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Digestion and the digestive system

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Digestion is the process that enables us to obtain nutrients from the food we eat.
The digestive system is a long tube that starts in the mouth and ends in the anus.
Other organs are the stomach, the small intestine and the large intestine.

Answer.
What is digestion? 

Where does digestion take place? 


Circle the organs in the digestive system.


stomach
intestines

kidney
eye

bone
anus

mouth
nose

Label the digestive system.

stomach
mouth
small intestine
large intestine
anus

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The respiratory system

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
The respiratory system is the group of organs that help our body obtain oxygen
from the air.
The lungs, trachea and bronchi are parts of the respiratory system.
Our body needs oxygen for many processes such as digestion.

Complete the sentences.


nose

mouth

lungs

trachea

bronchi

We breathe in air through the and the . The air travels


down the and reaches the

through

the two . In the lungs, oxygen from the air passes into the blood.
2

Why do we need oxygen?





Label the respiratory system.

nose
bronchi
trachea
lungs

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Blood circulation

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
The circulatory system constantly moves blood inside our body.
The heart pumps blood through blood vessels.
Arteries, veins and capillaries are blood vessels.
The kidneys filter the blood, eliminate waste and produce urine.

Circle the parts of the circulatory system.


heart

mouth

arteries

ear

veins

kidneys

Write T (true) or F (false).


The respiratory system constantly circulates blood through the body.
Blood circulates through veins and arteries.
The stomach pumps blood throughout the body.
Arteries, veins and capillaries are blood vessels.
The kidneys clean the blood and produce urine.

Label the circulatory system.


h

b
v

k

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Healthy habits

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Healthy habits help you to keep well.
Good hygiene, exercise, good posture and a balanced diet are healthy habits.

Why are healthy habits important?






Circle the healthy habits.

Why is it important to sleep well?






Tick the good posture.


A

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Food and nutrients

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Food contains the nutrients our body needs to function.
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and fibre are nutrients.

Complete the sentences.


You need f and c

for energy.

You need p to grow.


You need v and m

to be healthy.

You need f for your digestive system to work well.


2

Look at the food. Circle the nutrients they give you.


proteins

fibre

carbohydrates

fibre

proteins

fats

minerals

carbohydrates

fibre

fats

vitamins

proteins

Tick the correct sentence.


Calcium is a mineral that makes up our bones.
Carbohydrates make up our bones.
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A healthy diet

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
A diet is everything a person normally eats and drinks every day. A healthy diet is
balanced and the correct amount.
A balanced diet gives you the right amount of nutrients.
A sufficient diet gives you the right amount of energy you need.

What is a healthy diet?






Look at the food wheel.

Circle the healthier food in each pair of words.


oil / butter
sausages / chicken

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cheese / milk
croissant / bread

grapes / biscuits
tomato / pizza

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Parts of plants

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Plants have roots, leaves, and a stem.
Roots are underground.
Stems grow above the ground. They can be woody or herbaceous.
Leaves have two parts: the petiole and the blade.

Match.
The part of the plant
that grows above the
ground and supports it.
leaves

The green parts of the


plant that grow from
the stem.

stem

The parts of the plant


that are usually
underground.
roots

Label the plant. Then, answer the question.

Is the stem of this plant woody or herbaceous? Explain. 



3

Label the parts of the leaf.

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Plant nutrition

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Plants make their own food through photosynthesis.
For photosynthesis, plants need water, mineral salts, carbon dioxide and sunlight.
Plants release oxygen during photosynthesis.

What do plants need? Label the drawing.


c
d

s

w

m
s

Label the diagram of photosynthesis.


c
d

o

During photosynthesis, plants take in


3

and release .

What is photosynthesis?




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Plant reproduction

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants.
The parts of a flower are: the calyx, the corolla, the stamens and the pistil. Thepistil
consists of the stigma, the style and the ovary.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the stamens of one flower to the stigma
of another flower.
After pollination, flowers become fruits. Fruits have seeds inside.

Label the parts of the flower.


stamen
pistil
sepal
petal

Complete the sentences.


The calyx is made up of small green leaves called s .
The corolla is made up of coloured leaves called p .
The s

are the male parts of the flower. They produce pollen.

The p is the female part of the flower.


3

Answer the questions.


What is the reproductive part of a plant?


What is pollination?


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10

Rocks

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Rocks form the solid part of the Earth.
All rocks are made up of minerals.

Write T (true) and F (false).


Rocks are made up of minerals.
All rocks are soft.
There are liquid rocks.
Marble is a hard rock made up of one mineral.
Clay is a soft rock made up of fine grains.

Match.
quarry
shaft
mine

A place where rocks are extracted from


near the surface of the ground.
A place where rocks and minerals are
extracted from deep below the ground.
The tunnel through which miners reach
the rocks in a mine.

Write three uses of rocks. Give an example for each.









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Minerals

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Minerals are natural, solid substances.
All minerals are made up of only one sustance.
Minerals have different properties: hardness, lustre, colour and shape.

What are minerals? How are they different from rocks?






Use the words to write sentences about minerals.


shape

lustre

colour

hardness

Complete the sentence.

is the hardest mineral.

Match each mineral to its use.


magnetite
diamond
gypsum

for constructing buildings


for obtaining iron
for making jewellery

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Soil

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Soil is the top layer of the Earths surface. In many places it covers rocks. Soil
consists of stones, water, air, minerals and the remains of plants and animals.
Wind, rain, ice, animals and plant roots break down rocks and make soil.
Soil has three layers: topsoil containing humus, subsoil and bedrock.

Match.
A

Rain, ice and wind wear down


rocks into smaller pieces.

The actions of animals and plant


roots break the rocks into even
smaller pieces.
C

sin cortes

Small pieces of rock mix with


humus to form soil.

Label the layers of soil. Then, circle the layer that contains humus.

con cortes

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13

Ecosystems

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
An ecosystem is made up of all the living things and all the non-living components
that live together in one place.
Ecosystems can be terrestrial or aquatic.
Terrestrial ecosystems can be forests, grasslands or deserts.
Aquatic ecosystems can be freshwater ecosystems or saltwater ecosystems.

Complete the chart.


plants temperature soil water animals
Ecosystems
Environment

Living things


2

Use the words to make sentences.


ecosystems make up environment living things

ecosystems terrestrial grasslands forests deserts

ecosystems aquatic freshwater saltwater

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Relationships in ecosystems

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
There are different relationships between the living things in an ecosystem:
food relationships, competition and cooperation.
We use food chains to show how living things feed off other living things in
an ecosystem.

Match.
When two living things have
the same needs.

Competition

When living things eat other


living things.

Cooperation

Food
relationships

When two living things help


each other.

Draw the arrows for this food chain.

Write the names of the living things in Activity 2.


plant

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herbivore

carnivore

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Protecting ecosystems

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Ecosystems deteriorate because of pollution, deforestation and overexploitation.
We create laws and nature reserves to protect ecosystems.

Match.
Pollution
Deforestation
Overexploitation

cutting down trees

using up too many natural resources

rubbish and car fumes

Look at the pictures. Write pollution, deforestation or overexploitation.


A

Answer the questions.


What is a nature reserve?


Is there a nature reserve in your Autonomous Community or Autonomous City?
Write the name and location.


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Matter and its properties

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Everything around us is made up of matter.
All objects have two properties in common: mass, which is the amount of matter in
an object, and volume, which is the amount of space an object occupies.
All matter exists in three states: solid, liquid and gas.

Answer the questions.


What is matter? 

What is volume? 

What are the three states of matter? 


Match.
mass
MI

CHEESE

LK

volume

Write T (true) and F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.


Solids have a fixed shape and volume.
Liquids do not have a fixed shape or a fixed volume.
Gases have a fixed volume, but the shape can vary because they adopt the shape
of the container they are in.




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Changes in matter

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
There are three types of changes in matter: mixtures, changes of state and
chemical changes.
Oxidation and combustion are chemical changes which occur when a substance
combines with oxygen.

Cross out the wrong word. Then, rewrite the sentences.


Oxidation / A mixture is when two or more substances mix together.


Chemical changes / Changes of state are when substances change into different
substances.


Combustion / A mixture is when something burns and produces heat.


Oxidation / An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals.


Complete the chart with freezing, condensation, melting and evaporation.



solid


liquid

gas

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Materials

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Materials are the substances which we use to make things.
Materials can be natural or man-made.
Materials have properties. For example, they can be resistant, flexible, elastic,
transparent, light and fragile.

Classify the materials.

concrete

wood

glass

leather

Natural materials

paper

Man-made materials


2

granite

Circle six properties of materials and write them.


T
X
P
R
Q
S
L
D
T
S
B
M
F

R
Y
C
E
L
A
S
T
I
C
L
R
L

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A
F
D
S
K
K
Y
C
L
M
X
B
E

N
H
F
I
W
P
Q
R
S
L
X
E
X

S
Y
H
S
N
K
J
U
D
C
Z
V
I

P
M
K
T
F
M
Y
R
X
T
B
W
B

A
E
N
A
S
L
B
Z
C
Z
L
N
L

R
T
U
N
K
S
F
Y
P
W
Y
T
E

E
Q
W
T
F
R
A
G
I
L
E
L
Q

N
P
R
D
M
G
D
K
W
Y
S
T
W

T
W
B
L
I
G
H
T
N
Z
X
E
C








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Forces

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Forces can act when two objects come into contact or at a distance.
Forces can be of attraction or repulsion.
Friction is the force that makes objects slow down and stop.
Gravity is the force that makes things fall to the ground.

Look at how force acts upon the objects in each picture and write in contact
or at a distance.
A


C


2

Read and circle two errors. Then, write the text correctly.
Things do not fall down. They fall towards the centre of the Earth.
This is called the force of friction. This force attracts objects to the Sun.





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Energy

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Energy makes things change.
There are different types of energy: mechanical, chemical, thermal, electrical,
nuclear and light.
Energy can change from one type of energy into another type of energy.

What is energy?


Now, complete the words.

Z m
]
Types
[ c
of energy
] t
\
2

e
n
l

What type of energy have they got?


petrol

wind

uranium

x-rays

sunlight

fire

Write the types of energy each object uses and produces.


A

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21

Uses of energy

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Energy comes from energy sources. There are two types:
Renewable energy sources, such as sunlight and wind, which never run out,
or wood, which can be renewed.
Non-renewable energy sources, such as uranium and petroleum, which can run out
and cannot be replaced.

Classify the types of energy. Then, answer the question.


coal

sunlight

wind

Renewable energy sources

petroleum

uranium

wood

Non-renewable energy sources

What is the difference between renewable and non-renewable energy sources?





2

Match the type of power station to its source of energy.


thermal power station
hydroelectric power station
wind farm
nuclear power station

wind

energy from falling water


uranium

coal, natural gas, petrol

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22

The propagation of light

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Light travels in all directions at very high speed and in a straight line. There are three
different types of objects according to how much light passes through them: opaque,
translucent and transparent.
When light reaches an opaque object, it bounces off the object into our eyes
so we can see it. This is called reflection.
When light reaches a transparent medium, it bends and changes direction. This is
called refraction.

How does light travel?





Match.
translucent
A

transparent

opaque

Look at the picture. Write reflection or refraction.


Now, explain your answer.




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Light and colours

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
White light is made up of all the colours we can see.
The primary colours of light are red, green and blue. When we mix the primary
colours of light we can create all the colours of light.
When light rays reach an object, this object absorbs some of the light and reflects
some of it. The colour we see is the colour of the light that the object reflects.

Complete the sentences.


absorb

white

primary

reflect

light is made up of all colours.

Red, green and blue are the colours of light.


White objects all light and do not absorb any light.
Black objects all light and do not reflect any light.
2

Colour the lemon yellow.

Now, explain how we see the lemon as yellow.







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24

Municipalities and comarcas

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
A municipality consists of one or more cities, towns or villages which are governed
by a local council.
A comarca consists of several municipalities in the same region.
All the inhabitants of a comarca share basic services such as hospitals and schools.

Read the definition and write the word.


An area made up of one or more cities, towns
or villages that have the same local council.

Municipalities in the same region that share


similar characteristics.

Answer the questions about the picture.


C

D
B

What kind of comarca is it: mountain or coastal? Explain.




Which letter indicates the place with most services? Explain.


How many municipalities does this comarca have? 

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25

Autonomous communities
and provinces

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Spain is divided into seventeen Autonomous Communities and two Autonomous
Cities: Ceuta and Melilla.
A province is larger than a comarca and consists of many municipalities.

Use the key to colour the map.


N

Cantabrian Sea
E

AT L A N T I C

OCEAN

CACERES
EXTREMADURA

F R A N C E

GUIPUZCOA
CANTABRIA VIZCAYA
BASQUE
COUNTRY
Pamplona/Irua
ALAVA
ANDORRA
Vitoria-Gasteiz CHARTERED
LEON
COMMUNITY HUESCA
PALENCIA
Logroo
GIRONA
OF
NAVARRE
LLEIDA
BURGOS RIOJA
CASTILE - LEON
C ATA L O N I A
ARAGON
BARCELONA
Valladolid
ZAMORA
SORIA
Zaragoza
VALLADOLID
Barcelona
ZARAGOZA
SEGOVIA
TARRAGONA
GUADALAJARA
SALAMANCA
COMMUNITY
TERUEL
AVILA OF MADRID
Madrid
CASTELLON

A CORUA
LUGO
Santiago
de Compostela
GALICIA
PONTEVEDRA
OURENSE

Santander

Oviedo
PRINCIPALITY
OF ASTURIAS

Toledo
CUENCA
TOLEDO
CASTILE-LA MANCHA

VALENCIA

COMMUNITY
O F VA L E N C I A

Merida
CIUDAD REAL

CORDOBA
HUELVA

Murcia

JAEN

REGION
OF MURCIA

SEVILLE

A N D A L U S I A
Seville
GRANADA

CADIZ

MALAGA

ALMERIA

ALICANTE

n
ea
an
r
er
dit
Me

AT L A N T I C O C E A N
C A N A R Y
SANTA CRUZ
DE TENERIFE
Santa Cruz
de Tenerife

I S L A N D S

Las Palmas
de Gran Canaria

Capital of Spain

Ceuta

LAS PALMAS

BALEARIC
ISLANDS

ALBACETE

BADAJOZ

Palma
de Mallorca

Valencia

Melilla

Autonomous
Community capital
Autonomous City

MOROCCO

red

An Autonomous City.

blue

An insular Autonomous Community.

orange

A coastal Autonomous Community.

green

An Autonomous Community which consists of one province.

yellow

An Autonomous Community which consists of more than seven provinces.

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My Autonomous Community

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Each Autonomous Community or Autonomous City is an area with its own capital,
its own government institutions, symbols and history.
An Autonomous Community is divided into one or more provinces.

Colour your Autonomous Community or City.


N

Cantabrian Sea
E

A CORUA
LUGO
Santiago
de Compostela
GALICIA
PONTEVEDRA
OURENSE

AT L A N T I C

OCEAN

F R A N C E

GUIPUZCOA
CANTABRIA VIZCAYA
BASQUE
COUNTRY
Pamplona/Irua
ALAVA
ANDORRA
Vitoria-Gasteiz CHARTERED
LEON
COMMUNITY HUESCA
PALENCIA
Logroo
GIRONA
OF
NAVARRE
LLEIDA
BURGOS RIOJA
CASTILE - LEON
C ATA L O N I A
ARAGON
BARCELONA
Valladolid
ZAMORA
SORIA
Zaragoza
VALLADOLID
Barcelona
ZARAGOZA
SEGOVIA
TARRAGONA
GUADALAJARA
SALAMANCA
COMMUNITY
TERUEL
AVILA OF MADRID
Madrid
CASTELLON

CACERES
EXTREMADURA

Santander

Oviedo
PRINCIPALITY
OF ASTURIAS

Toledo
CUENCA
TOLEDO
CASTILE-LA MANCHA

VALENCIA

Merida
CIUDAD REAL

CORDOBA
HUELVA

Murcia

JAEN

REGION
OF MURCIA

SEVILLE

A N D A L U S I A
Seville
GRANADA

CADIZ

MALAGA

ALMERIA

ALICANTE

n
ea
an
r
er
dit
Me

AT L A N T I C O C E A N
C A N A R Y
SANTA CRUZ
DE TENERIFE
Santa Cruz
de Tenerife

I S L A N D S

Las Palmas
de Gran Canaria

Capital of Spain

Ceuta

LAS PALMAS

BALEARIC
ISLANDS

ALBACETE

BADAJOZ

Palma
de Mallorca

Valencia

COMMUNITY
O F VA L E N C I A

Melilla

Autonomous
Community capital
Autonomous City

MOROCCO

Now, answer the questions.


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What is the name of your Autonomous
Community or City? 

What is the name of its capital? 


How many provinces does it have? 

What borders your Autonomous Community? 

Is your Autonomous Community insular or on the peninsula? 


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The relief of Spain

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
The Iberian Peninsula has many different landscapes.
Central Spain is dominated by a large plateau, called the Meseta Central or Inner
Plateau. It is divided into two parts by the Central Mountain Chain.
The Pyrenees is a mountain chain to the north of the Inner Plateau.
The Baetic Chain is a mountain chain to the south of the Inner Plateau.

Label the map.


Inner Plateau

Central Mountain Chain

Pyrenees

Baetic Mountain Chain

F R A N C E
E

ATLANTIC
OCEAN

P O
R T
U G
A L

an

Se

e
ran

er

dit

SCALE

Me

127

Kilometres

metros
ATLANTIC OCEAN

MOROCCO

2,000
1,000
500
0

Answer the questions.


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What is the highest mountain in the Baetic Chain? 


What is the highest mountain in the Pyrenees? 
Now, mark these two mountains on the map.
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The rivers and watersheds of Spain

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
A river is the body of moving water.
A watershed is the dividing line betweem mountain ranges. Rivers on the same
watershed flow into the same sea. Spain has three main watersheds: the
Cantabrian watershed, the Mediterranean watershed and the Atlantic watershed.

Match the words to their definitions.


river
tributary

the volume of water in a river

watershed
flow
2

a river that flows into a larger river

a body of moving water

where rivers flow into the same sea

Label the three watersheds of Spain.


Cantabrian

Sea

MI

NO

FRANCE
ANDORRA

RI

RI

VE

VE

JUCAR

ANA
DI

GU

Balearic
Islands

VER SE
RI
GU
RA
L QU I V I R
ADA

Se

ATLANTIC
Ceuta

OCEAN

Me

dit

err

an

Which is the smallest watershed?

RIV

RIVER G
U

P O
R T
U G
A L
A

R TAGUS

Which is the largest watershed?

RO

RIV

RIVE

EB

DUERO
RIV ER

an

Melilla

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Canary Islands
MOROCCO

189714p36
Write one river for each
watershed.

Atlantic

36
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Cantabrian

Mediterranean

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29

Climate

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
The Earth has three climatic zones: the tropical zone, two temperate zones and
two polar zones.
Spain has four different types of climate: the Oceanic climate, the Mediterranean
climate, the Mountain climate and the Subtropical climate.

Complete.
Climate and

are not the same thing.

is the typical weather patterns over a long period of time in one area.
The distance of an area from the

determines how much heat

it receives from the . This affects climate.


2

Match.
polar zone
temperate zone
tropical zone

It is hot all year round.

It is very cold all year round.

The summers are warm and the winters are cool.

Identify and label the four climates in Spain.


Cantabrian Sea
N

FRANCE

A
E

P O
R T
U G
A L

CC

Balearic
Islands

Se

ATLANTIC
OCEAN

A 

ANDORRA

M editer

ra

C 

n
nea

ATLANTIC OCEAN
Canary Islands

B 

SCALE

D 

174

Kilometres

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Population

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
A census and a municipal register tell us about the population of a place.
Population changes over time because of natural and migratory growth.

Write census or municipal register.


A list of the people who live in a municipality.
The local council updates this list every year.

A list of the inhabitants of a municipality,


a province or a country. This list is updated
every ten years.

Circle the correct options, A or B, then, circle the correct picture.


A The population of a place

increases because

there are
more births
than deaths.

there are more


immigrants than
emigrants.

B The population of a place

increases because

there are
more deaths
than births.

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there are more


emigrants than
immigrants.

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Traditions and festivals

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Traditions are the customs of people in a particular place. They are passed down
from adults to children. Traditions include songs, dances, legends and typical food.

Put the phrases in order, then, write two sentences.


Traditions are

the typical foods

from adults to
children.

Traditional dishes
are

customs that are


passed down
of a place
or region.





2

Give two examples of each type of tradition where you live.


Traditional
dishes

Historical
monuments

Festivals

Dances







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The primary sector

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
The primary sector includes jobs that obtain products directly from nature.
Crop farming, stockbreeding, forestry, mining and fishing belong to the primary sector.

What jobs belong to the primary sector?





Match the types of farming to the pictures.


A

extensive farming

dry crops

irrigated crops

Read the definitions and complete the words.


Raising animals such as pigs, cows or sheep.

s

This sector gets food from the sea.

f

Extracting minerals from beneath the ground.

m

People who obtain wood from forests


work in this activity.

f

How important is the primary sector in your Autonomous Community or City? Explain.



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The secondary sector

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
The secondary sector transforms raw materials into manufactured products.
Jobs in factories, crafts and construction belong to the secondary sector.

Complete the text with these words.


construction

raw materials

secondary

Jobs that transform


belong to the
or
2

manufactured products

into

sector. Jobs in factories, crafts

belong to this sector.

Look at the pictures and write construction, industry or craft industry.


A

Write the products for each industry.


computers

tinned tuna

steel

cement

ice cream

video games

TYPES OF INDUSTRY
Construction

Food

Technology

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The tertiary sector

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
The tertiary sector provides services.
Services offer us such things as trade, health, education, tourism and transport.

What type of service is it? Read and answer.


This activity consists of buying and selling products
to and from other countries.


Write an example for each service.


Trade

Tourism

Public services

Health services

Educational services

What means of transport are there in your Autonomous Community or City?


Which ones do you use every day?







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How the state is organised

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
In a democratic state, all citizens have the same rights and obligations.
The Constitution, which defines these rights and obligations, is the most important
law in Spain.

Complete the text.


Parliament

rights
referendum

Constitution

institutions

obligations

The is the most important law in Spain. The Spanish


people approved it in a in 1978. The Constitution
recognises the and
of the Spanish people and establishes the national .
The most important institutions are the , the Government
and the Courts of Justice.
2

Read the definitions and write the word.


The most important law in Spain.

When all citizens vote on an important topic.

A state where all citizens have the same


rights and obligations.

The document in which a political party


explains their ideas for government.

Elections for local councillors.

Elections for members of parliament.

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How citizens participate

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Codes of conduct are lists of rights and obligations based on respect for others.
These rights and obligations are recognised in the Constitution.

Read and write right or obligation.


Respect the freedom of expression of others

Express your opinions freely

Elect government officials

Belong to a political party

Respect the beliefs of others

Match and write.


The right to equality

The right to express our ideas

The right to vote

What are codes of conduct? Explain.





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How primitive human beings lived

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Primitive human beings lived in caves or simple huts. Later, they lived in villages.
Thefirst human beings travelled on foot. Travelling was very slow. They decorated cave
walls with paintings, made simple tools and used clay pots to hold food and water.

Look at the picture and answer the questions.


Where did the first human beings live? 

What did they live near? 

What did they eat? 

How did they travel? 

How did they carry their things? 

How did they decorate their homes? 

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Roman times

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
The Romans lived in domus, insulae or villas.
They travelled on foot, on horseback, in horse-drawn carriages or in sailing boats.
They built temples, thermae, aqueducts, theatres, amphitheatres and circuses.

7
2
5
6

4
1
3

Look at the picture and write the number.


Domus: a large, private house with
apatio in the centre.

Amphitheatre: a place for watching


gladiator fights.

Insula: an apartment building


forpoorer people.

Temple: a place for worshipping the


gods.

Road: a straight road made of stone.

Thermae: a public bath houses


forbathing and relaxing.

Seaport: a place on the coast where


sailing boats stop.

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Medieval times

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
1,000 years ago nobles lived in castles. Peasants lived in villages near castles.
People travelled on foot, on horseback, in horse-drawn carts or by sailing boat.
In Medieval times, people built Romanesque and Gothic churches.

Look for the names of the pictures in the wordsearch.


A

Now, complete the text.


One thousand years ago,

lived in

with their family, servants and soldiers.

lived in villages

near the castle.


In Medieval times, people travelled as in Roman times: on foot, on horseback,
by horse-drawn , or by .
They built Romanesque and Gothic .
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The Age of Exploration

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Rich people lived in palaces 500 years ago. Craftsman and merchants lived in
modest homes. Peasants lived in simple houses in country villages.
Sailing became an important means of transport.
Artists created great works of art.
The printing press was invented.

Match the people to their homes.


A

Read the definitions and write the word.


An instrument to calculate latitude which showed
sailors their ships position.

a

A fast ship that could travel long distances


and resist storms and pirate attacks.

c

An instrument that indicates where north is.

m


Five hundred years ago, new inventions made it easier for explorers to travel the world.
Name some of these inventions.



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41

The Industrial Revolution

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
200 years ago people built many factories and cities grew rapidly.
There were many new discoveries and inventions that changed peoples lives,
foexample steam trains and steamships.

Circle the correct words, then, write the sentences correctly.


Two hundred years ago, large factories / shops replaced small workshops / farms.


Factory workers lived in neighbourhoods which were dirty and unhygienic / spacious
and comfortable.

The steam engine / printing press was invented 200 years ago.


Find and circle six discoveries and inventions in the wordsearch.


T

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Life nowadays

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Nowadays, the majority of the population lives in cities. Transport is faster, safer
and more comfortable. Many modern inventions have changed our lives.

Complete the chart with examples.


PRESENT DAY
Where we live

How we travel

Important inventions

Which do you think are the most important inventions? Choose three and explain your choices.
high-speed train

mobile phone

aeroplane

computer

spacecraft

Internet

lasers

heart transplant








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Extension worksheets
1 Under the sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2 Long live the hamburger! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3 Natures pharmacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4 Fossils: rocks that talk about the past . . . . . . 58
5 National Parks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6 Plastic a modern material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7 Perpetual motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
8 Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
9 Geographic coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
10 Three days in the province of Salamanca . . . . 70
11 The worlds population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
12 The International Labour Organization (ILO) . . 74
13 Long live La Pepa! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
14 Roman roads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
15 The steam engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
ANSWER KEYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

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Under the sea

Name

EXTENSION

Date

Life under the sea is very different from


on land. It is difficult for people to see,
hear and move well under water.
Unlike fish, people cannot obtain oxygen
directly from water. Instead, they need
tocarry oxygen tanks with them.
People need to be healthy and in good
shape to stay underwater for a long time.
Their hearts, ears and lungs must be
strong,since these are the organs that
suffer themost underwater.
People need special equipment
for underwater diving such as a diving
mask, fins, a wetsuit, aweight belt,
acompressed air cylinder andsome
goggles.

What is the text about? Tick.


Scuba diving.
Life under the sea.
What equipment people need to stay underwater.
Marine flora and fauna.
Sea turtles.

Why do people need special equipment to stay underwater? Think and explain.






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1
3

Look at the scuba diver and match each item of his equipment to its use.
2

7
4

6
5

wetsuit: to keep the divers body warm.


scuba socks: thick socks to protect the divers feet.
diving mask: to breathe in oxygen from the aqualung.
goggles: to protect the divers eyes underwater.
fins: to help the diver swim faster.
weight belt: to help the swimmer sink, then remain underwater.
aqualung: to supply the diver with compressed air.
4

Why can fish live underwater without special equipment? Think and explain.




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Long live the hamburger!

Name

EXTENSION

Date

Did you think hamburgers were a modern


food? Believe it or not, the origin of the
hamburger goes all the way back to ancient
Egypt -- more than four thousand years ago!
Much later, the soldiers of Genghis Khan,
aMongol emperor in the 13th century, ate
steaks of minced beef. They took this recipe
with them to Russia. Russians eat a variation
called tartar steak: raw, minced meat mixed
with many spices.
The name hamburger comes from the German city of Hamburg, where it was
very popular in the 14th century. This is when the hamburger began to look like
the ones we see today: a flat cake of minced beef placed between two slices of bread.
The hamburger arrived in Britain in the 19th century. After that, the British introduced
this food to the U.S.A. Nowadays, the hamburger is one of the most popular meals
in the world.

Answer the questions.


Who made the first hamburgers? How many years ago?

Who was Genghis Khan?

Where does the name hamburger come from?

What were hamburgers like in the 14th century?

What country introduced hamburgers to the United States?


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2
2

What nutrients are in a hamburger? Look and write.




3

Read the clues, write the name of each country under its flag, then, colour.
The German flag has three horizontal stripes: black, red and yellow. It is on the right
ofthe Mongolian flag.
The Mongolian flag has three vertical stripes: red, blue and red. There is a yellow
emblem on the left stripe.
The Union Jack, the flag of the United Kingdom, has two red crosses on a white
background, and a white cross on a blue background, and a red cross on a white
background.
The Egyptian flag has three horizontal stripes: red, white and black. There is a yellow
emblem in the centre stripe and white horizontal stripes.
The Russian flag has three horizontal stripes: white, blue and red. It is on the left
of the Union Jack.
The flag of the United States of America has thirteen narrow, red and white stripes.
Tothe left, there are 50 white stars in a blue rectangle.
A


D


E

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Natural medicines

Name

EXTENSION

Date

For thousands of years, people have used


plants for food, wood, clothes, dyes,
andmedicines.
For example, hundreds of years ago, native
American Indians used the bark of the
willow tree to relieve pain. Nowadays,
asubstance is taken from the bark of this
tree to make the well-known medicine
called aspirin.
There are many other examples
ofmedicinal plants, however, not many
ofthem are used nowadays because most
medicines are made artificially
inlaboratories.
However, you can still find natural
medicines in peoples homes. These
include teas, eucalyptus, thyme, tilia,
rosemary, nettle, chamomile and valerian.
1

Answer the questions.


What is the text about?


What are some products that come from plants?


Where does aspirin come from?

What natural medicines do you have in your home?


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3
2

Complete the crossword with the names of the plants.


1. This plant has stinging hairs on the stems and leaves. It can be toxic. It is used to cure
diseases and inflammation.
2. This plant belongs to the daisy family. It is used to make a warm, calming tea. The
medicinal uses include treating skin problems and reducing muscle spasms.
3. This plant has a strong fragrance and is used in many recipes to add flavour
to meat, vegetables and sauces.
4. The leaves of this tree contain an oil which is used in sweets, cough drops,
decongestants, etc. It is also used in many insect repellents.
5. The flowers of this tree are used to make herbal teas. They are also used
in medicines to treat colds, headaches, fevers and coughs.

What three types of plants are there? Give an example of each one.

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Fossils: rocks that reveal the past

Name

EXTENSION

Date

We can sometimes find fossils in rocks. They are


the preserved remains of plants and animals that
lived on Earth millions of years ago.
Palaeontologists are scientists who study fossils
because they can give us information about climate
andthe environment in the past. For example, if
you find the remains of marine animals in rocks,
then this area was probably under the sea
thousands of years ago.
Fossils can be plant remains, or remains of animal
bones, skeletons or teeth.
Special fossils called ichnites are rocks with
dinosaur footprints. These fossils can be found
invarious parts of Spain, in the Autonomous
Community of Rioja, and in the provinces of Teruel
and Soria.

Answer the questions.


What are fossils?


What does a palaeontologist study?

What is an ichnite?

Where have ichnites been found in Spain?



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4
2

How are ichnites formed? Read, then, put the pictures in order.
1. An animal walks on the
ground.
2. The animals foot makes
afootprint in the ground.
3. Over time, minerals are
deposited in the footprint.
4. Because of soil erosion
orexcavations, ichnites
arediscovered millions of
years later.

Match each dinosaur to its foot and its footprint.


A

Theropod

Sauropod

Ornithopod

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National Parks

Name

EXTENSION

Date

National Parks are created in natural areas where one or more


ecosystems are unspoilt by human activities. The plants and
animals in these ecosystems are of special interest.
In National Parks, special steps are taken to protect
the landscape, flora and fauna.
In 1872, the United States created the first National Park
in the world: Yellowstone National Park. In Spain, the first
National Park, Mount Covadonga, was created in 1918.
It is now renamed the Picos de Europa National Park.
At present, there are fourteen National Parks in Spain.
They offer the best examples of Spains natural heritage:
Aiguestortes and Estany of Sant Maurici, the Cabrera
Archipelago, Cabaeros, Caldera de Taburiente, Doana, Garajonay, the Atlantic Islands
ofGalicia, Monfrage, Ordesa and Mount Perdido, Picos de Europa, Sierra Nevada, Tablas
de Daimiel, Teide and Timanfaya.
1

Answer the questions.


What is a National Park?


Where was the worlds first National Park created?

What is the name of Spains first National Park?


Think and answer. What would happen if all the visitors to a National Park took home
arock or broke off a tree branch?




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5
3

Look up information about a National Park and fill in the index card.

the Atlantic
ISLAS
ATLNTICAS
Islands
of Galicia

PICOS
PICOS
EUROPA
DEDE
EUROPA

Aiguestortes
AIGESTORTES
YIEstany
ESTANY DE
SANT
DE
San MAURICI
Maurici
ORDESA
Ordesa
Y MONTE
Y MoNTE
PERDIDO

Perdido

MONFRAGUE
MONFRAGE
CABAEROS
CABAEROS
TIMANFAYA
TIMANFAYA

CALDERA DE
CALDERA
DE
TABURIENTE
TABURIENTE

the Cabrera
ARCHIPILAGO
Archipelago
DE CABRERA

SIERRA
SIERRA
Nevada
NEVADA

tEIDE
TEIDE
GARAJONAY
GARAJONAY

TABLAS
TABLAS
DE DAIMIEL
DAIMIEL
DE

DOANA
DOANA

Spanish National Parks

Name: 

101709CAYRCM4P.N.

Location: 
Landscape: 


Typical plants and animals: 


Points of special interest: 



How can we help to protect natural landscapes?






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Plastic: a modern material

Name

EXTENSION

Date

Plastic is an inexpensive and versatile material which is used to make many objects.
For example, it is good for making containers because it is resistant to chemical changes.
It is also a good insulator since it does not conduct electricity.
There are different types of plastics, such as:
Polystyrene, for making plastic bags.
Expanded polystyrene (EPS), for packaging and containers.
Bakelite, an insulating material for making pot handles.
Rubber, for making car
orbike tyres.
Polyester, for making
clothes.
However, not everything about
plastic is good. Plastic is not
biodegradable. This means it
remains in nature for several
hundred years, polluting the
environment. To reduce this
pollution, people have started
to recycle plastics instead
ofjust throwing them in
therubbish bin.

Write a short summary of the text.











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6
2

What does biodegradable mean?







Look around the room. Write ten things you can see that are made of plastic.

What are these objects made of? Match.


A

bakelite
C

EPS

rubber

polyester

Write down your ideas to reuse plastic containers.






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Perpetual motion

Name

EXTENSION

Date

All the machines we use need energy to function:


a television needs electricity, a car needs petrol, a sailing
boat needs wind, a bike needs a person to push
the pedals.
Throughout history, people have tried to invent a machine
that, once it was started, would not need more energy
to keep functioning. This type of machine is called
aperpetual motion machine.
Many people have tried to achieve fame by inventing
aperpetual motion machine. However, all their machines
eventually stopped because the energy ran out. If these
inventions had worked, they would have changed
thecourse of history.
M. Escher: Waterfall (1961).

Read the text and answer the questions.


What do all machines need to function?

What is a perpetual motion machine?



Look at the painting and answer.


Who is the artist? 
When did he paint it? 
What is the title of the painting? 
Is this a good name for the painting? Explain.




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3

Look at Eschers painting. What machine is in perpetual motion? Colour it.

How do you think the machine in Eschers painting works? Explain.






Look at these machines and answer.


A

What type of energy does each machine need to work?





Which machines use energy that pollutes and which do not?


Which energy resources are renewable and which are not?


6

Imagine you invented a perpetual motion machine. How would it change the world?



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Shadows

Name

EXTENSION

Date

People have always been fascinated by


shadows because, although they are
always with us, we can never catch
them or touch them. For this reason,
shadows are often found in games
and stories. Do you remember the
story of Peter Pan losing his shadow?
But what is a shadow? It is the dark
area caused by an opaque object
blocking light. It has the same shape
as the opaque object. Shadows
appear because light travels in a
straight line and cannot go around
obstacles.
Shadows can gradually change shape.
They get longer when the angle between the light source and the opaque object
increases. They get shorter when the angle decreases.
Try this experiment: darken a room by turning off all the lights and closing the
curtains. Then, turn on a lamp or a torch and put your hands close to the light
source. Move your hands farther away to see how their shadows change shape.
1

Answer.
What is a shadow?


Why do shadows have the same shape as the opaque object?


Why do shadows gradually change their shape?



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2

Match each shadow to the correct pair of hands. Then, practise the shapes.
A

3
1

Look at where the Sun is and where Peter Pan is standing. Draw his shadow.

Do transparent objects have shadows? Think and explain.





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Geographical coordinates

Name

EXTENSION

Date

Imagine you want to travel by ship to the Canary


Islands. First, you need to locate these islands on a
map. Then you need to find their cardinal points.
The principal cardinal points are north, south, east
and west. There are other points between these:
northeast, northwest, southeast and southwest.

Greenwich
Meridian
Canary
Islands
Equator

Next, you need to know the exact location of the


Canary islands on a globe. To do this, you use
geographical coordinates. These are a set
ofimaginary horizontal and vertical lines that help
tolocate geographical locations.
The horizontal lines are called parallels because they are parallel to the Equator.
Thevertical lines are called meridians and go from pole to pole. We use parallels
andmeridians to determine the latitude and longitude of a place.
Latitude is the distance between any point and the Equator. Points to the north
oftheEquator are latitude north and points to the south are latitude south.
Longitude is the distance between any point on Earth and the Greenwich Meridian.
Greenwich is a town in the United Kingdom. Points to the east of Greenwich are longitude
east and points to the west are longitude west.

Read and answer.


What are geographical coordinates?


What are meridians?


What is latitude?



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2

Label the compass rose.


North (N)
Northwest (NW)

South (S)

Southeast (SE)

East (E)

West (W)

Northeast (NE)

Southeast (SE)







Colour the Equator red and the Greenwich Meridian blue. Then, complete the chart.

C
B
A
D

Point

Hemisphere

Latitude

Longitude

southern

south

west

B
C
D

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10

Three days in the province


of Salamanca

Name

EXTENSION

Date

Day 2
From the park we continue through Ledesma until we reach the
city of Salamanca, where we can see the River Tormes. There are
two cathedrals in Salamanca. The Old Cathedral was built in
Romanesque style in the 12th century. The most spectacular part
is the tower, which looks like it is decorated with stone scales.

Day 1
We enter the province of
Salamanca at the city
ofZamora, which is very
close the border with
Portugal. Here, we take
atour around the Arribes
del Duero National Park.
The River Duero flows
through this deep canyon,
which has vertical walls
162 kilometres long
andup to 150 metres
high.

Day 3
From Salamanca, we continue to the town of
Bejar. Then we go on to Candelario, one of the
coldest and most beautiful villages in the province
of Salamanca. The River Cuerpo de Hombre flows
through here.

Draw the route on the map in red. Circle the places the excursion passes through in blue.

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2

Look at the map and answer.


Write the names of four villages or cities in the province of Salamanca.


Write the names of the four rivers in the province of Salamanca.


What provinces border the province of Salamanca?


What country borders the province of Salamanca?


Look at the chart. Write the distances in kilometres between the cities.
Avila
Avila

Caceres

Caceres

234 km

Salamanca

Salamanca

94 km

212 km

Valladolid

Valladolid

160 km

332 km

120 km

Zamora

Zamora

159 km

277 km

65 km

89 km

Between Salamanca and Caceres.

km

Between Salamanca and Avila.

km

Between Avila and Valladolid.

km

Between Caceres and Zamora.

km

Which city is the closest to Salamanca?

Which city is the furthest from Salamanca?

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11

The worlds population

Name

EXTENSION

Date

The worlds population has grown rapidly in recent decades. In 1950, there were about
2,500 million people. Today, there are more than 6,500 million people. There has
beenarise in births and a decline in deaths, making the population grow.
Approximately250people are born and 100 people die every minute.
This means thatthere are 150 more human beings every minute and 216,000
more every day!
The main reason for this growth is improved living conditions. These include:
technological advances in producing and preparing food, fewer diseases and improved
control, better hygiene and medical research.
The worlds population is not evenly distributed. Asia is the most inhabited continent:
in2005, there were 3,950 million people. The second most inhabited continent
isAmerica with 1,263 million people, followed by Africa with 925 million. Europe
has 728 million people and Oceania has 33 million. The least populated continent is
Antarctica, which is only populated by about 1,000 scientists from around the world.
The most inhabited countries in 2005 were:
Country

Number
of inhabitants

Country

Number
of inhabitants

China

1,312 million

Pakistan

158 million

India

1,134 million

Bangladesh

153 million

United States

300 million

Russia

143 million

Indonesia

226 million

Japan

128 million

Brazil

187 million

Mexico

104 million

Answer.
Explain why the worlds population has grown so much in the past six decades.


Which continent has the smallest population? 
Which country has the largest population? 

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2

Complete the bar chart.


4,000
3,500
3,000
2,500

Inhabitants
2,000
in
1,500
millions
1,000
500
0

Africa

America

Antarctica

Asia

Europe

Oceania

Think and calculate.


If there are 216,000 more people in the world every day, how many more people are
there in a year?



Circle, then write six words from the wordsearch to complete these sentences.
1. The list of the inhabitants of a municipality, province or country: 
2. The country with the worlds second biggest population: 
3. The ratio of births to the population at a specific time: 
4. The country with the fifth largest population: 
5. The continent with the second smallest population: 
6. The ratio of deaths to the population at a specific time: 
Q
P
I
R
F
B
R
M
T
C

C
T
N
O
J
I
H
E
R
E

E
K
D
N
B
R
A
Z
I
L

N
X
I
P
T
T
U
R
C
O

S
S
A
W
H
H
I
A
S
L

U
F
P
F
K
R
B
N
H
R

S
W
V
D
E
A
A
R
H
T

O
P
M
N
X
T
U
G
A
I

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N
H
T
O
C
E
A
N
I
A

D
E
A
T
H
R
A
T
E
N

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12

The International Labour


Organisation (ILO)

Name

EXTENSION

Date

The International Labour Organisation (ILO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations
(UN) which promotes better working conditions for workers all over the world. It was
founded after World War I, on 11th April, 1919. The ILO is made up of representatives from
governments, trade unions and
employers. The headquarters is in
Geneva, Switzerland.
One of the main aims of the ILO isto
eradicate child labour. One in six children
between the ages of five and seventeen
works. This means approximately
211million children around the world.
Sixty percent of these children are
inAsia, especially in a country called
Bangladesh. In India, where there are at
least 60 million children working, a trade
union for children, called Bhima Sangha
was created in 1990. The trade union
helps child workers get together
todefend their rights.
In 1969, the ILO received the Nobel
Peace Prize for its defence of workers
rights.

Read and answer.


What is the ILO?


When was it founded? 
Where is its headquarters? 
What are the aims of the ILO?



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2

Match each international organisation to one of its aims.


The United Nations (UN)

To defend the rights of children.


United Nations Childrens Fund


(UNICEF)

To promote respect for human rights


around the world.
To promote world peace through
education, culture, science
and communications.

World Health Organisation


(WHO)

Food and Agriculture Organisation
(FAO)

United Nations Educational, Scientific


and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)

To improve nutrition through advances


in agriculture.

Write the name of each organisation under its logo.

To promote good health levels around


the world.

Do you think children should work? Explain.






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13

Long live La Pepa!

EXTENSION

Name

Date

A countrys most important law is its Constitution


because it defines the rights and obligations
of its citizens. The first written constitution in
history was drawn up in the United States,
in 1787.
Over the last two hundred years, Spain has had
several Constitutions. Perhaps the most famous
is the Constitution adopted in Cadiz on
19th March, 1812. It was known as La Pepa
because it was adopted on the day of San Jose.
La Pepa defined ideas that, although they seem
very normal to us today, were very revolutionary
in the 19th century, such as freedom of the press
or the right to choose political representatives.
Unfortunately, the Constitution of Cadiz did not
last long because King Fernando VII prohibited itin 1814. He even made it illegal to name
this Constitution.
To get around this problem, supporters of the constitutional system used the expression
Viva la Pepa! (Long live Pepa!) which really meant Long live the Constitution!

Tick the correct answer.


Where was the first Constitution
in history written?

Where was Spains first Constitution


adopted?

In Spain.

In Cadiz.

In the United States.

In Madrid.

In what century was La Pepa


adopted?

Which King prohibited the Constitution


of Cadiz?

In the 18th century.

Felipe II.

In the 19th century.

Fernando VII.

What does a constitution define?

How long did the 1812 Constitution last?

The rights and obligations of its citizens.

Four years.

The countrys holidays.

Two years.

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2

Read about the Spanish Constitution of 1978.


Spains Constitution of 1978 took about one year to write
and adopt.
First, seven members were chosen to write the text of the
Constitution.
Then, a Constitutional Commission, made up of 36 people
discussed and agreed on the text.
Next, the Commissions text went to Parliament, where the deputies
and senators voted on all the articles of the Constitution.
After that, the citizens of Spain approved the Constitution
in a referendum held on 6th December, 1978.
Finally, King Juan Carlos I signed the Constitution and it became law
on 27th December, 1978.

Look at the pictures of the creation of the Spanish Constitution of 1978


and put them in order.
A

C
B

What do the Spanish people celebrate on 6th December? Explain.





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14

Roman roads

Name

EXTENSION

Date

In Ancient Rome, there were roads that


spread across the entire Roman Empire.
They covered more than 90,000 miles and
connected important cities andregions.
The Romans first built roads for their
armies. However, these roads soon
became very important for trade
and communication.
The Romans built their roads using many
layers of stone:
First, they dug a deep trench and filled
it with a thick layer of stones called
the statumen.
Then they laid down a layer of sand or
gravel called the rudus.
Next, they put a layer of crushed stones mixed with white lime on top. This was called
the nucleus.
Finally, they covered everything with paving stones called a pavimentum
or summa cresta.
1

Answer.
What did the Roman roads connect?


What were the Roman roads first built for?


What constructions nowadays are similar to Roman roads?



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2

Match.
rudus

pavimentum

nucleus

statumen

Read the descriptions. Then, use the key to colour the Roman roads on the map.
Via Augusta. It reached all the way to Gades, passing through the Ebro and Guadalquivir
valleys. It was 1,500 kilometres long the longest road in the entire Iberian Peninsula.
It connected the cities of Tarraco, Corduba and Astigi, among others.
Via de la Plata. It went from Emerita Augusta to Asturica Augusta, passing through
Salmantica.
Via of the Ebro Valley. It connected Asturica Augusta to Tarraco, passing through Llerda,
Cesaraugusta, Numantia and Clunia.
Via Mesetea. It passed through Toletum and joined Cesaraugusta and Augusta Emerita.
Mar
Ca
n t a bCantbrico
rian Sea

At
O
Cl
a
tic
An
NO

A TO
Lc
e Ta n
N
ICO

Asturica
Augusta
Numantia
Clunia

Ilerda
Cesaraugusta

Salmantica

Tarraco

Toletum
Emerita
Augusta
Corduba
Astigi
Gades

MMae rd

red

green

i t eMr

rea dn

e
S
r
e r
t n
ea
i

Via Augusta

yellow

Via of the Ebro Valley

Via de la Plata
913253p73

brown

Via Mesetea

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o
an e

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15

The steam engine

Name

EXTENSION

Date

The 18th century was a crucial time in the


search for more sources of energy.
From prehistoric times and up till the 18th
century, there had not been many changes,
despite the increasing need for energy.
At the end of the 18th century, James Watt,
a Scottish inventor, invented the steam
engine.
This machine used the energy of water
vapour that was collected from burning
coal. Energy from water vapour could move
a wheel at a steady rhythm. The steam
engine was used in many different ways,
in factories, in mines and for means of transport, especially trains.
Thanks to James Watts steam engine and other great inventions, large factories were built
which employed many workers. This period of history is called the Industrial Revolution.
1

Answer.
In what century was the steam engine invented?

Who invented the steam engine?

Where was the steam engine invented?


Explain how the steam engine works.






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3

Why do you think this period of history is called the Industrial Revolution?





A caption is a short text that describes an illustration. Look at these pictures and write
acaption for each.
A





B





C





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Answer key
1 DIGESTION AND THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Reinforcement

3. Tick the correct sentence.


Calcium is a mineral that makes up our bones.

1. Answer
Digestion is the process which enables us to obtain
nutrients from the food we eat. Digestion takes place
in the organs of the stomach, small intestine and
large intestine.
2. Circle the organs in the digestive system.
Mouth, stomach, intestines, anus.

6 A HEALTHY DIET
1. What is a healthy diet?
A healthy diet gives us the right amount of nutrients
and energy.
2. Look at the food wheel. Circle the healthier food
ineach pair of words.

3. Label the digestive system.


Top to bottom: mouth, stomach, small intestine, large
intestine, anus.

Oil; milk; grapes; chicken; bread; tomato.


7 PARTS OF PLANTS

2 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

1. Match.

1. Complete the sentences.


Nose, mouth, trachea, lungs, bronchi.
2. Why do we need oxygen?
We need oxygen for many processes, such as digestion.
3. Label the respiratory system.
Top to bottom: nose, trachea, bronchi, lungs.

1. Circle the parts of the circulatory system.


Heart, arteries, veins.

Left: trunk; right: leaves, roots. Woody because it is


hard and rigid.
3. Label the parts of the leaf.

8 PLANT NUTRITION
1. What do plants need? Label the drawing.

2. Write T (true) or F (false).

Sunlight; carbon dioxide; mineral salts; water.

F; T; F; T; T.

2. Label the diagram of photosynthesis.

3. Label the circulatory system.

Carbon dioxide; oxygen. During photosynthesis,


plants take in carbon dioxide and release
oxygen.

Blood vessels, heart, kidneys.


4 HEALTHY HABITS

3. What is photosynthesis?

1. Why are healthy habits important?


Healthy habits help you to stay healthy.
2. Circle the healthy habits.
Brushing teeth, good posture, exercising, washing
hands.

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make


their own food using water, mineral salts, carbon
dioxide and sunlight.
9 PLANT REPRODUCTION
1. Label the parts of the flower.

3. Why is it important to sleep well?


You need to sleep ten hours to stay healthy.

Left: stamen, sepal; right: petal, pistil.


2. Complete the sentences.

4. Tick the good posture.

Sepals; petals; stamens; pistil.

Picture A.

3. Answer the questions.

5 FOOD AND NUTRIENTS

The flower; When pollen from the stamens of one


plant reach the stigma of another plant.

1. Complete the sentences.


Fats, carbohydrates; proteins; vitamins and minerals;
fibre.
2. Look at the food. Circle the nutrients they give you.
Proteins; proteins; carbohydrates; fats; vitamins; fibre.

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2. Label the plant. Then, answer the question.

Blade, petiole.

3 BLOOD CIRCULATION

82

Leaves: the green parts; stem: the part that grows


above ground; roots: the parts that are usually
below ground.

10 ROCKS
1. Write T (true) or F (false).
T; F; T; F; T.

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Answer key Reinforcement


2. Match.
Quarry: a place where rocks are extracted from near
the surface of the ground. Shaft: the tunnel through
which miners reach the rocks in a mine. Mine: a
place where rocks and minerals are extracted.
3. Write three uses of rocks. Give an example for each.
M. A. (Model Answer): Construction: granite; fuel:
petroleum; sculptures: marble.
11 MINERALS
1. What are minerals? How are they different from rocks?
Minerals are natural solid substances made up of
only one substance. Rocks are made up of more
than one substance.
2. Use the words to write sentences about minerals.
M. A.: Minerals have different shapes. Lustre is how
much a mineral shines. Minerals can be different
colours. Hardness is a property of minerals.
3. Complete the sentence.
Diamond.
4. Match each mineral to its use.
Magnetite: for obtaining iron. Diamond for making
jewellery. Gypsum for constructing buildings.
12 SOIL
1. Match.
A: The actions of plants and animals. B. Small pieces
ofrock mix with humus. C. Rain, ice and wind wear
down rocks into smaller pieces.
2. Label the layers of soil. Then, circle the layer that
contains humus.
Left: subsoil; right: topsoil, bedrock. Circle topsoil.
13 ECOSYSTEMS
1. Complete the chart.
Environment: temperature, soil, water. Living things:
plants, animals.
2. Use the words to make sentences.
Ecosystems are made up of the environment and
all the living things. Terrestrial ecosystems can be
forests, deserts or grasslands. Aquatic ecosystems
can be freshwater or saltwater.
14 RELATIONSHIPS IN ECOSYSTEMS
1. Match.
Competition: two living things have the same needs.
Cooperation: two living things help each other. Food
relationships: living things eat other living things.

2. Draw the arrows for this food chain.


Arrows to the right from grass to zebra to lion.
3. Write the names of the living things in Activity 2.
Plant: grass. Herbivore: zebra. Carnivore: lion.
15 PROTECTING ECOSYSTEMS
1. Match.
Pollution: rubbish and care fumes. Deforestation:
cutting down trees. Overexploitation: using up too
many natural resources.
2. Look at the pictures. Write pollution, deforestation
oroverexploitation.
A. deforestation; B. pollution; C. overexploitation.
3. Answer the questions.
A nature reserve is a place with an unspoilt
ecosystem, protected by law. O. A.
16 MATTER AND ITS PROPERTIES
1. Answer the questions.
Matter is made up of everything around us. Volume
is the amount of matter in an object. Solid, liquid
and gas.
2. Match.
Mass: in kilograms; volume in litres.
3. Write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false
sentences.
T; F: liquids have a fixed volume; F: Gases do not
have a fixed volume or a fixed shape.
17 CHANGES IN MATTER
1. Cross out the wrong word. Then, rewrite the
sentences.
Wrong: oxidation; chemical changes; mixture;
oxidation.
2. Complete the chart.
Solid to liquid is melting; liquid to solid is freezing;
liquid to gas is evaporation; gas to liquid
iscondensation.
18 MATERIALS
1. Classify the materials.
Natural materials: wood, granite, leather.
Man-made materials: concrete, glass, paper.
2. Circle six properties of materials and write them.
Transparent, resistant, flexible, elastic, light,
fragile.

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Answer key Reinforcement


19 FORCES
1. Look at how force acts upon the objects in each
picture and write in contact or at a distance.
A. at a distance; B. in contact; C. at a distance;
D. incontact.
2. Read and circle two errors. Then, write the text
correctly.
This is called the force of gravity. This force attracts
objects to the Earth.

1. What is energy? Now, complete the words.


Energy makes things change. Types: mechanical,
chemical, thermal, electrical, nuclear, light.
2. What type of energy have they got?
Petrol: chemical; uranium: nuclear; sunlight: light;
wind: mechanical; x-rays: light; fire: thermal.
3. Write the types of energy each object uses
and produces.
A. chemical to mechanical; B. electrical to light;
C.electrical to mechanical.

1. Classify the types of energy. Then, answer the


question.
Renewable energy sources: sunlight, wind, wood.
Non-renewable energy sources: coal, petroleum,
uranium. Non-renewable energy sources cannot be
replaced once they have been used up.
2. Match the type of power station to its source of
energy.
Thermal power station: energy from coal, natural gas,
petrol; hydroelectric: falling water; wind farm: wind;
nuclear power station: uranium.

Light travels at very high speed in a straight line.


1. Match.
A. opaque; B. transparent; C. translucent.
2. Look at the picture. Write reflection or refraction. Now,
explain your answer.
Reflection; M. A.: Light from the lamp hits the object
and reflects into the girls eyes.

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Municipality; comarca.
2. Answer the questions about the picture.

25 AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITIES AND PROVINCES


1. Use the key to colour the map.
O. A. (Open Answer): Autonomous Community with
only one province: Asturias, Navarre, Murcia, Soria,
Rioja, Cantabria, Madrid. Autonomous Community
with more than seven provinces: Andalusia,
Castile-Leon.
26 MY AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY
1. Colour your Autonomous Community or City.
Now, answer the questions.

27 THE RELIEF OF SPAIN


2. Answer the questions.
Mulhacen; Aneto.
28 THE RIVERS AND WATERSHEDS OF SPAIN
1. Match the words to their definitions.
River: a body of moving water; tributary: a river that
flows into a larger river; watershed: where rivers
flow into the same sea; flow: the volume of water
in a river.
The Atlantic watershed; the Cantabrian watershed;
the Mediterranean watershed.

1. How does light travel?

84

1. Read the definition and write the word.

2. Label the three watersheds of Spain.

22 THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT

White; primary; reflect; absorb.

24 MUNICIPALITIES AND COMARCAS

O. A.

21 USES OF ENERGY

1. Complete the sentences.

We see the lemon as yellow because it absorbs all


the colours except yellow, which it reflects.

A mountain comarca; B; four.

20 ENERGY

23 LIGHT AND COLOURS

2. Colour the lemon yellow. Now, explain how we see the


lemon as yellow.

3. Write one river for each watershed. M. A.


Atlantic: River Tagus; Cantabrian: River Navia;
Mediterranean: River Ebro.
29 CLIMATE
1. Complete.
weather, climate, Equator, Sun.
2. Match.
polar zone: it is very cold all year round; temperate
zone: the summers are warm and the winters are
cool; tropical zone: it is hot all year round.

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Answer key Reinforcement


3. Identify and label the climates in Spain.
A. Oceanic climate; B. Continental Mediterranean
climate; C. Mediterranean climate; D. Subtropical
climate.
30 POPULATION
1. Write census or municipal register.
Municipal register; census.
2. Circle the correct options, A or B, then, circle the
correct picture.
A. and the top picture.
31 TRADITIONS AND FESTIVALS
1. Put the phrases in order, then, write two sentences.
Traditions are customs that are passed down from
adults to children. Traditional dishes are the typical
foods of a place or region.
2. Give two examples of each type of tradition where
you live.
O. A.
32 THE PRIMARY SECTOR
1. What jobs belong to the primary sector?
Forestry, mining, stockbreeding, fishing and farming.
2. Match the types of farming to the pictures.
A. extensive farming, B. irrigated crops; C. dry crops.
3. Read the definitions and complete the words.
Stockbreeding; fishing; mining; forestry.
4. How important is the primary sector in your
Autonomous Community or City? Explain.
O. A.
33 THE SECONDARY SECTOR
1. Complete the text with these words.
Raw materials, manufactured products, secondary,
construction.
2. Look at the pictures and write construction, industry
orcraft industry.
Craft industry, construction, industry.
3. Write the products for each industry.
Construction: steel, cement. Food: tinned tuna, ice
cream. Technology: computers, video games.
34 THE TERTIARY SECTOR
1. What type of service is it? Read and answer.
Trade.

Write an example for each service.


M. A.: Trade: selling T-shirts; Tourism: visiting a
museum inanother country; Public services: public
transport; Health services: hospitals; Educational
services: schools.
2. What means of transport are there in your
Autonomous Community or City? Which ones do you
use every day?
O. A.
35 HOW THE STATE IS ORGANISED
1. Complete the text.
Constitution, referendum, rights, obligations,
institutions, Parliament.
2. Read the definitions and write the word.
The Constitution; referendum; democratic state;
election manifesto; municipal elections; general
elections.
36 HOW CITIZENS PARTICIPATE
1. Read and write right or obligation.
Obligation; right; right; right; obligation.
2. Match and write.
A. The right to express our ideas. B. The right to vote.
C. The right to equality.
3. What are codes of conduct? Explain.
Codes of conduct are lists of rights and obligations
based on respect for others.
37 HOW PRIMITIVE HUMAN BEINGS LIVED
1. Look at the picture and answer the questions.
The first human beings lived in caves. They lived near
rivers. They ate fruits and plants and animals they
hunted. They travelled on foot. They carried their things
on their backs. They decorated their homes with wall
paintings.
38 ROMAN TIMES
1. Look at the picture and write the number.
1. Domus; 2. Seaport; 3. Road; 4. Insula; 5. Temple;
6. Thermae; 7. Amphitheathre.
39 MEDIEVAL TIMES
1. Look for the names of the pictures in the wordsearch.
Now, complete the text.
A. noble; B. church(es); C. cart; D. peasant; E.castle,
F. boat.
Text: nobles, castles, peasants, carts, sailing boats,
churches.

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40 THE AGE OF EXPLORATION
1. Match the people to their homes.
A-2; B-1; C-3.
2. Read the definitions and write the word.
Astrolabe; caravel; magnetic compass.
Five hundred years ago, new inventions made it
easier for explorers to travel the world. Name some
of these inventions.
M. A.: magnetic compass; astrolabe; caravel
41 THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
1. Circle the correct words, then, write the sentences
correctly.
Two hundred years ago, large factories replaced

small workshops.
Factory workers lived in neighbourhoods which were

dirty and unhygienic.


The steam engine was invented 200 years ago.

2. Find and circle six discoveries and inventions in the


wordsearch.
Aspirin; train; light bulb; radio; x-rays; telephone.
42 LIFE NOWADAYS
1. Complete the chart with examples.
M. A.: We live in single-family homes or high-rise flats.
We travel by car, high-speed train, boat or aeroplane.
Inventions: Internet, spacecrafts, computers.
2. Which do you think are the most important
inventions? Choose three and explain your choices.
O. A.

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Answer key

EXTENSION

1 UNDER THE SEA

Aspirin comes from the bark of the willow tree.

1. What is the text about? Tick.

O. A.

The text is about what equipment people need to stay


underwater.
2. Why do people need special equipment to stay
underwater? Think and explain.
M. A.: We need special equipment to stay underwater
because we need to breathe in oxygen from the air
to live. There is not enough oxygen in water for us to
breathe. Also, our bodies need protection because
our skin, eyes, ears, etc., are not adapted to living
under water.
3. Look at the scuba diver and match each item of his
equipment to its use.
Wetsuit: 3; scuba socks: 6; diving mask: 1;
goggles: 2; fins: 5; weight belt: 7; aqualung: 4.
4. Why can fish live underwater without special
equipment? Think and explain.
M. A.: Fish breathe through gills, so they do not need
an aqualung. They have scales to protect their bodies
and fins to swim with.
2 LONG LIVE THE HAMBURGER!
1. Answer the questions.
The first hamburgers were made four thousand

years ago.
Genghis Khan was a Mongol emperor.
The name comes from the city of Hamburg

in Germany.
th

In the 14 century hamburgers were a flat cake

ofmeat placed between two slices of bread.


Great Britain introduced hamburgers to the

United States.
2. What nutrients are in a hamburger? Look and write.
Hamburgers have carbohydrates from bread, proteins
from meat, vitamins and minerals from tomatoes,
lettuce and onions.
3. Read the clues, write the name of each country under
its flag, then, colour.
A. Mongolian; B. German; C. Egyptian; D.Russian;
E. United Kingdom; F. United States ofAmerica.
3 NATURAL MEDICINES
1. Answer the questions.
The text is about medicinal plants and natural

medicines.
You can get food, wood, dyes, clothes and

medicines from plants.

2. Complete the crossword with the names


of the plants.
Across: 1. Nettle; 2. Chamomile; 3. Thyme.
Down: 4. Eucalyptus; 5. Tilia.
3. What three types of plants are there? Give an
example of each one.
M. A.: Tree: willow; shrub: thyme; grass: poppy.
4 FOSSILS: ROCKS THAT REVEAL THE PAST
1. Answer the questions.
Fossils are the preserved remains of plants and

animals that lived on Earth millions of years ago.


A paleontologist studies fossils.
An ichnite is a rock containing a dinosaur

footprint.
You can find ichnites in Rioja, Teruel and Soria.

2. How are ichnites formed? Read, then, put the pictures


in order.
Top pictures: 3, 2; Bottom pictures: 1, 4.
3. Match each dinosaur to its foot and its footprint.
A. Bottom foot, middle footprint; B. middle foot, top
footprint; C. top foot, bottom footprint.
5 NATIONAL PARKS
1. Answer the questions.
A National Park is a protected area of unspoilt

ecosystems.
The first National Park was Yellowstone

in the U.S.A.
Spains first National Park was Mount Covadonga,

now called Picos de Europa.


2. Think and answer. What would happen if all the
visitors to a National Park took home a rock or broke
off a tree branch?
M. A.: If everyone took home a rock or a tree branch,
this would spoil the environment and the trees in the
National Park because there are many visitors.
3. Look up information about a National Park and fill
in the index card.
O. A.
4. How can we help to protect natural landscapes?
M. A.: We can take our rubbish home, not light fires,
keep our dogs on a lead, not disturb nesting birds or
young animals, keep to the footpaths

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Answer key EXTENSION


6 PLASTIC: A MODERN MATERIAL

Because light travels in a straight line and cannot

go around obstacles.

1. Write a short summary of the text.


M. A.: There are many different types of plastics.
They are used to make many things. You can
make plastic bags, pot handles, rubber for car
tyres and clothes with polyester. However, plastics
are notbiodegradable so they can pollute the
environment. We should recycle plastics.
2. What does biodegradable mean?
M. A.: Biodegradable means something that
decomposes.
3. Look around the room. Write ten things you can see
that are made of plastic.
O. A.
4. What are these objects made of? Match.
A. bakelite; B. EPS; C. rubber; D. polyester.
5. Write down your ideas to reuse plastic containers.
M. A.: Use a butter container with a lid to keep
change in.

When the angle between the light source and the

opaque object changes.


2. Match each shadow to the correct pair of hands.
Then, practice the shapes.
A. 5; B. 3; C. 4; D. 1; E. 2.
3. Look at where the Sun is and where Peter Pan is
standing. Draw his shadow.
The shadow is behind Peter Pan, bottom left.
4. Do transparent objects have shadows? Think
andexplain.
Transparent objects do not have shadows because
light can pass through them.
9 GEOGRAPHICAL COORDINATES
1. Read and answer.
Geographical coordinates are lines on a globe to

help find geographical locations.


Meridians are vertical lines that go from pole to

pole on a globe.

7 PERPETUAL MOTION

Latitude is the distance between any point and the

1. Read the text and answer the questions.


All machines need energy to function.
A perpetual motion machine is a machine that never
stops, so it only needs energy to get started once.

2. Label the compass rose.

2. Look at the painting and answer.


M. Escher; 1961; Waterfall; M. A.: Yes, because you
can see water falling in the picture.

3. Colour the Equator red and the Greenwich Meridian


blue. Then, complete the chart.

3. Look at Eschers painting. What machine is in


perpetual motion? Colour it.
The water wheel.
4. How do you think the machine in Eschers painting
works? Explain.
It works by energy from falling water.
5. Look at these machines and answer.
A. fuel; B. water power; C. human energy; D. electricity.
The aeroplane and the train use energy that pollutes;
Fuel and electricity are not renewable energy
resources.
6. Imagine you invented a perpetual motion machine.
How would it change the world?
O. A.

A shadow is a dark area caused by an opaque

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B. northern, north, east; C. northern, north, west;


D.southern, south, east.
10 THREE DAYS IN THE PROVINCE OF SALAMANCA
1. Draw the route on the map in red. Circle the places
the erxcursion passes through in blue.
The route is traced in red through these places
circled in blue: Zamora, Arribes del Duero, Ledesma,
Salamanca, Bejar, Candelario.
2. Look at the map and answer.
Four villages or cities: Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca,

Ledesma, Candelario.
Four rivers: River Duero, River Tormes, River Alagon,

River Cuerpo de Hombre.


Provinces: Zamora, Valladolid, Caceres.

3. Look at the chart. Write the distances in kilometers


between the cities.

1. Answer.

88

Compass rose: clockwise from North: northeast,


east, southeast, south, southwest, west, northwest.

Country: Portugal.

8 SHADOWS

object blocking light.

Equator.

Distances: 212 km; 94 km; 160 km; 277 km;


Closest city to Salamanca: Zamora;
Furthest city from Salamanca: Caceres.

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Answer key EXTENSION


11 THE WORLDS POPULATION
1. Answer.
M. A.: The population has grown so much in the

past six decades because there has been a rise in


births and a decline in deaths.
Antarctica has the smallest population.
China has the largest population.

2. Complete the bar chart.


Bar chart: Africa: 925 million; America: 1,263 million;
Antarctica: 1,000 scientists; Asia: 3,950 million;
Europe: 728 million; Oceania: 33million.
3. Think and calculate.
216,000 365 days = 78,840,000 people.
4. Circle, then write six words from the wordsearch
tocomplete these sentences.
1. Census; 2. India; 3. Birth rate; 4. Brazil;
5. Oceania; 6. Death rate.
12 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION (ILO)
1. Read and answer.
The ILO is a specialised agency of the UN

which promotes better working conditions


for workers.
It was founded in 1919, on 11th April.
The headquarters is in Geneva, Switzerland.
The aims are: to eradicate child labour and improve

working conditions for workers all over


the world.
2. Match each international organization to one of its
aims.
UN / To promote respect for human rights around
the world.
UNICEF / To defend the rights of children.
WHO / To promote good health levels around
theworld.
UNESCO / To promote world peace through
education, culture, science and communications.
FAO / To improve nutrition through advances in
agriculture.
3. Write the name of each organization under
its logo.
Food and Agricultural Organisation; UNICEF;
International Labour Organisation; WHO; United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organisation.

4. Do you think children should work? Explain.


O. A.
13 LONG LIVE LA PEPA!
1. Tick the correct answer.
In the United States. In the 19th century.
The rights and obligations of its citizens. In Cadiz.
Fernando VII. Twoyears.
2. Read about the Spanish Constitution of 1978. Look at
the pictures of the creation of the Spanish
Constitution of 1978 and put them in order.
A. 1; E. 2; B. 3; D. 4; C. 5.
3. What do the Spanish people celebrate on 6th
December? Explain.
Spanish people celebrate the approval of the
Constitution of 1978. People were happy to celebrate
having the same rights and obligations.
14 ROMAN ROADS
1. Answer.
They connected important cities and regions.
They were built for the Roman armies.
Motorways because they are very straight roads

and connect important cities.


2. Match.
statumen: bottom layer; rudus: next layer up;
nucleus: next layer up; pavimentum is the top layer.
15 THE STEAM ENGINE
1. Answer.
18th century; James Watt; in Scotland.
2. Explain how the steam engine works.
It uses energy from water vapour collected from
burning coal. The vapour moves a wheel.
3. Why do you think this period of history is called the
Industrial Revolution?
M. A.: The Industrial Revolution was when people
started to work in factories in industry instead of in
the fields in agriculture.
4. A caption is a short text that describes an illustration.
Look at these pictures and write a caption for each.
M. A: Caption A: Factories employed many workers.
Caption B: There were many new inventions
during this period. Caption C: Large factories were
built.

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Assessment

Unit
assessments

Unit
tests

1 Inside your body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

110

140

2 Keeping healthy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

112

141

3 Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114

142

4 Minerals, rocks and soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

116

143

5 Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

118

144

6 Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

120

145

7 Forces and energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

122

146

8 Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

124

147

9 Where we live . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

126

148

10 Landscapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

128

149

11 Population and traditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

130

150

12 Economic activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

132

151

13 Political institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

134

152

14 Life thousands of years ago . . . . . . . . . . . . .

136

153

15 Life hundreds of years ago . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

138

154

Term assessments
Term 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

164

Term 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

166

Term 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

168

Term tests
Term 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

170

Term 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

171

Term 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

172

Final assessment and test . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

176

Answer keys

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Unit assessments and tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

155

Term assessments and tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

173

Final assessment and test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

182

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Inside your body

Name
1

ASSESSment

Date

Answer.
What is digestion? 

What organs make up the digestive system? 


Label the digestive system.

Write T (true) or F (false).


Nutrients are substances we need to breathe.
Lungs are spongy sacks that are in your thorax.
The oxygen you need to live goes into your lungs.
The kidneys are part of the respiratory system.

Label the picture of the respiratory system.

Why do we need oxygen?





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1
6

What does the heart do?





Complete the text about the circulatory system.


continually circulates around our body thanks to the
, an organ that is made up of that are working all
the time. The heart pumps blood through the to all parts of the body.

Classify these words.


trachea lungs anus heart bronchi
stomach intestine veins arteries

Digestive system

Respiratory system

Circulatory system

Why is this sentence false?


The kidneys are the organs which take the air we breathe to our lungs.



10 Read the definitions and write the word.


Small parts of food which our body can absorb.

The organ that continually pumps blood.

Hollow tubes through which blood circulates.

Very thin and fragile blood vessels.

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Keeping healthy

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

What are healthy habits? Write some examples.






Complete.
You should sleep hours a day.
Food has the your body needs.
Your supports your back.

Match.
This helps our digestive system work correctly.
We need them to grow.
We need them to stay healthy.
They give us energy.

carbohydrates and fats


fibre
proteins
vitamins and minerals

Is this a healthy breakfast? Explain.







What is a food wheel? How do you use it?






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2
6

Circle the foods you should not eat too much of.

What nutrients does each of these foods contain?

yoghurt

green peppers

olive oil

lentils

bread

Cross out the odd food in each food group.


A

Write a sentence with each group of words.


sports

diet

exercise



foods

fatty

less


10 What is a balanced diet?


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Plants

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Write a sentence with each group of words.


water

mineral salts

carbon dioxide

sunlight



reproduction

flowers

organs


2

What is the difference between evergreens and deciduous trees?





Complete the sentences.


Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the

of one flower

to the of another.
The fruit of a plant grows from the fertilised
and has

inside.

Number the pictures in order.

Describe two different types of plant stems.





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3
6

Name two ways in which pollination can occur.





Label the parts of a flower.

Read the definitions and write the words.

It is made up of petals.

It is made up of sepals.

They are the male parts of the flower.

It is the female part of the flower.

Complete the diagram about plant nutrition.


Plants need

Take in/release

10 What is photosynthesis? Where does it occur?





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Minerals, rocks and soil

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Write T (true) or F (false).


Rocks can be distinguished by their hardness, colour and lustre.
Diamond is the softest mineral, and gypsum is the hardest.
Rocks are made up of minerals.
Rocks make up the solid part of the Earth.

Use these words to write a sentence about minerals.


properties

hardness

colour

lustre

shape



3

What is a quarry?



Write three uses of minerals. Give an example for each.









Classify the rocks and minerals.


limestone
Rocks

Minerals

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marble

diamond

granite

malachite

pyrite

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4
6

Number the layers of soil from top to bottom.

What is humus? Where is it found?





Explain what is in each layer of soil.


topsoil

subsoil

bedrock 
9

How is soil made? Number the pictures.

10 Complete the text.

rocks.

are made up of only one substance. They form


form the solid part of the Earth.

Rocks and minerals are found in . Soil has got three


layers: ,

and .

is in the topsoil.

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Ecosystems

Name
1

ASSESSment

Date

Write a sentence with these words.


components environment living things ecosystem



Complete the outline about ecosystems.

living things
water
plants
soil
the environment
temperature
rocks
animals

Z
] 
]
]
Components ]
of
[
ecosystems ]
] 
]
]
\

Z
[
\
Z
]
]
[
]
]
\






Define these parts of an ecosystem.


Living things


Environment


4

What types of ecosystems are there?





What type of ecosystem is this?




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5
6

Give examples for each.


Producers

Consumers

Label the living things in the food chain and draw the arrows.

What type of relationship is it? Identify and write.

Two species with the same needs compete.

Two species help each other.

Give examples for each relationship.


Competition between two living things.

Cooperation between two living things.

Three living things in the same food chain.


10 What is a nature reserve? Explain and give an example.





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Matter

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Write definitions for volume and mass.






What is matter?




Give two examples for each state of matter.


solid


liquid


gas




Label the processes


for the changes of
state.


gas


liquid


5

solid


Complete the sentences.


Two or more substances mixed together is a .
A mixture of two or more metals is an .
Changes in matter can be mixtures, changes of or changes.

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6
6

What is the difference between a change of state and a chemical change?


Give an example of each.





When an iron key rusts, what change in matter takes place? Complete.
It is a

change because 




8

What are materials?





Give two examples of each.


Natural materials
from minerals

Natural materials
from plants

Natural materials
from animals






10 Describe the properties of the materials used to make these glasses.


aluminium
glass






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Forces and energy

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Look at the swing. Why is it moving?






What kind of force is acting in each picture?


A

What is the force of friction? Explain and give an example.






What is the difference between renewable and non-renewable energy sources?


Explain and give an example of each.




Complete the sentences.


In a toaster, energy transforms into energy.
In a light bulb, energy transforms into energy.
With a candle, energy transforms into energy.

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6

Classify these sources of energy.


wind

natural gas

Renewable energy
sources

Non-renewable
energy sources

coal

sunlight

wood

petroleum

What are fossil fuels?





Write the names of six types of energy.




Explain how a hydroelectric power station produces electricity.






10 Underline two errors in the text.


When we burn fuels, they produce oxygen. This goes into the atmosphere
and decreases the temperature of the planet. This is called global warming.
Now, write the correct text.



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Light

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Tick the picture that best represents how we see objects.


A

Write T (true) or F (false).


Light travels at a speed of 300,000 kilometres per hour.
Light travels in all directions.
Light can pass through opaque objects.
Light travels in a straight line.

Explain what happens to light as it passes through the water.







Tick the correct column.


Opaque

Translucent

Transparent

Wood
Drinking water
Green glass
5

Draw the shadow of the apple.

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8
6

What is the dispersion of light? Give an example.






Write a sentence with each group of words.


ray of light prism rainbow

red green primary

blue


8

What colour is an object which reflects blue light? Explain.






This text is not correct. Write the correct version.


White objects absorb all colours of light and do not reflect any light they
receive. Black objects reflect all the light they receive.




10 What colours does a green object absorb? What colours does it reflect?



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Where we live

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Write the word for each definition.


One or more cities, towns or villages which
are governed by the same local council.

Several municipalities that are near each


other and share common characteristics.

A territory larger than a comarca that


is made up of many municipalities.

What kind of comarca


is in the picture?


3

Write two examples of services in a comarca.




Where are the basic services of a comarca found?






What types of jobs do many of the inhabitants of a comarca share?




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6

Explain how the territory of Spain is organised.





What are the symbols of an Autonomous Community?





Write T (true) or F (false).


Autonomous Communities are made up of only one province.
Every Autonomous Community has its own history and customs.
Each Autonomous Community has its own government institutions.
All Autonomous Communities have the same capital.

Complete the chart.


AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITIES
Name

Capital

Provinces

Galicia
Rioja
Extremadura
Cantabria
10 Write about your Autonomous Community or City.
Name: 

Capital: 
Borders: 
It is made up of these provinces:

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10

Landscapes

ASSESSment

Name

Look at the map and circle the area of your Autonomous Community or
your Autonomous City.
Cape
Or tegal

Cantabrian

E
Cape Finisterre

GAL
ICIA
NM
AS
SI

Bay
of
Biscay

C A N TA B
RIAN RANGE

Inner

RA

L M

IN

CH

A
E N
O R

Gulf
of Cadiz

BAE

MO

ANDORRA

UN

TA

TIC

Ceuta

OU

AIN
NT

IN

IN
TA

AIN
CH

MO
TAL
AS
CO

River
Ebro
Delta

BALEARIC
ISLANDS

Cape
Nao

CHA

Cape
Creus

Gulf
of
Valencia

LEDO

E
N G
R A

CANARY ISLANDS
Tarifa Point

Plateau

MOUNTAINS OF TO

N
AI

A IN

NT

TA

RIA

CH

CE

N
OU

IBE

FRANCE

IN

P O R
T U G
A L

AT L A N T I C
OCEAN

AT L A N T I C O C E A N

Sea

Cape Peas

UN

CA
TA
LA

Date

Cape Palos

Cape Gata

i
Med

ter

ran

n
ea

Se

Melilla

Answer.
What is the difference between inland
and coastal landscapes?
189714p128 Espaa fsico


Are there inland landscapes in your Autonomous Community or City? Give an example.


Describe the relief of your Autonomous Community or Autonomous City.






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10
4

What is the name of the highest peak in your Autonomous Community or City? Where is it?



What is the name of the most important river in your Autonomous Community or City?


Is this sentence correct? Explain why or why not.


My Autonomous Community has the same climate everywhere.




What things do we need to know to find out the climate of a place?




Describe the temperature and precipitation in your Autonomous Community or City.





What fauna is characteristic of your Autonomous Community or City?






10 Write the name of four plant species found in your Autonomous Community or City.


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Population and traditions

Name
1

ASSESSment

Date

Write definitions for these words.


municipal register




census




Explain the difference between immigrant and emigrant.






When does the population of a place increase?





Read the sentence and underline the mistake.


Natural growth is the difference between the immigrants that arrive
and the emigrants that leave a place.
Now write the text correctly.



Look at the picture. Is the population increasing or decreasing? Explain.







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6

What is natural growth?





Describe the population in your Autonomous Community or Autonomous City.






What are traditions? Give some examples.






Write the names of these traditions.


A

10 Complete the chart with an example for each traditon.


Traditions in my Autonomous
Community/City

dances

historical
monuments

typical dishes

festivals

example

example

example

example

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12

Economic activities

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Name these jobs. Write the sectors they belong to.


A

Write two examples of jobs in this economic sector.


Secondary
sector

 


What economic activities are there in the primary sector in your Autonomous Community
or Autonomous City?



Look at the picture and write: the name of the job, the sector it belongs to,
and what the workers do.






What kind of industries are there in your Autonomous Community or Autonomous City?




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12
6

Explain.
What is the most important economic sector in your Autonomous Community or City?

What is the least important economic sector in your Autonomous Community or City?


Complete.

services are provided by banks or savings institutions.

services are carried out in schools and universities.

services are carried out in health centres and hospitals.

Is tourism important in your Autonomous Community or City? What are the most important
tourist areas?



Name three means of transport in your Autonomous Community or City.




10 Complete the chart.


Economic activities in my Community

Primary sector

Secondary sector

Tertiary sector

for example

for example

for example

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Political institutions

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

What is the difference between general elections and elections in an Autonomous


Community?





Is it a right or an obligation? Write the answer for each.


Respect the correspondence of others.

Receive a good education.

Express your ideas in public.

Obey the law.

Write T (true) or F (false).


In Spain, everybody has the same rights and obligations.
The Constitution is the most important law in Spain.
Spanish citizens approved the Constitution in 1988.
The most important institutions of Spain are its Parliament and the local councils.

Match.
Statutes
Constitution

The State

An Autonomous Community

Write the name of the institution of the Autonomous Community or City in charge
of these functions.
Making the laws.

Making decisions about the needs of the community.

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6

Read and explain what this sentence means.


Voting is free, secret and universal.




7

Write three groups which peacefully defend citizens interests.






What does the right to equality mean?





Answer.
Who elects the members of the Autonomous Parliament or Assembly?

Who elects the President of the Autonomous government?


10 Complete the sentences.


candidates

election manifesto

electoral campaign

political party

A is a group of citizens with similar ideas about


how to govern. Before elections, political parties draw up an
to explain their ideas. They also designate
government positions, and they organise an

to hold
to promote

their partys ideas.


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Life thousands of years ago

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Number the transport from the oldest to the most modern.

Tick the true answers. Then, correct the false ones.


The first humans made tools of wood or bones.
The Romans built seaports.
Noblemen lived in insulae.
Romans built thermae to carry water to their cities.



What buildings did the Romans have for entertainment?





Complete the chart.

In medieval times

buildings

transport

historical remains

Describe these buildings.


Domus

Insulae

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6

Describe the different characteristics of Romanesque and Gothic churches.







Where did most peasants live in medieval times?





Look at the picture and answer.


What kind of building is it? 
Where is it positioned? Why was it built there? 

What parts of the building can you see? 


Circle the object used many thousands of years ago. Explain your choice.
A




10

Match the buildings to their uses.


A place for chariot races

temple

A place for gladiator fights

circus

A place to worship the gods

amphitheatre

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Life hundreds of years ago

Name
1

ASSESSment

Date

Write about these inventions.


Printing press: 

Steamship: 

High-speed train: 


Read and write: 500 years ago, 200 years ago, or nowadays.
Workers lived in poor city
neighbourhoods with no sewage system.

Rich people lived in palaces.

People live in tall buildings or


in family homes.

Complete the chart.


500 years ago
buildings

transport

historical monuments

What did the magnetic compass, the astrolabe and the caravel modernise? Explain.


Explain why cities grew rapidly 200 years ago.




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15
6

What new means of transport were invented 200 years ago?






Write three inventions from the Industrial Revolution.






Look at the house. Then, read the text and circle the correct words.
Five hundred / thousand years ago, craftsmen lived
in cities / villages. Their houses had two / four
storeys. The main rooms / workshops were
on the top / bottom floor. The craftmans family
lived on the top / bottom floor.

Write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false ones.


The steam engine modernised transport 500 years ago.
Large factories replaced small workshops 200 years ago.
The printing press was invented 500 years ago.
Satellite television and the Internet were invented 200 years ago.



10 Number the inventions in order from the most ancient to the most modern.

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Answer key

ASSESSMENTs and tests

1 INSIDE YOUR BODY


1. Answer.
Digestion is the process by which the body obtains nutrients from food.
The main organs are the mouth, the stomach, the large and small intestines and the anus.
2. Label the digestive system.
Digestive system labels: left: mouth, anus; right: stomach, intestines.
3. Write T (true) or F (false).
F; F; T; F.
4. Label the picture of the respiratory system.
Respiratory system labels: left: nose, lungs; right: trachea, bronchi.
5. Why do we need oxygen?
We need oxygen to breathe, and to live.
6. What does the heart do?
The heart pumps blood around the body.
7. Complete the text about the circulatory system.
Blood, heart, muscles, blood vessels.
8. Classify these words.
Digestive system: anus, stomach, intestine.
Respiratory system: trachea, lungs, bronchi.
Circulatory system: heart, veins, arteries.
9. Why is this sentence false?
The kidneys filter the blood, eliminate waste and produce urine.
10. Read the definitions and write the word.
nutrients; the heart; blood vessels; capillaries.
ASSESSMENTs 1 test
1. c, 2. a, 3. b, 4. b, 5. c, 6. c, 7. b, 8. a, 9. b, 10. b
2 KEEPING HEALTHY
1. What are healthy habits? Write some examples.
Healthy habits are activities to keep us healthy such as a balanced diet, exercise and ten hours sleep.
2. Complete.
Ten hours; nutrients; backbone.
3. Match.
Fibre helps our digestive system work correctly. We need proteins to grow. We need vitamins and minerals to stay
healthy. Carbohydrates and fats give us energy.
4. Is this a healthy breakfast? Explain.
This breakfast is healthy because it contains fruit, cereal, and milk which give us all the proteins, vitamins
and minerals we need.
5. What is a food wheel? How do you use it?
A food wheel shows the different food groups. It tells us how much we should eat from each group.
6. Circle the foods you should not eat too much of.
You shouldnt eat too much cheese, sausage and cakes.
7. What nutrients does each of these foods contain?
Yoghurt: calcium and proteins; green peppers: vitamins and minerals; olive oil: fats; lentils: proteins and fibre;
bread: carbohydrates.

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8. Cross out the odd food in each food group.
A. milk; B. meat; C. carrot.
9. Write a sentence with each group of words.
To be healthy, eat a healthy diet and do exercise and sports. You should eat less fatty foods.
10. What is a balanced diet?
A balanced diet gives you the right amount of nutrients your body needs to be healthy.
ASSESSMENTs 2 test
1. a, 2. b, 3. b, 4. a, 5. c, 6. b, 7. a, 8. c, 9. a, 10. c
3 PLANTS
1. Write a sentence with each group of words.
Plants need water, mineral salts and carbon dioxide to make their food. Flowers are the organs of reproduction of
plants.
2. What is the difference between evergreens and deciduous trees?
Deciduous trees lose their leaves in winter, but evergreens keep their leaves all year round.
3. Complete the sentences.
Stigma, stamen, flower, seeds.
4. Number the pictures in order.
1, 3, 2, 4.
5. Describe two different types of plant stems.
Woody: they are hard and rigid and are called trunks. Herbaceous: they are soft and flexible.
6. Name two ways in which pollination can occur.
Pollen can be carried by insects or by the wind.
7. Label the parts of a flower.
Left: petal, sepal; right: stamen, pistil.
8. Read the definitions and write the words.
Corolla; Calyx; Stamens; Pistil.
9. Complete the diagram about the plant nutrition.
Plants need: sunlight, carbon dioxide, water, mineral salts. Plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen.
10. What is photosynthesis? Where does it occur?
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make their own food. It takes place in the leaves.
ASSESSMENTs 3 test
1. a, 2. b, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. b, 7. b, 8. a, 9. c, 10. b
4 MINERALS, ROCKS AND SOIL
1. Write T (true) or F (false).
T; F; T; T.
2. Use these words to write a sentence about minerals.
Some properties of minerals are hardness, colour, lustre and shape.
3. What is a quarry?
A quarry is a hole near the surface of the ground where rocks and minerals are mined.
4. Write three uses of minerals. Give an example for each.
Uses of minerals: in construction, for example, gypsum to make cement; for making jewellery, for example,
diamonds; for obtaining metals, for example, iron is extracted from magnetite.
5. Classify the rocks and minerals.
Rocks: limestone, granite, marble; Minerals: malachite, diamond, pyrite.

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6. Number the layers of soil from top to bottom.
3, 1, 2.
7. What is humus? Where is it found?
Humus is a dark layer of soil containing the remains of animals and plants. It is where plants grow.
8. Explain what is in each layer of soil.
Topsoil: sand, clay, air, water and humus; Subsoil: small stones, sand, clay and some water; Bedrock: rocks and
very little water.
9. How is soil made? Number the pictures.
3, 1, 2.
10. Complete the text.
Minerals; Rocks; soil; topsoil, subsoil and bedrock; Humus.
ASSESSMENTs 4 test
1. b, 2. a, 3. b, 4. a, 5. c, 6. a, 7. a, 8. c, 9. b, 10. b
5 ECOSYSTEMS
1. Write a sentence with these words.
An ecosystem is made up of all the living things and the components of the environment.
2. Complete the outline about ecosystems.
Components of ecosystems: living things: plants, animals; the environment: water, soil, temperature, rocks.
3. Define these parts of an ecosystem.
Living things: all the plants and animals; Environment: everything which affects the living things: type of soil, type
of rock, water, temperature.
4. What types of ecosystem are there?
Ecosystems can be terrestrial or aquatic.
5. What type of ecosystem is this?
An aquatic ecosystem.
6. Give examples for each.
Producers: plants; Consumers: mice, birds.
7. Label the livings things in the food chain and draw the arrows.
Food chain: grass, mouse, eagle.
8. What type of relationship is it? Identify and write.
Competition; Cooperation.
9. Give examples for each relationship.
Competition: plants compete for sunlight.
Cooperation: insects pollinate some plants.
Three living things: grass, mouse, eagle.
10. What is a nature reserve? Explain and give an example.
A nature reserve is an ecosystem which is protected by law.
ASSESSMENTs 5 test
1. b, 2. c, 3. b, 4. c, 5. a, 6. c, 7. a, 8. c, 9. b, 10. c
6 MATTER
1. Write definitions for volume and mass.
Volume is the amount of space an object occupies; Mass is the amount of matter in an object.

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2. What is matter?
Everything around us is made up of matter, for example, water, air, etc.
3. Give two examples for each state of matter.
solid: mineral, rock; liquid: water, milk; gas: air, oxygen.
4. Label the processes for the changes of state.
Liquid to gas: evaporation; gas to liquid: condensation; solid to liquid: melting; liquid to solid: solidification.
5. Complete the sentences.
mixture; alloy; changes of state or chemical changes.
6. What is the difference between a change of state and a chemical change? Give an example of each.
A change of state is when a substance changes its physical state but the substance stays the same, for
example, when water cools and changes to ice; A chemical change is when a substance changes into another
substance, for example, when milk changes into yoghurt.
7. When an iron key rusts, what change in matter takes place? Complete.
It is a chemical change, because the key combines with oxygen to make iron oxide, or rust.
8. What are materials?
Materials are substances we use every day for making things because they have very useful properties.
9. Give two examples of each.
Natural materials from minerals: granite, marble; Natural materials from plants: cotton and wood; Natural
materials from animals: silk and wool.
10. Describe the properties of the materials used to make these glasses.
Aluminium is very light and resistant. The glass in the lenses is transparent.
ASSESSMENTs 6 test
1. a, 2. b, 3. b, 4. b, 5. a, 6. b, 7. a, 8. c, 9. a, 10. a
7 FORCES AND ENERGY
1. Look at the swing. Why is it moving?
The swing is moving because a force is acting on it: the child is pushing it.
2. What kind of force is acting in each picture?
A. A magnet: force of attraction; B. The apple is falling: force of gravity.
3. What is the force of friction? Explain and give an example.
Friction is a force between two surfaces which acts on objects to slow them down, for example, a skateboard
is slowed down by friction between the wheels and the road.
4. What is the difference between renewable and non-renewable energy sources? Explain and give an example
of each.
Renewable energy sources never run out, for example, wind energy; Non-renewable energy sources cannot be
replaced once they have been used up, for example, coal.
5. Complete the sentences.
In a toaster, electrical energy transforms into thermal energy; In a light bulb, electrical energy transforms into light
energy; With a candle, thermal energy transforms into light energy.
6. Classify these sources of energy.
Renewable energy sources: wind, sunlight, wood; Non-renewable energy sources: natural gas, coal, petroleum.
7. What are fossil fuels?
Fossil fuels are petroleum, coal and natural gas.
8. Write the names of six types of energy.
Six types of energy: mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, nuclear and light energy.

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Explain how a hydroelectric power station produces electricity.
In a hydroelectric power station mechanical energy from falling water is transformed into electrical energy.
9. Underline two errors in the text. Now, write the correct text.
Errors in text: oxygen; decreases. Correct sentence: When we burn fuels they produce carbon dioxide. This goes
into the atmosphere and increases the temperature of the planet. This is called global warming.
ASSESSMENTs 7 test
1. b, 2. a, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. b, 7. c, 8. c, 9. b, 10. a
8 LIGHT
1. Tick the picture that best represents how we see objects.
B.
2. Write T (true) or F (false).
T; T; F; T.
3. Explain what happens to light as it passes through the water.
If you put a pencil in a glass of water, it looks bent. This is because light is refracted when it passes from the air
to the water.
4. Tick the correct column.
Wood: opaque; Drinking water: translucent: Green glass: transparent
5. Draw the shadow of the apple.
O. A.
6. What is the dispersion of light? Give an example.
Light is dispersed into all the colours when it passes through a transparent prism. When the Sun shines and it
rains at the same time, we see a rainbow. This is because the raindrops act like tiny prisms: they separate
the white light into the seven colours of the rainbow.
7. Write a sentence with each group of words.
A prism disperses a ray of light into the seven colours of the rainbow.
The primary colours of light are red, green and blue.
8. What colour is an object which reflects blue light? Explain.
Blue, because an object always reflects its own colour.
9. This text is not correct. Write the correct version.
White objects reflect all light and do not absorb any light. Black objects absorb all light and do not reflect
any light.
10. What colours does a green object absorb? What colours does it reflect?
A green object absorbs red, blue, magenta, white, yellow and cyan, and reflects green.
ASSESSMENTs 8 test
1. a, 2. c, 3. b, 4. a, 5. a, 6. c, 7. b, 8. a, 9. a, 10. c
9 WHERE WE LIVE
1. Write the word for each definition.
Municipality; Comarca; Province.
2. What kind of comarca is in the picture?
A mountain comarca.
3. Write two examples of services in a comarca.
Hospitals; schools.
4. Where are the basic services of a comarca found?
They are usually found in the town with the best means of transport and communications.

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5. What types of jobs do many of the inhabitants of a comarca share?
Agriculture; Stockbreeding; Fishing; Industry; Tourism.
6. Explain how the territory of Spain is organised.
It is organised into seventeen Autonomous Communities. It also has two Autonomous Cities, Ceuta and Melilla.
7. What are the symbols of an Autonomous Community?
A coat of arms and a flag. Some Communities also have a hymn.
8. Write T (true) or F (false).
F; T; T; F.
9. Complete the chart.
Galicia: A Corua, A Corua, Lugo, Ourense, Pontevedra; Rioja: Logroo, Rioja; Extremadura: Merida, Caceres and
Badajoz; Cantabria: Santander, Cantabria
10. Write about your Autonomous Community or City.
O. A.
ASSESSMENTs 9 test
1. c, 2. a, 3. b, 4. b, 5. b, 6. c, 7. a, 8. b, 9. a, 10. c
10 LANDSCAPES
1. Look at the map and circle the area of your Autonomous Community or ypur Autonomous City.
O. A.
2. Answer.
Inland landscapes consist of mountains and plains. Coastal landscapes are near the sea. O. A.
3. Describe the relief of your Autonomous Community or Autonomous City.
O. A.
4. What is the name of the highest peak in your Autonomous Community or City? Where is it?
O. A.
5. What is the name of the most important river in your Autonomous Community or City?
O. A.
6. Is this sentence correct? Explain why or why not.
O. A.
7. What things do we need to know to find out the climate of a place?
We need to know typical weather patterns over a long period of time.
8. Describe the temperature and precipitation in your Autonomous Community or City.
O. A.
9. What fauna is characteristic of your Autonomous Community or City?
O. A.
10. Write the name of four plant species found in your Autonomous Community or City.
O. A.
ASSESSMENTs 10 test
1. a, 2. c, 3. c, 4. c, 5. b, 6. c, 7. a, 8. b, 9. b, 10. c
11 POPULATION AND TRADITIONS
1. Write definitions for these words.
municipal register: this is a list of the people who live in a municipality; census: this is a list of the inhabitants of
a municipality, a province or a country.
2. Explain the difference between immigrant and emigrant.
An Immigrant comes to live in a new place, whereas an emigrant leaves his/her place of birth and goes to live
somewhere else.

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3. When does the population of a place increase?
When the number of births and immigrants is greater than the number of deaths and emigrants.
4. Read the sentence and underline the mistake.
Natural; Migratory growth is the difference between the immigrants that arrive and the emigrants that leave a place.
5. Look at the picture. Is the population increasing or decreasing? Explain.
Increasing (3 2 = 1) There is one birth and two immigrants who come to live in the town. There is one death
and one emigrant who leaves town.
6. What is natural growth?
Natural growth is the difference between the number of babies who are born in a place in one year and the
number of people who die.
7. Describe the population in your Autonomous Community or Autonomous City.
O. A.
8. What are traditions? Give some examples.
Traditions are the customs of people in a particular place and include songs, dances, costumes, typical food,
legends, as well as the way of speaking. Some examples are: traditional dances of chotis in Madrid and
sevillanas in Andalusia. Tradition: the recreation of the battles between the Carthaginians and the Romans in
Cartagena, every September.
9. Write the names of these traditions.
A: Traditional building; B: Traditional dish; C: Traditional dance.
10. Complete the chart with an example for each tradition.
O. A.
ASSESSMENTs 11 test
1. a, 2. b, 3. c, 4. b, 5. a, 6. c, 7. c, 8. c, 9. c, 10. b
12 ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
1. Name these jobs. Write the sectors they belong to.
farmer primary; shoemaker secondary; waiter tertiary
2. Write two examples of jobs in this economic sector.
factory worker; T-shirt designer.
3. What economic activities are there in the primary sector in your Autonomous Community or Autonomous City?
O. A.
4. Look at the picture and write: the name of the job, the sector it belongs to, and what the workers do.
Job: bricklayer; Sector: secondary; They build houses.
5. What kind of industries are there in your Autonomous Community or Autonomous City?
O. A.
6. Explain.
O. A.
7. Complete.
Financial; Education; Health.
8. Is tourism important in your Autonomous Community or City? What are the most important tourist areas?
O. A.
9. Name three means of transport in your Autonomous Community or City.
O. A.
10. Complete the chart.
O. A.

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ASSESSMENTs 12 test
1. a, 2. b, 3. b, 4. a, 5. c, 6. c, 7. a, 8. c, 9. c, 10. c
13 POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS
1. What is the difference between general elections and elections in an Autonomous Community?
During general elections, citizens vote for the candidates of a political party. Those who win seats in the Lower
House of Parliament elect the President of the Government of Spain; During Autonomous Community elections,
citizens vote for the members of their Autonomous Community parliament.
2. Is it a right or an obligation? Write the answer for each.
Obligation; Right; Right; Obligation.
3. Write T (true) or F (false).
T; T; F; F.
4. Match.
Statutes An Autonomous Community; Constitution The State
5. Write the name of the institution of the Autonomous Community or City in charge of these functions.
The Statutes of Autonomy; Local council.
6. Read and explain what this sentence means.
All citizens 18 years old and over can choose and elect the candidates they prefer. Voting is confidential.
7. Write three groups which peacefully defend citizens interests.
Political parties; Neighbourhood associations; Trade unions
8. What does the right to equality mean?
The right to equality means that we have the obligation not to discriminate against anybody because of their sex,
race, religion or beliefs.
9. Answer.
The citizens; The Autonomous Community Parliament.
10. Complete the sentences.
political party; election manifesto; candidates; electoral campaign.
ASSESSMENTs 13 test
1. a, 2. b, 3. b, 4. c, 5. b, 6. b, 7. b, 8. a, 9. c, 10. b
14 LIFE THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO
1. Number the transport from the oldest to the most modern.
B: 1; A: 2; C: 3.
2. Tick the true answers. Then, correct the false ones.
T; T; F; F.
Noblemen lived in castles; Romans built aqueducts to carry water to their cities.
3. What buildings did the Romans have for entertainment?
Theatres for performing plays; Amphitheatres for watching gladiator fights; Circuses for watching chariot races;
Bath houses, called thermae, for bathing and relaxing.
4. Complete the chart.
buildings: castles, huts; transport: on foot, on horseback or in horse-drawn carts; historical remains:
Romanesque and Gothic churches.
5. Describe these buildings.
Domus were private houses for rich people. They were large homes with an atrium, or patio, in the centre to let in
light, and a pool to collect rainwater; Insulae were apartment buildings for the poorer people. They had three or
four storeys, and were crowded and uncomfortable.

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6. Describe the different characteristics of Romanesque and Gothic churches.
Romanesque churches had very thick stone walls and round arches. They were built with only a few small
windows, so they were dark inside; Gothic churches had thinner stone walls, vaulted stone roofs and pointed
arches. They were larger and taller than Romanesque churches, and brighter inside because they had many large
windows.
7. Where did most peasants live in Medieval times?
Peasants lived in villages near castles. They lived in simple huts made of wood, straw and mud, with one single
room.
8. Look at the picture and answer.
A castle; On a hill, to keep it safe from attack; The walls and the towers.
9. Circle the object used many thousands of years ago. Explain your choice.
B: The first human beings made clay pots for storing, transporting and cooking food.
10. Match the buildings to their uses.
A place for chariot races: circus; A place for gladiator fights: amphitheatre; A place to worship the gods: temple.
ASSESSMENTs 14 test
1. c, 2. b, 3. b, 4. c, 5. a, 6. a, 7. c, 8. a, 9. b, 10. b
15 LIFE HUNDREDS OF YEARS AGO
1. Write about these inventions.
The printing press is one of the most important inventions of all time. It could make many copies, much faster.
Cheaper books helped more people receive an education; The steamship modernised travel and everyday life.
It was faster and did not depend on wind power to move; The high-speed train moves twice as fast as traditional
trains and is safer and more comfortable.
2. Read and write: 500 years ago, 200 years ago, or nowadays.
Workers lived in poor city neighbourhoods with no sewage system: 200 years ago; Rich people lived in palaces:
500 years ago; People live in tall buildings or in family homes: nowadays.
3. Complete the chart.
buildings: palaces, two-storey houses, simple houses; transport: on foot, on horseback, horse-drawn carriages.
historical monuments: palaces.
4. What did the magnetic compass, the astrolabe and the caravel modernise? Explain.
Navigation at sea.
5. Explain why cities grew rapidly 200 years ago.
Because peasants abandoned villages to go and work in factories, in the cities.
6. What new means of transport were invented 200 years ago?
Steam trains and steamships.
7. Write three inventions from the Industrial Revolution.
Electricity; Telephone; Radio.
8. Look at the house. Then, read the text and circle the correct words.
hundred; cities; two; workshops; bottom; top.
9. Write T (true) or F (false).
F; T; T; F.
The steam engine modernised transport 200 years ago; Satellite television and the Internet were invented less
than 100 years ago.
10. Number the inventions in order from the most ancient to the most modern.
1: C; 2: A; 3: D; 4: B.
ASSESSMENTs 15 test
1. a, 2. b, 3. b, 4. c, 5. c, 6. b, 7. c, 8. c, 9. b, 10. c

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