Dr.Nibras AL-Quraine

The metal-ceramic restoration consists of a metal substructure supporting a
ceramic veneer that is mechanically and chemically bonded to it.
The chemical component of the bond is achieved through firing. Porcelain
powder of varying composition and color are applied and fired to produce
the desired appearance.

Nature of bond between the metal and ceramic:
1-mechanical bond
By interlocking the ceramic with micro-abrasions in the surface of metal
coping, which is produced by finishing the metal with non contaminating
stone or disc and air abrasion.
Air abrasion appears to enhance wettability, provide mechanical
interlocking, and increase the surface area for chemical bonding.
2-Compressive forces ( physical bonding)
This bond is developed by a properly designed and a slightly higher
coefficient of thermal expansion for the metal coping than for porcelain
veneered over it. This will cause porcelain to "draw" toward the metal
coping when the restoration cools after firing.
Thermal contraction of the porcelain will be resisted by the metal and
compressive stresses will be set up in the porcelain, so the porcelain will be
firmly bonded to the metal. It has been reported that by reducing porcelain
ceramic surface defects at the porcelain-metal interface, the strength of
porcelain could be increased and this will possibly place the external surface
of porcelain in a compression.
3-Vander Waal's forces (physical bond ing)
Is an affinity based on a mutual attraction of charged molecules.
Although they contributed to bonding, they are minor forces that are not
significant as was once thought, but these forces were considered significant
in the initiation of the chemical bond.

Metal Preparation The mechanical properties of a metal-ceramic restoration depend largely on the design of the substructure that supports the ceramic veneer: . .The metal-ceramic interface must be at least 1. which can be finished thinner and still withstand distortion – because of their higher fusing ranges. and yield strengths. .Sharp angles or pits on the veneering surface of a metal-ceramic restoration should be avoided because they can contribute to internal stress in the final porcelain. . ( A minimum of 0.3 mm is advocated for the noble metal alloys.2 mm is sufficient for base metal alloys.5 mm from all centric occlusal contacts and must be distinct to facilitate the removal of excess porcelain. 0.4-Chemical bonding Metal and porcelain react chemically in an oxidizing atmosphere at approximately 1000C to bond together. moduli of elasticity. . It is indicated by the formation of an oxide layer on the metal. The alloy must contain at least one component that will be soluble in the fused porcelain without losing it's contact with the basic chemical structure of the metal. .A smooth surface facilitates wetting of the framework by the porcelain slurry.The intended metal-ceramic junction should be as definite (90-degree angle) and as smooth as possible to make finishing easier during all fabrication stages.Convex surfaces and rounded contours should be created so that the porcelain is supported without development of stress concentrations .The metal framework must be sufficiently thick to prevent distortion during firing. It is the ability of the fused porcelain to absorb from the metal that produces a chemical bond between a metal and porcelain.

effectively masking the color of the alloy substrate. When a specific range of oxide particle sizes is used. metal-ceramic veneer restoration are fired in the range of 950 to 1020 C (1750 to 1860 F ).Materials science Dental ceramics are generally classified into three groups according to their maturation or fusing range: - High fusing( 1290 to 1370 C{ 2350 to 2500 F }) Medium-fusing ( 1100 to 1260 C {2000 to 2300 F}) Low-fusing ( 870 to 1070 C{1600 to 1950 F}) Ultra-low fusing porcelain ( less 870 C) In contrast to denture teeth and the original porcelain jacket crowns. Body porcelains are available in a wide selection of shades to match adjacent natural teeth . . 2. It provide some translucency and contains metallic oxides that aid in shade matching. most of incident light is scattered and reflected rather than transmitted through the porcelain.it is responsible for the metal-ceramic bond.it masks the color of the alloy. usually in conjunction with the incisal porcelain. Body porcelain:( dentin layer) Body porcelain is fired onto the opaque layer. Types of Porcelain: Porcelain is built in three layers-Opaque porcelain: This is applied as a first ceramic coat and performs two major functions: 1.there is significant color variation among manufacturers and a dentist should know which system the technician uses. Opacifying oxides are added to the original porcelain blend. which are fired in the medium-and high-fusing ranges.

As a result. The objective of these techniques are to remove as much water as possible resulting in a more arrangement with a high density of particles which minimize the firing shrinkage.Incisal porcelain: Incisal porcelain is usually translucent. whipping or vibrating. brush application. This thermal contraction of porcelain will be resisted by the metal and a compressive stress will be set up in the porcelain and will be firmly bonded to the metal. the perceived color of the restoration is significantly influenced by the color of the underlying body porcelain. . the powder is mixed with water and a binder ( the binder helps to hold the particles together) and applied to the die either by spatulation .

Cu-Pd ) non-precious alloys base metal alloy like NI-Cr. 3-High modulus of elasticity: Alloy should have high elastic modulus and proportional limit so that no plastic deformity could occur under masticatory forces to prevent porcelain fracture. are used for expansion gold content. . 2-Alloys should have coefficient of thermal expansion greater than porcelain: Porcelain influence contracts about 10% and this contraction is prevented by alloy expansion otherwise the porcelain alloy influence could undergo tensile stresses . a base metal thickness may be as thin as 0. Alloys of high percent of gold are not used with porcelain ( gold melt at 700 C approximately. 4-Oxide layer formation: Alloys should be able to produce a suitable oxide layer on it's surface to allow fusion with porcelain during it's firing.Properties of metal alloys used with porcelain restoration: 1-High melting temperature: Melting range of alloy should be higher than the firing temperature of porcelain to avoid slumping ( sagging) of metal during firing and fusion of porcelain to it. Causes of failure of porcelain: 1-In adequate thickness of metal: A Noble metal thickness should be at least 0. These are precious melting range ( 1093 C). They are difficult to burnished and cause discoloration of porcelain.3-0.2 mm.5 mm. Platinum and palladium are added to gold alloy to increase both the melting range and strength of alloy with decreasing the percentage of gold content.Pd. Alloys without gold ( Ag.

5-presence of porosity in ceramics during ceramic application. The desirable thickness of porcelain is 1 mm. leading to voids at porcelain/ metal interface that reduce bond. excessively thick area of porcelain will crack due to inadequate support. 6-in adequate relation between metal and veneer. easy to be cracked or chipped especially when porcelain is thin ( such as at cervical areas) . 7-trauma from para functional occlusion.2-the use of inappropriate alloy/porcelain combination: The melting range of alloy used in coping must be 170-280 C higher than the fusing temperature of [porcelain applied on it. 4-surface irregularities of coping metal will cause incomplete wetting by porcelain slurry. A similar melting range result in distortion or melting of the coping during firing and glazing of porcelain. 2-Marginal imperfactance: Porcelain cannot be burnished. 3-poor frame work design : Sharp edges. Disadvantages of porcelain 1-Brittleness : Porcelain is hard but brittle . has weak tensile strength when it is used without metal.


a collarless metal-ceramic crown should be considered. occlusal contact in porcelain is altered slightly during glazing. Autoglazing: The contoured is raised to it’s fusion temperature and maintained for a time before cooling. However. Consequently. overglazing is not currently in widespread use.esthetic. Sharp angles and edges are rounded slightly during this process. Overglazing: A separate mix of powder and liquid is applied to the surface of a shaped restoration. Collarless crowns have a facial margin of porcelain and lingual and proximal margins of metal. and a vitreous layer or surface glaze is formed. 2. A pyroplastic surface flow occurs. Because most metal-ceramic restorations include low-fusing porcelain. Porcelain labial margins Many patients object to the grayness at the margin associated with metalceramic restorations. and the restoration is subsequently fired. although there are variations among brands. Advantages Collarless crown’s have advantages over the conventional metal-ceramic restoration: 1.Plaque removal is easier when gingival tissues are in contact with vacuum-fired glazed porcelain than with highly polished gold. . If esthetics is of prime importance. The firing procedure is similar to that for autoglazing. The glazing cycle can be performed concurrently with any necessary surface characterization. hiding the margin subgingivally may not be possible.Glazing and surface characterization Metal-ceramic restorations are glazed to create a shiny surface similar to that of natural teeth.

2-more time consuming.it indicated when a conventional metal-ceramic restoration will not create the desired esthetic result. 3-fracture of the unsupported margin is a problem during evaluation or cementation. Indications 1. 1mm wide shoulder cannot be prepared in the area of the ceramic veneer.Disadvantages: 1-difficulties during fabrication. 2.Multiple porcelain margins may be used in one fixed prosthesis without sacrificing marginal adaptation. Contraindications 1. because of careless handling not during function( is rarely a problem) because the labial margin is not subjected to high tensile stresses. limit it’s application.when an extremely smooth. .