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Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

UNIT I
ONE DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

10

Energy, Momentum, continuity and state equations, velocity of


sound, adiabatic steady state flow equations, Flow through convergentdivergent passage, Performance under various back pressures.

1. Define compressibility.

(May/June 2013)

Answer: Compressibility of a fluid is, basically, a measure of the change in


density that will be produced in the fluid by a specified change in pressure.
Also, Compressibility is the fractional change in volume of the fluid element
per unit change in pressure.
By definition, compressibility can be written as:

Where
volume;

is the specific volume

is the change in pressure.

2. What is isentropic compressibility?

is the change in specific

(Nov/Dec 2009)

Answer: If no heat is added to the fluid element or taken away from the
fluid element and if friction is ignored, compression of the fluid element takes
place isentropically and the isentropic compressibility can be written as:
=

3. What do you mean by over expanded nozzle and what is their effect?
(May/June 2013)
Answer: When a flow takes place inside the convergent-divergent nozzle
the flow attains the pressure at the exit of the nozzle. The nozzle is said to be
overexpanded , when the pressure at the nozzle exit (Pe) is less than the
backpressure (atmospheric pressure) i.e

<

. Decrease in nozzle exit

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

pressure beyond this over expanded condition, decreases the strength of


oblique shock and hence the amount of pressure rise.

4. What are the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for
compressible gas flows?
Answer:

(Nov/ Dec 2012)

Continuity equation (Mass conservation):

Momentum equation:

Energy equation:

5. State the phenomenon of choking in a nozzle.

(May/June 2013, 2009)

Answer: When the back pressure at the exit of the convergent divergent
nozzle is at a value of Pe = 0.528 P0, The Mach number reaches the maximum
value of 1 at the throat.

Further reduction of the back pressure cannot

increase the value of Mach number beyond 1 at the throat. Consequently, the
mass flow rate remains constant at the throat. This situation when the flow
2

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

goes sonic at the throat and the mass flow remains constant no matter how the
back pressure is reduced is called choked flow. This process is called
choking.

6. Differentiate perfect gas from real gases.

(Nov/ Dec 2010)

Answer: A gas is a collection of molecules which are in random motion. Due


to the electronic structure of the particles, a force field pervades the space
around them. The force field due to one molecule reaches out and interacts
with the force field due to another molecule. These forces take the form of
weak attractive force at large distances. At temperatures and pressures
characteristic of many compressible flows, the molecules are spaced widely
apart. Hence, in most engineering applications, these intermolecular forces
can be neglected. They are called as perfect gases.
=

or

However, at very cold temperatures and high pressures, the molecules are
more closely packed. Here, the effect of intermolecular forces become
important and the above equation is no longer valid. The gases in which these
intermolecular forces are important and therefore cannot be neglected are
called as real gases.

7. Why do you need a converging diverging nozzle to accelerate the flow from
subsonic to supersonic speed?

(Nov/ Dec 2010), (May/June 2009)

Answer: From the area-velocity relation,

=(

1)

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

For subsonic flow, . 0

< 1 the area-velocity relation shows

than an increase in velocity is obtained when there is a decrease in area and a


decrease in velocity is obtained with an increase in area.

For sonic flow, M = 1, the area-velocity shows that the area required
for attaining sonic flow should be a minimum.
For Supersonic flow, M > 1, the area velocity relation shows that for
an increase in velocity an increase in area is required and vice versa.
Hence, from the above results, in order to expand a flow from a stagnation
condition to supersonic speeds, we first need to accelerate the subsonic flow
by passing through a convergent duct, achieving a sonic flow at the minimum
area of the convergent duct, called as the throat. Further, to accelerate the
sonic flow to supersonic speeds, we need a divergent duct since for a
supersonic flow; an increase in area gives an increase in velocity.
8. Distinguish between thermally perfect gas and calorically perfect gas.
(Nov/Dec 2009)
Answer: A gas is said to be thermally perfect when its internal energy (u)
= ( ), = ( ).

and enthalpy are functions of temperature alone i.e

And also Cp and Cv are functions of temperature, their difference is a constant


( )

with reference to temperature. i.e.


( )

( ). Also

A gas is said to be calorically perfect when both Cp and Cv are


constants and are independent of temperature, i.e
=

( );

( );

9. What do you mean by perfect gas?

( )

(Nov/ Dec 2008)

Answer:
i.

A perfect gas must be both thermally and calorically perfect.

ii.

A perfect gas must satisfy both thermal equation of state,


and caloric equations of state,

iii.

A calorically perfect gas must be thermally perfect and a thermally


perfect gas need not be calorically perfect.

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

10. Write internal energy equation for one dimensional high speed flow in
general partial differential form.

(April/May 2008)

Answer: The internal energy equation for 1dimensional high speed flow can
be written as:

where e is the internal energy in the flow.


11. What are the properties of flow medium that determine the velocity of sound
wave in the medium?

(April/May 2008)

Answer: The equation for the velocity of sound can be written as

Where a is the speed of sound;

is a specific heat constant; R= specific gas

constant; T=static temperature


Hence, the speed of sound in a calorically perfect gas is a function of
temperature only. For a calorically perfect gas the ratio of and specific gas
R does not change with temperature.
12. State the importance of Rayleigh supersonic pitot formula. (Nov/Dec 2009,
2013) (or)
Why Rayleigh correction formula is required for pitot-static tube in
supersonic flows?

(May/June 2009)

Answer:

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

When the pitot tube is inserted into a supersonic flow, a shock wave
is formed ahead of the Pitot tube as shown in fig. The mouth of the Pitot tube
is a stagnation region. Hence, a streamline moving along line cde is brought
to rest at point e. However, due to the presence of the shock wave, the
streamline cde passes the normal portion of the shock wave. As a result, the
pressure at point e is not the total pressure of the freestream, but the total
pressure behind a normal shock wave, P02. Hence, Rayleigh Pitot tube
formula is necessary for measurement of velocity in a supersonic flow.
13. Write down the compressible Bernoullis equation for isentropic flows? (Nov/
Dec 2008)
Answer: The energy equation for an adiabatic process is given by
+

= =

--------------------- (1)

and when the gas is perfect, it becomes


+

---------------- (2)

Equation (2), when combined with the state equation, it becomes


+

------------------------- (3)

The equation (3) is the form of the energy equation commonly used in gas
dynamics. And this is popularly known as compressible Bernoullis equation
for isentropic flows.
14. What is under-expanding nozzle flow?
Answer: When the back pressure is reduced further below the pressure at
which supersonic isentropic flow takes place throughout the nozzle, the flow
inside the nozzle is said to be an under-expanded nozzle flow since the exit
pressure is higher than the back pressure and hence, the flow is capable of
additional expansion after leaving the nozzle. This expansion takes place
across expansion shock waves attached to the exit as shown in figure.

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

15. Explain Mach number spectrum.


Answer: Flow can be classified in terms of Mach number as:

Subsonic flow M < 1 at every point in the flow, streamlines are smooth,
disturbances can propagate upstream.

Transonic flow 0.8 < M < 1.2 Flow has pockets of supersonic flow in
certain regions of flow terminated by a shock wave. Both subsonic &
supersonic flow regimes exist in transonic flow.

Supersonic flow M > 1 at every point in the flow. Characterized by the


presence of shock waves across which flow properties change
discontinuously

Hypersonic flow Strength of the shock wave is higher, it moves closer


to the body leading to higher temperatures in between the shock and the
body. When M is sufficiently large, such that viscous effects and
chemically reacting effects begin to dominate the flow Hypersonic flow.

16. What is the physical meaning of Mach number?


Answer: Consider a fluid element moving along a streamline. The kinetic
and internal energies per unit mass are V2/2 and e respectively. Their ratio is:

The square of the Mach number is the ratio of kinetic energy to


internal energy of a gas flow. Mach number is a measure of the directed

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

motion of the gas compared with the random thermal motion of the
molecules.

PART-B
1. An ideal gas flows through a duct under isentropic conditions. Show that the
area has to increase for increase in velocity when the local mach number is
greater than one (M>1)

(May/June 2013)

(or)
Derive the area-mach number relation and explain why convergent-divergent
nozzle is needed for supersonic flow.

(May/June 2013)

Answer: Consider the differential mass conservation equation

Expanding this equation we get,

dividing both the sides by


+

, we get
= 0 (1)

To obtain the relation between velocity and area we need to replace the
term

from the above equation. We know differential form or momentum

equation as,

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Using

the

above

Many

conclusions

equation,

can

be

Eq.

(1)

drawn

can

from

be

this

written

as,

equation.

1. For positive dA, du will be positive for M>1. Hence for supersonic flows,
velocity of the flow increases with increase in area or divergent portion acts
as the nozzle.
Similarly, for convergent portion acts as the diffuser for supersonic flows.
2. For negative dA, du will be positive for M<1. Hence for subsonic flows,
velocity of the flow increases with decrease in area or convergent portion acts
as the nozzle.
Similarly, for divergent portion acts as the diffuser for supersonic flows.
3. We can always achieve supersonic flow using a convergent-divergent duct
having subsonic flow at the entry. In such a case, for M=1, we get dA=0,
means Mach one will be achieved at the minimum cross section of the duct.
Therefore the minimum cross-section where sonic conditions are achieved in
the convergent divergent duct, is called as throat.
9

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

(or)
Answer: Refer Page No: 626 to 629 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics,
John D Anderson, Fourth edition.

2. Derive the relation relating area ratio and Mach number for an isentropic flow
through a varying duct.
Answer: Let us consider the varying area duct as shown in Fig.1. Areas at
different stations are mentioned in the same figure. The minimum crosssectional area of this duct is called as throat if local Mach number of the same
cross-section is 1. We can find out the area of throat under this constraint for
known inlet or outlet area of the duct. We know that mass flow rate at the
throat is,

Fig. 1 Flow through convergent divergent duct.

Where,

are geometric and flow properties at the throat.

For the steady flow, mass flow rate at any cross-section having
geometric and flow properties as , A, u will be equal to the mass flow rate of
the throat.

10

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Hence,

But we know that

Hence

the

area

relation

can

be

written

as,

---------------------(1)

Hence, If we know Mach number M at any cross section and


corresponding area A then we can calculate the area of the throat for the duct.
From this expression it is also clear that the Mach number at any crosssection upstream or downstream of the throat is not dependant on the nature
of variation of cross-sectional area of the duct in the stream wise direction.
3. Derive a relation for compressibility correction to dynamic pressure.
(May/June 2013)
Answer: Refer page no: 82 to 83 - E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third
edition

11

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

4. Derive compressible Bernoullis equation. (May/June 2013)


Answer: Refer page no:47 to 49 - E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third
edition

5. Air in a high-pressure tank P0 is suddenly accelerated through a nozzle to


maximum possible velocity. What will be the error in the maximum velocity
calculated by assuming this flow as incompressible? (May/June 2013)
Answer: Refer class notes

6. A supersonic wind tunnel is to de designed for a test section Mach number of


M=3 and a test section size of 0.2m x 0.2 m in cross section. If the stagnation
pressure is 20 bar and the stagnation temperature is 310K, calculate the mass
flow rate and the area of the first throat. (May/June 2013)
Answer: Refer class notes
7. Air Flows through a convergent nozzle under a stagnation pressure of 3 bar
and a stagnation temperature of 400 K. The nozzle has an exit area of 0.1m.
Find the mass flow rate when the exit pressure is 100kPa. (May/June 2013)
Answer: Refer class notes
8. Analyse the performance characteristics of a convergent-divergent nozzle for
different inlet and outlet conditions. (Nov/Dec 2012)
Answer: Refer class notes
9. Derive the one dimensional adiabatic steady state energy equation and deduce
the isentropic relations for a perfect gas.

(Nov/Dec 2010)

(or)
Derive all the isentropic relations for a one dimensional compressible gas
flows.

12

(Nov/Dec 2012)

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Answer: Flow is said to be stagnant when its velocity is zero. Here we are
interested to predict the flow properties at the stagnation conditions. Let's
imagine that a fluid flow is decelerated from its exhisting state isentropically
to zero velocity which is termed as the stagnation condition as shown in Fig.
below. All the properties of the flow at stagnation condition are called as
stagnation properties. Similarly if we decelerate the supersonic flow or
accelerate the subsonic flow isentropically so that the fluid particles reach
sonic velocity, then flow properties are called as star properties. Both the
stagnation properties and star properties are the reference properties of the
flow and are constant in the fluid domain if the flow is isentropic. Let's apply
the 1D energy conservation principle to derive the relation initially between
stagnation and static properties.

Fig. Isentropic stagnation of a moving fluid particle


Consider that the fluid particle is isentropically brought to zero as shown
in above figure. We know that 1D form of energy conversion equation is

Here subscript 1 stands for initial state of the fluid and subscript 2 stands for
final decelerated state of fluid. Since, V2=0, lets represent T2=T0 is above
equation. Then,

13

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

The above equation is obtained by dividing the equation by

Here subsrcipt 0 represents the stagnation condition. Its evident


from this equation that the stagnation temperature to static temperature
ratio is dependent on Mach number & specific heat ratio. The Mach
number in this expression is the Mach number of the flow before
commencement of isentropic deceleration.
Since the process is isentropic and we already know the isentropic
relations, we can find out stagnation pressure to static pressure relation
and the same for density also.

From the expression for stagnation pressure to static pressure, it can be


seen that the stagnation pressure and static pressure are almost equal if Mach
number is zero. However for the incompressible flows with Mach number
less than 0.3, it can be evaluated that the difference between static pressure
14

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

and stagnation pressure is equal to the dynamic pressure. But this isn't the
case for compressible flows.
(or)
Answer: Refer Pages 527 to 529 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D
Anderson, Fourth edition. / Refer notes

10. Air flow is discharged to atmosphere at sea level through a sonic nozzle. If
the air storage at the reservoir is 40 x 105 N/m2, determine the pressure,
temperature and density at the exit of the nozzle. Assume that the reservoir air
is at sea level temperature.

(Nov/Dec 2010)

Answer: Refer class notes


11. Explain why a converging diverging configuration is required for the
acceleration of flow from

subsonic

to supersonic conditions (8)

(2007, 2012)
Answer: From the area-velocity relation,
=(

For subsonic flow, . 0

1)

< 1 the area-velocity relation shows

than an increase in velocity is obtained when there is a decrease in area and a


decrease in velocity is obtained with an increase in area.

For sonic flow, M = 1, the area-velocity shows that the area required
for attaining sonic flow should be a minimum.
For Supersonic flow, M > 1, the area velocity relation shows that for
an increase in velocity an increase in area is required and vice versa.
Hence, from the above results, in order to expand a flow from a stagnation
condition to supersonic speeds, we first need to accelerate the subsonic flow
by passing through a convergent duct, achieving a sonic flow at the minimum
area of the convergent duct, called as the throat. Further, to accelerate the
sonic flow to supersonic speeds, we need a divergent duct since for a
supersonic flow; an increase in area gives an increase in velocity.

15

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

(or)
Answer: Refer Page No: 626 to 628 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics,
John D Anderson, Fourth edition / Refer notes
12. Explain what is choking in a C-D nozzle and show that the expression for
choked mass flow rate for an isentropic flow of duct through a duct is
=

(8)

(2008, 2010, and 2012)

(or)

Air flows through a duct under steady isentropic flow conditions. Derive an
expression for the mass flow rate in terms of stagnation pressure and
temperature and local Mach number.

(May/June 2013)

Answer: We have seen in Fig. below that mass flow rate of the nozzle remains
unaltered after flow gets chocked. This chocked mass flow rate can be calculated
as,

16

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

But we know that,

Hence

However,

Hence

............................. (1)
From this expression it is clear that for a convergent divergent nozzle, for
given throat area, choked mass flow rate remains constant for the fixed
reservoir (P0 and T0) conditions. Therefore choked mass flow rate can be
increased by increasing the reservoir pressure P0 or decreasing reservoir
temperature T0.
17

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

If we substitute for air =1.4, we get =

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

(or)

Answer: Refer class notes

13. Sketch the pressure variation along the centreline of a converging diverging
nozzle for optimum expansion. What is the influence of back pressure on this
variation?

(2009)

For optimum expansion, the pressure at the exit of the nozzle equals the back
pressure, say Pb6. This is shown in Figure 1.

18

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Figure 2: Pressure variation in C-D nozzle with varying back pressures

For values of back pressure, Pb = Pb3 = 0.528 P0, the Mach number
reaches a value of 1 at the throat. The flow is completely subsonic
throughout the nozzle, except at the throat where a Mach number of 1 is
obtained. For Back pressure greater than 0.528 P0, the flow is entirely
subsonic throughout the nozzle with a maximum velocity attained at the
throat. Therefore, for subsonic flow, n number of isentropic solutions
are possible throughout the nozzle.

When the back pressure is decreased above 0.528 P0, say Pb4, a normal
shock wave forms inside the nozzle. This normal shock wave moves
towards the exit of the nozzle when back pressure is further reduced to
some value of back pressure, say Pb5. The location of the normal shock
wave is governed by the condition that the pressure rise across the normal
shock wave plus the pressure rise due to the expansion of subsonic flow
behind the shock wave through the divergent portion of the duct be just

19

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

right enough to equal the the exit pressure at the nozzle to the back
pressure.

When the back pressure is in between Pb5 and Pb6, oblique shock waves
are formed since the exit pressure has expanded below the back pressure
and it needs to be compressed across an oblique shock wave so as to
increase the exit pressure such that it matches with the back pressure.
When this situation exists inside the nozzle, it is known as
overexpanded.

When the back pressure is below Pb6, say Pb7, the exit pressure is higher
than the back pressure. Hence, the exit pressure is capable of additional
expansion in order to match the exit pressure to the back pressure. This
takes place through expansion waves. The higher pressure at the exit of
the nozzle is therefore expanded through the expansion waves to a lower
pressure.

14. Obtain an expression for the speed of sound and show that the speed of sound
is proportional o the square root of the absolute temperature of air. (10)
(2012, 2009)
Answer: Consider an acoustic wave moving in a stationary fluid with speed
a. Properties of fluid change due in the presence of the acoustic wave. These
property variations can be predicted using 1D conservation equations. For
simplicity we can assume the acoustic wave to be stationary and the fluid to
be passing across the wave with velocity a. Consider the control volume
shown in Fig. For understanding, central hatched portion can be exaggerated
as the acoustic wave. Let P, and a be the pressure, density and velocity
ahead the acoustic wave respectively. Acoustic wave being a small amplitude
disturbance, induces small change properties while fluid passing across it.
Hence the properties behind the acoustic wave are P+dP, in +d and a+da
pressure, density and velocity respectively. Application of mass conservation
and momentum conservation equations between inlet and exit stations of
control volume, we get,

20

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Here u=a ( velocity of the wave)

a=(+ d)(a + da)----- mass conservation equation


P + a2 = (P + dP)+( + d)(a + da)2 ----- momentum conservation equation
From mass equation a = a + da + ad + dad
We will neglect dad since both are small quantities. Hence their product will be
even smaller.
Therefore da + ad = 0 and

From momentum equations we get,


p + a2 = (p + dp)+( + d)(a2 + 2ada + da2)
neglecting da2
p + a2 = (p + dp)+( + d)(a2 + 2ada)
p + a2 = (p + dp)+(a2 + 2ada + a2d + 2adad)
neglecting 2adads,
p + a2 = (p + dp)+(a2 + 2ada + a2d)
0 = dp + 2ada + a2d

Incorporating Eq. (5.4) in above equation, we get,

21

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

5.5

This is the general formula for acoustic speed or speed of sound.


We can express the same in terms of bulk modulus or compressibility using the
definition of the compressibility ().

Now this can be isothermal or adiabatic compressibility. However,


changes in properties across sound wave are small and we have also not
considered any dissipative effect like viscous effects, therefore we can treat the
compressibility as the isentropic one. This proves that acoustic wave is isentropic
(adiabatic reversible) in nature. Both the formulas derived for acoustic speed are
valid for any state of matter. But if we consider gas then we can further simplify
the expression as below.

Since the flow is adiabatic

Therefore,
22

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

(or)
Answer: Pages 522 to 525 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D
Anderson, Fourth edition. / Refer notes.
15. Air flows isentropically through a convergent divergent nozzle of inlet area
12 cm2 at a rate of 0.7 Kg / s. The conditions at the inlet and exit of the nozzle
are 8 Kg / m3 and 400 K and 4 Kg / m3 and 300 K respectively. Find the
cross sectional area, pressure and Mach number at the nozzle exit (10) (2008)
Answer: Refer scan copy notes
16. Air at 300K and 105 N / m2 enters a diffuser with a velocity of 4 m / s. The
diffuser is to be designed to reduce the velocity of the air to 60 m/s. The mass
flow rate through the diffuser is 13.6 Kg/s. Assuming the flow to be
isentropic, determine the (1) inlet diameter, (2) outlet diameter, (3) Rise in
static temperature (8)

(2008)

Answer: Refer class notes


17. A storage chamber of a compressor is maintained at 1.8 atmospheres
absolute and 20 Deg Centigrade. If the surrounding pressure is 1 atmosphere,
calculate the velocity with which air flow takes place from the chamber to
outside through a unit area hole. Also, calculate the mass flow per unit area.
Assume air as a perfect gas. (8)

(2010)

Answer: Refer scan copy notes


18. A weak pressure wave travels through a tube into air at 1 atm and 32o C. If
the pressure rise across the wave is 0.04 kPa, determine the velocity of air
behind the wave

(2008)

Answer: Refer class notes

23

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

UNIT II
NORMAL, OBLIQUE SHOCKS

12

Prandtl equation and Rankine Hugonoit relation, Normal


shock equations, Pitot static tube, corrections for subsonic and supersonic
flows, Oblique shocks and corresponding equations,

Hodograph

and

pressure turning angle, shock polar, flow past wedges and concave
corners, strong, weak and detached shocks.

1. Distinguish between weak shocks and strong shocks?

(Nov/ Dec 2012)

Answer: Strong shock waves correspond to a greater wave angle, whereas


weaker shock waves correspond to a weaker wave angle,
From oblique shock solution,

When increases,

increases and correspondingly from the

equation below, the pressure ratio across the shock wave increases.

Since, strength of a shock wave is the measure of the pressure ratio;


increase in pressure ratio corresponds to a stronger shock. For lesser wave
angle, , a decrease in pressure ratio implies a weaker shock.

2. What is meant by zone of silence and zone of action in supersonic flow?


(May/June 2013)
Answer:

24

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

For a supersonic flow, a line drawn tangent to the family of circles


(denoted by sound waves) is the Mach wave and the corresponding angle the
Mach line makes with the direction of motion of the beeper is the Mach angle.
The disturbances are felt only only within this disturbance envelope / Mach line.
This is the zone of action. Outside this Mach line is the Zone of silence since no
disturbance is felt in this region due to the supersonic motion of the beeper.

3. Why can a normal shock take place only in supersonic flow? (May/June
2013)
Answer:

Consider a cylinder placed in a flow as shown in fig. We know from


the kinetic theory that the flow consists of a large number of fluid molecules
in unit volume and the transport of mass, momentum and energy takes place
through the motion of these molecules. Also the molecules carry the signals
about the presence of the cylinder around the flow field at a speed equal to the
speed of sound. When the incoming stream is subsonic,

<

and the

molecules far upstream of the cylinder get the information about the presence
of the body through the signals which travels with speed

and therefore the

molecules orient themselves in order to flow around the cylinder.


But when the incoming stream is supersonic, the molecules travel
faster than signals and there is no possibility that they will be informed of the
presence of the body, before they reach the cylinder. Also the reflected
signals from the face of the cylinder tend to coalesce a short distance ahead of
the body. Their coalescence forms a thin compression front called shock
25

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

wave as shown in fig. This is the reason why a normal shock is formed only
in supersonic flow.
4. How are the normal shock relations and oblique shock relations connected?
(Nov/Dec 2012)
Answer:
=

;
=

sin( )

Where subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the conditions ahead of and behind the
oblique shock; is the shock angle and is the flow defelection angle.

5. What is the importance of Hugoniot relation?

(May/June 2013,2008)

Answer:
i.

Hugoniot relation relates only thermodynamic quantities across the


shock.

ii.

Also we have made no assumptions about the gas while deriving the
relation, so it is the general relation that holds for a perfect gas,
chemically reacting gas, real gas, etc.

iii.

In addition, from Hugoniot equation , the change in internal energy


equals the mean pressure across the shock times the change in specific
volume.

6. Why Mach number behind a normal shock cannot be supersonic? Obtain the
limiting value of it.
Answer: From this relation,

(May/June 2013)

, it implies that the velocity changes

across a normal shock must be from supersonic to subsonic or vice versa. But
later it was shown that only the changes takes place only from supersonic to
subsonic. Hence the Mach number behind the normal shock is always
subsonic.
=
26

1+

1
2
1

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From the above equation, it shows that or a perfect gas, the Mach
number behind the shock is a function of only the mach number ahead of
the shock.
=1

wave.

= 1 it means weak normal shock wave, i.e Mach

>1

< 1 it means that Mach number behind the normal

shock is subsonic.

= 1.4;

= 0.378

7. What is the relationship between mach angle and Mach number? (Nov/Dec
2012)
Answer:

For a supersonic flow, the angle between the Mach line and the
direction of motion of the body (flow direction) is called the Mach angle ,
given by
1

= sin

Where M is free stream Mach number.

8. Define characteristic Mach number and give its maximum value for air.
(Nov/Dec 2010, 2009, 2008)
Answer: If the velocity of a fluid element is speeded up / slowed down to
sonic velocity adiabatically, the temperature it would have at such condition
is T*. The corresponding value of speed of sound is a* and the corresponding
value of Mach number is the Characteristic Mach number, M*.

27

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<1

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

<1

=1

=1

>1

>1

For air, M* = 2.45, when M

+1
1

9. Define shock strength and express it in terms of Mach number for a normal
shock.

(Nov/Dec 2012)

(or)
How is the strength of a shock wave determined in a supersonic flow?
(April/May 2008)
Answer: Since there is a sudden rise in static pressure across the shock
wave, this rise in static pressure can be considered as a factor that can
represent the strength of a shock. Greater this static pressure rise, stronger the
shock and vice versa.
The strength of the shock, i.e., the static pressure rise across the normal shock
can be written as:

10. What is meant by Mach reflection?

2 + ( 1)
( + 1)
(Nov/Dec 2010, 2008)

Answer:

If

>

for M2, a regular reflection is not possible. Instead,

a normal shock is formed at the upper wall to allow the streamlines to


continue parallel to the wall. Away from the wall, this normal shock transits
28

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into a curved shock which intersects the incident shock with a curved
reflected shock propagating downstream. This shock pattern is labelled as
Mach Reflection.

11. What is a Mach wave?

(Nov/Dec 2008)

Answer: The lines at which the pressure difference is concentrated and


which generate the cones are called Mach waves or Mach lines. Therefore
Mach waves may be defined as weak pressure waves across which there is
only an infinitesimal change in flow properties.
12. What are oblique shock waves? How are they formed? Illustrate an oblique
shock wave over a concave corner / Rules for reflection of shock waves.
Answer: The shock waves which are at an angle or oblique to the incoming
freestream flow are known as oblique shock waves. Oblique shock waves are
formed when the supersonic flow is turned into itself.

Consider the figure above. At point A, the surface is deflected


upwards through an angle. Consequently, the flow streamlines are deflected
29

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upwards towards the main bulk of the flow above the surface. This change in
flow direction takes place across an oblique shock wave. All the flow
streamlines experience the same deflection angle at the shock. Hence, the
flow downstream of the shock also follows the direction of the wall
downstream of point A. Across the shock wave, the Mach number decreases,
and the pressure, temperature and density increases.
13. With a suitable sketch illustrate the propagation of waves from a sound
source moving at a speed of sound.

(2)

Answer:

14. What are expansion waves? How are they formed? Or what are the rules for
reflection of expansion waves
Answer: When a flow with supersonic mach number i.e. M>1 is turned
from itself, an expansion wave is formed. The surface is deflected downwards
through an angle .

30

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The flow streamlines are deflected downwards away from the main
bulk of flow above the surface. This change in flow direction takes place
across an expansion wave, centred at point A. Away from the surface, the
expansion wave fans out. The flow streamlines are smoothly curved through
the expansion fan until they are all parallel to the wall behind point A. All
flow properties through an expansion wave change smoothly and
continuously. Across an expansion wave, the Mach number increases, the
pressure, temperature and density increases.
15. Define normal shocks and oblique shocks.
Answer: If the shock wave is normal / perpendicular to the upstream
incoming flow, it is known as a normal shock wave. Normal shock waves
occur inside nozzles and also in the normal part of the bow shock wave.

A shock wave that is oblique or formed at an angle to the flow is


known as an oblique shock wave.

31

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16. Why Prandtls relation for normal shock cannot be used for subsonic flows?
Answer: From Prandtls relation,

which shows that

This states that the flow ahead of a normal shock wave is


supersonic. Hence, Prandtls relation cannot be applied for a subsonic
flow.
17. What is a hodograph?
Answer: A hodograph is a curve forming the locus of the tips of the
velocity vectors in the plane behind a shock. In addition to an analytical
solution of the problem of determining the flow parameters behind an oblique
shock, the flow properties behind a oblique shock can be determined by using
graphical method based on the concept of a hodograph.
18. Bring out the difference between flow over a wedge and cone
Answer:
S.NO
1.
2.
3
32

CONE

WEDGE
Two dimensional flow
Stream lines are straight and

Three dimensional flow


Stream lines are curved

parallel to wedge surface


No such relieving effect exist Addition

of

third

dimension
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here.

provides the flow with an extra


space to move through, hence
relieving some of the obstruction
set up by the presence of the body.
This is called three dimensional
relieving effect.

Shock wave on the wedge is Shock wave on the cone is weaker


because of relieving effect
stronger
For M=2 for semi cone angle 20

For M=2 for semi wedge angle


20 creates a =53 oblique shock

creates a =90-53=37 oblique


shock

Pressure P2 behind the shock is Pressure P2 behind the shock is not


same as that on surface of cone.
same as that on wedge surface

PART-B
1. Show that the strength of a normal shock in a perfect gas depends only on
Mach number ahead of the shock.

(Nov/Dec 2012)

Answer: We can derive the expression for the properties behind the shock
wave using 1D conservation equations and know properties ahead the shock.

(1)

This equation gives the density ratio which is function of


freestream Mach number and the specific heat ratio. We can find out the
velocity ratio from this density ratio as,
33

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Let's derive the expression for static pressure ratio. For simplicity of
derivation, initially representation of dynamic pressure is necessary and
can be expressed as follows

From definition of Mach number

We know the 1D momentum conservation equation as


p1 + 1u12 = p2 + 2u22
Replacing the dynamic pressure from either side and rearranging we get

The above equation can be written as

34

=1+

2
(
+1

1)
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This equation gives the strength of the shock or static pressure rise
which is again function of free stream Mach number and the specific heat
ratio.
(or)
Answer: Pages 64 to 68 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible
flow, Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing company (or) Refer notes
2. Derive Prandtls relation.
Answer: It had already been discussed that the subsonic flow is pre-warned
and supersonic flow is not. The reason behind this fact is that, any small
amplitude disturbance travels with acoustic speed, however speed of fluid
particle is more than the speed of sound in case of supersonic flows.
Therefore the message of presence of the obstacle cannot propagate upstream.
Hence a messenger gets developed in front of the obstacle to warn the flow in
order to avoid its direct collision with the obstacle. This messenger is called
as shock. In the presence of normal shock, fluid velocity decreases to the
extent where flow Mach number behind the shock attains value below one.
Due to this subsonic speed attainment of the flow, it becomes aware about the
presence of the obstacle well in advance in the narrow space between shock
and obstacle. Herewith we will deal for computation of flow properties
behind the normal shock.
In the presence of a general obstacle the shock pattern is shown here in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Shock pattern for a blunt or bluff obstacle


35

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The shock for the stagnation streamline can be considered as normal to it.
Therefore we can use the earlier derived 1D flow relations along with the
assumptions of flow steady, adiabatic and inviscid flow. Consider a small control
volume around normal shock for application of these relations between two
stations of the control volume, mainly, inlet and outlet as shown in Fig. 1.

Lets us examine the reference star properties of the flow in the process to
calculate the flow properties behind the normal shock from the known inlet
conditions. We can take the advantage of using stared temperature since the flow
is adiabatic in nature. Imagine that flow is adiabatically brought to Mach number
one on either sides of the shock independently. In this case, we should get same
stared temperature on either sides of shock. We can also show that total
temperature is also same on either side. The explicit formulation using the star
temperature and concerned acoustic speed before the normal shock is,

Applying same strategy at the outlet we get,

However, we can write static enthalpy in terms of acoustic speed as,

Therefore, the energy equation at the inlet becomes,


36

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(1)

Similarly for the outlet station we have


(2)

Let's obtain the expression for velocity using mass and momentum equations to
replace the acustic speed term from equations (1) and (2).
From 1D mass and momentum conservation equations we have
1u1 =2u2
p1 + 1u12 = p2 + 2u22
Therefore,

Using equation 1 and 2, above equation transforms to

Rearranging the terms of above equation, we get

Further re arrangements gives

37

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Necessary rearrangement for the above equation is as given,

(3)

This expression shows that, M1*2 and M2*2 are reciprocal of each
other for a normal shock. This equation is called as Prandtls relation for
normal shock which can be used to prove that Mach number becomes
subsonic behind the normal shock

3. Derive Rayleigh supersonic Pitot formula. Why is Rayleighs correction for


total pressure required in supersonic flows? (8)

(2010, 2009, 2007)

Answer: The flow Mach number is one of the important parameter for subsonic
and supersonic flows. All the flow parameters and their variations are the functions
of local Mach number (M). The pressure measurements are one of the common
practices to determine the Mach number. In subsonic flow, the simultaneous
measurement of static

and stagnation pressures

using a Prandtl Pitot

Static tube are made in a similar way as shown in Fig.1. Subsequently, the isentropic
relation is used to determine the flow Mach number.

............................................................(1)

38

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Fig. 1: Prandtl Pitot static probe for simultaneous measurement.


The characteristic feature of a supersonic flow is the formation of a
shock wave. So, the introduction of a Pitot probe into the flow stream, leads
to a detached bow shock (Fig. 7.6.5). Due to this shock wave at certain
distance from the measurement location, the stagnation pressure located
indicated by the probe will be much higher than the stagnation pressure of
the free stream. For the stagnation stream lines, the curved shock is normal
to the free stream and the measured value represents the stagnation pressure
downstream of the normal shock
static pressure

. While conducting experiment, the

of the free stream (upstream of the shock) is also

measured simultaneously by any of the methods, discussed in Fig. 7.6.2.

Fig. 2: Detached shock ahead of the measuring pressure probe in a supersonic


flow.
39

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However, the static pressure measurement must be done far upstream


of the shock so that its influence on the measurement will be minimized. The
Mach number relation connecting the static and stagnation pressure
measurements is expressed by Rayleigh-Pitot formula for supersonic flows.

..................................................... (7.6.7)
The dynamic pressure

obtained from static pressure and the Mach

number is then given by the following expression.

............................................................................... (7.6.8)
Thus, the Mach number calculation through static and stagnation
measurements gives complete information of a supersonic flow field.
(or)
Answer: Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth
edition. (Or) Refer class notes.
4. A Pitot tube is inserted into an airflow of Mach where the static pressure is 1
atm. Calculate the total pressure measured by the tube and the loss of total
pressure experienced (10) (2010)
Answer: Refer class notes

5. Derive a relation between flow turning angle, shock angle and freestream
Mach number for oblique shock waves.

(2010)

Answer: Consider the flow taking place along a wedge as shown in Fig.
1. Let be the wedge angle and be the shock angle with the wall which is
parallel to the approaching free stream.

40

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Fig. 1. An oblique shock for a supersonic flow over the wedge.


As we have already proved that shock exists only for supersonic flows,
consider a supersonic flow of Mach number M1 approaching the wedge. In
the presence of the shock, flow deflects by an angle which is the wedge
angle. Let us solve the mass, momentum and energy equations for this flow.
Consider the control volume as shown in Fig. 1. In this special control
volume, inlet and outlet are parallel to the shock. Other two faces of the
control volume are parallel to the streamline hence these faces will not
contribute to the mass, momentum and energy fluxes. Let u be the velocity
normal to the shock and w be the velocity parallel to the shock. Graphical
demonstration of these velocities is given in Fig. 1. Station 1 corresponds to
inlet or pre shock conditions while station 2 corresponds to outlet or post
shock conditions.
Mass conservation in integral form

Lets assume the flow to be steady, hence,

41

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Hence,
(u)2 = (u)1 or 1u1 = 2u2
This is the mass conservation equation for oblique shock conditions
expressed

in

terms

of

velocities

normal

to

the

shock.

Now consider the momentum conservation equation for the same flow. Since
momentum is the vector equation, we have to consider, two equations, viz,
normal and parallel to the shock. Lets initially consider the momentum
equation in integral form for inviscid flow.

For steady flow,this equation becomes,

Now consider the momentum equation in the direction parallel to the shock
wave. Since there is no pressure difference in this direction, the right hand
side will be zero. Hence,

but using mass conservation we can re-write it as,


(w)pre = (w)post or w1 = w2
This expression clearly suggests that velocity parallel to the shock remains
conserved.
Now consider the momentum equation normal to the shock.

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(p + u2)post = (p + u2)post or p1 + 1u12 = p2 + 2u22


We can clearly see that the momentum equation looks exactly same as
that for the normal shock relations. Here u is the velocity normal to the shock.
Therefore only velocity component normal to the shock wave is responsible
for the change in momentum since momentum and velocity tangential to
shock are conserved.
We have already derived the mass and momentum conservation
equations for the oblique shock conditions. Consider the integral form of
energy equation for inviscid compressible flow.

For steady flow, this equation changes to,

43

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But,

Hence the energy equation can be written as,

Hence,
44

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Energy equation is also similar as that of energy equation for normal


shock. Here 'u' is the velocity normal to the shock. From mass,
momentum and energy equations, it is clear that, only velocity normal to
the shock, is responsibile for change in all the properties. Hence we can
still use all the equation of static and total property ratios derived for
normal shock relations by changing the freestream Mach number to Mach
number

normal

to

the

shock.

If freestream or upstream Mach number and the shock angle are


known, then we can calculate the Mach number normal to the shock as,

Prandtl's relation for the oblique shock is,

This relation suggests that, for oblique shock, normal Mach number
before or upstream to the shock is supersonic and hence normal Mach
number

after

or

downstream

to

the

shock

is

subsonic.

The static property ratios for oblique shock are,


1
9
.
2

1
9
Total property ratios can be re-written in the same way. We can

as well calculate the Mach number behind the shock as,

3
1
9
.

45

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19.2 --M relation

It has been already observed that the Mach number normal to the shock is

responsible for all the property variations for given shock angle. However this

shock angle can be easily calculated from the upstream or freestream Mach

number for given wedge or deflection angle. Consider the same control volume
shown in Fig.1. Relation between velocities and angles before and after the
shocks are,
Before the shock

After the shock


But we know that,
w1 = w2
Hence,

But
1u1 = 2u2 hence,
Therefore,

From density ratio we have

From

46

the

expression

of

upstream

Mach

number,

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This is the expression between upstream Mach number, shock angle and wedge
angle. In most general case, we need to know the shock angle for given Mach
number and wedge angle. Following figure provides the information about the
same (Fig. 2). In this figure, each curve corresponds to various possible shock
angles for a given Mach number and flow deflection angle.

Fig. 2 --M relation


(or)
Answer: Page 107 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow,
Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing company (or) Refer class notes

6. Consider a Mach 2.5 supersonic flow over a compression corner with a


deflection angle of 14o. Calculate the increase in shock strength if the
deflection angle is doubled to 28o and give your comments on the shock wave
characteristics. (8)

(2010)

Answer: Refer scan copy notes


47

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7. Air at Mach 2 passes over two compression corners of angles 70 and , as


shown in Fig. Determine the value of upto which the second shock will
remain attached. (16)

(2008)

Answer: Refer class notes

8. Explain the concept of Prandtl-Meyer expansion around a convex corner and


represent it in Hodograph plane (8) (2010)
Answer: Pages 130 to 35 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible
flow, Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company (or) Refer class
notes.

9. A supersonic flow at M1 = 1.58 and P1 = 1atm expands around a sharp corner.


If the pressure downstream of the corner is 0.1306 atm, calculate the
deflection angle of the corner. (8)

(2010)

Answer: Refer class notes

10. An oblique shock is making 30o angle with flow direction at the exit plane of
a Mach 2.4 Laval nozzle. Determine the percentage increase in stagnation
pressure necessary to eliminate the shocks and maintain supersonic flow at
the nozzle exit. (8)

(2012)

Answer: Refer class notes

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11. A supersonic stream of air at Mach 3 and 1 atm passes through a sudden
convex and

then a sudden concave corner of turning angle 15 o each.

Determine the Mach number and the pressure of the flow downstream of the
concave corner. (8)

(2012)

Answer: Refer scan copy notes

12. What is the physical mechanism of generation of waves in subsonic and


supersonic flow. Explain with the help of diagrams.
Answer: Refer Page 562 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D
Anderson, Fourth edition.
13. Describe the physical method of visualizing the propagation of disturbances
in a subsonic flow and supersonic flow. What is a Mach wave and Mach
angle?
Answer: Refer Pages 563 to 564 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D
Anderson, Fourth edition.
14. Derive Prandtl relation for a normal shock in a perfect gas. (May/June 2013)
Answer: Refer class notes
15. Air at P1=0.3 bar, T1=350K and M1=1.5to be expanded isentropically to 0.13
bar. Determine (1) the flow deflection angle, (2) find Mach number and (3)
the temperature of air after expansion. (May/June 2013)
Answer: Refer scan copy notes
16. For an oblique shock wave bring out proper relationships between the flows
parameters in front of the shock and behind the shock.
Answer: Refer class notes
17. Derive Prandtl- Meyers Expansion waves for a flow over a convex corner.
Answer: We have already seen that compression of supersonic flow takes
while passing through the shock. In other words, when the supersonic flow
turns into itself then it undergoes the compression through a shock. Exactly
opposite situation can be encountered when the supersonic flow turns out of
49

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itself where, expansion of the supersonic flow takes place. This expansion
unlike compression takes place smoothly through infinite expansion waves
hence called as expansion fan. This expansion fan is comprised of infinite
number of expansion waves or Mach waves where every wave is responsible
for infinitesimal amount of deflection d. A typical expansion fan in the
supersonic flow is shown in Fig. 1.where supersonic flow turns outward by an
angle .

Fig.1 Expansion of supersonic flow


For better understanding of expansion of supersonic flow, consider that
p1, T1 and M1 be the properties of flow before expansion or upstream of the
expansion fan and p2, T2 and M2 be the properties of the flow after expansion or
downstream of the expansion fan due to outward deflection by an angle . For the
know upstream flow properties and deflection angle it should be possible for us
to calculate the downstream flow properties. Since the expansion is the
continuous and smooth process carried out via infinite Mach waves, lets consider
one such wave across upstream of which velocity is V and Mach number is M.
Angle made by this Mach wave with the upstream velocity vector is . Lets
consider dV be the change in velocity brought by the Mach wave by turning
through an angle d. Hence V+dV is downstream velocity and M+dM is the
downstream Mach number. If we construct the velocity triangle as shown in Fig.
.2 then we can use the sin law for triangle as,

50

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Fig.2 Velocity triangle across a typical Mach wave during supersonic expansion

.1

But we know that

and

Hence we can re-write Eq. (1) as,


.2

We can approximate as
sin d d and cos d 1, Therefore Eq. (2) can be simplified as,
.3

since d tan < 1, lets recall the expansion for x<1,

51

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Neglecting higher order term, we can express Eq. (3) as,

But we know that

and hence
Hence above equation becomes,

Prandtl Meyer Function


We can see that since for positive value of d, we get positive dV which
leads to expansion. This formula is also valid for small angles for compression
where we get negetive dV. If we integrate this formula for the toal expansion
angle then we can get the downstream Mach number.
4

Before integrating we can express the integrant in Mach number,


V=Ma
ln V = ln M + ln a
5

We can express here the second term on right hand side in terms of Mach
number using the isentropic relations as,

52

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Using Eq. (5) and (6) we can re-write Eq. (4) as,

Integration of right hand side is as,

Here, v is called as the Prandtl-Meyer function.


= v(M2) - v(M1)

Therefore upstream Mach number (M1) we can calculate the upstream


Prandtl-Meyer function. Hence for known flow deflection angle and upstream
Mach number we can get the downstream Prandtl-Meyer function and hence the
downstream Mach number. Process of expansion of supersonic flow is an
isentropic process. However, while passing through the expansion fan, pressure,
temperature and density of the flow decreases while Mach number and velocity
increases for the supersonic flow. Moreover, all the total properties remain
constant. We can calculate the total pressure, temperature and density upstream
of the expansion using isentropic relations for the known flow Mach number.
From the calculated downstream Mach number, we can calculate all the static
flow properties from known stagnation or total properties.

53

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

UNIT III
EXPANSION WAVES, RAYLEIGH AND FANNO FLOW

10

Flow past convex corners, Expansion hodograph, Reflection and interaction of


shocks and expansion, waves. Method of Characteristics Two dimensional
supersonic nozzle contours. Rayleigh and Fanno Flow.
1. What is meant by shock polar?
Answer:

(May/ June 2013)

Consider a supersonic flow moving with velocity V1. Now, the

flow is being deflected up by a concave corner of deflection angle say . Hence,


an attached oblique shock wave is formed at the concave corner. If the deflection
angle, is being carried through all possible values for which there is an oblique
shock solution; < max, then, the locus of all possible velocities behind the shock
is defined as the Shock polar.

2. Differentiate between like refection and unlike refection.


Answer:

(May/ June 2013)

An incident shock gets reflected as a shock from a solid boundary.

This kind of refection is called like reflection.


On the other hand, an incident shock gets reflected as an expansion fan
and the expansion fan gets reflected as compression waves from a free boundary.
This kind of refection is called unlike refection.
3. What is slip stream flow?
Answer:

(Nov/Dec 2012)

The streamline which separates the downstream flow direction and

the wall is known as a slipstream. Across this line there is a jump in the

54

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temperature, density and tangential component of the velocity (normal


component being zero).

4. State the limiting values of shock wave angle in a supersonic flow for zero flow
deflection.

(Nov/Dec 2010)

(or)
what are the limiting values of shock angle for the oblique shock?
Answer:

For the oblique shock wave (i.e., for the shock to remain attached

to the body), the limiting values of shock angle are < < 90 o. When tends to ,
the shock wave becomes a weak wave known as a Mach wave. When tends to
90 o, the shock wave becomes a normal shock wave.
5. With a neat sketch illustrate prandtl-mayer expansion around a convex corner.
(May/June 2009)
Answer:

6. Distinguish between Mach lines and compression waves.

(Nov/Dec 2009)

Answer:
MACH LINES

COMPRESSION WAVES

1. They are very weak pressure

1. They are stronger as compared to

waves

Mach lines.
2. Flow is deflected towards the

2. There is no flow deflection

55

wave

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3. Very small changes in flow

3. There is a marked change in flow

properties.

properties

4. Flow across Mach line is

4. Flow is non-isentropic.

isentropic.

7. Bring out any two important differences between shock waves and expansion
waves in a supersonic flow?

(April/May 2008)

Answer:
SHOCK WAVES

EXPANSION WAVES
1. Expansion waves (or fans) occurs

1. Shock waves usually occurs when a


supersonic flow is turned into itself

when a supersonic flow is turned away


from itself.

2. Downstream of the flow is always

2. Downstream of the flow may be

subsonic

supersonic or subsonic

2. The maximum and minimum values

3. The maximum turning of the flow

of shock correspond to those for

corresponds to the situation where the

normal shock (=90) and Mach

pressure goes to zero. This corresponds

wave()

to =130.5

8. What is Rayleigh flow / Rayleigh curve?


Answer:

Rayleigh flow is one-dimensional flow with heat addition. The

Mollier diagram (i.e., Enthalpy Vs Entropy) for one-dimensional heat addition


process is given by the Rayleigh curve. If the upstream conditions are given by
point 1 on the curve, then, the particular Rayleigh curve through point 1 is the
locus of all possible states in region 2.

56

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

9. What are characteristic lines?


Answer:
T,

v,

Particular lines in the xy coordinate where the flow variables P, ,


etc,

are

continuous,

but

along

which

the

derivatives,

are indeterminate and across which the derivatives


may in fact be discontinuous are called as characteristic lines.
10. What are Non simple and simple regions?
Answer:

The expansion region in the nozzle covered with both left running

and right running characteristics is a non simple region. In this region, the
characteristic lines are curved.
The region which is covered by waves of only one family because the other
family is cancelled at the wall is called as simple region.

11. What is Expansion hodograph?


Answer:

Consider an expansion wave with a given upstream velocity V 1.

Along the x-y coordinate, the velocity components ahead of and behind the
expansion wave can be defined as Vx1, Vy1, Vx2, Vy2. If e plot now these velocities
on a graph with VX and VY as the axis, this graph of velocity components across
the expansion wave is call the Expansion hodograph.

57

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

PART-B
1. Explain the procedure to obtain supersonic nozzle contour for a given Mach
number

of 2 using Method of characteristics. Also draw neat sketches for

continuous and centred expansion supersonic nozzles. (8)

(2010, 2012)

Answer: Pages 325 to 329 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow,
Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing company (or) Refer class notes

2. An incident shock wave of wave angle 35o impinges on a straight wall. If the
Upstream flow properties are M = 3, P = 1 atm, and T = 300 K, calculate the
Reflected shock wave angle with respect to the wall and the flow properties M,P,
T downstream of the reflected shock wave
Answer: Refer scan copy notes

3. Show that the local Mach number is unity at the point of maximum entropy on
the Rayleigh line. (8) (2012)
Answer: Pages 83 to 84 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow,
Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing company (or) Refer class notes.

4. Derive the Rankine-Hugoniot relation for a shock. Can this relation be applied for
a chemically reacting gas? If yes how? If not why? (8) (2012, 2009)
Answer: Refer class notes

58

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

5. What do you understand by weak oblique shock? Plot the waves over a
symmetrical diamond wedge of angle kept at zero angle of attack in a
supersonic flow.
Answer: Pages 146 to 148 - E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition.

6. For the double wedge shown in the figure below, calculate the flow Mach
numbers and the slipstream. (16)

(2008, 2012)

Answer: Refer scan copy notes

7. A two dimensional wedge shown in figure moves through the atmosphere at sea
level at zero angle of attack with a freestream Mach number of 3. Calculate C L
and CD using shock expansion theory (16) (2008)

Answer: Refer scan copy notes

8. For the Rayleigh flow, show that the mach number


is maximum. Further find the value of

59

for =1.4

at which temperature
(2013)

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

Answer:

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Consider the control volume as shown in Fig. below for 1D flow

with heat addition. The fluid flow of this kind is called as Rayleigh flow. Here
station 1 is representative station before heat addition while station 2 is
representative station after heat addition. This control volume is necessarily a
constant cross-section pipe hence variation is the inviscid flow properties is
expected in the direction of the flow due to addition of heat.

Fig. Typical Control volume for 1D flow with heat addition.


Assume the flow to be in viscid and steady between these two stations.
Therefore the mass and momentum conservation equations remain unaltered from
the normal shock case but energy equation will have a term corresponding to
external heat addition. Hence the 1D conservation equations for flow with heat
addition are as follows.

Here q is amount of heat added per unit mass. Hence,

However, we know that

60

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

q = ho2 - ho1 = cp(To2 - To1)


This equation suggests that change in total temperature takes place due to
heat addition between two stations.
Lets represent the ratios of static and total properties in terms of upstream
(station 1) and downstream (station 2) Mach number and specific heat ratio. Lets
consider the momentum equation,

Also from ideal gas assumption

But 1u1 = 2u2

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Therefore,

Hence from the above relations we get,

Therefore,

For ratio of total properties,


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Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Similarly

From these two ratios we can find out

as

We have represented all the ratios in terms of upstream and downstream Mach
numbers. If we consider a particular case where heat addition leads to
downstream Mach number equal to one or post heat addition Mach number is
unity, then equations can be written as,

Since M2 = 1 & p2 = p* & p1 = p & M1 = M. Here flow properties after heat


addition are the stared quantities due to unity of the local Mach number. Hence
63

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Assistant Professor

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

these quantities are of very much of importance since can be used as reference
quantities.

Similarly

If we substitute

We get
shown below.

64

and
=

1+
1+

in the equation

= 1 which is maximum as seen from the Rayleigh curve

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

9. Explain with sketches and plots

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

(2013)

1) Shock waves and Mach waves


2) Strong and weak shock waves
Answer: Refer class notes

65

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

UNIT IV
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION FOR STEADY
COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

Small perturbation potential theory, solutions for supersonic flows, Mach


waves and Mach angles, Prandtl-Glauert affine transformation relations for
subsonic flows, Linearised two dimensional supersonic flow theory, Lift, drag
pitching moment and center of pressure of supersonic profiles.
1. Write down the Prandtl- Glauert similarity rule for pressure coefficient and
explain it.

(May/ June 2010)

(or)
Write down Prandtl-Glauert rule for subsonic flow for small disturbances (small
perturbations) and explain its meaning.

(May/ June 2013)

Answer:

The above equation is known as Prandtl-Glauret rule. It is a similarity rule


which relates incompressible flow over a given two-dimensional profile to
subsonic compressible flow over the same profile. In the above equation where
Cp = coefficient of pressure in subsonic compressible flow
Cpo = coefficient of pressure in incompressible flow
M = Free stream Mach number
In similar way the lift & moment coefficient can be written as

2. What is perturbation potential?


Answer:

(Nov/Dec 2008)

Consider the 2D, irrotational, isentropic flow over the airfoil. The

airfoil is placed in a uniform flow with velocity V oriented in the x-direction. At


an arbitrary point P in the flow field, the velocity is V with x & y components
66

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

given by u & v respectively. The x-component of velocity u will be sum of free


stream & increment of velocity in x-direction similarly the y-component of
velocity will be sum of free stream & increment of velocity in y-direction.

3. What is Prandtl- Glauert compressibility correction?


Answer:

(April/May 2008)

Instead of deriving entirely new equations for compressible flows,

we can also slightly change existing equations for incompressible flows, such that
they

approximate

compressible

flows.

Such

adjustments

are

called

compressibility corrections. The first compressibility correction is the PrandtlGlauert correction. It stated that the pressure coefficient (Cp) in a compressible
flow can be derived from the pressure coefficient Cp0 in an incompressible flow,
according to

The lift coefficient (Cl) and moment coefficient (Cm) for compressible
flow can be derived similarly, using
=

Where Clo = coefficient of lift in incompressible flow


Cmo = coefficient of moment in incompressible flow
M = Free stream Mach number

67

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

4. What are Riemann invariants?


Answer:

( Nov/Dec 2010)

Riemann invariants are mathematical transformations made on a

system of quasi-linear first order partial differential equations to make them more
easily solvable. Riemann invariants are constant along the characteristic curves of
the partial differential equations where they obtain the name invariant. These are
variables that propagate along 'characteristic' lines.

PART-B
1. A two-dimensional wing profile shown in figure is placed in stream of Mach
number 2.5 at an incidence of 2o. Using linearized theory, calculate CL and CD.
(16)

(2008, 2012)

Answer: Refer scan copy notes

2. Based on small perturbation theory, derive the linearized velocity potential


equation for compressible flows (10)

(2008, 2012)

Answer: Pages 663 to 665 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D


Anderson, Fourth edition,
(or)
Pages 198 to 200 - E.Rathakrishnan Gas dynamics, Third edition, Or Refer
notes.

3. State the assumptions and limitations made in the small-perturbation potential


theory and show that The linearized pressure coefficient is a function of the
perturbation velocity in the Main flow direction only.
68

(2010, 2009)
Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

CP = -

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Answer: Pages 666 to 667 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D


Anderson, Fourth edition, Page 208, E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third
edition , or Refer class notes.

4. Describe the Prandtl-Glauert affine transformation for subsonic flow over airfoils
and highlight its significance (2010, 2009, 2012)
Answer: Pages 213 to 217 - E .Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition, or
refer class notes

5. A flat plate of 1m x 0.2 m size is kept in an airstream of velocity 100kmph at an


angle of attack of 5o. Calculate the lift using supersonic linear theory. Assume
that

the static pressure and temperature of the freestream air are 2 x 10 5 N/m2

and 288 K respectively. (8) (2010, 2009)


Answer: Refer class notes

6. Derive expressions for lift and drag coefficients of a diamond airfoil using linear
theory (2009)
Answer: Refer E. Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition.

7. Using small perturbation assumption, derive the linearized velocity potential


equation for compressible flows past over an airfoil and find out the pressure
coefficient. What are the boundary conditions imposed to solved the problem
numerically?
Answer: Refer class notes
8. What are the salient features of the linearized supersonic flow theory? Explain
the theory with necessary sketches. How is lift coefficient of a flat plate making
an angle of attack to a supersonic flow calculated using the theory.
Answer: Refer class notes
69

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

9. Write short notes on:


i.

Fanno and Rayleigh flows

ii.

Area rule

iii.

Supercritical aerofoils

iv.

Attached and detached shocks.

Answer: Refer class notes


10. Consider an infinitely thin flat plate at a 5 angle of attack in a Mach .6
freestream. Calculate the lift and drag coefficients using shock expansion
theory.(2013)
Answer: Refer scan copy notes
11. Consider a subsonic flow with an upstearm Mach number of M. This flow
moves over a wavy wall with a contour given by

= cos( ), where yw is the

ordinate of the wall, h is the amplitude and l is the wavelength. Assume that h is

small. Using small perturbation theory, derive an equation for the velocity
potential and the surface pressure coefficient.
Answer: Refer Page no 329 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D
Anderson, Fourth edition.
12. Write short notes on Prandtl-Glauert affine transformation

(2012, 2010)

Answer: Refer class notes


13. Derive suitable expressions for lift and drag coefficients of a flat plate airfoil at
small angles of attack using linearized supersonic flow theory.

(2012)

Answer: Refer class notes

70

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

UNIT V
TRANSONIC FLOW OVER WING

Lower and upper critical Mach numbers, Lift and drag divergence, shock
induced separation, Characteristics of swept wings, Effects of thickness,
camber and aspect ratio of wings, Transonic area rule.

1. Define critical Mach number for an aerofoil and explain its significance?
(May/June 2013, 2010)
Answer:

The critical Mach number (Mcr) of an aircraft is the lowest Mach

number at which the airflow over some point of the aircraft reaches the speed of
sound. For all aircraft in flight, the airflow around the aircraft is not exactly the same as
the airspeed of the aircraft due to the airflow speeding up and slowing down to travel
around the aircraft structure. At the Critical Mach number, local airflow in some areas
near the airframe reaches the speed of sound, even though the aircraft itself has
airspeed lower than Mach 1.0. This creates a weak shock wave.

2. Why sweep back applied to wings at high speeds? Or what is the need for sweep
back in supersonic vehicles?

(May/June 2013, 2008)

(or)
what is the need for swept wing for a high speed air plane.

(May/June 2009)

(or)
what is the effect of sweep back on compressibility?
71

(Nov/Dec 2010)
Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

Answer:

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Airflow at supersonic speeds generates lift through the formation

of shock waves, as opposed to the patterns of airflow over and under the wing.
These shock waves, as in the transonic case, generate large amounts of drag. One
of these shock waves is created by the leading edge of the wing, but contributes
little to the lift. In order to minimize the strength of this shock it needs to remain
"attached" to the front of the wing, which demands a very sharp leading edge.
Airflow behind the shock waves of a moving body are reduced to subsonic
speeds.Aircrafts with swept back wings has the following advantages.
1. More lateral stability.
2. Less turbulence when speed abruptly changes.
3. Less air friction, as wings are designed thin and fine.
4. Air velocity is split into two individual components. Velocity component
that is along the wings has no effect on airliner. The 2nd velocity
component that is perpendicular to wing has the effect, but it is less than
actual speed of airliner i.e. V. So airliner can fly at much higher speed
3. Define wave drag.
Answer:

(May/June 2012, 2009)

Wave drag is a component of the drag on aircraft, moving

at transonic and supersonic speeds, due to the presence of shock waves. Wave
drag is independent of viscous effects. The sudden peak or jump in the static
pressure behind the shock wave gives rise to a drag which is known as the wave
drag. Wave drag is caused by the formation of shock waves around the body.
Shock waves radiate a considerable amount of energy, resulting in drag on the
body.

72

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

4. Define lower and upper critical Mach number.


Answer:

(May/June 2012)

The free stream Mach number at which the entire flow around the

body is subsonic is called lower critical Mach number. The freestream Mach
number for which the entire flow around the body is supersonic is called the
upper critical Mach number.

5. Describe boundary layer fence and state its purpose.


Answer:

(Nov/Dec 2010)

Wing fences, also known as boundary layer fences and potential

fences are fixed aerodynamic devices attached to aircraft wings. Compared with
the wing tip fences, wing fences are flat plates fixed to the upper surfaces parallel
to the airflow. They are often seen on swept-wing aircraft. They obstruct spanwise airflow along the wing, and prevent the entire wing from stalling at once
A boundary layer fence on a swept wing will improve the Dutch roll
characteristics, high speed characteristics, low speed characteristics and lift
coefficient of the trailing edge flap.

6. What is drag divergence Mach number?


Answer:

(April/May 2008)

The drag divergence Mach number is the Mach number at which

the aerodynamic drag on an airfoil or airframe begins to increase rapidly as the Mach
number continues to increase. The drag divergence Mach number is usually close to,
and

always

greater

than,

the critical

Mach number.

Generally,

the drag

coefficient peaks at Mach 1.0 and begins to decrease again after the transition into
the supersonic regime above approximately Mach 1.2.

The large increase in drag is caused by the formation of a shock wave on


the upper surface of the airfoil, which can induce flow separation and adverse
pressure gradients on the aft portion of the wing.

73

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

7. Name and sketch supersonic profiles.

(Nov/Dec 2008)

(or)
Sketch the different types of supersonic profiles.

(Nov/Dec 2009)

Types of wing profiles shown in figure:


(1) concave-convex,

(2) plane-convex,

(3) biconvex unsymmetrical,

(4) biconvex symmetrical,

(5) reflexed,

(6) lenticular,

(7) double-wedge,

(8) wedge.

8. Explain shock stall.


Answer:

A shock

stall is

a stall caused

by

the airflow over

an aircraft's wings being disturbed by shock waves when flying at or near to the
aircraft's critical Mach number. Shock stall is the separation of the boundary layer
behind the shock wave
74

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

9. Define supercritical aerofoil.


Answer:

A supercritical airfoil is an airfoil designed, primarily, to delay the

onset of wave drag in the transonic speed range. Supercritical airfoils are
characterized by their flattened upper surface, highly cambered (curved) aft
section, and greater leading edge radius compared with traditional airfoil shapes.
Supersonic airfoils are much more angular in shape and can have a very sharp
leading edge, which is very sensitive to angle of attack. A supercritical airfoil has
its maximum thickness close to the leading edge to have a lot of length to slowly
shock the supersonic flow back to subsonic speeds.
Supersonic airfoils generally have a thin section formed of either angled planes or
opposed arcs called "double wedge airfoils" and "biconvex airfoils" respectively,
with very sharp leading and trailing edges. The sharp edges prevent the formation
of a detached bow shock in front of the airfoil as it moves through the air.

10. Why conventional subsonic airfoils are not used in supersonic flows?
Answer:

Supersonic airfoils generally have a thin section formed of either

angled planes or opposed arcs called "double wedge airfoils" and "biconvex
airfoils" respectively, with very sharp leading and trailing edges. The sharp edges
prevent the formation of a detached bow shock in front of the airfoil as it moves
through the air. This shape is in contrast to subsonic airfoils, which often have
rounded leading edges to reduce flow separation over a wide range of angle of
75

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

attack. A rounded edge would behave as a blunt body in supersonic flight and
thus would form a bow shock, which greatly increases wave drag. The airfoils'
thickness, camber, and angle of attack are varied to achieve a design that will
cause a slight deviation in the direction of the surrounding airflow.
11. What is transonic area rule?
Answer:
design

(Nov/Dec 2012)

The Whitcomb area rule, also called the transonic area rule, is a
technique

used

to

reduce

an

aircraft's drag at transonic and supersonic speeds, particularly between Mach 0.75
and 1.2. To reduce the number and power of shock waves in transonic speeds,
an aerodynamic shape should change in cross sectional area as smoothly as
possible. This leads to a "perfect" aerodynamic shape known as the Sears-Haack
body. The area rule says that an airplane designed with the same cross-sectional
area distribution in the longitudinal direction as the Sears-Haack body generates
the same wave drag as this body, largely independent of the actual shape.
12. What is transonic buffeting?
Answer:

(Nov/Dec 2012)

The increased and separated boundary layer behind the shock

wave will hammer on the wing skin and may be felt in the aircraft as a buffeting,
called high-speed buffeting or Mach buffeting or Transonic buffeting. That
thick and separated boundary layer will cause the lift coefficient to fall and the
drag to rise rapidly.
13. Why is there a sudden drag rise in transonic flow?

(May/June 2009)

Answer:

76

Ms.S.Ilakkiya
Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

The above graph shows how rapidly the total drag increases at trnsonic
speeds and higher. The compressibility effect creates a wave drag, causing the
total drag to rapidly increase when the aircraft reaches transonic speed.The
compressibility effect consumes energy when the flow velocity changes from
Supersonic to subsonic over a very short distance and heating is created by the
Compression. The increase in drag starts as soon as supersonic flow is reached
over some part of the body at transonic speeds. This additional zero lift drag at
transonic speed is called wave drag. With increased volume of the body the
wave drag will increase. As a result there is a sharp increase in drag in the
transonic region until the shock waves have reached the trailing edge of the body.
The wave drag may be combined with the increase in drag due to shock induced
boundary layer separation.
14. Distinguish between sonic barrier and sonic boom?
Answer:

(Nov/Dec 2012)

The sound barrier, in aerodynamics, is the point at which an object

moves from transonic to supersonic speed. During this process, the increased
drag, reduced controllability, and other effects which occur when an aircraft
approaches the speed of sound. Sound barrier is formerly regarded as an obstacle
to supersonic flight.
A sonic boom is the sound associated with the shock waves created by an
object traveling through the air faster than the speed of sound. Sonic booms
generate enormous amounts ofsound energy, sounding much like an explosion.

PART-B
1. Write brief notes on critical Mach number and drag divergence Mach number (6)
(2008, 2009)
Answer: Refer class notes or the answers for two marks given above.

2.

Briefly discuss transonic area rule and supercritical airfoil (8) (2008, 2009, 2012)
Answer: Refer class notes or the answers for two marks given above.

77

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3.

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Describe the transonic flow regime with suitable sketches of flow pattern over a
Two-dimensional airfoil.

(2010)

Answer: Refer class notes

4.

Explain how large drag increase takes place at transonic flow. What are the
control measures adopted at the design stage?

(2010)

Answer: Refer class notes

5. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the effect of sweepback (2010,


2009)
Answer: Refer class notes

6. Explain in detail about the effect of thickness, camber and aspect ratio on the
characteristics of wings

(2012)

Answer: Refer class notes

7. Explain about Shock induced separation

(2012)

Answer: Refer class notes

8. Make use of the sketches and plots to explain about shock wave-boundary layer
interaction increases drag.

(2013)

Answer: Refer class notes

9. Write short notes on wake buffetting.


Answer: Refer class notes

10. Write short notes on reflection of shock wave and expansion waves from solid
boundary
Answer: Refer class notes
78

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Assistant Professor

Jeppiaar Engineering College

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

11. Write short notes on reflection of shock wave and expansion waves from freesurface boundary.
Answer: Refer class notes

12. What kind of nozzles is adopted for rockets passing through different altitudes in
a short span of time?
Answer: Refer class notes
13. Write short notes on swept forward and backward wings
Answer: Refer class notes
14. Write short notes on subcritical, critical and supercritical Mach numbers.
Answer: Refer class notes

******ALL THE BEST******

79

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Assistant Professor