT FOR TANZANIA Work Done The RPIH-1 project planned to address three themes: 1) hydro meteorological studies of two river basins 2) power studies and 3) development of criteria for power connectivity Hydro meteorological studies of river basins Tanzania had two basins released for the study that is. Most of this information is available at the University of Dar es Salaam. 2 PROGRESS REPORT FOR KENYA Work Done Inventory of meteorological Data Base Inventory of meteorological and hydrological data base has been accomplished. out of which one has been developed. However. The remaining 5% will cover any other missed our report/studies. As such it was not possible to get much reference material on this subject. being dated in early 1990’s. Discharge data is available as daily time series Range of data series for Lake Victoria Basin. Rainfall data is available as monthly totals. policy documents and strategic plans exist that detail the least cost development plans. An inventory of existing meteorological and hydrological station was establishment. This information is available in form of hard copy reports at the Ministry of Energy & Minerals and with TANESCO. most of the studies have data 1970 – 1990 Discharge data series for Mara river range from 1969 – 1994 while Rufiji has data from 1954 – 1994. and the remaining 5% will account for any additional information to be collected. Power Studies Report on power studies covers two major areas. which includes Mara River and Rufiji Basin. the information available is old. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower –Country Progress Report D1 . The information compiled under this sub theme accounts for 99% of planned work. Lake Victoria Basin. This data has been availed the research group. In Rufiji basin there are 13 potential sites.

3 PROGRESS REPORT FOR UGANDA Work done Consultation has been made with the Ministry of Energy and Mineral resources as well as the Directorate of Water Development. Regional Power Integration in Hydropower –Country Progress Report D2 . Studies on hydropower. Per capita energy consumption is 44kWh/year and only 1% of the rural population is connected for the grid. Ministry of Water. human capacity. It will be a build-own–operate-transfer (BOOT) plant where power will be sold to UETCL under a 30 years power purchases agreement (PPA) The table below shows the potential of some sites along the Nile.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster Remaining Work The works covered is only about 40%. Lands and Environment. Two power plants contribute the bulk of the power and these are Nalubaale power station with a capacity of 180MW Kiira power station with a capacity of 200MW However the total hydropower potential of the country is estimated at about 2800MW implying that only about 12% has been harnessed. The consultations were aimed at obtaining up to date information concerning the following: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Energy and power sector in Uganda Role of Hydropower in meeting Energy requirements of the country Hydropower potential from different sites Details of constructed and planned power stations. and Hydrometeorology of the Nile A number of documents have been obtained for this purpose including” (1) (2) (3) Electricity Regulatory Act. 2) Hydropower Hydropower requirements of the country through this is less than 2% of the total energy requirement. The detailed report is given in Annex II. Work on the following issues has not been finalized. 1999 State of the Environment Report 2001 National Environment Management Authority The Hydro climatic study 2001. Ministry of Water. Summary of findings 1) Energy Scenario Uganda consumes about 5 million tons of oil equivalent annually of which over 90% in biomass. interconnectivity criteria and development of methodology for regional power studies. Only 6% of the population has access to electricity. Lands and Environment Hydrological information for 6 stations along River Nile has also been obtained with the shortest record covering 14 years and the longest 42 years. A new US$ 500M. 250MW power station is due to be constructed at Bujagali Downstream of the NPS by an Independent power producer (AES).

1 1650. The mean annual rainfall for most of Uganda averages between 500-2000mm with and average of 1000mm.6 1070.8 50. Nile No Site Name Site No.3 221. Years Mean St Error 1 R.3 33.4 2 R.6 3 R.6 653. Albert Nile at Panyango 87222 14 1370.1 Regional Power Integration in Hydropower –Country Progress Report D3 Std Dev 261.4 1716.4 59. Lake George as well as River Nile.1 Min 731. Site Current installed capacity Maximum potential 1 Nalubaale 180 - 2 Kiira 120 3 Bujagali 4 Project proposed installed capacity River Remarks - Nile In service - 200 Nile 120MW installed. Tanzania. Victoria Nile Mbulamuti 82203 42 1401. River Nile is the only outlet of Lake Victoria whose inflows include rainfall and rivers and drains Uganda. Lake Albert. The table below shows a summary of gauging stations along the Nile.1 40.2 Max 1869. Albert Nile Laropi 87217 16 1458. Kyoga Nile at Masindi Port 83203 38 1306.NBCBN / Hydropower Development Research Cluster N o. Rwanda and Burundi.7 406. River Aswa.6 2116. Albert Nile at Pakwach 87210 27 1115.8 101.8 169.7 827. Lake Kyoga. River Kagera etc.9 4 R.2 775. Summary Statistics for R.3 125.9 311.6 6 R. Lake Victoria outflows are controlled at Nalubale power station using the “Agreed Curve” for which a minimum of 900m3/5 is guaranteed throughout the year since the Nile flows done very greatly with seasons and weather. Over 15% of the country is covered by lakes and rivers including Lake Victoria. Kyoga Nile at Kamdini 83206 25 1330.1 700. More to be installed - 320 250 Nile Negotiations in progress Kalagala - 450 350 Nile Not developed 5 Busowoko - - 230 Nile Less economically viable with dev’t of neighboring sites 6 Karuma - 300-350 150 Nile Ready for dev’t but depends on what happens to Bujagali 7 Ayago (North) - 310-400 - Nile Not developed 8 Ayago South - 230-250 - Nile Not developed 9 Murchison Falls - 450-550 - Nile Not developed Hydro metrology of the Nile .9 497.4 . Kenya.2 1955.8 5 R.5 2607. Lake Edward.

H. Mkandi University of Dar es Salaam Tanzania 7 Eng.Org . Box 35066.ac.udsm. Makhanu 2 Dr.com mngodo@nbcbn. KENYA +254-(0)5620724 +254-(0)5630153 K_S_Makhanu@Yahoo.Com Zelalemhgc@Yahoo.Com raymngodo@yahoo. 256-77-614580 The Netherlands WESTVEST 7 2601 DA DELFT.Co m 1 Prof.P 34 GITEGA . Bela Petry kyaruzi@ee.com mkhandi@wrep. tz 255744-536078 2410029 jmalisa72@hotmail.O.Petry@Unesco-Ihe. Dar es Salaam P. Johnson Malisa University of Dar es Salaam Tanzania P. Alexander Kyaruzi University of Dar es Salaam Tanzania Box 35131.udsm.tz Igebu@Cbinf. Dar es Salaam Makerere University.com dwr-maji@intafrica. D’Salaam 255-22-2410024 255-222410114 3 Ntungumburanye Gerard Dr.Or B. +31-15-2151838 8 Kizza Michael 9 Prof.ac.Ug +31-152122921 B. 331 BUJUMBURA.com Mkizza@Tech.O. Box 385 Addis Ababa 257-402625-257402275 00259-09635994 257-402625 255-22-2450005 255-744-298330 255-222450005 4 Ethiopia 5 Dr. Zelaleni Hailu Geographic Institute Of Burundi (IGEBU) Addis Ababa University Burundi B. Box 35131. Sibilike K. Dept. Of Civil Engineering UNESCO-IHE Uganda Box 7062 KAMPALA. Raymond J.Ac. Mngodo Ministry of Water & Livestock Dev.GROUP MEMBERS Name Organization/ Institution Western University College Of Science & Technology Country Postal Address Telephone Fax E-Mail Kenya Box 190-50100 KAKAMEGA. Tanzania P. Box 35131. Dar es Salaam 6 Dr.Mak. S.P.O.