Institution of Engineers

,
Dhaka - 1000
May 24, 2015

MECHANICAL DESIGN
PART - 01
Dr. Mohammad Motalab
Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
BUET, Dhaka - 1000

BUET

Department of Mechanical Engineering

1

MACHINE DESIGN
Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design
• Mechanical Engineering Design refers to the decision
making processes which are used by the mechanical
engineers in order to formulate plans for the physical
realization of machines, devices, and systems.
• The systematic and creative application of scientific and
mathematical principles to practical ends such as the
design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and
economical structures, machines, processes, and
systems is called Design.
• The purpose of this course to understand these decision
making processes and for applying them to practical
situations.

BUET

Department of Mechanical Engineering

2

MACHINE DESIGN
Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design (Contd.)
• The ‘design’ is to formulate a plan for the satisfaction of
human need.
• An example illustrating need for design –
Failure of a microprocessor component due to the
thermal cycling operation. Example of using underfill
material in microprocessor in order to minimize solder
strains.
• Invention of GPS during world war-II.

BUET
Department of Mechanical Engineering

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• The first studies in mechanical engineering design are in mechanical design. which is the contents of the courses Machine Design-I and Machine Design-II. products. devices. and instruments. structures. such as the thermal and fluid sciences.MACHINE DESIGN Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design (Contd. too. BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 4 . • Mechanical Engineering Design includes all disciplines of mechanical engineering.) • Mechanical Design means the design of things and systems of a mechanical nature – machines.

materials. Some typical design considerations are strength. size and shape. etc. weight.MACHINE DESIGN Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design (Contd. or processes intended to achieve uniformity. mechanical and thermal properties. efficiency. and specified quality. Standards Used • A standard is a set of specification of parts. life of the parts.) Design Consideration • The characteristics that influence the design of the machine or the entire system are referred as the design consideration. BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 5 . reliability.

Example: Different strength of solder material for different aging. Su is ultimate strength and Sy is yield strength. ASTM. • Strength is usually denoted as the S. Strength • Strength is a property of a material or mechanical element.) • Better control of inventory of tooling. rolling. It depends upon the choice.). testing temperatures. etc. BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 6 . cold forming etc. • ASME. the treatment of the material (forging.MACHINE DESIGN Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design (Contd. AISC. Example of a stressstrain curve of solder material. AISI. and the processing of the material. BSI.

0. for a member in tension.MACHINE DESIGN Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design (Contd. • Allowable Stress refers to the reduced value of strength that is used in design to determine the geometrical dimensions of parts in mechanical systems. according to AISC.45 . 1 etc. The strength reduction is based on the specified standards.) Stress • Normal stress is denoted as  and shear stress is denoted as . For example. • Stress components: x .

0.60 BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 7 .

MACHINE DESIGN Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design (Contd.) • The dimensions of Stress components are selected such as:  .

danger to life or property. BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 8 . load effect. size effect (example of standard deviation). accidental load. is defined by the relation: • Material internal flaw. sometimes called simply design factor. computed stress. or n. environmental concern (corrosive agent). price class etc. Factor of Safety • A design factor of safety nd. for complicated part stress can’t be accurately determined.

MACHINE DESIGN Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design (Contd.)       .

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    % % • Factor of safety for brittle material   &.

  / 1 BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 9 ."     )*"  +"    Margin of safety. .'"((    )*"  +"     • Factor of safety for ductile material .

Reverse. gradual (mild shock) 6 3 7-8 10 - Repeated.5-2 5-6 7 9 Repeated Load. Gradual (mild shock) 8 4 10-12 15 12 Shock 10-15 5-7 15-20 20 15 BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 10 . one direction.MACHINE DESIGN Factor of Safety for Different Load Kind of Load Ductile Material Cast Iron (Steel) Timber Leather Based on Su Based on Sy Based on ultimate strength Dead Load 3-4 1.

MACHINE DESIGN Stress Analysis Pure Tension/ Simple Tension Characteristics of Simple Tension • Bar is straight and made of homogeneous material • Line of action of the force coincides with the center (axis) of the bar. • The bar that fulfills these conditions is said to be in simple tension/ BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 11 . • The section is taken much away from any discontinuity or abrupt change in the geometry.

This is called ‘Engineering Stress’. BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 12 .MACHINE DESIGN Stress Analysis Engineering Stress/ Nominal Stress % • The value   may only be the average stress at a # section.

MACHINE DESIGN Stress Analysis Pure Shear/ Simple Shear  % # %  012 3 • Normal Strain and Shear Strain BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 13 .

MACHINE DESIGN Stress Analysis Isotropic Stress • The stress across any imaginary internal surface turns out to be equal in magnitude and always directed perpendicularly to the surface. BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 14 .

ultimate strength. • Modulus of elasticity. BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 15 .MACHINE DESIGN Stress Analysis Stress-Strain Diagram • Proportional limit. yield stress.

MACHINE DESIGN Three Dimensional Stress State at a Point 1st subscript in a stress notation Identifies the axis BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 2nd subscript identifies the Direction of the stress component 16 .

MACHINE DESIGN Three Dimensional Stress State at a Point BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 17 .

MACHINE DESIGN Stress-Strain Relation BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 567896: .8<:8=7>? 4  / @A>6: B8<:8=7>? 18 .

MACHINE DESIGN Stress-Strain Relation BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 19 .

MACHINE DESIGN Stress-Strain Relation BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 20 .

Design of Knuckle joint BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 21 .

etc BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering . valve rods.Design of Knuckle joint Two or more rods subjected to tensile and compressive forces are fastened together Their axes are not in alignments but meet in a point The joint allows a small angular moment of one rod relative to another It can be easily connected and disconnected Applications: Elevator chains.

D . E C  ∗  4 BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 23 .

C  B / .1 G ∗  BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 24 .

1 @ ∗  BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 25 .C  B / .

C  2 B / .1 @ ∗  BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 26 .

1 @ ∗  BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 27 .C I 2 2 J  C  .1 G ∗  C  2 .

Fatigue Failure BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 28 .

Endurance Strength BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 29 .

Endurance Strength Aluminum Alloy BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 30 .

Endurance Strength BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 31 .

Endurance Strength Surface Effects BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 32 .

Endurance Strength Size Effects BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 33 .

Endurance Strength Load Effects BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 34 .

Endurance Strength Temperature Effects BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 35 .

Endurance Strength Reliability Effects BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 36 .

Endurance Strength Stress Concentration Effects BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 37 .

Fluctuating Load BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 38 .

Design for Fatigue Loading

BUET
Department of Mechanical Engineering

39

Design for Fatigue Loading

BUET
Department of Mechanical Engineering

40

Design of Shaft

BUET
Department of Mechanical Engineering

41

Design of Shaft BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 42 .

Design of Shaft BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 43 .

Design of Shaft BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 44 .

Design of Shaft BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 45 .

Design of Shaft BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 46 .

Design of Shaft Torque Calculation BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 47 .

Design of Shaft BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 48 .

Design of Shaft BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 49 .

Design of Shaft (Combined Load) Bending Stress Torsional Stress BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 50 .

Design of Shaft (Combined Load) BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 51 .

Design of Shaft (Combined Load) ASME Design Formula for Fully Reversed Bending and Steady Torsion For Bending. Axial. and Torsional Load: DE-ASME BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 52 .

Design of Shaft Torsional Rigidity Lateral Rigidity BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 53 .

Design of Shaft BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 54 .

Limits and Fits Related Terms BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 55 .

BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 56 .

BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 57 .

BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 58 .

Stress Concentration BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 59 .

Stress Concentration Reducing the Stress Concentration Factor BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 60 .

Stress Concentration Determining Stress Concentration Factor BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 61 .

Stress Intensity Factor BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 62 .

Stress Intensity Factor Determining Stress Intensity Factor BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 63 .

Stress Intensity Factor Fracture Toughness BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 64 .

Column BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 65 .Compression Members .

Critical Load of Column  Euler formula  Parabolic Expression BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 66 .

Critical Load of Column  Euler formula  Parabolic Expression BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 67 .

Critical Load of Column Effects of End Conditions BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 68 .

Critical Load of Column BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 69 .

Eccentric Column Secant Formula for Eccentric Column BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 70 .

Eccentric Column BUET Department of Mechanical Engineering 71 .